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RADIO TRANSMISSION

NETWORK AND
FREQUENCY PLANNING

LZB 111 0162


© Ericsson Radio Systems AB 1999
This book is a training document and contains simplifications.
The contents are subject to revision without notice.
Ericsson assumes no legal responsibility for any error or damage resulting
from the usage of this document.

All rights reserved. Regardless of the purpose, no parts of this publication


may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, whether
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm,without
the expressed written permission of Ericsson Radio Systems AB.

LZB 111 0162


INTRODUCTION 1

RUBRIKFÖRTECKNING
LIST OF HEADINGS RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW 2
Dokumentnr - Document no.

001 51-LZB 111 0162 RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 3


Datum - Date Rev COMPONENTS
1999-10-28 A
RADIOWAVE PROPAGATION 4

THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION 5


UNION (ITU)

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY TARGETS 6

RADIO REGULATIONS 7

THE RADIO SPECTRUM AND CHANNEL 8


ARRANGEMENT

INTERFERENCE - BASIC CONCEPTS 9

NEAR INTERFERENCE 10

FAR INTERFERENCE 11

PATH AND FREQUENCY PLANNING 12

RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION - DISCUSSION 13

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK PLANNING - 14


APPLICATION

RADIO-METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOR 15


RL-DESIGN
INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides a general presentation to this


training document, its background and objective.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Background ....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Objective ........................................................................................................................................................... 1
Scope of the book.............................................................................................................................................. 2
Notes to the reader ............................................................................................................................................ 4
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................................................. 4

i
INTRODUCTION

Background
Different applications of radio-relay transmission, in particular, line-of-
sight links, have grown considerably since radio-link techniques were
commercially introduced just prior to World War II. The vast number of
applications and implementations of radio-link systems since the 1950s
have brought about severe frequency spectrum congestion, forcing the
utilization of higher frequencies. In addition, sophisticated radio
engineering solutions and the significant changes that have been made
require a better understanding of radio engineering concepts and their
applications.

This book is dedicated to improving the understanding of the radio


network planning process. It includes a collection of the basic
principles, methods, theory and guidelines for radio system planning
and design that are often essential to the tasks performed by network
planners and the designers of telecommunications operating
organizations.

We have carefully organized and presented what we believe to be


indispensable basic concepts of radiowave propagation, spectrum
management and radio-system design in this ”RADIO
TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING”.

Objective
The purpose of this book is to provide essential design techniques for
radio-relay transmission, focusing on the general aspects of point-to-
point services operating at frequencies above 1 GHz.

The book treats the basic principles of radiowave propagation, quality


and availability targets, frequency aspects, interference and general
information related to the ITU organization and its administrative tasks.

The book is intended in part or in its entirety, as training documentation


for courses in radio transmission network planning and related subjects.
It is therefore our intention to provide customers with suggestions and
advisory support as to how one starts a network-planning project based
on concrete input data. We aim to describe how radio-links operate,
how to use or dimension terminals and their equipment, and how to
select the necessary performance parameters and equipment
specifications to meet the needs of specific customers.

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Scope of the book


This book is subdivided and structured into 14 independent chapters. As
a consequence, each chapter functions as a specific guideline.

Chapter 1 (this chapter), INTRODUCTION, provides a presentation of


the book, its background and objectives.

Chapter 2, RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION - AN OVERVIEW,


presents some general facts about the development of radio-relay
transmission since its first commercial application in 1934.

Chapter 3, RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


COMPONENTS, describes in some detail the components that make
up radio communication systems, different traffic setups and possible
interference sources and how they can affect signal transmission.

Chapter 4, RADIOWAVE PROPAGATION, a presentation of the


basic principles and algorithms related to radiowave propagation used
in radio-relay transmission. Both loss and attenuation algorithms plus
fade prediction models for different fading mechanisms are thoroughly
discussed. The chapter also includes a presentation of the basic concepts
of main propagation mechanisms, Fresnel zone, equivalent and true
Earth radii and the decibel scale.

Chapter 5, INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION,


describes in detail the ITU organization and its administrative tasks.
This chapter provides valuable information on how to search and locate
important ITU-R and ITU-T reports and recommendations on specific
subjects related to radio-relay transmission.

Chapter 6, QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY TARGETS, provides


an extensive description of digital transmission network models used in
error performance analysis and quality and availability targets in
accordance with ITU-T Recommendations G.821 and G.826. The
chapter discusses quality and availability parameters, their calculation
and their relationships to existing atmospheric fading mechanisms.

Chapter 7, RADIO REGULATIONS, describes the ITU-R publication


”Radio Regulations”, its publisher, and the contents and the general
structure of the publication. The primary objective of this chapter is to
handle the subject of Radio Regulations in connection with the use of
frequencies for fixed terrestrial radio-links.

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INTRODUCTION

Chapter 8, FREQUENCY SPECTRUM AND CHANNEL


ALLOCATION, provides an introduction to the radio spectrum by
pointing out some of usual apprehensions concerning its limitations and
crowding. In addition, the chapter also presents an introduction to radio-
frequency channel arrangements, frequency economy and finally, it
provides a complete list on channel arrangements for radio-relay
systems in the range 1.5 to 55 GHz.

Chapter 9, INTERFERENCE - BASIC CONCEPTS, provides a


detailed discussion of the different types of interference sources and
their effects on radio-relay equipment. The location of several radio
systems to the same site is also discussed in some detail.

In Chapter 10, NEAR INTERFERENCE, includes a discussion of the


basic principles and definitions used in the calculation of near
interference; some algorithms are also provided. A presentation of
intermodulation at the receiver and transmitter includes some examples
of intermodulation products.

Chapter 11, FAR INTERFERENCE, provides basic concepts and


definitions used in the calculation of far interference. A typical
performance diagram and interference scenariois discussed. The
calculation of the contributions of the individual interference signal
levels, plus the resulting interference level at one receiver and threshold
degradation.

Chapter 12, PATH AND FREQUENCY PLANNING, covers some of


the issues that may arise concerning path profile, line-of-sight
requirements, input signals and their variation, diversity, reflections and
frequency planning. In addition, surveying possible radio-link paths and
site requirements are discussed.

Chapter 13, RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION - DISCUSSION, the


primary objective of this chapter is to encourage a discussion on
specific and general subjects of interest in transmission network
planning, for instance, practices versus theory, current trends in today
worlds market that affect radio-relay transmission, personal experience
and future prospects for radio-relay technology.

Chapter 14, NETWORK PLANNING - APPLICATION, is to be


customized and adjusted to specific applications. Instructions and
guidelines are provided on how to select the necessary performance
parameters and equipment specifications to meet the needs of specific
customers.

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Notes to the reader


The contents treated in this book are subject to changes due to
continued development in methodology and design. Furthermore,
network planning is in some aspects strongly dependent on ITU
recommendations, which are continuously the subject of corrections,
additions and improvements. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that
readers are aware of ongoing ITU Study Group activities.

References to some sources of the material used in each chapter are


given in the last section of that chapter.

Acknowledgments
Thanks to Malin Ström and Christer Lehman who patiently drew most
of the figures in this book. Thanks to Inger Meltzer for her kind
assistance with the layout of the front cover.

The authors are very grateful to any comments and suggestions that may
improve the content of this book.

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RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION
OVERVIEW

This chapter contains an overview of radio-relay


transmission with a brief review. In addition, it provides a
summary on suitable applications and describes the
general aspects and advantages of network planning. The
prediction cycle along its activity blocks employed in radio
transmission planning is presented.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Transmission options......................................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 1
Radio links versus cable links ............................................................................................................. 1
Radio-relay transmission - advantages ................................................................................................ 2
Transmission - capacity and covered distance..................................................................................... 2
Radio-relay transmission - suitability .................................................................................................. 3
The beginning of the radio-relay transmission era ............................................................................................ 4
The digitalization era......................................................................................................................................... 4
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).............................................................................................................. 4
What is radio-network planning? ...................................................................................................................... 5
The trinity principle of network planning.......................................................................................................... 6
The prediction cycle .......................................................................................................................................... 7
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

i
RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION - AN OVERVIEW

Transmission options

Introduction
Transmission is generally made possible by employing the following
three major media:

• optical-fiber cables

• copper coaxial cables

• radio-relay

Another available transmission option is the use of satellite links, which


are more appropriate, than the use of ordinary terrestrial radio-relay and
cable, in such applications as long-haul routes in international networks
that do not require extremely high transmission capacity.

Radio links versus cable links


Radio-links exhibit many advantages in comparison to fiber-optic links,
for example:

• cost-effective transmission links in inaccessible terrain and difficult


environments

• the quick coverage of large areas by new operators

• higher security due to the fact that equipment can be physically


concentrated

Radio-relay transmission is therefore a very attractive alternative for


applications ranging from the coverage of the rural, sparsely populated
areas, of developing countries having ineffective or minimal
infrastructures to the well-developed industrial countries that require
expansion of their telecommunications networks.

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Radio-relay transmission - advantages


Considering the three transmission media mentioned above, radio-relay
transmission is the most suitable option for networks that are located in
areas of difficult terrain topography or where other limitations are
imposed on the use of optical fiber and/or copper coaxial cables.
Generally speaking, radio-relay transmission is most suitable in the
following applications:

• long-haul routes for national and international networks covering


areas of difficult terrain topography

• national networks containing radio-relay in parallel with optical


fiber

• backbone routes

• urban access routes connecting interurban optical-fiber cable routes


and in-town terminal stations

• rapid geographical changes of station location as a consequence of


catastrophic or emergency situations

• short-term projects

• access links from cellular to public networks

• cellular transmission networks

• radio in the local loop

• point-to-multipoint operation

It is possible to combine the different applications presented above, thus


making radio-relay transmission a very competitive option – both
technically and economically.

Transmission - capacity and covered distance


Figure 1 is a rough illustration of the possible transmission options as a
function of the different ranges of transmission capacity (Mbit/s) and
distance (km). Except for some overlapping, the figure clearly shows
that the transmission options are complementary, while at the same
time, each option exhibits its own domain of optimal cost effectiveness.

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Capacity, Mbit/s

thousands
Optical fiber

hundreds Radio-relay
point-to-point

Satellites
Fiber in the loop

tens point-to
-multipo
int

tens hundreds thousands

Distance, km

Figure 1: Transmission options for different capacities and covered distances.

Radio-relay transmission - suitability


Table 1 illustrates the different aspects of radio-relay transmission and
the corresponding suitable conditions.

Subject Suitable conditions


for radio-relay transmission
Transmission capacity Low, medium and high (not very high)
Routes Short and medium (not very long)
Terrain topography Inaccessible terrain (not over water)
Infrastructure None or hardly existing
Project implementation Short time
Initial operation High initial investment
Coverage Continental rural and urban
Special operation Emergency use
Damaging intention Easy to protect important sites (nodes)
Availability Very high (if required)

Table 1: Suitable conditions for radio-relay transmission.

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The beginning of the radio-relay transmission era


The world’s first commercial radio-relay link was put into operation in
1934 after intensive preliminary attempts that were started in 1931, in
Paris, at the Laboratories Central des Télécommunications, a subsidiary
of the former International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, the
former IT&T. It consisted of a 56 km radio-relay path across the English
Channel between Calais (France) and Dover (England), amplitude
modulated (AM), using a klystron that generated 1 W RF output power
and operating at 1.7 GHz. The hardware technology was provided by
two manufactures: the British company Standard Telephones and
Cables (now a part of Northern Telecom) and the French company Le
Matériel Téléphonique (now integrated into Alcatel Telspace).

The digitalization era


Integrated semiconductor technology started a new era in radio
telecommunication. Optical fiber was not available for transmission late
in 60’s and early 70’s. Digital transmission on coaxial cable was too
expensive (repeaters at extremely short intervals) and slowly
implemented for relatively long telecommunication routes. Thus, low-
cost semiconductor technology in the beginning of the 70’s was
therefore the start of a new telecommunications era.

Digital transmission has several advantages compared to analog


transmission:

• Up to a certain threshold limit, the received signal can be restored to


its original shape irrespective of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR),
thus enabling a large, almost unlimited number of repeaters.

