Colloquium Lab Report on

Anna Hazare Strategies in Mirror of Indian History

Submitted To: Mrs. Priyanka Sharma Lecturer in CA dept.

Submitted By: Abhinav Pareek M.C.A. 4th Sem.

Anna Hazare Against Corruption
Kisan Baburao Hazare, popularly known as Anna Hazare (June 15, 1938), is an Indian social activist. who is especially recognized for his contribution to the development of Ralegan Siddhi, a village in Ahmednagar district, Maharashtra, India and his efforts for establishing it as a model village, for which he was awarded the Padma Bhushan by Govt. of India, in 1992. He is also one of the leading figures who championed the cause of Right to Information Act in India for his crusade towards fighting corruption in public offices.

Early life and background
Anna Hazare was born in a poor family. His father Baburao Hazare was an unskilled labourer and his grandfather worked for the army. His grandfather was deployed in Bhingar which made Baburao and family to move to Bhingar, where Anna was born. Anna’s grandfather died in 1945 but the family continued to stay in Bhingar until 1952 when Anna's father resigned from his job and returned to Ralegan Siddhi. Anna had completed his education up to fourth standard and also had six younger siblings. The family's financial situation was tough. Baburao's sister, who was childless offered to take care of Anna and took him to Mumbai. Anna's father had trouble making ends meet and eventually had to sell off his farmland making life tough for the family. This forced Anna who was in Mumbai and just completed his seventh grade in school to take up a job. Anna worked for a florist at Dadar, Mumbai earning about forty rupees a month. He eventually started his own flower shop. Two of his brothers came to Mumbai to join him in his business, increasing the family earnings soon to about 700-800 rupees a month. Vivekananda's thoughts gave meaning to his life and he decided to devote the rest of his life working for the society. He read many more books by Vivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi and Acharya Vinoba Bhave.

 In the Indian Army
Anna Hazare started his career in the Indian Army as a driver in 1963. He spent his spare time reading the works of Vivekananda , Gandhi, and Vinoba Bhave; they inspired him to become a social worker and activist. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 he was the only survivor in a exchange of border fire while driving a truck in Khem Karan sector. During the mid-1970s he survived a road accident while driving.

Making of Ralegan Siddhi into a model village
Ralegan Siddhi was one of the worst victims, hopeless social and economic situation and irresponsible village leadership before 1975 when Kisan Baburao Hazare, affectionately know as Anna Hazare served in Indian army, until he retired voluntarily in 1975. His close brush with death in the 1965 war changed the course of his life. He decided to dedicate himself to work for the welfare of others and returned to work for the betterment of his own village, starting with the re-building of the temple. Anna Hazare believes that religion has a strong influence on people. He says: “God is everywhere, but a child is first introduced to him in the temple. It is here that he receives education on the important values and morals of life. In a broader sense, the village itself is a temple where people serve and pray and learn the meaning of life.”

The dilapidate condition of the temple in Ralegan Siddhi, from where wood had been used to fuel the liquor dens, symbolized to Anna the condition of the village. Since the temple represents the cultural heart of a community, Anna felt that renovation of the temple would be the best way to demonstrate his unselfish motives and created an interest in his activities. With his provident fund of Rs.20, 000+/-, Anna began the Renovation. Inspired by his selfless devotion, first the youth, then the rest of villagers slowly began to rally around him. Villagers, especially the youth group began gathering here everyday to discuss their problems and matters related to the welfare of village.

Anna utilized individual centred Gandhian methods for bringing about moral pressure on the people. When the high school was started in Ralegan Siddhi, and the state government was not ready to sanction grant to the school, Anna quietly started his fast outside the Zilla Parishad's office. When the village people came to know of it they also joined him in hundreds. The state government had to yield to their demand. In another instance, when a couple of families continued to leave their cattle free for grazing in spite of explaining to them the importance of stopping open grazing and of taking up massive tree plantation programme, Anna and some youth members went on fast for two days to make the people understand the seriousness of the ban on open grazing.

Restoring the green cover
Trees are the greatest friend a man can have, they keep environment clean and healthy. They also fulfill the fuel & fodder needs of village. Recognizing this, the villagers undertook a massive tree plantation drive. Almost 3-4 lakh trees were planted and nurtured. "Social fencing" was introduced whereby villagers voluntarily prevented cattle, goats and sheeps from grazing freely. Open grazing was completely banned with a new emphasis on stall-feeding (Kurhad Bandi). The Sarpanch (head of the village council) of Ralegan narrates: "There is a surplus of fuel wood and fodder. We now help neighbouring villages in their time of need." As fodder became available in abundance, the productivity and number of milk animals increased. 


Alcohol has ruined many families in rural India. The existing laws did not have teeth to ban the sale of alcohol in villages. So he decided to press the government to make a law for prohibition if 50% women demanded for it. Ultimately, women are the most affected lot if their husbands are drunkards. By the new Act, the women of any village can collectively demand for ban on sale of alcoholic drinks in the village. If a minimum of 50% of women complain to the District Collector about their sufferings and request for total prohibition in the village, the Collector can hold ballot paper election in the village. There will be two signs on the paper – one being a bottle in standing position and another being in a horizontal position. The women will cast their votes. In the evening, the votes will be counted. If more votes are in favour of ‘horizontal bottle’, then the Collector will ban the sale of alcoholic drinks in the village and cancel the license of the seller.In many villages, the licenses have been cancelled and total prohibition came into reality after this Act. In some villages, the alcohol sellers have manipulated the election with money power. Anyhow, this Act has supported and strengthened the women. Women have become empowered due to this act and became fearless to come in open against the alcoholism. This Act has helped in organizing the women and fight against evils for a common good. Women’s empowerment is the need of the day

