# In the methods described below a double subscript is used with normal stress and strain.

The book uses only one subscript for normal stress and strain.

Wedge Method
Step 1 A stress cube with the plane on which stresses are to be found, or are given, is constructed. Step 2: A wedge made from the following three planes is constructed: (i) a vertical plane that has an outward normal in the x-direction, (ii) a horizontal plane that has an outward normal in the y-direction, and (iii) the speciﬁed inclined plane on which we either seek stresses or the stresses are given. Establish a local n-t-z coordinate system using the outward normal of the inclined plane as the n-direction. All the known and the unknown stresses are shown on the wedge. The diagram so constructed will be called a stress wedge. Step 3: Multiply the stress components by the area of the planes on which the stress components are acting, to obtain forces acting on that plane. The wedge with the forces drawn will be referred to as the force wedge. Step 4: Balance forces in any two directions to determine the unknown stresses. We can write equilibrium equations on the force wedge because the wedge represents a point on a body that is in equilibrium.

With C as center and CV or CH as radius draw the Mohr’s circle. . σyy.1. Locate points V and H and join the points by drawing a line.1. Stress cube for construction of Mohr’s circle.1. Construction of Mohr’s Circle.2. σ xx + σ yy -----------------------2 σ xx – σ yy -----------------------2 σ (T) Stresses on an Inclined Plane The stresses on an inclined plane are found by ﬁrst locating it on Mohr’s circle and then determining the coordinate of the point representing the plane. This is achieved as follows. and τxy on a stress cube and label the vertical plane as V and the horizontal plane as H as shown in Figure 8. Step 4. Step 1. τ (CW) H τyx (C) σyy E R C R σxx D τxy V (CCW) Figure 8. y σyy τyx H σxx τxy τyx V A H θA σyy V βA x τxy σxx Figure 8. Draw the horizontal axis with the tensile normal stress to the right and the compressive normal stress to the left as shown in Figure 8. τyx ) The rotation arrow next to the shear stresses corresponds to the rotation of the cube caused by the set of shear stress on planes V and H. Draw the inclined plane on the stress cube and label it A as shown in Figure 8.Construction of Mohr’s Circle for Stress Step 1.2. Draw the vertical axis with clockwise direction of shear stress up and counterclockwise direction of rotation down. Write the coordinates of points V and H as V (σxx . Step 3. Show the stresses σxx. τxy ) and H (σyy . Label the point at which the line VH intersects the horizontal axis as C. Step 2. Step 5.

we start by drawing the shear stress such that the inclined plane A rotates in the same direction as was recorded with the coordinates in step 3. Step 3. The direction of rotation is recorded as clockwise because point A is in the upper plane in Figure 8. Step 4. Starting from plane CV we rotate by an angle 2βA in the counterclockwise direction and draw the line CA that represents plane A. Radius CA of the circle is known and length FA and length CF can be found from triangle FCA. In both cases the shear stress is positive. t n τA H A V τA n t V A Figure 8. Calculate the coordinates of point A.4. the inclined plane A is at an angle of βA from the vertical plane in the counter-clockwise direction. There are two alternatives in step 2. A local coordinate system is established. τ (CW) H 2θA (C) E C 2βA F D τA σ (T) A V (CCW) σA Figure 8. Sign of shear stress on an incline. H .Step 2. Stresses on an inclined plane. Line CA represents plane A.4. Determine the sign of shear stress. To determine the sign of shear stress.3. then it is positive. then rotate by an angle of 2θA in the clockwise direction and draw the line CA. The coordinates of point A are ( σ A. This once more conﬁrms that each point of Mohr’s circle represents a unique plane and it is immaterial how we locate that point on the circle. The angle FCA can be found from the known angles. Step 3 above is reverse of step 2 in the construction of the Mohr’s circle and is a simple problem in geometry. (i) On the stress cube. Locate the inclined plane on the Mohr’s circle as described below and label it A as shown in Figure 8. Start from line CH on the Mohr’s circle. We note that from stress cube that (θA+βA) is 90° and from Mohr’s circle we see that 2(θA+ βA) is 180° . and if shear stress is in the positive tangent direction. If point A had been in the lower plane. (ii) On the stress cube. The two possibilities are shown in Figure 8. τ A ) . the inclined plane A is at an angle of θA from the horizontal plane in the clockwise direction. we would have recorded a counter clockwise rotation with the shear stress.3.3.

γ xy ⁄ 2 ) for γ xy > 0 The rotation arrow along the side of shear strains corresponds to the rotation of the line on which the point lies as shown in Figure 8.2(a). here we talk about directions. Draw the vertical axis to represent half the shear strain. Step 4. The horizontal coordinate of point C is the average normal strain. Unlike stress transformation where V and H represented planes. with clockwise rotation of a line in the upper plane and counter-clockwise rotation of a line of rotation lower plane. Write the coordinates of point V and H as: V ( ε xx. Step 3. The outward normal to the vertical plane is the x-axis and V is the label associated with it. Distance CE can be found from the coordinates of point E and C and the radius R calculate from Pythagoras theorem. All values of shear strain that are plotted on Mohr’s circle or calculated from the Mohr’s Circle must account for the fact that the vertical coordinate is shear strain divided by two. Locate points V and H and join the points by drawing a line. . Label the point at which the line VH intersects the horizontal axis as C. with extension to the right and contractions to the left as shown in Figure 8. Similarly the outward normal to the horizontal plane is the y-axis that is represented by point H. This difference is elaborated in Step 1 of the Mohr’s circle construction below. (ii) The vertical axis is shear strain divided by two. Deformed cube for construction of Mohr’s circle. The construction of deformed shape in step 2 for the purpose of determining the direction of rotation of the ‘x’ and ‘y’ axis is a critical step for a successful construction of the Mohr’s circle. γ xy ⁄ 2 ) and H ( ε yy. The two important differences are: (i) In stress transformation we talked about planes.5.1. Draw a square with deformed shape due to shear strain γxy. Draw the horizontal axis to represent the normal strain. y H γxy > 0 V x y H γxy < 0 V x Figure 9. The rotation of the lines differentiate γxy from γyx for purpose of plotting. The steps in the construction of the Mohr’s Circle for strain are as follows: Step 1.1. Label the intersection of the vertical plane and x-axis as V and the intersection of the horizontal plane and y-axis as H as shown in Figure 8. Step 5. With C as center and CV or CH as radius draw the Mohr’s circle. Step 2. The directions are the outward normal of the planes. This steps emphasizes the following point: The shear strain value read from the Mohr’s circle does not tell us if shear strain is positive or negative but that the shear strain will cause the a line in a given direction to rotate clock-wise or counter-clockwise. here V and H refer to directions.Construction of Mohr’s Circle for Strains The construction of the Mohr’s Circle for strain is very similar to the Mohr’s circle for stress.

(a) CW (b) γ /2 H γ yx -----2 CW γ /2 γp ⁄ 2 γ max ⁄ 2 R 2θp C 2θp R E γ xy -----2 P3 P2 (C) ε3 ε2 D ε xx + ε yy -------------------2 P1 ε (E) P3 (C) P2 P1 γp ⁄ 2 ε (E) γ max ⁄ 2 ε xx – ε yy -------------------.V 2 CCW ε1 CCW Figure 9. . Mohr’s Circle for strains.6.