• Radio-relay transmission at high frequencies (10 GHz)

The world’s first digital radio-relay link was a 17 Mbit/s unit that was
placed into operation in Japan, in 1969. It provided 240 telephone
channels in the 2 GHz frequency band.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)


SDH links have become the international standard for the expansion of
telecommunication network infrastructures. Radio-relay transmission,
and in particular microwave links have begun to be adapted to the SDH
data format and a good number of ITU-T recommendations are now
available. These recommendations represent general directives aimed at
ensuring that radio systems are designed so that they conform to SDH
interface specifications.
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SDH provides some key benefits in comparison with Plesiochronous


Digital Hierarchy (PDH):

• Higher transmissions speeds are defined.

• Direct multiplexing is possible without intermediate multiplexing


stages. This is accomplished through the use of pointers in the
multiplexing overhead that directly identify the position of the
payload.

• The SDH overhead supports an effective network management,


control over the traffic, network status etc.

• The SDH protocol is able to handle both the European standard and
American standard payloads.

SDH technology will, for the next 20-30 years, offer a standardized
method for the worldwide transmission of all types of data traffic for
both existing and future data transmission systems.

What is radio-network planning?


Network planning can be a quite complicated and time-consuming task.
The degree of difficulty is a function of that which is to be included in
the task. For instance, the task may include initial planning plus an
overview of the entire network, frequency planning, site survey, path
analysis, installation and tests. Network operational requirements may
also constitute a crucial factor in the planning process. Regardless the
degree of difficulty, it will always be an iterative process!

Generally speaking, the initial design of a radio-link is performed in


four steps:

• Initial planning and site selection

• Topographical analysis

• Preliminary path and frequency planning analysis

• Site survey
Network planning as a multi-task process is illustrated inFigure 2.

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NETWORK PLANNING

Quality and Availability


Network Management
Prediction

Network Traffic Radiowave Interference


Status Demand Propagation Analysis

Figure 2: Overview of network planning.

The trinity principle of network planning


The iterative, multi-task, process of network planning is controlled by
three important factors:

• availability, currently expressed as a fraction of time

• quality, currently expressed in bit-error ratio (BER) for digital links

• cost, expressed in the actual currency

These three factors constitute the basic body of network planning. The
multi-task process, along with all of the possible items, is in some way
related to these three factors, seeFigure 3. In fact, they are the
parametersthat are usually supplied by the customer. The answer is
already known before starting the network planning process!

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RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION - AN OVERVIEW

$
Costs
1 Coordination 9 Site layout
2 Flight-path obstacle 10 Near interference
3 Road requirements 11 Equipment data
4 Path length 12 Power supply requirements
5 Protective measures 13 Capacity
6 Far interference 14 Obstacles
7 Interception risk 15 Terrain
8 Frequency aspects 16 Interference risks

2 7 10 12
6 13
9
8

11

16
14
15

3 5
4 1

QUALITY AVAILABILITY
BER % of time

Figure 3: The trinity principle of network planning.

The prediction cycle


Figure 4 displays the four main actvity blocks which form the planning
process: loss/attenuation, fading, frequency planning and quality and
availability. A preliminary fade margin is calculated in the
loss/attenuation block which is used for preliminary fade predictions in
the fading block. If interference is present in the frequency planning
block, then the threshold degradation is included in the fade margin.
The updated fade margin will become the effective fade margin and
employed in the fading predictions. The results in the loss/attenuation
and fading blocks will form the necessary input to the quality and
availability block.

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Loss/attenuation Fading
Rain attenuation
Diffraction-refraction loss
Free-space and Obstacle and
Gas attenuation Reflections loss +
Multipath propagation

Always present Predictable


and predictable if present Not always present but
statistically predictable

Link budget Fading prediction

Predictable
Frequency

if present Quality & Availability


Planning

Interference

Figure 4: The prediction cycle.

References
”Test av nya generationens SDH-radionät” (in Swedish), Elektronik i
Norden, 46, vol. 6,1997.

”Radio-Relay Systems”, Huurdeman, A. A., Artech House, 1995.

“Radio-System Design for Telecommunications (1-100 GHz)”,


Freeman, R. L., 1987.

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RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
COMPONENTS

This chapter deals with the components that make up radio


communication systems, different traffic setups and
possible interference sources and how they can affect
signal transmission.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Radio communication systems .......................................................................................................................... 1
The transmitter .................................................................................................................................... 3
The receiver......................................................................................................................................... 3
The antenna ......................................................................................................................................... 4
Feeder cabling ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Antenna coupling unit ......................................................................................................................... 4
Frequency and bandwidth.................................................................................................................... 4
Traffic setup ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
Simplex ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Two-frequency simplex....................................................................................................................... 5
Duplex................................................................................................................................................. 6
Transmitter ........................................................................................................................................................ 8
Receiver ............................................................................................................................................................ 12
Receiver characteristic data................................................................................................................. 13
Sensitivity.............................................................................................................................. 13
Sensitivity to co-channel Interference ................................................................................... 15
Adjacent channel selection.................................................................................................... 16
Blocking level ....................................................................................................................... 18
Intermodulation level ............................................................................................................ 20
Feeder cabling ................................................................................................................................................... 21
Coaxial cable....................................................................................................................................... 21
Waveguides ......................................................................................................................................... 21
Duplex filters..................................................................................................................................................... 22
Transmitter combiners....................................................................................................................................... 22
Receivers multicouplers .................................................................................................................................... 25
Antennas............................................................................................................................................................ 26
Antenna gain for parabolic antennas ................................................................................................... 27
Antenna diagram ................................................................................................................................. 28
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 30

i
RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Introduction
The term system is nowadays generally used rather broadly. What are
systems? One possible definition of a system is a set or arrangement of
items, so related or connected, as to form an entire unit. Thus a radio
system may range from encompassing a simple transceiver, a length of
coaxial line and the antenna to which it is connected to, to
encompassing a combination of many receivers, transmitters, control
and coding apparatus, towers and antennas all assembled into a
coordinated functioning complex.

An ordinary communication system can therefore consist of many


system components whose primary task is the transmission of
information-conveying signals to a user. The actual transmission is
transmitted via some sort of transmission medium. Common
transmission mediums are the atmosphere, coax cables or a fiber optical
components. This implies that the signal carrying the information must
assume a suitable form that is fitted to the particular characteristics of
the medium over which it is to be transmitted.

Radio communication systems


A radio communication system utilizes atmosphere as propagation
medium. The signal power of radio waves reduces as a function of
distance as they propagate through space. Radio links transmit
directional information from a transmitter to a receiver using
electromagnetic waves. Radio link systems are important examples of a
radio communication system.

Radio-link systems operate primarily in the frequency range between


200 MHz and 60 GHz. Although Radio Regulations allocates services
in the frequency range up to 275 GHz, it is unusual, for the present, to
find commercial radio-link systems that make use of frequencies higher
than 60 GHz.

The frequencies that are used for radio communications have


successively moved upwards from lower to higher frequencies (shorter
wavelengths). Back in the early days of radio, it was easier to generate
carrier frequencies of sufficient power at the lower frequency spectrum.
With the advent of new techniques, it became possible to successively
develop new components that have made it possible to use higher and
higher frequencies.

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An additional motive for the use of ever-increasing frequencies for


radio communication is the increased frequency crowding that is taking
place in the used and relatively low frequency ranges. Frequency
crowding increases the risk of interference and presents limitations in
the possibility to transmit large amounts of bandwidth-demanding
information. This presents a natural need for the utilization of frequency
ranges that have not been utilized earlier (i.e., high frequencies).

At its outset, mobile communications utilized frequencies in the 30-40


MHz range which then successively increased and passed 80, 160, 450
MHz, reaching frequencies of around 900 MHz (which is, for example,
used in mobile telephony applications). The range 1700-2500 MHz,
used today by a number of communications systems, will in the near
future also be used to provide mobile personal telephone services.

An advantage of using higher frequencies for communication is the


increase in available bandwidth brought about by the utilization of these
frequencies. For example, a speech channel depending on modulation
scheme will typically require a bandwidth of 12.5 to 25 kHz meaning
that a 1 MHz interval can contain 40-80 speech channels. It is obvious
that there exists many more available 1 MHz intervals in, for example,
the 900 or 1800 MHz ranges than in the 30 MHz range.

On the other hand, the use of higher frequencies introduces certain


difficulties resulting from the fact that a speech channel having a
bandwidth of 25 kHz takes up a smaller relative bandwidth at 1800
MHz than it does at 30 MHz. This places much higher demands on the
exactness of frequency generation and filtering, so that a channel
maintains one and the same bandwidth while at the same time
maintaining sufficient isolation (filtering) to its adjacent channels.

Today’s radio links employ frequencies ranging from approx. 200 MHz
up to 60 GHz. Relatively few speech channels are transmitted over the
lower band (below 2 GHz) while the higher bands (above 2 GHz) are
used for the simultaneous transmission of up to 1920 speech channels.
In these cases, the links are used for traffic having high capacity
requirements, the ”highways” of the telephony network. The higher
frequencies make it easier to direct radiation between the transmitter
and the receiver using reasonably sized antennas, since the antenna’s
directivity is a function of its size in relation to the wavelength used.
This also contributes to the effective increase in the possibility to use
available channels since they, for a geographical area, are easier to
isolate from one another.

Radio equipment that is included in radio-link systems may be


subdivided into two main groups:

• mounted on the ground


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• mounted on masts

Mast-mounted radio equipment comprises, together with an antenna, a


relatively compact system that has short feeder cabling. Ground-
mounted radio equipment, on the other hand, is generally connected to
antennas via longer feeder cabling.

Figure 1 provides a schematic illustration of a block diagram for a


simplified radio communication system. At each end, the system
consists of a transmitter, a receiver and an antenna. Feeder cable(s) may
also be required, depending on the application.

Tx1 Tx2

Rx1 Rx2

Figure 1: Block diagram for a simplified radio communication system.

The transmitter
The purpose of the transmitter is to generate the carrier frequency that is
to be used for the communication, to modulate this carrier frequency
with the desired information and finally, to amplify the signal so that it
attains a sufficiently high power level so that it may traverse the desired
communication distance to the receiver.

The receiver
The receiver amplifies the received signal (which is at this point much
weaker than when it was transmitted), filters out any undesirable signals
(interfering signals) that the receiver picked up and finally, detects the
existence of information in the carrier frequency.

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The antenna
The antenna adapts the generated signal to the surrounding environment
(to the propagation medium) and directs the radio waves that are to be
transmitted towards the receiving station. When receiving, the antenna
receives the signal from the desired direction and transfers it to the
receiver. Antennas may be built having different directivities, from
more or less isotropic antennas (radiate equally in all directions) to
antennas that exhibit extremely high directivities.

Feeder cabling
The purpose of the feeder cable is to interconnect the antenna with the
transmitter/receiver.

Antenna coupling unit


The antenna-coupling unit makes it possible to utilize a common
antenna for both the transmitter and receiver. The transmitter and
receiver can, for example, be connected to one and the same antenna
either via a duplex filter or a transmitter/receiver switch. The duplex
filter prevents the transmitter’s frequency from blocking the receiver in
a T/R configuration. A transmitter/receiver switch disconnects the
receiver in a T/R configuration from the antenna when in transmitting
mode and thereby prevents any blockage of the receiver.

Frequency and bandwidth


A given radio connection is established at a specific frequency or radio
channel. The available frequency range is subdivided into a number of
such radio channels that are assigned bandwidths that reflect the
selected modulation scheme as well as the amount and type of
information that is to be transmitted. For example, a speech channel
requires less bandwidth than a TV channel. In many cases, it may be
desirable to transmit many speech channels simultaneously
(multiplexed together) which increases bandwidth requirements. A data
channel can assume different bandwidths as a function of the
transmission capacity.

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Traffic setup

Simplex
Employing the simplest form of radio connection setup, the transmitter
and receiver operate at the same frequency (transmit and receive over
the same channel). In other words, simplex operation only permits the
transmission of signals in either direction alternately. This traffic setup
is referred to as simplex, see Figure 2. Simplex traffic was the most
common setup back in the early days of radio. It is still often used, for
example, when communicating via walkie-talkies. Simplex traffic
requires good traffic discipline in order to avoid both ends transmitting
at the same time.

f1 f1

Tx1 f1 Tx2

f1
T/R T/R

Rx1 Rx2
f1 f1
T/R = Transmitter/Receiver switch

Figure 2: Block diagram of simplex traffic setup.