Milk production
As a secondary occupation, milk production was promoted in Ralegan. Purchase of new cattle and improvement of the existing breed with the help of artificial insemination and timely guidance and assistance by the veterinary doctor has resulted in an improvement in the cattle stock. The milk production has also increased. Crossbred cows are replacing the local ones which give a low milk yield. The number of milk cattle has also been growing. Which resulted in growth of one hundred liters (before 1975) to Around 2500 litres per day which is sent to a co-operative dairy (Malganga Dairy) in Ahmednagar. Some milk is also given to Balwadi (school in Ralegan Siddhi) children & neighbouring village under the child nutrition program sponsored by the Zilla Parishad. From the surplus generated, the milk society bought a mini-truck and a thresher. The mini-truck besides transporting milk to Ahmednagar is also used for taking vegetables and other produce directly to the market, thus eliminating intermediate agents. The thresher is rented out to the farmers during the harvesting season. Today Ralegan Siddhi earn nearly one crore per annum on dairy.

In the year 1932 Ralegan Siddhi got its first formal school, a single class room primary school. In the year 1962, the villagers via community volunteer effort added more classrooms. By the year 1971 out of estimated population of 1209 only 30.43% were literate (72 women and 290 men). Boys moved to nearby towns of Shirur and Parner to pursue higher education. But due to socio-economic conditions girls couldn't do the same and were limited to primary education. Anna Hazare along with the youth of Ralegan siddhi worked to increase literacy rates and education levels. In year 1976 they started pre school to the primary school and a high school in 1979. The villagers started taking active interest in the village school and formed Sant Yadav Baba Shikshan Prasarak Mandal(trust) which was registered in 1979. The trust decide to take over the function of the village school which was in bad state due to government neglect and also lack of interest on behalf of teachers who were moonlighting.The trust got a government grant to the amount of 4 lakhs was got for the school building using NREP. A new school building was built in next 2 months with volunteer efforts and the money got via grant. A new hostel was also constructed to house 200 students from weaker sections of the society. After opening of the school in the village, a girl student from Ralegan Siddhi completed her S.S.C in 1982 for the first time. Since then the school has been instrumental in bringing in lots of changes to the village.

Removal of untouchability
The social barriers that existed due to the caste system have been broken down by Ralegan Siddhi villagers and people of all castes come together to celebrate social events. The people of Ralegan have largely succeeded in eradicating social discrimination on the basis of caste. The dalits have been integrated into the social and economic life of the village. The villagers have built houses for the Harijanas and helped to repay their loans to free them from their indebtedness.

Collective marriages
Most rural poor get into a debt-trap as they have to incur heavy expenses at the time of marriage of their son or daughter. It is an undesirable practice but has almost become a social obligation. Ralegan's people have started celebrating marriages collectively. The feast is held together where the expenses are further reduced by the Tarun Mandal taking the responsibility of cooking and serving the food. The vessels, the Loud-speaker system, the mandap and the decorations have also been bought by the Tarun Mandal members belonging to the oppressed castes. From 1976 to 1986, four hundred and twenty four marriages have been held under this system.

Gram Sabha
The Gram Sabha is an important forum for collective decision making in the villages. If villagers are involved in planning and decision making process, they are more open to any changes taking place in the village. In Ralegan Siddhi, the Gram Sabha meetings are held periodically to discuss issues relating to the welfare of village. Projects like Watershed development activities are undertaken only after they are discussed in the Gram Sabha. All decision like Nasbandi, Nasabandi, Kurhad Bandi, Charai bandi, Shramdan were taken in the Gram Sabha. Decisions are taken in a simple majority consensus. In case of difference of opinion the majority consensus becomes acceptable. The decision of the Gram Sabha is accepted as final. In addition to panchayat, there are several registered societies that take care of various projects and activities of the village. Each society presents its annual report and statement of accounts in the Gram Sabha every year. The Sant Yadavbaba Shikshan Prasarak Mandali monitors the educational activities. The Vivid karyakari society gives assistance and provides guidance to farmers regarding fertilizers, seeds, organic farming, financial assistance, etc. Sri Sant Yadavbaba Doodh Utpadhak Sahakari sansta gives guidance regarding the dairy business. Seven Co-operative irrigation society provides water to the farmers from cooperative wells. Mahila Sarvage Utkarsh Mandal attends welfare needs of the women.

Village birthday
In order to foster a sense of unity in the village, the Ralegan Siddhi family celebrates a village annual birthday on 2 October of every year. On that day: The eldest male villager is honoured as father of the village. The eldest female villager is honoured as the mother of the village. New clothes are stitched for every infant born in the village during the past year, irrespective of the child's caste or religion. New brides who have come to the village during the past year are welcomed with the traditional offering of coconut, as they are the daughters-inlaw of the village. Students who have been successful in education are honoured. Youth from the village who have achieved something special are honoured. All villagers gather in the evening during this occasion and have dinner together to celebrate the event.