Two-frequency simplex
When employing two-frequency simplex, see Figure 3, the transmitter
and receiver operate over different channels. However, this setup does
not allow simultaneous reception and transmission since sufficient
filtering (usually performed by the duplex filter) does not exist as a rule,
and reception may be disturbed by the transmitter in a T/R
configuration.

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f1 f2

Tx1 f2 Tx2

f1

T/R T/R

Rx1 Rx2

f2 f1
T/R = Transmitter/Receiver switch

Figure 3: Block diagram of two-frequency simplex setup.

Note that two types of stations have been introduced in the case of two-
frequency simplex traffic: one having the transmitter frequency above
the receiver frequency and one having the transmitter frequency beneath
the receiver frequency. Communication between such stations requires
that the stations be of opposite types.

In comparison with ordinary simplex, two-frequency simplex has the


advantage that interference between two base stations is not present if
the base station’s transmitters are operating in the same duplex band.
Frequency re-using is, however, strongly dependent on the mobile’s
geographical position.

Duplex
In the case of duplex traffic, see Figure 4 and Figure 5, transmission and
reception occur simultaneously and over separate frequencies (channels)
which allows simultaneous communication in both directions, between
the called and the calling parties, to take place. On occasion, so-called
semi-duplex is used, in which case one of the stations (usually the fixed
station, often referred to as the base station) operates in duplex and the
mobile station in simplex. Two channels are still used for this
communication setup.

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Tx1 f2 Tx2

f1 f1 f2

Duplexer Duplexer

f2 f1

Rx1 Rx2

Figure 4: Duplex traffic with simultaneous transmission.

Base station Mobile terminal

Tx1 f2 Tx2

f1 f1 f2

Duplexer T/R

f2 f1

Rx1 Rx2

T/R = Transmitter/Receiver switch

Figure 5: Semi-duplex traffic.

The frequency plan for duplex, see Figure 6, illustrates a duplex band
separation between the transmitting and receiving bands and the duplex
spacing between the transmitted and the corresponding received
frequencies.

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Duplex spacing

Tx-band Rx-band
f

Duplex band
separation

Figure 6: Frequency plan for duplex.

In Figure 6, transmitter frequencies are shown as located in the lower


duplex-half and receiver frequencies in the upper duplex-half. This may
be reversed, for example, in the case of a radio link made up of several
hops.

Transmitter
Figure 7 illustrates a simplified block diagram of a transmitter. It has
been assumed that the transmitter is capable of transmitting digital
information, which is usually the case nowadays.

LP-filter BP-filter

~
~ Modulator ~
~
Digital
~ To antenna
information
Frequency
generator

Crystal

Figure 7: Simplified block diagram of a transmitter.

The simplified transmitter consists of a frequency generator, a


modulator that modulates the digital information over the transmitter’s
carrier frequency and a power amplifier that amplifies the signal to
attain a suitable power level before being sent to the antenna for
radiation into the propagation medium.

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The digital information is characterized by the fact that it only contains


discrete levels, for example, binary information (ones and zeroes). If
speech is to be transmitted, the analog information represented in the
speech must first be digitized by a so-called speech coder. A frequently
used form of speech coding is Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). A speech
channel is then transmitted as a bit stream having a transmission
capacity of 64 kbit/s. The transmission of speech, digitized to 64 kbit/s,
requires a larger bandwidth than the equivalent analog speech channel
would require. PCM is commonly used in connection with radio links
and is used throughout the fixed telephone network (for digital
networks).

The special speech coders that are used today for mobile
communication provide high quality even at lower bit speeds, for
example, around 10 kbit/s. This facilitates increased frequency economy
in the propagation medium.

The digital data stream then modulates the carrier frequency that is
picked up from the frequency generator. A modern frequency generator
is synthesized, meaning that the desired frequency or channel is selected
digitally, e.g., from a keypad. A component that is vital to the operation
of the frequency generator is a stable frequency reference. This is
achieved through the use of a crystal oscillator, where the crystal is the
determining factor in frequency stability. Older equipment is often not
fitted with frequency synthesizer functionality, which means that a
particular crystal is required for each individual channel, i.e., for the
particular frequency that is desired. As a rule, crystals for such older
equipment cannot be ordered until after the frequency planning phase
has been completed, i.e., not until after the channel has been assigned to
the equipment in question. This must be performed individually for
each unit of equipment in the network, and therefore results in longer
implementation lead times.

The transmitted signal is characterized by its center frequency and by a


given bandwidth around the center frequency. This bandwidth is a
function of the transmitted information (the transmission capacity of the
digital information) and the modulation, for example the 3 dB
bandwidth, B3 dB. The signal is characterized by its frequency spectrum,
i.e., by energy content as a function of frequency separation from the
center frequency, see Figure 8.

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It is important that the transmitter spectrum is not unnecessarily wide in


order to achieve proper isolation to adjacent channels. In order to reduce
overtone-like spectrum widening resulting from modulation, it is
common to precede the modulator by a low pass filter that limits
spectrum widening in the vicinity of the center frequency. In the same
way, the power or output stage is followed by a band-pass filter to limit
the overtones and noise generated in the output power amplifier. The
latter filter is often a part of the duplex filter that facilitates
simultaneous transmission and reception.

dB

3 dB

f0 f

B3dB

Figure 8: Transmitter spectrum of a modulated carrier.

In addition to being a function of the filter, the appearance of the


spectrum depends also on the method of modulation. A common
modulation method is the Phase Shift Keying (PSK). It results in a
spectrum that falls off rather slowly. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
(QPSK) is a more effective modulation method. This method results in
a spectrum having half the width of that generated by the PSK method
but otherwise having the same form (it is scaled to half the bandwidth).
More modern modulation methods such as Gaussian Filtered Minimum
Shift Keying (GMSK) have, in principle, the same effective bandwidth
(the band in which the greater portion of the power is concentrated) as
that resulting from QPSK, but with the added property that the spectrum
outside of the effective bandwidth falls off significantly faster. This
means that this modulation method allows one to pack channels closer
together while still maintaining the same degree of isolation between
channels. Modern modulation methods are very involved in maintaining
good frequency economy (efficient channel packing).

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For larger separations from the carrier frequency, the spectrum is


characterized by sideband noise and spurious signals (unwanted
byproducts produced by the transmitter), see Figure 9. The noise
spectrum is quantitatively expressed by the power density w (W/Hz),
that is, the power per unity of bandwidth, and normally decreases with
larger frequency separation from the unmodulated carrier. The
bandwidth B (Hz) in Figure 9 contains a power which is w⋅B (W).

Unmodulated
carrier

Sideband noise

Frequency
B

Figure 9: Sideband noise.

The level of these spurious products is generally specified by European


Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to max. -36 dBm for
frequencies below 1 GHz and -30 dBm above 1 GHz. For special
applications there may be other specifications.

The sideband noise produced by the transmitter, which is also a limiting


factor for duplex operation as well as the localization of different
systems to one and the same site, is typically 140 dB below the carrier
frequency per Hz of bandwidth (-140 dBc/Hz) within approximately 1%
frequency separation from the carrier frequency and is -150 dBc/Hz for
larger separations, where the values apply without the use of a radio
frequency (RF) filter.

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Receiver

~
~ Mixer ~
~ Detector Demodulator
~ ~
RF-filter Amplifier IF-filter
Frequency
generator

Crystal

Figure 10: Simplified block diagram of a receiver.

The weak signal coming from the antenna is amplified initially in a


radio-frequency amplifier (RF amplifier). The amplifier is normally
preceded by a RF-filter which filters out unwanted signals, i.e., those of
other frequencies than the one desired. Since we are dealing with a
high-frequency signal, it is very difficult to effectively filter out signals
other than those that lie at a relatively great separation from the
midpoint of the carrier.

A mixer follows the RF amplifier, which mixes the input signal with the
signal from a local oscillator, and gives as output an intermediate
frequency (IF). The local oscillator frequency is related to the wanted
receiver RF frequency in a way that always gives a fixed intermediate
frequency as a result. A common intermediate frequency is 70 MHz. It
is at this frequency, which is significantly lower than the frequency of
the input signal that unwanted signals are filtered out. Generally a
crystal filter is used for this purpose. The IF filter’s bandwidth is
generally equivalent to the wanted signal’s effective bandwidth and its
attenuation often increases drastically with increasing separation from
the center frequency. The IF filter is primarily responsible for the
receiver’s adjacent channel selection.

To enable the receiver to receive channels that cover a wider band, the
local oscillator must be capable of being tuned in accordance with the
incoming signal’s frequency in order to maintain a fixed IF frequency.
The local oscillator is therefore, as in the transmitter, often constructed
as a digital frequency generator. Such tunable local oscillators allow
receivers to be set to different receiver frequencies or channels.

A detector follows the IF amplifier and IF filter in which the wanted


information is retrieved and a digital bit stream is generated. This may
then be converted to intelligible speech via a speech decoder.
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Receiver characteristic data


Receiver attributes are described in terms of its characteristic data:

• sensitivity

• sensitivity to co-channel interference

• adjacent channel selection

• blocking level

• resistance to intermodulation level

Sensitivity
The receiver’s sensitivity or threshold is generally defined in terms of
the lowest input signal level that is required in order that the detection
of the received information attain a given level of minimum acceptable
quality. The quality of a digital receiver is usually expressed in terms of
the BER (Bit-Error Ratio), e.g., 10-3 or 10-6.

Receiver sensitivity is a function of:

• the receiver’s noise factor

• the noise bandwidth

• the modulation method

The greater the bandwidth of the transmitted information the greater is


the noise bandwidth. A broadband system is therefore less sensitive
than is a narrowband system. Noise bandwidth is generally determined
by the IF filter.

Sensitivity is limited, as described above, by the noise level of the


receiver input. It is estimated as

N = F ⋅ k ⋅ T ⋅ B ......................................................................................... (1)
where

N = Receiver noise level

F = Receiver noise factor

k = Boltzman’s constant, 1.38·10-23, J/K

T = Absolute temperature at the receiver input, K

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B = Receiver effective bandwidth, normally the IF bandwidth, Hz

or expressed in decibels

N = F + k + T + B .................................................................................... (2)
The receiver’s noise factor is a measure of how much noise the receiver
generates in relation to a noise-free amplifier. Typical values lie
between 5 and10 dB.

The value of the product k⋅T, (K+T) in decibels, at room temperature is -


174 dBm/Hz. The effective bandwidth of the receiver is expressed in
dBHz.

Example - calculating receiver sensitivity


The following presents three example calculations of the theoretical
sensitivity of a receiver.

Example 1: To begin with, assume the receiver is being used for


mobile communication in the UHF band (450 MHz). The method of
modulation is FM (frequency modulation) with a channel separation of
25 kHz. The bandwidth of the receiver is then, typically, 12.5 kHz.
Assume a receiver noise factor of 10 dB.

Since the receiver’s effective bandwidth in this case is 41 dBHz (12.5


kHz = 12500 Hz converted to dBHz), equation (2) results in the
following value for receiver noise level

N = 10 dB -174 dBm/Hz + 41 dBHz = -123 dBm

A given signal-to-noise ratio, S/N, is required to attain a given level of


reception quality. In the case of FM, S/N= 10 dB is a typical value,
which gives a receiver threshold of S= -123+10= -113 dBm.

In the case of mobile radio, sensitivity is also often specified as a


voltage (in micro-volts) which represents the EMK required to impart
the necessary power to a 50-ohm receiver or one that corresponds to the
terminal voltage, i.e., half of the EMK.

A sensitivity of -113 dBm corresponds to a terminal voltage of 0.5


microvolts across 50 ohms.

Example 2: Assume a digital receiver, e.g., a radio link that


demonstrates a transmission capacity of 2 Mbit/s. Assume that Phase
Shift Keying (PSK) is the modulation method used. The bandwidth of
the receiver is now typically 2 MHz. Assume a receiver noise factor of
10 dB.