Watershed Development

In the years 1972-73 there was wide spread severe draught in whole of Maharashtra. In order to provide employment to the rural population in this situation Government of Maharashtra decided to undertake soil conservation work in rural areas which required lot of labour. Agriculture and Irrigation Departments of the Government were appointed as nodal agencies to execute the programme and they undertook the work of

construction of percolation tanks, nalla bunding and contour bunding in Ralegan Siddhi. While the work was executed in Ralegan Siddhi due to apathy of the Government agencies the percolation tank constructed at Ralegan was not constructed taking due care and was leaking and thus its purpose was defeated. After his retirement from Army in l975 he returned to Ralegan Siddhi and was very much disturbed due to condition prevailing there and started discussing with the villagers their problems. He observed that the water problem -both for drinking and irrigation - was acute and felt that something should be done to overcome this problem. At that time he came to know of one Mr. Vilasrao Salunkhe who was doing soil and water conservation work at Saswad. He visited the work place of Mr. Salunkhe and felt that if similar activity is undertaken at Ralegan Siddhi, the water scarcity problem at Ralegan could be solved. He, therefore, organized villagers meeting (Gram Sabha) to explain to them the work of Mr. Salunkhe and its adoption in Ralegan Siddhi. All the villegers were impressed by this idea and decided to start similar programme in Ralegan Siddhi. Initially they decided to repair the existing percolation tank which was heavily leaking. The cause of seepage of water was ascetained and work of providing core wall by digging puddle trench upto the level of hard rock was undertaken on upper side of the bund through voluntary labour of villagers. Satisfactory Completion of the work resulted in retention of water in the tank resulting in recharging of ground water aquifers .This enthused the villagers and they decided to implement the concept of water shed development, i.e. ridge to valley approach for soil and water conservation which was hitherto not followed by the Department of Agriculture. Implementation of watershed programme involved lot of expenditure and Mr. Hazare approached the then Director of Soil Conservation and requested his help. He had assured the Director that he and his collegues from village will actively participate in implementation of watershed development programme and will provide labour voluntarily. The ridge to valley programme involved structures like gully plugging,loose boulder structure, gabian structure, nalla bunding, cement check dams etc. The cost involved in constructing cement check dams was prohibitive and hence Shri Hazare developed modified gabian structure with a core wall which reduced the cost considerably and was as effective as cement check dam. This novel approach is being followed elsewhere also. Similarly on the ridge line where the CCT was not possible, shallow soak pits were dug in order to collect rain water so that through seepage the water would be available to surrounding plantation. This resulted in increase in plant survival and their vigorous growth. This was also a novelty of Ralegan Siddhi programme. Due to availability of water for irrigation through wells and realising the importance of water the villagers decided to form cooperative societies well-wise. This resulted in bringing more land under cultivation and developments

like double cropping, change of farming system, horticulture plantations, vegetable cultivation, dairy farming etc. could take place. It will not be out of place if it is mentioned that from Ralegan Siddhi for some period onions and vegetables were exported to Gulf countries. All this resulted in substantial increase in per capita income of the farmers. and the villagers through their cooperative efforts created facilities like school, hostel., gymnasiums, credit societies renovation of temple etc. in the village .The residents of Ralegan Siddhi are still enjoying the benefits of watershed programme though more than 30 years have passed since completion of programme..

 Anti corruption movement
Model Village as contemplated by Gandhiji was brought in reality by Shri Annaji at Ralegan Siddhi by his dedication. “Late Shri Achyutrao Patwardhan, the great freedom fighter, suggested to the government of Maharashtra that to commemorate the golden jubilee of Bharat Chhodo Andolan, it would be most befitting to create model villages like Ralegan Siddhi in every tehsil of the state. The government accepted this suggestion and declared to implement “Adarsh Gaon Yojana”. The Government entrusted this responsibility to him and Adarsha Gaon Yojana was started under his leadership . He travelled whole of Maharashtra and selected 300 villages to implement this scheme. While working in this scheme he realised that development is getting hampered due to planned corruption in Govermnent machinery and he decided to fight against this corruption. He gave evidence against two ministers who had amassed wealth disproportionate to their income. However since the Govt was passive about this he started agitation and undertook fast for l0 days. Chief Minister intervened and he deleted these two ministers from ministry and appointed an Inquiry Commission. The Commission held both the ministers guilty but to save them the Govt appointed another commission who discharged them from the allegations. Though the ministers were discharged from the allegations, they had to loose their ministership which is the success of Mr.Hazare's agitation. Mr.Hazare's gave evidence of corruption by Social Welfare Minister to the then Chief Minister. On 3lst July l999 the Chief Minister informed him that inquiry is being instituted about the charges leveled by him. He had given an interview to a local daily regarding this inquiry and based on this interview the concerned minister had filed a case in the court against Mr.Hazare for defamation. He was held guilty by the Court and the court had asked him to give an undertaking that he will not make such allegations in future.He refused to give such undertaking and preferred to go jail for 3 months as ordered by the court. He told the court that He was willing to give his life for truth. His punishment created commotion in public and scores of people started visiting Yerawada Jail. He wanted to compelte his jail term but to give respect to the public feelings he accepted his release.In l992 Gandhji had told the court that if court feels that his actions for the freedom of the country are considered as anti government activities he was willing to undergo any punishment .Similarly he did not give bond to the court and accpeted punishment. He did not prefer any appeal against the court order