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Since the effective bandwidth of the receiver in this case is 63 dBHz (2


MHz = 2 000 000 Hz converted to dBHz), equation (2) results in the
following value for receiver noise level

N = 10 dB -174 dBm/Hz + 63 dBHz = -101 dBm

A typical value for signal-to-noise ratio at a bit-error ratio of 10-3 and


PSK modulation is S/N= 10 dB. The receiver threshold is therefore S= -
101 dBm + 10 dB = -91 dBm.

If the receiver’s measure of quality is instead set to a bit-error ratio of


10-6, then an S/N is required which is 3 dB higher, i.e., the receiver
threshold at BER=10-6 is now 3 dB higher than that at BER=10-3 which
means at -88 dBm.

Example 3: Assume that the link is to transfer 8 Mbit/s using QPSK


modulation, which requires a bandwidth equivalent to half of the
transmission capacity, or in this case, 4 MHz. Assume a receiver noise
factor of 10 dB.

Since the receiver’s effective bandwidth in this case is 66 dBHz (4 MHz


= 4 000 000 Hz converted to dBHz), equation (2) results in the
following value for receiver noise level

N = 10 dB -174 dBm/Hz + 66 dBHz = -98 dBm

QPSK requires an additional 3 dB higher S/N than does PSK, i.e., 13


dB. Receiver threshold for an 8 Mbit/s link is therefore S/N= -98 dBm +
13 dB = -85 dBm for BER=10-3 and S/N= -82 dBm for BER=10-6.

Consequently, the receiver threshold is 6 dB higher for 8 Mbit/s as


compared to 2 Mbit/s which is equivalent to a transmission capacity that
is 4 times higher (6dB).

Sensitivity to co-channel Interference


This attribute is important when attempting to re-use a frequency or
channel several times over a geographical area. The amount of co-
channel interference tolerated by a receiver is defined by its sensitivity
to a given connection quality (expressed in BER) and it is a function of
the method of modulation used. As a rule, a receiver is exposed to both
noise and co-channel interference at the same time. Since the wanted
signal lies close to the noise threshold, less co-channel interference is
tolerated, seen from a relative point of view. When the level of the
wanted signal is sufficiently high, the required relationship between the
wanted signal level and the level of the co-channel interferer is a
constant (C/I, carrier to interference).

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A C/I of approximately 8 dB is typically required for mobile


communications FM receivers if larger input signals are to be received.
A digital radio link typically requires a C/I in the vicinity of 10-15 dB
since input signals are well in excess of the threshold.

Figure 11 illustrates a typical curve of required C/I, at a given BER, as a


function of input signal level. The figure illustrates a receiver threshold
degradation (3 dB) for a certain C/I ratio.

C/I (dB)

30

20
17
3 dB

10

-90 -85 -80 -75 -70 C (dBm)

Figure 11: Typical curve of required C/I, at a given BER, as a function


of input signal level.

Adjacent channel selection


Adjacent channel selection describes the receiver’s sensitivity to
adjacent channel interference.

This attribute is also important when considering frequency economy.


The adjacent channel selection is determined, above all, by the
modulation method, the frequency separation to the adjacent channel
and the receiver’s IF filter. It is also dependent on the wanted signal
level in relation to the noise threshold. When the level of the wanted
signal is sufficiently high, the required relationship between the wanted
signal level and that of the interference level, is a constant (for a given
frequency separation).

Figure 12 illustrates a typical curve of allowable interference signals on


a link as a function of frequency separation at an input signal of 1 dB
above the threshold (1 dB threshold degradation) for 2, 8 and 34 Mbit/s.
The curve principally illustrates the selection of the IF filter.

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50

Maximum interference level (dBm)


0
y34
i

y8
j

y2 50
k

100

0 50 100 150 200 250


x34 , x8 , x2
i j k
Frequency separation (MHz)
34 Mbit/s
8 Mbit/s
2 Mbit/s

Figure 12: Allowable interference signal for 1 dB threshold degradation


for 2, 8 and 34 Mbit/s.

Adjacent channel selection is often specified at 70 dB for mobile


communications. This is a result of the desire to allow different users to
operate over adjacent channels without the necessity of having to
coordinate their individual selection of site locations for their base
stations. In more modern mobile telephone systems, where an operator
makes use of an entire band for their system, it is common place that
adjacent channel selection requirements are significantly relaxed since
the operator is able to perform frequency planning for the entire band in
order to avoid interference between adjacent channels. This leads to the
fact that the channels are located closer to one another, i.e., a higher
packing density, which results in better frequency economy. For the
case that adjacent channels no longer fulfill the old requirement of 70
dB selection (or adjacent channel selection), one often refers to the
channels as being interleaved, i.e., interleaved with one another.

In the case of radio links, one usually uses an adjacent channel selection
of 25-35 dB. The objective is that adjacent channels are to be usable in
one and the same node, which is usually facilitated by antenna isolation
between neighboring paths.

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It is common place that the different connections in a network have


different capacities. Interference characteristics between radio link
systems, having different capacities, can be described with the aid of a
C/I matrix, see Table 1. This matrix allows one to find the C/I for a
given threshold degradation that is required when the interfering link
has another specific capacity.

C/I [dB] and frequency separation for 3 dB degradation and


BER=10-6
Capacity [Mbit/s] Frequency Separation [MHz]
Carrier Interferer 0 7 14 21 28
2x2 2x2 21 -37 <-50 <-50 <-50
8 20 -14 <-50 <-50 <-50
2x8 17 4 -19 <-50 <-50
2x(2x8) 17 17 4 -19 <-50
8 2x2 21 -10 -40 <-50 <-50
8 21 -1 -37 <-50 <-50
2x8 20 10 -14 -45 <-50
2x(2x8) 20 20 10 -14 -45
2x8 2x2 21 19 -11 -30 -41
8 21 20 -10 -29 -40
2x8 21 21 -1 -23 -37
2x(2x8) 21 21 21 -1 -23
2x(2x8) 2x2 21 21 19 -11 -30
8 21 21 20 -10 -29
2x8 21 21 21 -1 -23
2x(2x8) 21 21 21 21 -1
Table 1: C/I matrix.

Blocking level
The blocking level specifies the maximum strength of an interfering
signal that a receiver can withstand without its sensitivity degrading by
more than for example 3 dB. Blocking is a special case of adjacent
channel interference, namely for the case of large adjacent channel
separation, see Figure 13. It is usually specified in the case of mobile
radio as being a frequency separation of 1 MHz. In the case of blocking
in situations of larger frequency separations, both the IF and RF filters
contribute to suppressing interference.

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Signal level

Transmitter’s
spectrum

Receiver’s blocking
level

Transmitter’s
noise level
Receiver’s
noise level

fTx fRx Frequency


Transmitted signal Received signal

Figure 13: Interference with duplex setup.

The concept of blocking may be clarified as being the reception of


significantly large interference signals that exist at a frequency adjacent
to the desired frequency. The result is that the input signal to the
detector will consist of, aside from the smaller signal carrying the actual
information, a powerful interference signal (resulting from insufficient
filtering) which will literally block the smaller information signal at the
detector.

The blocking level is not to be confused with the maximum allowable


input signal level, which represents a degradation of the receiver’s
characteristics. This is a maximum level for the desired signal and
specifies a boundary value for the receiver’s dynamics at the desired
frequency. Exceeding this boundary value will result in over-excitation
and distortion in the detector.

Blocking is often specified for mobile communication receivers as lying


at least 80 dB above the receiver’s threshold at a 1MHz separation.
With the threshold at -113 dBm, the blocking level will be -113+80= -
33 dBm. At a 10 MHz frequency separation between a transmitter and a
receiver, which is a typical duplex separation in the 450 MHz band, the
IF filter will exhibit a typical 20 dB attenuation and the blocking level
will be instead -33 dBm + 20 dB = -13 dBm.

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Intermodulation level
Intermodulation results from the fact that receivers exhibit
certainnonlinear behavior and are therefore sensitive to interference
signals occurring at certain frequency combinations. These frequencies
may combine, as a result of this nonlinear behavior in the receiver, into
one frequency that corresponds to the wanted received frequency.
Intermodulation level is defined as the level assumed by these
interference signals, to bring about a given degradation in receiver
sensitivity when the wanted signal is at the threshold level.
Intermodulation level is a function of the ordinal number for the
intermodulation. The higher the ordinal number, the higher is the level
of interference tolerated by the receiver.

The only protection against intermodulation is through filtering before


applying the signal to the RF amplifier, i.e., in the RF filter. Protection
may also be achieved through frequency planning thereby avoiding the
creation of dangerous intermodulation frequencies. Instead of specifying
the intermodulation level, one may, on occasion, specify receiver
intermodulation attenuation - which is the difference (in dB) between
the level of the signals that cause the intermodulation product and the
receiver’s threshold level. These levels are measured at the receiver’s
antenna connector. A typical value of intermodulation attenuation for
3rd-order intermodulation is 70 dB for mobile radio and in general
somewhat worse for radio links. Then, the level of the interfering
signals at the input of the receiver’s antenna connector should be given
by

P ≤ Pth + 70 ⇒ D = 3 dB ............................................................ (3)


where Pth is the threshold level of the receiver and D the threshold
degradation. Typical values for intermodulation attenuation for mobile
and link are given in Table 2.

Intermodulation attenuation
(dB)

Intermodulation order Mobile Link

3 70 50 (?)

5 90 70 (?)
Table 2: Typical values for intermodulation attenuation for mobile radio
systems and radio link systems.

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The intermodulation signal will be suppressed when passing the


receiver’s IF, to a degree corresponding to the relationship between the
bandwidth of the intermodulation signal and that of the receiver. The
suppression factor of intermodulation is expressed as follows,

Bm
R= ...................................................................................................... (4)
Bi
where Bi is given by

Bi = n1 ⋅ B1 + n2 ⋅ B2 + n3 ⋅ B3 + ... .......................................................... (5)


and the desired bandwidth of the receiver is Bm.

Feeder cabling
Feeder cabling between the radio equipment and the antenna may
consist of coaxial cabling or a waveguide.

Coaxial cable
Coaxial cabling is normally used for frequencies around 2 GHz and
lower - cable attenuation would otherwise be unreasonably high at
higher frequencies.

See the table below showing coaxial cable attenuation at different


frequencies:

HF3/8 Cu2Y 6.1 dB/100 m 400 MHz

HF1 5/8 Cu2Y 6.35 dB/100 m 400 MHz

HF3/8 Cu2Y 14 dB/100 m 2000 MHz

HF1 5/8 Cu2Y 3.1 dB/100 m 2000 MHz

Waveguides
Waveguides are used for frequencies above 2 GHz. The most common
waveguide forms are the rectangular, the elliptical and the circular.
However, other forms also exist. Since the cross-section of a waveguide
has a given relationship to wavelength, the selection of a waveguide is
dependent on the frequency band to be used.

The table below shows the attenuation for various waveguides at


different frequencies:

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E70 4.75 dB/100 m 7300 MHz

E130 11.2 dB/100 m 13000 MHz

EW220 30 dB/100 m 20000 MHz

Duplex filters
The purpose of duplex filtering is to protect the receiver from the
disturbing effects of the transmitter when transmission and reception are
concurrent (duplex operation).

The transmitter can interfere with the receiver in two ways: via that
portion of the transmitter’s sideband noise that lies within the receiver’s
passband, or via receiver blocking caused by the transmitted power.

Assume, for example, a mobile communication base station having a


transmission power of 20 W (43 dBm). Typical values for sideband
noise lie approximately -140 dB/Hz below the carrier, which is in this
case a level of -97 dBm/Hz (43 dBm -140 dB/Hz). For a bandwidth
corresponding to 12.5 kHz (41 dBHz), transmitter noise level would be
within receiver bandwidth -56 dBm (-97 dBm/Hz + 41 dBHz).

The receiver’s own noise level was in the above example -123 dBm. If
one accepts an increase of the total noise level of 1 dB, i.e., an increase
to -122 dBm, then the transmitter’s noise level to the receiver may not
exceed -123-6=-129 dBm. Transmitter noise must then be attenuated by
at least 129-56=73 dB before arriving at the receiver. This is
accomplished via a bandpass filter at the output of the transmitter that
attenuates the signal by at least 73 dB within the receiver’s passband.

We will now consider blocking requirements. A blocking level of -13


dBm and a transmitter power of 43 dBm require a transmission signal
attenuation of at least 56 dB. This can be accomplished through the use
of a bandpass filter located at the receiver input that attenuates the
transmitted frequency by at least 56 dB.

A conclusion that may be drawn from the above example is that


transmitter noise places greater demands on filtering than it does on
blocking.

Transmitter combiners
It is often desirable, for sites having more than one transmitter, to be
able to utilize one common antenna for all transmitters. To this end, so-
called combiners are often used. The job of these combiners is as
follows:
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• ensure that every transmitter delivers its power to the antenna


without any appreciable losses.

• to limit the occurrence of intermodulation between the various


transmitters

A combiner may be either passive or active. The simplest form of a


passive combiner may be constructed using hybrids as illustrated in
Figure 14. In a hybrid, however, half (3 dB) of the transmitted power is
lost. The more transmitters combined to use one antenna, the greater is
the number of hybrids required and the greater is the loss. Using 4
transmitters requires the use of 3 hybrids and the loss is 6 dB - using 8
transmitters requires a tree-connection of 7 hybrids which results in a
loss of 9 dB, and so on.

LOAD TERMINATION

HYBRID COUPLER
BANDPASS, LOW OR
F F
2ND HARM, FILTERS
ISOLATOR
IN EACH
PATH

Tx 1 Tx2
INPUT INPUT

Figure 14: Example of a hybrid.

An active combiner combines a number of low-power transmitters via


the use of hybrids or a resistive network into a common port where the
collective signal is amplified via a linear amplifier to attain the desired
output power. This technique is not very widely utilized due to the fact
that it is difficult to achieve sufficient output power without introducing
intermodulation.

Figure 15 illustrates a schematic block diagram of another transmission


combiner, a multiple connector. Each transmitter is connected via a so-
called isolator and a filter to a star network, in which the different
transmitters are inputs to the network and the antenna is the output.

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Tx1 ~
~
~
f1 ≈ -10dB
at ∆f

Tx2 ~
~
~ Star net

f2 etc

Figure 15: Schematic block diagram of a multiple connector.

The isolator, see Figure 16, normally a so-called circulator, is a non-


reciprocal component that has negligible attenuation (at the most one or
two dB) in its forward direction and a significantly high attenuation (25-
30 dB) in its reverse direction. Its function being to prevent leakage
from other transmitters into the transmitter that it is connected to and
thereby avoiding intermodulation.

Figure 16: An isolator (circulator).

The job of the filter is to create an mismatch as seen from the other
transmitters so that their output power is primarily directed to the
antenna and not inwards towards the network and the other transmitters.
Since the frequencies of the different transmitters generally lie relatively
close to one another, the filters must be of the cavity type so that
sufficient signal attenuation is achieved across the frequency
separations for the particular transmitters in question.

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RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Typically, the lowest frequency separation between neighboring


transmitters is often around 500 kHz in both the 450 and 900 MHz
ranges, i.e., approximately an 0.1% frequency separation. Required
attenuation for a neighboring transmitter for the achievement of
sufficient mismatch can be as low as 10 dB. This does not prevent
transmitter power leakage through the filter into the neighboring
transmitter, which would cause damaging intermodulation. This is
where the function of the isolator comes into play, providing additional
attenuation to reduce transmitter leakage.

Any intermodulation products are attenuated once again by the cavity


filter on their way out to the antenna. A typical combiner maintains an
intermodulation level at the antenna output of 70 dB below each of the
transmitters’ power levels.

Receivers multicouplers
It is often desirable to use a single antenna even if more than one
receiver is located at one and the same site. To this end, multicouplers
are utilized. Figure 17 illustrates a schematic block diagram of a
multicoupler.

O 1
O 2.
~
~ Power ..
.
~ divider ...
.
O 16
connected to
each receiver

Figure 17: Schematic block diagram of a multicoupler.

The signal from the antenna is first filtered by a highly selective


bandpass filter, then amplified and then separated in a signal power
divider (occasionally called splitter).

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An effective filter located at the input to the multicoupler may often


serve to reduce the requirement for a duplex filter. The following
amplifier is intended to compensate for the attenuation and the noise
resulting from the split and distribution of the signal to several
receivers. The signal power divider is constructed to achieve a dual
purpose. Firstly to match to the individual receivers to the antenna and
secondly to isolate the receivers from one another. Multicouplers
present a problem in maintaining satisfactory performance in preventing
intermodulation and blocking at its input. A typical receiver
multicoupler can connect up to 16 receivers. All of the outputs of the
multicouplers should be terminated even if they are not used for the
connection of a receiver.

Antennas
The primary purpose of a radio system antenna is:

• when transmitting, to deliver to the surrounding environment the


power generated by the transmitter without incurring any losses in
the desired direction

• when receiving, to deliver the available radiation power to the


receiver

An antenna is characterized by the following attributes:

• impedance

• bandwidth

• directivity

• polarization

Directivity in a given direction is defined as the ratio of the intensity of


radiation (the power per unit solid angle), in that direction, to the
radiation intensity averaged over all directions. It may in turn be
expressed by antenna gain and side lobe level.

The antenna gain specifies the degree to which the power radiated in the
desired direction as compared to the level of the power radiated equally
in all directions (i.e., an isotropic antenna). On occasion, antenna gain is
specified as above but relative a dipole antenna, which is 2.15 dB lower
than the gain relative an isotropic antenna.

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Antenna gain is specified in units of dBd or dBi to specify whether the


gain information for a given antenna is relative a dipole or an isotropic
antenna. If the gain is specified in dB then the value given is relative an
isotropic antenna.

To be effective, an antenna should be of the same magnitude of size as


the wavelength of the frequency in question.

Vertical rod antennas are normally used for mobile communications.


Such antennas radiate omnidirectionally in the horizontal plane.
Polarization is in this case vertical. The shortest antenna is often in such
cases a quarter wavelength, i.e., just under 20 cm at 450 MHz.

Base station antennas are often directional in the vertical plane, which is
achieved by using a number of half-wave dipoles that are stacked one
above the other. These antennas are referred to as being co-linear. The
gain is then essentially proportional to the number of elements.

Antenna gain for parabolic antennas


Parabolic antennas, which function as mirrors, are almost without
exception used for radio links having frequencies from approximately 2
GHz and upwards. The following relationship apply to these antennas:

4 ⋅π ⋅ A 4 ⋅π ⋅ A ⋅ f 2
π 2 ⋅d 2 ⋅ f 2
G= = = ....................................................... (6)
λ2 0.3 2 0.32

where

G = Antenna gain

A = Effective antenna area, m2

d= Antenna diameter, m

λ = Wavelength, m

f= Frequency, GHz

The antenna gain as calculated by equation (3) is specified as a factor.


The result of the equation (3) can be obtained in dB by applying the
following relationship:

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G = 20.4 + 20 ⋅ log(d ) + 20 ⋅ log( f ) ......................................................... (7)


The effective antenna surface is typically approximately 50-70% of the
actual geometric surface, depending on the manner in which the
aperture is illuminated. It is clearly evident that the gain, for a given
antenna size, increases with decreasing wavelength, i.e., as frequency
increases.

Example: assume a parabolic antenna having a diameter of 2 m and


operating at a frequency of 5 GHz. This corresponds to an area of 3.14
m2 and a wavelength of 0.06 m. Antenna gain can be calculated from
equation (3) as being a factor of 10,965 corresponding to 40.4 dB. But
the measured gain of the antenna is only 37 dB, which seems to imply
that there is a 3-dB loss in effectivity, an efficiency of only 50%.

Antenna diagram
Side lobe level indicates how much lower the power is in a non-desired
direction (side lobe) than that radiated in the desirable direction (main
lobe), Figure 18.

Side lobe

α
Main lobe α
0
Gαbg bg
= GS α
G (0)

Figure 18: Main and side lobes.

The front-to-back ratio gives the relationship between the power


radiated in the forward direction vs. the power radiated in the reverse
direction.

The lobe width that corresponds to a 3 dB lower gain in relation to the


main lobe gain, see Figure 18, can be calculated as

0.3
θ =k⋅ ............................................................................................... (8)
d⋅ f
where

θ = Lobe width, degree

k= Constant, 75-85
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d= Antenna diameter, m

f= Frequency, GHz

Figure 19 illustrates a schematic antenna diagram for a 18 GHz antenna


with a 44.5 dBi gain. The antenna has a diameter of 1.2 m. The figure
also shows the corresponding diagram for the cross-polarization field.

dB
0

10

20

30
copolar
40

50
crosspolar
60

70

0 5 10 15 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 degree

Figure 19: Antenna diagram for an 18 GHz antenna.

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References
“Grundläggande Radioteknik” (in Swedish), Billström, O., Ericsson
Radio Systems AB, 1993.

“Radio System Design for Telecommunications (1-100 GHz)”,


Freeman, R. L., 1987.

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RADIOWAVE PROPAGATION

This chapter provides a presentation of the basic principles


and algorithms related to radiowave propagation used in
radio-relay transmission. Both loss and attenuation
algorithms plus fade prediction models for different fading
mechanisms are thoroughly discussed. The chapter also
includes a presentation of the basic concepts of main
propagation mechanisms, Fresnel zone, equivalent and
true Earth radii and the decibel scale.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
The decibel........................................................................................................................................................ 1
A relative comparison ......................................................................................................................... 1
Some motivations for using decibels................................................................................................... 1
Absolute comparisons ......................................................................................................................... 1
The comparison of field quantities...................................................................................................... 2
An overview........................................................................................................................................ 3
The main propagation mechanisms ................................................................................................................... 3
Propagation along the earth’s surface ................................................................................................. 4
Fading................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 4
Cause................................................................................................................................................... 4
General classification .......................................................................................................................... 4
Classification based on source ............................................................................................................ 5
The Fresnel zone ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 5
The Fresnel ellipsoid ........................................................................................................................... 6
Equivalent and true earth radii .......................................................................................................................... 7
Earth-radius factor............................................................................................................................... 7
Equivalent and true Earth surface - a comparison............................................................................... 8
Prediction models.............................................................................................................................................. 8
Attenuation: free-space loss .............................................................................................................................. 9
Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 9
Free-space loss between two isotropic antennas ................................................................................. 9
Diagram................................................................................................................................. 10
Attenuation: gas ................................................................................................................................................ 10
Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 10
The troposphere................................................................................................................................... 11
Chemical composition......................................................................................................................... 11
Absorption peaks................................................................................................................................. 11
Calculating total gas attenuation ......................................................................................................... 12
Oxygen (dry air).................................................................................................................... 12
Water vapor........................................................................................................................... 13
Total gas attenuation ............................................................................................................. 14
Total specific gas attenuation - diagram............................................................................................................ 15
Attenuation: reflection....................................................................................................................................... 15
Ground reflection interference ............................................................................................................ 16