immediately but due to public pressure he later made an appeal which was upheld by the Higher Court and rejected the suit of minister.Mr. Hazare asked the Govt. to conduct the inquiry against the minister which is still on. In the regim of coaliation Government of Congress and National Congress Party, He had forwarded evidence of corruption about 4 ministers and had asked the Government to conduct inquiry. One of the ministers had made allegations about corruption in the institutions in which he was associated. Since there was no action from the Govt. he undertook fast for 9 dys in August 2003 at Azad Maidan. The minister concenred also started agitation at Azaj Maidan in Mumbai. At last the Government relented and Retired Suprement Court Judge Shri P.B. Sawant was appointed to conduct the inquiry. The commission conducted the inquiry and sent its report to Govt. on 22nd Februrary. In the report the commission had observed ministers guilty and had held Mr.Hazare also guilty forirregularities but not a single charge of corruption was proved against him.Mr. Hazare has offered the Government that it should take action against him as well as the ministers based on the findings of the enquiry comissions.Though Govt has not taken any action on the Commission's report three ministers had to go and this is a big achievement of his agitation against corruption. He felt that corruption will not stop merely by taking action against a few officers and ministers and it is necessary that a change should be brought about in the system, He believes that unless decentralisation of power takes place the system will not change.In order to bring change in the system he felt that information should be made available to people regarding Govt.'s actions which was not being provided to people on the ground of secracy. Here again he decided to follow Gandhiji's path and started Maun Vrat and later fast unto death. This brought pressure on the Govt. and both the Central as well as State Governments have enacted Right to Information Act. His whole life and work is based on Gandhian philosophy.

Right to Information(RTI)

The President of India appoints Civil Servants in Indian Administrative Services (IAS), Indian Police Services (IPS) and Indian Forest Services (IFS). The People’s Representatives and the Civil Servants are ultimately the public servants. They have to serve the citizens. But, the picture is altogether different today. The People’s Representatives and the Civil Servants have become masters of the country and made the citizens poor servants. In the Maharashtra State, a campaign was started demanding for the Right to Information. As Peoples Representatives and Civil Servants are public servants and the citizens of Maharashtra are owners of the public money, the citizens have the right to ask the public servants how and in what manner they spend the public money. He pressed for legislating an Act for Right to Information. The first campaign was organized at the Azad Maidan, Mumbai, in 1997. The State Government was giving only promises, but it failed to crystallize it in many sessions of the Vidhan Sabha. He had to make agitations, dharnas, morchas, maun and fasts many times. State-wide tours were held for awareness generation among people. Public addresses were organized in many towns and programmes were arranged specially for college students. Posters, banners and folders were printed and distributed in thousands. All this resulted in the awakening of the citizens and making them aware of their fundamental Right to Information.The Government made many promises, but it failed to keep one. Any government never wants to decentralize its power and hand over power to people. Many politicians think that decentralization of power will lessen their importance, status and respect. So the Government was reluctant to make legislation for Right to Information. Finally, with zeal of ‘do-or-die’, Mr. Hazare went on fast-unto-death on August 9, 2003 at Azad Maidan, Mumbai. He decided that unless the Act is passed by the Government, he will not end his fast. The Government of Maharashtra felt that his resolution is firm and He would not step back from his decision of ‘do-or-die’. On the 12th day of his fast, the Government of Maharashtra got the Bill signed by the

President of India and enacted the law of ‘Right to Information’ in Maharashtra. The Act on ‘Right to Information’ is a revolutionary step towards strengthening democracy. This Act has enabled the common man to seek information. Till to-date, the people have to obey the laws; whereas the government machinery controlled everything. But by the advent of this Act, the Government Agencies have to obey the law and the people have got controlling power. This Act should have come into force on 26th February 1950 itself; the day India celebrated its first Republic Day. This would have brought transparency and accountability in every transaction of the government and would have checked corruption to a great extent. The erstwhile British rulers had prohibited people from getting any information by creating the Official Secrets Act. The following Indi Under the guise of the Official secrets Act, information was denied to people. So he started the movement for Right to Information. In freedom, every citizen has fundamental right to know how the public money is spent.The question to the Government was "Why do you deny information which is not confidential" under the guise of Official Secrets Act? Finally, the government had to make the Right to Information Act. an governments maintained status quo by not amending the Act as it provided them space for corruption. The British Act of Official Secrets was in force for almost 58 years after British left India. This Act gave the weapon in the hands of corrupt politicians and officers to exploit the common man. Due to this Act, transparency has come in in the administration. Now a common man can get information by just paying a nominal charge of Rs. 10 or 20. This has paved the way to good governance and healthy democracy. If this Act reaches every village and every household, it has potential to check corruption to an extent of 80 – 85%. Due to corruption, only 10 percent could reach the real beneficiaries of the poverty alleviation programmes earlier. Rest of the money percolated to the purses of corrupt officers and politicians. Now, due to the Act of Right to Information, the poor villagers will get their due share in the development process. The quality of project works has started to improve after the Act.

Central Government stopped amendments in Right to Information Act:

It is a positive step after 58 years of Independence to enact the Right to Information Act. But as this Act has potential to check corruption to a great extent, some politicians felt it as a hurdle in their corrupt practices. Prime Minister Mr. Manmohan Singh’s Government tabled a Bill for amendments in the existing Act which were detrimental to the very cause of the Act. Citizens had got these rights after 58 years of Independence after a long struggle. The proposed amendments were going to nullify these rights. To protest against the amendments, Mr. Hazareundertook fast unto death at Alandi near Pune. Within two days of commencing his fast, people in various parts of Maharashtra started agitation on their own in support of my demand. People undertook ‘Rail-roko-andolan’ (train blockade) at nine places. Gradually, the agitation spread to other parts of India. Even some Indians residing in the US went on fast in support of my agitation. Prime Minister Mr. Manmohan Singh sent one of his Ministers as emissary to Alandi, as the agitation gathered momentum in and outside the country, and promised that the existing Right to Information Act would not be amended by the Central Government. He requested Mr. Hazare to end his fast and he gave it up on 9th day. Fortunately, the Government gave up the idea of proposed amendments in the Right to Information Act.

 Act for Regulating Transfers:
As there was no clear-cut policy on transfers of the Government Officers, the People’s Representatives and Senior Officers of the government misused their power to transfer the government servants as per their wish. In these transfers, usually money changes hands. Thus, a transfer was a source of bribery. If an elected Representative wants his relative or confident to be posted in a key position where an honest Officer is already working, he would misuse his power to get the honest man transferred to other place; thus creating vacancy to bring his man to that position. This was injustice to the honest officer. To prevent this type of injustice, He started a movement for legislation of an Act which would prevent transfer of any officer, at the will of his superiors or political heavy weights, for a minimum period of three years. It was also ensured that no officer will continue at the same place for more than three years. The local politicians like Members of the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha, Ministers in the Government and Senior Officers of the Government opposed legislation of this Act as it was going to affect their vested interest. Due to this act, the honest officers got some relief and the corruption involved in transfers has reduced to a large extent.

list of Indian political scandals
2G spectrum scam Adarsh Housing Society scam Commonwealth Games Scandal

2010 onwards
  

2000 - 2009
          

Satyam scandal Ketan Parekh Scandal, Barak Missile Deal Scandal, Tehelka Scandal (2001) Taj corridor case (2002–2003) Telgi scandal (2003) Nitish Katara Murder Case (2004) Oil-for-food programme scam (Natwar Singh) (2005) Jessica Lal case (2006) Human Trafficking Scam involving Babubhai Katara Cash-for-votes scandal Madhu Koda, laundering money worth over Rs. 4000 crores Gegong Apang, public distribution scam[1]

1990 - 1999
       

Bofors Scandal (1990) Animal Husbandry Case (1990) Bombay Stock Exchange Manipulation & Fraud by Harshad Mehta (1992) Hawala scandal (1993) Bangalore - Mysore Infrastructure Corridor (1995) Sukh Ram (1996) Fodder Scam in Bihar (1996) Kerala SNC Lavalin power scandal (1997)

1900 - 1990
           

Telecom scam (Sukh Ram) HDW Submarine Bitumen scam Tansi land deal JMM Bribery Scandal St Kitts case Urea scam Anantnag transport subsidy scam 1971 Nagarwala scandal Fodder scam 1975: Declaration of Emergency Churhat lottery scam

2011 Indian anti-corruption movement

The 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement constitutes of a series of protests for the Jan Lokpal Bill (Citizen Ombudsman Bill) that sprang up across India especially after April 5, 2011. The protesters want the Government of India to draft a strong anti-graft Lokpal bill which follows the originally drafted bill and not the changes the government plans to bring in, which will make the Lokayukta just another advisory body with no actual power in the vast Indian bureaucracy. Following continuous calls in vain to the government to work effectively towards passing the bill, a renowned civil society activist and Gandhian, Anna Hazare, went on an indefinite hunger strike unto death until his demands in support of the bill were met. Anna demanded for a joint committee of civil society members and government representatives to draft a strong anti-graft bill. The protests led to the creation of an unprecedented movement that saw protests being organised in various cities and towns of India. Protests included fasts, candlelight vigils and rallies. The protests are especially one of their kind in India as they have no political affiliation and the protesters have been very hostile to any political party trying to grab the initiative to meet its own political goals from the activists. The protests to some extent have similarities in methodologies to Jayaprakash Narayan's Bihar Movement (commonly called the JP Movement) of 1974. There were also similarities to the methods and philosophies used in the 2011 Egyptian revolution and the Tunisian revolution , that have rocked the very foundations of governments in the Arab world.

2011 Indian anti-corruption movement

Protesters take part in protests at Jantar Mantar in Delhi
13 March 2011-9 April 2011 India With protests also being held in various other countries by NRIs in the USA, Australia, United Kingdomand more. Status Government agrees to create a drafting committee constituting of civil society activists to work on theJan Lokpal bill and table it in the Monsoon session of the Parliament of India Goals Drafting and passing of the Jan Lokpal Bill in its purest form to tackle ever-increasing corruption in India Characteristics Satyagraha, demonstrations, sit-ins, fast-unto-death Date Location


Death(s) None Injuries at least 15 hospitalised due to dehydration during fasting

Anna Hazare Letter to Prime Minister
Date: April 6, 2011 To, Dr. Manmohan Singh, Hon’ble Prime Minister of India New Delhi Dear Dr. Singh, I have started my indefinite fast at Jantar mantar. I had invited you also to fast and pray for a corruption free India on 5th April. Though I did not receive any reply from you, I am hopeful that you must have done that. I am pained to read and hear about government’s reaction to my fast. I consider it my duty to clarify the points raised on behalf of Congress party and the government by their spokespersons, as they appear in media: 1. It is being alleged that I am being instigated by some people to sit on this fast. Dear Manmohan Singh ji, this is an insult to my sense of wisdom and intelligence. I am not a kid that I could be “instigated” into going on an indefinite fast. I am a fiercely independent person. I take advice from many friends and critics, but do what my conscience directs me to do. It is my experience that when cornered, governments resort to such malicious slandering. I am pained that the government, rather than addressing the issue of corruption, is trying to allege conspiracies, when there are none. 2. It is being said that I have shown impatience. Dear Prime Minister, so far, every government has shown complete insensitivity and lack of political commitment to tackling corruption. 62 years after independence, we still do not have independent and effective anti‐corruption systems. Very weak versions of Lokpal Bill were presented in Parliament eight times in last 42 years. Even these weak versions were not passed by Parliament. This means, left to themselves, the politicians and bureaucrats will never pass any law which subjects them to any kind of objective scrutiny. At a time, when the country has witnessed scams of unprecedented scale, the impatience of the entire country is justified. And we call upon you, not to look for precedents, but show courage to take unprecedented steps. 3. It is being said that I have shown impatience when the government has “initiated” the process. I would urge you to tell me – exactly what processes are underway? a. You say that your Group of Ministers are drafting the anti‐corruption law. Many of the members of this Group of Ministers have such a shady past that if effective anti‐ corruption systems had been in place, some of them would have been behind bars. Do