i
The problems of handling reflection ................................................................................................... 16
Reflection coefficient .......................................................................................................................... 17
The Fresnel reflection coefficient ......................................................................................... 17
Divergence factor.................................................................................................................. 18
Correction factor ................................................................................................................... 18
Example: rough estimation of the total reflection coefficient ............................................................. 19
Calculation of the position of the reflection point............................................................................... 19
Attenuation: precipitation.................................................................................................................................. 21
Types of precipitation ......................................................................................................................... 21
Snow.................................................................................................................................................... 21
Hail...................................................................................................................................................... 22
Fog and haze ....................................................................................................................................... 22
Rain ..................................................................................................................................................... 22
Cumulative distribution of rain ........................................................................................................... 23
Rain zones - diagram........................................................................................................................... 23
The new ITU model for calculation of rain intensity .......................................................................... 24
The calculation of the specific rain attenuation................................................................................... 26
Table containing the frequency dependent coefficients ...................................................................... 27
Calculating total rain attenuation ........................................................................................................ 32
Calculating total rain attenuation for 0.01% ....................................................................................... 32
Attenuation: obstruction.................................................................................................................................... 33
Knife-edge obstructions ...................................................................................................................... 33
Knife-edge loss curve.......................................................................................................................... 34
Typical knife-edge losses.................................................................................................................... 35
Single-peak method............................................................................................................................. 36
Triple-peak method ............................................................................................................................. 37
Smoothly spherical earth..................................................................................................................... 39
Typical losses resulting from smoothly spherical earth ...................................................................... 40
Clearance and path geometry .............................................................................................................. 41
The Earth bulge..................................................................................................................... 41
Path geometry ....................................................................................................................... 41
The height of the line-of-sight............................................................................................... 42
Path losses ......................................................................................................................................................... 42
Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 42
Fade margin......................................................................................................................................... 43
Power diagram .................................................................................................................................... 43
Effective fade margin .......................................................................................................................... 44
Fading - prediction models................................................................................................................................ 45
The concept of outage ......................................................................................................................... 45
Rain fading.......................................................................................................................................... 45
Calculation of the fade margin based on a yearly basis ........................................................ 45
Outage due to rain fading - annual basis ............................................................................... 46
Transformation between yearly and worst month basis ........................................................ 46
From yearly to worst month.................................................................................... 46
From worst month to yearly.................................................................................... 47
Climatic parameters .............................................................................................................. 47
Presentation of the rain fading models in diagram form ....................................................... 48
Multipath fading.................................................................................................................................. 49
The occurrence of multipath propagation ............................................................................. 49
Flat and frequency selective fading....................................................................................... 50
The effects of multipath propagation .................................................................................... 51
Measures taken against multipath fading .............................................................................. 51
Outage due to flat fading....................................................................................................... 52
Introduction............................................................................................................. 52
Fade occurrence factor ............................................................................................ 52
Flat fading and error performance......................................................................................... 53
Method for small percentages of time................................................................................... 53
Estimation of the geoclimatic factor ....................................................................... 53
Inland Links ............................................................................................................ 53
Coastal Links .......................................................................................................... 55

ii
Link and terrain parameters – overview................................................................................ 57
Estimation of the path slope.................................................................................................. 58
Outage due to flat fading....................................................................................................... 59
Range of values for the climatic factor pL ............................................................................. 59
Method for small percentage of time - conclusion................................................................ 60
Method for various percentages of time................................................................................ 61
Range of validity for the flat fading method ......................................................................... 63
Main differences between Rec. ITU-R P.530-6 and Rec. ITU-R P.530-7 ............................ 64
Outage due to frequency selective fading ........................................................................................... 64
ITU-R F.1093 model............................................................................................................. 66
Refraction fading................................................................................................................................. 68
The total fading outage...................................................................................................................................... 68
Basic radio-meteorological parameters for RL-design...................................................................................... 69
Earth-radius factor............................................................................................................................... 69
Surface water vapor density ................................................................................................................ 69
Relative humidity................................................................................................................................ 70
pL factor (refractive factor).................................................................................................................. 70
Refractive gradient .............................................................................................................................. 70
Rain frequency-dependent coefficients ............................................................................................... 70
Rain climate zones .............................................................................................................................. 70
Rain intensity distribution ................................................................................................................... 71
Annual and worst-month statistics ...................................................................................................... 71
Hardware failure................................................................................................................................................ 71
The calculation of the radio-link system’s MTBF ............................................................................... 71
Non-redundant systems ....................................................................................................................... 72
Redundant systems.............................................................................................................................. 73
Hardware failure per path.................................................................................................................... 75
Diversity............................................................................................................................................................ 76
The basic concepts .............................................................................................................................. 76
The definition of the improvement factor ........................................................................................... 77
The calculation of the improvement factor: space diversity................................................................ 78
The calculation of the improvement factor: frequency diversity......................................................... 79
Analogue 1+1 system.............................................................................................. 79
Digital 1+1 system .................................................................................................. 79
The calculation of the improvement factor: space-frequency diversity .............................................. 80
The calculation of outage when employing diversity.......................................................................... 80
Passive repeaters ............................................................................................................................................... 80
The basic concepts .............................................................................................................................. 80
Path calculation when using passive repeaters.................................................................................... 81
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 83

iii
ii
RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

The decibel

A relative comparison
It is often the case within the realm of radio technique, that two
different values or entities are compared with one another. For instance,
two power levels can be compared by calculating their ratio. The
decibel is a measure of the relationship between two power levels.
Decibel is abbreviated as dB and is defined as follows

P1
A[dB] = 10. log 10 ..............................................................................(1)
P2

where P1 and P2 are the power levels being compared.

Note that the decibel is a measure of a relationship and has no actual


physical significance. The decibel is therefore not a measure of a
physical entity.

One decibel corresponds approximately to the smallest variation in


sound volume that can be discerned by the human ear.

Some motivations for using decibels


Some of the motivations behind the widespread use of the decibel are:

• The decibel is convenient to use since the direct relationship


between radio-related power levels covers a wide range of
numerical values. The logarithmic nature of the relationship
between two power-levels results in values that are easy to handle.

• Addition or subtraction operations can be easily performed on


logarithmic values, simplifying the handling of amplification and
attenuation.

• The manner in which human sensory organs perceive differences in


the sensory impressions of varying intensity that they receive is in
fact logarithmic.

Absolute comparisons
The decibel concept defined above is related to the quotient of two
values, and provides no information as to the absolute value of these
entities. An absolute comparison between two power levels can
however be performed if a reference value is employed, for example the
W (Watt) or mW (milliWatt), referred to respectively as dBW and
dBm.

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P
A[dBW ] = 10. log10 ....................................................................(2)
1 Watt

where P is the power in Watt.

P
A[dBm] = 10. log10 .............................................................(3)
1 milliWatt

where P is the power in milliWatt.

Since,
dBW
P
= 10 10
.........................................................................................(4)
1W

and
dBm
P
= 10 10
......................................................................................(5)
1 mW

the result obtained following division is

 dBW -dBm 
1 mW  
= 10  10 
..............................................................................(6)
1W

or
 dBW -dBm 
1−3 W  
= 10  10 
..............................................................................(7)
1W

giving

dBW - dBm
−3= ................................................................................(8)
10

or
dBm = dBW + 30 .................................................................................(9)

The comparison of field quantities


The decibel concept can be generalized to also include the comparison
between field magnitudes. The term field quantity refers to a quantity
whose square is proportional to power. Examples of field quantities are
electrical voltages, currents and field strengths.

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The application of the decibel concept results in

 (Field quantity )1 
A[dB] = 20 ⋅ log10   .................................................(10)
 (Field quantity )2 

An overview
Power and field quantities, lying between 103 and 10-3 are expressed in
their equivalent decibel values in Table 1.

Power dB Field quantity dB


relationship relationship
1 000=103 30 1 000=103 60
100=102 20 100=102 40
10=101 10 10=101 20
9 9.5 9 19
8 9 8 18
7 8.5 7 17
6 8 6 16
5 7 5 14
4 6 4 12
3 5 3 9.5
2 3 2 6
1 0 1 0
1/2 -3 1/2 -6
1/4 -6 1/4 -12
1/8 -9 1/8 -18
1/10=10-1 -10 1/10=10-1 -20
1/100=10-2 -20 1/100=10-2 -40
1/1000=10-3 -30 1/1000=10-3 -60

Table 1: Power and field relationship.

The main propagation mechanisms


Most of the propagation mechanisms are affected by climactic
conditions. When calculating the transmission quality and availability
of radio networks, the significance of the various mechanisms vary as a
function of the radio spectrum. The following propagation mechanisms
may however be considered as the most notable:

• free-space

• diffraction

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• refraction

• absorption

• scattering

• reflection

Propagation along the earth’s surface


An electromagnetic wave traveling close to and along the surface of the
earth is affected by the following factors:

• the electrical properties of the earth’s surface

• the earth’s curvature

• the atmosphere

• the earth’s topography

• vegetation

Fading

Definition
Fading is often defined as a variation in signal strength over time, phase
or polarization. Fading is normally the result of changes in the physical
properties of the atmosphere or due to ground or water reflections.

Cause
Fading can be caused by the occurrence of an isolated phenomenon, one
that is solely responsible for its appearance. It is however more
common that fading appears in one and the same hop as the result of a
combination of various phenomenon that interact with one another,
leading to the degradation of signal quality and availability. Climate,
topography and surroundings can vary to such great degrees that fading
often depends on the aggregate effects of numerous phenomenon.

General classification
Fading can be classed as follows:

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RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

• source

• propagation attributes

• time variation

• statistical distribution

Classification based on source


The phenomenon of fading is often classified based on the source of the
phenomenon. Source can be divided into four primary groups:

• atmospheric fading: absorption, refraction and turbulence.

• ground-based fading: geology, the roughness of the surrounding


terrain, propagation path differences due to tides or variations in
snow depth, obstructions due to variations in vegetation

• ”man-made” fading: obstruction or reflection caused by boats,


aircraft and temporary constructions sites, antenna vibration.

• mixed fading: due to the occurrence of atmospheric inversion layers


and the reflection they cause.

The Fresnel zone

Definition
Fresnel zones are specified employing an ordinal number that
corresponds to the number of half-wavelength multiples that represents
the difference in radio wave propagation path from the direct path. The
first Fresnel zone is therefore an ellipsoid whose surface corresponds to
one half-wavelength path difference and represents the smallest volume
of all the other Fresnel zones.

The first Fresnel zone contains almost all the energy that is transmitted
between the antennas and is therefore of great significance in the
calculation of the attenuation caused by obstructing bodies.

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The Fresnel ellipsoid


The Fresnel zone is an ellipsoid having its focal points at the antenna
points A and B, see Figure 1. The radius of the first Fresnel zone, r1F, is
a function of the distance between A and B, the distance between any
point, M, on the ellipsoid and the frequency. The radius of the first
Fresnel zone is indirectly proportional to frequency and the higher the
frequency the narrower the Fresnel zones.

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d1
M Fresnel zone

r1F
Unobstructed line-of-sight
A B
N

Equivalent earth surface

Figure 1: The Fresnel zone.

Equivalent and true earth radii

Earth-radius factor
In simple terms, one can describe the ray beam between two antennas
by employing an imagined propagation path that directly links the two
antennas. In free-space this path would describe a straight line, a so-
called optical line-of-sight.

If instead, the antennas are placed on a spherical body surrounded by an


atmosphere (as in the case for the earth), wave propagation will be
affected by variations in atmospheric refractive index as the wave
travels through the various atmospheric layers. The ray beam will now
not follow the optical line-of-sight, but will describe a curved line
between the two antennas. The form of the curve will vary as a function
of variations in the refractive index of the atmosphere traversed by the
wave.

To simplify the description of this curved ray beam, the concept of


equivalent earth surface having an equivalent earth radius, Re, has been
introduced. Defined as follows:

Re = k ⋅ R ............................................................................................(11)

where
k = Earth-radius factor

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R = True earth radius (6.37·106 m)


The earth-radius factor is a function of the refractive index gradient. For
normal atmosphere (i.e., atmosphere in which the refractive index
gradient decreases linearly with altitude), the k-value is 4/3 if the
refractive index gradient is -39 N-units/km.

Equivalent and true Earth surface - a comparison


The equivalent earth surface is that earth surface that would be required
for the ray beam between the antennas to lie along a straight line, see
Figure 2. A beam that travels outside of the optical line-of-sight must
bend downwards in order to become a straight line, which is equivalent
to enlarging the earth’s radius, i.e. reducing the curvature of the earth.
The earth-radius factor, k, describes exactly the degree to which the
earth’s radius would have to be changed in order that the ray beam
describe a straight line.

True ray beam Optical line-of-sight Equivalent ray beam


Optical line-of-sight

True earth surface R Equivalent earth surface Re = k · R

Figure 2: The equivalent and the true earth surface.

Prediction models
Prediction models for the purpose of performing fading prognoses are
almost always empirical (comes from the Greek word empeiria
meaning experience), i.e., they are not founded on theoretical
considerations but are only built upon observation and experience.

Empirical models are arrived as the result of the application of


mathematical regression techniques on measurement data and therefore
result in a relationship that describes a variable’s dependency under
certain given conditions.

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Empirical prediction models often provide a fair description of the


fading process for distances and frequencies that lie within the data-
ranges for which measurements have actually been collected. Their
application to other distances and frequency ranges may, on the other
hand, result in significant error.

Attenuation: free-space loss

Definition
Free-space wave propagation implies that the effects caused by
disturbing objects and other obstacles that are located at sufficiently
long distances are assumed to be negligible.