you want us to have faith in a process in which some of the most corrupt people of this country should draft the anti‐corruption law? b. NAC sub‐committee has discussed Jan Lokpal Bill. But what does that actually mean? Will the government accept the recommendations of NAC sub‐committee? So far, UPA II has shown complete contempt for even the most innocuous issues raised by NAC. c. I and many other friends from India Against Corruption movement wrote several letters to you after 1st December. I also sent you a copy of Jan Lokpal Bill on 1st December. We did not get any response. It is only when I wrote to you that I will sit on an indefinite fast, we were promptly invited for discussions on 7th March. I wonder whether the government responds only to threats of indefinite fast. Before that, representatives of India Against Corruption had been meeting various Ministers seeking their support for the Jan Lokpal Bill. They met Mr Moily also and personally handed over copy of Jan Lokpal to him. A few hours before our meeting with you, we received a phone call from Mr Moily’s office that the copy of Jan Lokpal Bill had been misplaced by his office and they wanted another copy. This is the seriousness with which the government has dealt with Jan Lokpal Bill. d. Dear Dr Manmohan Singh ji, if you were in my place, would you have any faith in the aforesaid processes? Kindly let me know if there are any other processes underway. If you still feel that I am impatient, I am happy that I am because the whole nation is feeling impatient at the lack of credible efforts from your government against corruption. 4. What are we asking for? We are not saying that you should accept the Bill drafted by us. But kindly create a credible platform for discussions – a joint committee with at least half members from civil society suggested by us. Your spokespersons are misleading the nation when they say that there is no precedent for setting up a joint committee. At least seven laws in Maharashtra were drafted by similar joint committees and presented in Maharashtra Assembly. Maharashtra RTI Act, one of the best laws of those times, was drafted by a joint committee. Even at the centre, when 25,000 tribals came to Delhi two years ago, your government set up a joint committee on land issues within 48 hours. You yourself are the Chairperson of that committee. This means that the government is willing to set up joint committees on all other issues, but not on corruption. Why? 5. It is being said that the government wants to talk to us and we are not talking to them. This is utterly false. Tell me a single meeting when you called us and we did not come. We strongly believe in dialogue and engagement. Kindly do not mislead the country by saying that we are shunning dialogue. We request you to take some credible steps at stemming corruption. Kindly stop finding faults and suspecting conspiracies in our movement. There are none. Even if there were, it does not absolve you of your responsibilities to stop corruption. With warm regards,

(K B Hazare)

 Protest Timeline
13 March 2011 A group of Delhi residents dressed in white shirts and t-shirts took a four-hour drive around the city to drum up campaign against corruption and rally support for the Jan Lokpal Bill. 28 March 2011 According to the organisers of the protests held globally on that day - "As many as 45 cities in USA, 40 cities in India and 8 other countries globally joined in an anti-corruption movement. Indians across the globe, as far as from Nagpur to New Jersey and Sydney to Seattle shouted in one voice to enact 'Jan Lokpal Bill' and ratify the UN Convention against Corruption." Many of the marchers were planning to continue the movement by joining Anna Hazare's fast in Delhi on 5 April for the same cause. 4 April 2011 Anna Hazare, the anti corruption activist leader announced his fast unto death till Jan Lokpal Bill is enacted 5 April 2011 Anna Hazare, initiated his fast unto death at Jantar Mantar in Delhi Around 6,000 Mumbai residents joined Anna Hazare for a one-day fast to support the demand for implementation of the Jan Lokpal Bill.  In Pune over 6,000 residents joined the campaign.  The Freedom Park in Banglore was the cynosure of all eyes on Thursday as Bangaloreans from all walks of life thronged the place to support Anna Hazare.
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7 April 2011 2 rounds of talks with the government failed. Anna Hazare continued on with his fast. Narendra Modi, the chief Minister of Gujarat lashes out at Manmohan Singh for resisting the passage of the Jan Lokpal Bill  Sonia Gandhi, the president of the Indian National Congress party and the head of the National Advisory Council appealed to Anna Hazare to end his indefinite fast.
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8 April 2011 Protests spreaded to Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Patna, Bhopal, Ahmedabad, Ranchi, Pune, Nashik and Kochi.  Protests were organised at Jammu University in Jammu, Thiruvananthapuram, Guwahati and Jaipur too.  The government continued to squabble with the activists stating that the bill drafting committee will be headed by a government appointed minister and not a civil society member as the protesters demanded to avoid allowing the government to make the bill less powerful.  The Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh met with the President of India to outline to her how the government was going ahead with the demands of the population.  15 supporters of Anna Hazare on fast were hospitalized.  Bollywood came out completely in support of the protests - with famed actors, musicians and directors speaking in support of the movement andAnna Hazare. Director Farah Khan, actor Anupam Kher, music director Vishal Dadlani, poet-filmmaker Pritish Nandy and actor Tom Alter all visited Jantar Mantar. Meanwhile famed Indian actors Aamir Khan, Hrithik Roshan and Amitabh Bachchan all stated their support for the movement via social networking websites or the media. Oscar winning Indian composer A. R. Rahman also declared his support for the anti-graft movement. Kareena Kapoor, Shabana Azmi,Shekhar Kapur, Sushmita

Sen, Bipasha Basu, Shahid Kapoor, Riteish Deshmukh, Vivek Oberoi, Neha Dhupia,Jackky Bhagnani, Shirish Kunder, Kailash Kher, Punit Malhotra all tweeted their support for Anna Hazare further feulling the masses to join the movement.  Famed Qatari artist M. F. Hussain showed his support by drawing a cartoon of Anna Hazare.  Indian students at Cambridge University, the former alma-mater of the Indian prime minister also addressed their support for the movement.  Many prominent people from the government agencies as well as from various corporate houses came out in support of the movement. Some of them were - Delhi Metro chief E. Sreedharan[23] (also called the Metro Man of India), Punj Lloyd chairman Atul Punj, Maruti Suzuki chairman RC Bhargava,Hero group's Sunil Munjal, Tata Steel vice-chairman B Muthuraman, Bajaj Auto Chairman Rahul Bajaj, Godrej Group head Adi Godrej, BioconChairman and Managing Director Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw and Kotak Mahindra Bank vice-chairman & managing director Uday Kotak. They all declared their support for Anna Hazare and the movement.  ASSOCHAM President Dilip Modi and FICCI Director General Rajiv Kumar, both came out in support of the movement too.  The Government of India accepted the compromise formula that there be a politician chairman and an activist, non-politician Co-Chairman. It was reported that Pranab Mukherjee will be the Chairman of the draft committee while Shanti Bhushan will be the cochairman. Shanti Bhushan was one of the original drafters of the Lokpal Bill along with Anna Hazare, Justice N. Santosh Hegde, advocate Prashant Bhushan, and RTI activist Arvind Kejriwal. 9 April 2011 After accepting all the demands of Anna Hazare, the Government of India issued a Official Gazette saying that the draft of lokpal would be made and presented in the coming monsoon session of Lok Sabha.  Victory celebrations were held all over India from Jantar Mantar - the center of the protests to Hyderabad, Jammu, Mumbai, Nagpur, Chennai, Kolkatta, Allahabad[28] and even Anna Hazare's village.  Bollywood lauded the victory of Anna Hazare, once again echoing their support for the movement and the support of the Indian citizenry  Anti-Corruption protestors at India Gate booed and drove away controversial journalist Barkha Dutt.  Protesters and leaders of the movement alike stated that the path to attaining complete passing of the bill is still a difficult one, and the movement has to see more harsher days ahead.  The movement has become a symbol of civil society's power in India. After being widely televised by the Indian media, and widely supported by almost every Indian citizen (as the issue of corruption has been an issue every Indian holds very negative views about), the movement has attained a certain level of credibility in the eyes of the Indian masses. Its uniqueness in the fact that it was completely apolitical; was a movement solely of the people; did not wish to put in disarray the country as in the case of total shutdowns organised by politcal parties (Commonly called a Bandh) ; and was able to bend the government - is something new for India.[35] Many commentators have called the movement the 'wake-up' call for India. Meanwhile social networking chatter has been filled with fears that Indians will once again go back to 'sleep' with time.

Drafting Committee of the Bill
The 10 member Drafting Committee of the Jan Lokpal Bill will have an equal representation of both politicians and civil society members.On 8 April 2011, the Ministry of Law and Justice issued an official notification, The Gazette of India, regarding the Joint Drafting Committee of the bill. A copy of the notification can be found here

The Government of India accepted that there be a politician Chairman and an activist, non-politician CoChairman. It is reported that Pranab Mukherjee, from the political arena, and Shanti Bhushan, from the civil society, will be the Chairmen of the Drafting Committee.

Government representation
Five Cabinet ministers will be a part of the Drafting Committee. They are: 1. Pranab Mukherjee, Finance Minister of India 2. P. Chidambaram, Minister of Home Affairs, Panel Member 3. Veerappa Moily, Minister of Law and Justice, Panel Member 4. Kapil Sibal, Minister for Communications and Information Technology, Panel Member 5. Salman Khursid, Minister of Water Resources, Panel Member

Civil society representation
Five leading socialists will be a part of the Drafting Committee. They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Shanti Bhushan, Former Minister of Law and Justice, Co-Chairman Anna Hazare, Social Activist, Panel Member Prashant Bhushan, Lawyer, Panel Member N. Santosh Hegde, Lokayukta (Karnataka), Panel Member Arvind Kejriwal, RTI activist, Panel Member

Allegations against panel members
Adding a new chapter in Lokpal Bill issue, the candidature of Shanti Bhushan, veteran lawyer, former union law minister and co-chairman of the new committee formed as a result of Anna Hazare’s recent hunger strike to draft a law on corruption, has come under scanner after a new CD controversy.Shanti Bhushan said that “it certainly appears to be a motivated, mallicious campaign to derail the draft of the Lokpal bill.”. Some pro-corruption supporters or those who would benefit from the status quo are drumming up support against this anti corruption movement by using the usual old tactics of attempting to cast doubt on Anna Hazare, the committee members, the who movement and how it was handled in the media and the press etc.

First Lokpal Bill draft meeting
First Lokpal Bill draft meeting was held on 16 April 2011, Eight days after Gandhian Anna Hazare called off his fast demanding a stronger Lokpal law. The government has agreed to audio-recording of all meetings of the Lokpal Bill panel and to holding public consultations before a final draft of the anti-graft law is prepared. Next meeting will be held on 2 May 2011. Anna Hazare insisted to telecast the live proceedings video, but government denied stating certain "drawbacks" of doing so and so the first meeting was held recording the audio for future references.