Free-space loss between two isotropic antennas


The free-space loss between two isotropic antennas can be derived from
the relationship between total output power and received power. The
resulting expression is

4 ⋅π ⋅ d
Abf = 20 ⋅ log .........................................................................(12)
λ

where
Abf = Free-space loss, dB
d = Distance from the transmitting antenna, km
λ = Wavelength, m
Following the transformation of wavelength into frequency
(c=2.99792500 · 108 m/s) and entering of the actual units, the following
is attained

Abf = 92.5 + 20 ⋅ log d + 20 ⋅ log f ......................................................(13)

where
Abf = Free-space loss, dB
d = Distance from the transmitting antenna, km
f = Frequency, GHz
If the distance is doubled while maintaining constant frequency, the
free-space loss is increased by 20·log 2= 6 dB. The same applies to a
doubling of the frequency while maintaining a constant distance. In
other words, an additional attenuation of 6 dB will be caused for every
doubling of either the distance or the frequency.

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Diagram
The free-space loss (dB) as a function of distance (km) is illustrated in
Figure 3 for eight different frequencies (GHz).

-80

-90

-100
Free-space loss, dB

-110

-120
1 GHz
-130

-140 5
10
-150 15
20
30
40
-160 50

-170
0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance, km

Figure 3: The free-space loss as a function of distance for eight different


frequencies.

Note that the free-space loss in the GHz range is a minimum of


approximately 92 dB.

Attenuation: gas

Definition
The atmosphere, up to an altitude of 30-40 km, consists of two layers

• troposphere

• stratosphere

The two layers are separated by an often sharply demarcated transition


layer referred to as the troposphere.

It is within this troposphere in which all weather-related processes


(precipitation, cloud formation, electrical storms, etc.) arise.
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The troposphere lies at an altitude of 10 km over the earth’s medium


latitudes and somewhat less over its poles. At the equator, the
troposphere lies at an altitude varying between 16 and 18 km above the
earth’s surface.

The troposphere
The troposphere consists of approximately 9/10 of the earth’s
atmospheric mass, and aside from variations in moisture content,
density and temperature, its constitution is more or less constant
throughout its volume. This layer contains just a few notable elements
and their compounds, which are of significance in the propagation of
radio waves.

Chemical composition
Nitrogen and oxygen molecules account for approximately 99% of the
total volume. From the propagation point of view, it is suitable to
consider the atmosphere as being a mixture of two gases, dry air and
water vapor.

The chemical composition of the earth’s atmosphere is illustrated in


Table 2.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH´S ATMOSPHERE, %


N2 O2 Ar CO2 Ne He Kr Xe H2
78.09 20.93 0.93 0.03 0.00018 5.2⋅10-4 1.0⋅10-4 8.0⋅0-6 <5⋅10-5

Table 2: The chemical composition of the earth’s atmosphere.

Absorption peaks
Water and dry air (oxygen) result in the following absorption peaks:

• Water (H2O) displays absorption peaks at the following radio


frequencies: 22,235 GHz, 183,310 GHz and at 323.8 GHz. In
addition, even greater absorption occurs at higher frequencies,
where the propagation of IR and visible light transmission are
primarily affected.

• Oxygen molecules (O2) displays absorption peaks at the following


radio frequencies: 50-70 GHz (a complex system of absorption
peaks lie in this frequency band), 118.75 GHz and at 367 GHz.

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Calculating total gas attenuation


In what follows, the algorithms for the calculation of the specific
attenuation due to oxygen (dry air) and water vapor will be described
step-by-step.

Oxygen (dry air)


Two atmospheric parameters are involved in the calculation of the
specific attenuation of oxygen: the atmospheric pressure and the
temperature.

The atmospheric pressure is normalized to the value at see level (1013


hPa) by

p
rp = ...........................................................................................(14)
1013

where rp is the normalization factor and p (hPa) the pressure of the


atmosphere at a certain altitude. A “normal atmosphere” is the
atmosphere where the pressure at the see level is 760 mmHg, which
corresponds to 1 atm or 1013.25 hPa. The non-SI unity is bar (100
kPa).

The temperature is normalized to a mean value of 15 °C by

288
rt = ......................................................................................(15)
(273 + t )
where rt is the normalization factor and t is the temperature (°C).

The following parameters are determined:

⋅ e [1.5663⋅(1− rt )−1] ...........................................(16)


−0.5050
η1 = 6.7665 ⋅ rp ⋅ rt
0.5106

⋅ e [0.5496⋅(1− rt )−1] .......................................(17)


−0.4908 −0.8491
η 2 = 27.8843 ⋅ rp ⋅ rt

η 
ln 2 
η
a =  1  ........................................................................................(18)
ln (3.5)

4a
b= ................................................................................................(19)
η1

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RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

γ ' O (54 ) = 2.128 ⋅ rp ⋅ e [−2.5280⋅(1− rt )] ......................................(20)


−1.6032
⋅ rt
1.4954

Finally, the specific attenuation due to oxygen for frequencies equal or


lower than 54 GHz is given by

 7.34 ⋅ rp 2 ⋅ rt 3 0.3429 ⋅ b ⋅ γ 'O (54)  2


γO =  2 +  ⋅ f ⋅ 10 − ................(21)
3

 f + 0.36 ⋅ rp ⋅ rt
2 2
(54 − f ) + b 
a

where f is the frequency and the other parameters are defined earlier.

Water vapor
In the calculation of the specific attenuation due to water vapor, one
more atmospheric parameter is required: water-vapor content (g/m3).
This parameter can be selected from the charts included in [4].
However, in combination with a given temperature, the water-vapor
content selected from the charts might not be physically consistent with
the appropriate value correspondent to the vapor saturation pressure. In
other words, the water-vapor pressure can not exceed the vapor
saturation pressure at the temperature considered. To avoid this
common mistake, one more atmospheric parameter has been introduced
in the step-by-step calculation: relative humidity (%).

The vapor saturation pressure, ps, is solely dependent on the


temperature and is given by

 17.502⋅t 
 
 t + 240.97 
ps = 6.1121 ⋅ e ........................................................................(22)

The relative humidity of the atmosphere, RH, is given as the ratio


between the water vapor pressure in the atmosphere, pH2O, and the
vapor saturation pressure, ps.

p H 2O
RH = ⋅ 100 .............................................................................. (23)
ps

Solving the above expression for the vapor pressure it is obtained

RH
p H 2O = ⋅ p s ................................................................................. (24)
100

The water vapor content (water-vapor density) can be derived from the
general gas equation. It is given by

p H 2O
ρ = 216.7 ........................................................................(25)
t + 273.15

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The following parameters are determined

ξ w1 = 0.9544 ⋅ rp ⋅ rt + 0.0061 ⋅ ρ .................................................... (26)


0.69

ξ w 2 = 0.95 ⋅ rp ⋅ rt + 0.0067 ⋅ ρ ....................................................... (27)


0.64

ξ w3 = 0.9561 ⋅ rp ⋅ rt + 0.0059 ⋅ ρ ................................................... (28)


0.67

ξ w 4 = 0.9543 ⋅ rp ⋅ rt + 0.0061 ⋅ ρ ....................................................(29)


0.68

ξ w5 = 0.955 ⋅ rp ⋅ rt + 0.006 ⋅ ρ ....................................................... (30)


0.68

g 22 = 1 +
(f − 22.235)
2
..................................................................... (31)
(f + 22.235)
2

g 557 = 1+
(f − 557 )
2

......................................................................... (32)
(f + 557 )
2

g 752 = 1 +
(f − 752 )
2

......................................................................... (33)
(f + 752)
2

Finally, the specific attenuation of water vapor for frequencies equal or


lower than 50 GHz is given by

  3.84 ⋅ ξ w1 ⋅ g 22 ⋅ e ( 2.23(1− rt )) 
  + 
 ( f − 22.235) + 9.42 ⋅ ξ w1
2 2
 
  (0.7 (1− rt )) (6.4385 (1− rt )) 
 10.48 ⋅ ξ w 2 ⋅ e 0.078 ⋅ ξ w3 ⋅ e
+ + + 
  ( f − 183.31)2 + 9.48 ⋅ ξ w 2 2 ( f − 321.226)2 + 6.29 ⋅ ξ w3 2  
   (34)
 −2 −3 2.5  3.76 ⋅ ξ w 4 ⋅ e (1.6 (1− rt )) 26.36 ⋅ ξ w5 ⋅ e (1.09(1− rt ))  2 −4
γ w = 3.13 ⋅10 ⋅ r p ⋅ rt + 1.76 ⋅10 ⋅ ρ ⋅ rt + rt ⋅ + + + ⋅ ⋅ ρ ⋅
2 8.5
 f 10
 ( f − 325.153) + 9.22 ⋅ ξ w 4 ( f − 380)2
2 2
 
  17.87 ⋅ ξ w5 ⋅ e (1.46 (1− rt )) 883.7 ⋅ ξ w5 ⋅ g 557 ⋅ e (0.17 (1− rt )) 
  + + + 
  ( f − 448)2 ( f − 557 )2 
  (0.41(1− rt )) 
 + 302.6 ⋅ ξ w5 ⋅ g 752 ⋅ e 
  ( f − 752) 2 
  

Total gas attenuation


Adding the oxygen (dry air) and water vapor contributions, the total gas
attenuation is obtained as follows

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RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

AG = (γ O + γ w ) ⋅ d ............................................................................. (35)

where
AG = Total gas attenuation, dB
γw = Specific absorption due to the effects of water vapor,dB/km
γo = Specific absorption due to the effects of oxygen (dry air), dB/km
d = Path length, km

Total specific gas attenuation - diagram


Figure 4 shows the total specific atmospheric attenuation as a function
of frequency up to 50 GHz for three different values of temperature and
relative humidity.

Figure 4: The total specific atmospheric attenuation as a function of


frequency for different values of temperature and humidity.

Attenuation: reflection
Reflection loss is normally not considered in RL-applications since its
uncertain contribution in the link-budget may lead to heavy over or
under dimensioning. Rough estimations of reflection loss as a function
of the total reflection coefficient is described below.

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Ground reflection interference


The respective field strength components of the direct and reflected
waves interfere with one another at the receiver. Receiver interference
due to ground reflection is the result of the reception of the resultant
field strength, i.e., the vector addition of the field components.

Signal strength is dependent on the total reflection coefficient (resulting


from dielectric constant, conductivity and polarization) and the total
phase shift (resulting from antenna height, path length, earth-radius
factor, frequency and the phase angle of the reflection coefficient).

Figure 5 illustrates two extreme cases:

1) how the highest value of signal strength, AMAX, varies with the total
reflection coefficient. This case illustrates amplification, i.e., the field
strength components have the exact same direction, a phase angle of 0°.

2) how the lowest value of signal strength, AMIN, varies with the total
reflection coefficient. This case illustrates a loss, i.e., the field strength
components are directed opposite to one another, a phase angle of 180°.

Figure 5: The signal strength as a function of the total reflection


coefficient. The highest value of signal strength is obtained for a phase
angle of 0° and the lowest value for a phase angle of 180°.

The problems of handling reflection


The handling of reflection is a very difficult and intricate problem
including the utilization of numerous parameters. For example:

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RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

• high frequencies mean short wavelengths (at 23 GHz, the


wavelength ≈ 1.3 cm)

• terrain data accuracy can affect the total reflection coefficient which
in effect, consists of three factors, of which one is directly coupled
to the degree of irregularity of the terrain

• antenna height cannot be determined with sufficient accuracy since


the height database has its limitations

• the earth-radius factor

Reflection coefficient
The total reflection coefficient for a smooth spherical surface consists
of three elements: Fresnel reflection coefficient, divergence factor and
correction factor.

The Fresnel reflection coefficient


The Fresnel reflection coefficient for a smooth flat surface is
dependent on frequency, grazing angle, polarization and ground
characteristics (from the dielectric and conductivity constant). Figure 6
shows the Fresnel reflection coefficient’s absolute value for sea water
as a function of grazing angle, two different frequencies and both
horizontal and vertical polarization.

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Figure 6: The Fresnel reflection coefficient as a function of the grazing


angle for seawater.

Divergence factor
The divergence factor is applied to the Fresnel reflection coefficient
when approximating the earth’s surface as being spherical. Its value is
a function of antenna height, earth radius factor and the path length.