Key features of proposed bill
1. To establish a central government anti-corruption institution called Lokpal, supported by Lokayukta at the state level. 2. As in the case of the Supreme Court and Cabinet Secretariat, the Lokpal will be supervised by the Cabinet Secretary and the Election Commission. As a result, it will be completely independent of the government and free from ministerial influence in its investigations. 3. Members will be appointed by judges, Indian Administrative Service officers with a clean record, private citizens and constitutional authorities through a transparent and participatory process. 4. A selection committee will invite shortlisted candidates for interviews, videorecordings of which will thereafter be made public. 5. Every month on its website, the Lokayukta will publish a list of cases dealt with, brief details of each, their outcome and any action taken or proposed. It will also publish lists of all cases received by the Lokayukta during the previous month, cases dealt with and those which are pending. 6. Investigations of each case must be completed in one year. Any resulting trials should be concluded in the following year, giving a total maximum process time of two years. 7. Losses caused to the government by a corrupt individual will be recovered at the time of conviction. 8. Government officework required by a citizen that is not completed within a prescribed time period will result in Lokpal imposing financial penalties on those responsible, which will then be given as compensation to the complainant. 9. Complaints against any officer of Lokpal will be investigated and completed within a month and, if found to be substantive, will result in the officer being dismissed within two months. 10. The existing anti-corruption agencies (CVC, departmental vigilance and the anti-corruption branch of the CBI) will be merged into Lokpal which will have complete power and authority to independently investigate and prosecute any officer, judge or politician. 11. Whistleblowers who alert the agency to potential corruption cases will also be provided with protection by it.

 Difference between the proposals

Difference between Draft Lokpal Bill 2010 and Jan Lokpal Bill
Jan Lokpal Bill (Citizen's Ombudsman Bill) Lokpal will have powers to initiate immediate action or receive complaints of corruption from the general public. Lokpal will be much more than an Advisory Body and have the power to initiate prosecution of anyone found guilty. Lokpal will have police powers as well as the ability to register FIRs. Lokpal and the anti corruption wing of the CBI will be one independent body. Punishments will be a minimum of 5 years and a maximum of up to life imprisonment.

Draft Lokpal Bill (2010)

Lokpal will have no power to initiate immidiate action or receive complaints of corruption from the general public. It can only probe complaints forwarded by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha or the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

Lokpal will only be an Advisory Body with a role limited to forwarding reports to a "Competent Authority".

Lokpal will have no police powers and no ability to register an FIR or proceed with criminal investigations.

The CBI and Lokpal will be unconnected.

Punishment for corruption will be a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of up-to 7 years.


Today Anna has almost acquired the stature of a saint. He donated his land for the hostel building. He gives his pension money to the village fund. A confirmed bachelor, he lives in the village temple with a bare minimum of personal belongings. He eats simple food normally cooked for the hostel boys. Both his parents and brothers stay in the village but they are no different from him than any other family in the village. This moral authority growing out of his selfless life has made him an unquestioned leader of the village. Anna's moral code of conduct is also quite strict. Anna believes that punishment is an essential component of the process to bring about conformity to social morality. When a child stole a fruit from a tree on the common lands, he was tied to a pole and the fruits were kept before him to teach him a moral lesson. The fruit bearing trees are not protected by any watchman. Not a single fruit is stolen and ripe fruits are distributed to Balwadi children and the school children. Public beating was used not to create terror but to bring public shame on the defaulter so that he/she exercises more self-control. People are proud of Ralegan achievements and they have a share and a stake in its glory. Therefore they would not do anything which will hurt Anna or bring a bad name to the village.


PRIY DARSHINI VRIKSHA MITRA AWARD, by government of India on November 19, 1986
from the hands of Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi.

• MAN OF THE YEAR AWARD 1988 • PADMABHUSHAN AWARD -Presented by R. Venkatraman ( president of India) on 6th April
1992 at Delhi for Anna Hazare's social work

• • April 1997 for Anna Hazare’s excellent in sphere of social & community service BASAVSHRI PRASHASTI 2000 AWARD- Presented by Shri.Jagadguru Murugharajendra Brihan Math at S.J.M.Math, Chitradurga , Karnataka on 4th June 2000 for Anna Hazare’s relentless effort to bring in the value of based way of life in the society. PADMASHRI AWARD- Presented by R. Venkatraman ( President of India) on 24th march 1990 at Delhi for Anna Hazare's social work.

Anna Hazare says, philosophy

o Over every huge tree that we see over ground, there always is a seed that had submerged itself into the darkness of the soil. o Ban on consumption and sale of alcohol lays the foundation of rural development. o It is impossible to change the village without transforming the individual. Similarly it is impossible to transform the country without changing its villages. o If villages are to develop, politics have to be kept out. o Education without spirituality cannot help development. o Money alone does not bring development, but it certainly corrupts. o In the process of rural development, social and economic development should go hand in hand. o The work of social transformation is neither easy nor impossible. o The ultimate goal of all politics and social work should be the upliftment of society and of the nation. o Educational institutions are not enough to make good citizens, every home should become an educational center o Indulgence causes disease whereas sacrifice leads to accomplishment. o One should not accept anything free; accepting charity makes one lazy and dependent. o When the person learns to see beyond his self-interest, he begins to get mental peace. o One who performs all worldly functions and still remains detached from worldly things is a true saint. o It is experience that gives the direction but it is youth that gives the drive to every plan.

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