The divergence factor increases as both the difference in antenna


heights, transmitter-receiver, and the value of the earth radius factor
increase - it decreases with hop length (longer distances along the
earth’s surface must be considered as being an arc).

Correction factor
The correction factor accounts for the surface irregularities (roughness)
in different types of ground formations. Table 3 illustrates the
approximate values of the correction factor for different ground
surfaces at two different frequencies, 1 and 10 GHz.

Ground-surface types ρ ρ
s s
1 GHz 10 GHz
Sea, lake, mirror-face ice field 0.95-1 0.90-1
Snow & ice field, frozen soil, naked damp 0.85-0.95 0.80-0.90
ground
Damp field, flat and large scale agricultural 0.75-0.85 0.65-0.80
and cattle breeding land
Flat grass land, flat field with thin bush, 0.55-0.75 0.45-0.65
desert
Gently rolling terrain, savanna, partitioned 0.35-0.55 0.25-0.45
plowed fields and pasture
Rolling terrain, forest, thick forest against 0.18-0.35 0.09-0.25
sandy wind, wind break, medium or small
city area, area where a bank or a high way
transverses the radio path near the reflection
point
Terrain with outstanding undulation, 0.08-0.18 0.04-0.09
undulated forest, medium or small city with
high rise buildings, area with large factories,
stadiums located to transverses the radio
path near the reflection point
Mountainous area, area with a deep ridge to 0.04-0.18 <0.04
shield the reflected area

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RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

Table 3: Approximate values of the correction factor for different


ground-surface types.

Example: rough estimation of the total reflection coefficient


The Fresnel reflection coefficient is very close to 1 for small grazing
angles, regardless of frequency and polarization. Ordinarily, grazing
angles, in connection with radio links, lie between 1 and 10 mrad which
is equivalent to 1/1000 and 1/100, respectively, of the relationship
between the antenna height and the hop length (both are to be specified
in the same units). The Fresnel reflection coefficient for a surface
having good reflective characteristics may lie in the vicinity of 0.90.

The value of the divergence factor may also lie around 0.90. For
example the divergence factor is 0.91, for a 30 kilometer hop and a
height difference of 30 m between the antennas and k=1.33. If the
height difference is increased to 330 m, the divergence factor increases
to 0.97 for the same k value. If the hop length is decreased to 15 km, the
divergence factor increases to 0.99 for a height difference of 30 m and a
k value of 1.33.

The value of the correction factor varies with frequency and ground
surface type in accordance with the Table 3. For very smooth surfaces,
e.g., the surface of a body of water, the correction factor is
approximately 0.90.

The total reflection coefficient for a spherical and very smooth surface
can be approximated to 0.90 x 0.90 x 0.90 ≅ 0.73. From the diagram in
Figure 5, the reflection loss is approximately 12 dB.

Estimations can be easily performed if one assumes that the values of


both the Fresnel reflection coefficient and divergence factor lie close to
0.90 and then apply the correction factor value given in the Table 3 for
the different ground surface types.

Calculation of the position of the reflection point


The calculation of the position of the reflection point is primarily a
geometric problem and the result is therefore presented in connection
with the presentation of the path profile. The ground-reflected beam
path and the reflection point’s position are clarified.

There are two different methods available for the calculation of the
reflection point’s position. The simplest algorithm avoids the numerical
solution of third-degree equation and is therefore employed in here. The
following intermediate parameters are calculated initially:

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Intermediate parameter c

h' A − h' B
c= .......................................................................................(36)
h' A + h' B

where
c = Intermediate parameter m
h′A = Antenna height at station A, m
h′B = Antenna height at station B, m
Intermediate parameter m
d2
m= .................................................................(37)
4 ⋅ Re ⋅ (h' A + h' B ) ⋅ 10 −3

where
m = Intermediate parameter
d = Distance between stations A and B, km
Re = Equivalent earth radius, km
h′A = Antenna height at station A, m
h′B = Antenna height at station B, m
Intermediate parameter b

m +1 π 1  3⋅c 3⋅ m 
b = 2⋅ ⋅ cos  + ⋅ acos ⋅  ...........................(38)
3⋅ m  2 (m + 1)3 
 3 3  

The position of the reflection point is calculated from

d
dA = ⋅ (1 + b ) ....................................................................................(39)
2

and

d B = d − d A ........................................................................................(40)

where
dA = The distance between station A and the reflection point, km
dB = The distance between station B and the reflection point, km
d = The distance between stations A and B, km
b = The intermediate parameter as above
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RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

Attenuation: precipitation

Types of precipitation

Precipitation can take the form of:

• rain

• snow

• hail

• fog and haze

In common for all of the above forms of precipitation is the fact that
they all consist of water particles (haze can also consist of small solid
particles). Their distinctions lie in the distribution of the size and form
of their water drops.

Sharp demarcations between these forms of precipitation is however not


always apparent. ”Intermediate” states can very well occur.

Snow
Attenuation is only caused by wet snow.

The attenuation caused by dry snow can be considered as negligible for


frequencies below 50 GHz.

Snow cover on antennas and radomes, so-called ice coatings, can result
in two problems:

• increased attenuation

• the deformation of the antenna’s field radiation diagram

Both cases result in the reduction of the input signal strength at the
receiving station.

Antenna ice coating can of course be alleviated by electrically heating


the antennas, however the disadvantages are unfortunately greater than
the advantages. Some of the disadvantages are:

• the antennas must be held warm constantly, there is otherwise the


risk that melted snow forms to ice

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• electrical heating may be interrupted in the event of an electrical


power loss

• there is no knowledge as to the impact, or its degree, on an


antenna’s field radiation diagram due to electrical heating

Hail
The effects of hail on radio connections are first apparent when hail
particle sizes approach the size of radio waves, for example, 150 mm (2
GHz), 9.6 mm (31 GHz) and 6 mm (50 GHz). Hail particle sizes greater
than 10 mm are however quite rare.

Measurements made in Sweden show that the deepest fading lasted for
just under 5 minutes and was less than 10 dB.

Hail storms can not therefore be considered as availability limiting


factor, since they occur quite infrequently together with other forms of
precipitation.

Fog and haze


Measurements performed in Sweden show that the deepest fading that
can be related to heavy fog and haze amounted to between 4 and 7 dB.

Fog and haze can not therefore be considered as availability limiting


factor, since both fog and haze occur quite infrequently together with
other forms of precipitation.

Rain
Attenuation due to rain is the generally responsible for two principal
attenuation mechanisms: absorption and scattering caused by the
raindrops.

The extent of the attenuation due to rain is primarily a function of

• the form of the rain drops

• the size distribution of the rain drops

The most common form of falling raindrops under the influence of air
resistance is the oblate form (not exactly ellipsoidal). This causes
horizontally polarized waves to attenuate more than vertically polarized
waves.
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Cumulative distribution of rain


Due to the rapid time-variation of rain, the measured cumulative
distribution of rain intensity is heavily dependent of the integration time
selected for the measuring process. The rain intensity statistical
distributions used in ITU-R reports are assumed to be the results of
measurements or transformations corresponding to an integration time
of 1 minute. The instantaneous rain intensity (which is extremely
difficult to measure) is however more suitable from a network-planning
standpoint.

For the purpose of availability calculations, one is however interested in


the cumulative distribution of rain intensity, i.e., that percentage of time
during which a given level of rain intensity is attained or exceeded.

Normally, the reference level applied to rain intensity is the rain


intensity that is exceeded during 0.01% of the time, which is often
designated as R0.01.

ITU-R subdivides the earth into 15 different rain zones. Rain intensity
(mm/h) that is exceeded for different fractions of time (%) are shown in
Table 4 for the different rain zones. The rain zones are defined in the
Radiowave propagation appendix. Sweden is covered by three rain
zones, C, E and G and Brazil by three rain zones, K, N and P.

RAIN ZONES
Percentage
of time (%)
A B C D E F G H J K L M N P Q
1.0 <0.1 0.5 0.7 2.1 0.6 1.7 3 2 8 1.5 2 4 5 12 24
0.3 0.8 2.0 2.8 4.5 2.4 4.5 7 4 13 4.2 7 11 15 34 49
0.1 2 3 5 8 6 8 12 10 20 12 15 22 35 65 72
0.03 5 6 9 13 12 15 20 18 28 23 33 40 65 105 96
0.01 8 12 15 19 22 28 30 32 35 42 60 63 95 145 115
0.003 14 21 26 29 41 54 45 55 45 70 105 95 140 200 142
0.001 22 32 42 42 70 78 65 83 55 100 150 120 180 250 170

Table 4: Rain zones. The values in the table represent a percentage of


time for which a given rain intensity is attained or exceeded.

Rain zones - diagram


The cumulative distributions that are shown in the previous table are
illustrated in diagram form, see Figure 7. The curves represent ITU-R’s
15 different rain zones covering the entire earth. The distribution of rain
intensity (mm/h) represents a percentage of time that is equivalent to
the attainment or exceeding of a given rain intensity. The Y-axis to the
right shows the time percentage expressed in minutes per year.

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1.0009

8
5256.00
rain intensity
7

3
%

2
time rain
is exceeded,

0.1009 525.60
of time

Minutes/yr
8

5
%

4
Percentage of

J
exceeded,

3
Percentage

2
isintensity

0.0109 52.56
Q
8

N
C E
6

D
4

L P
2

AB H K M
G F
0.001 5.26
0 50 100 150 200 250
Rain intensity, mm/h

Figure 7: The rain zones represented as cumulative distributions.

The new ITU model for calculation of rain intensity


The new ITU-R rainfall rate procedure, also known as Baptista-
Salonen model, is conditioned to the following aspects:

1. High quality, long integration-time (few hours) and high spatial


resolution (about one grid point per 100 km)

2. Models for transforming long integration-time rain data to short


integration-time rain data

The new procedure does not demand any rain zone chart and the rainfall
rates (rain intensity) are directly calculated as a function of the
geographical location of the site.

The basic of the new ITU-rainfall model is the rainfall rate data that is
now available from two different rain-data programs: 1) Global
Precipitation Climate Project (GPCP-data) and 2) European Center for
Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF-data).

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RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

The new model is derived in two steps. First, suitable functions


describing properly the rainfall rate distributions in tropical and mid-
latitude climates are derived. This function is expressed as follows:

− a⋅ R ⋅
(1+b⋅R )
(1+ c⋅ R )
p = P0 ⋅ e ...............................................................................(41)

where p is the annual probability that the rainfall rate R (mm/h) is


exceeded, P0 is the rain probability obtained from statistical data and a,
b and c are parameters.

The next step is to optimize the above parameters by employing


empirical functions. The difference between predicted and measured
rainfall rates is minimized. The rainfall rate data used in the
optimization is from ITU-R databases covering a large amount of sites
at different climates.

The probability of rain P0 is approximated by the following expression:

 M
-0.0117⋅ S 

P0 = Pr 6 ⋅ 1 − e Pr 6  .....................................................................(42)
 
 

where Ms (mm) is the annual rainfall amount of stratiform-type rains


and Pr6 (%) is the probability of rainy 6 hours periods.

The annual probability that the rainfall rate R (mm/h) is obtained from
the previous expression

− B + B2 − 4 ⋅ A⋅C
R= .................................................................. (43)
2⋅ A

where

A = a ⋅ b ............................................................................................. (44)

 p
B = a + c ⋅ ln  .............................................................................. (45)
 P0 

 p 
C = ln  ........................................................................................ (46)
 P0 

For p>P0, R(p)=0

The parameters a, b and c are empirically optimized and finally given


by the expressions:

a = 1.1 ............................................................................................... (47)


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(M c + M s )
b= .................................................................................. (48)
22932 ⋅ P0

where Mc (mm) is the annual rainfall amount of convective-type rains.

c = 31.5 ⋅ b ......................................................................................... (49)

The users of the new ITU rainfall rate model are, however, not forced to
calculate the parameters Ms, Mc and Prg6 since they are calculated and
stored in the following data files, see ??:

ESARAINPR6.TEXT è contains the numerical values of the


parameter Pr6.

ESARAIN_MC.TXT è contains the numerical values of the parameter


Mc.

ESARAIN_MS.TXT è contains the numerical values of the parameter


Ms.

The values of the parameters Ms, Mc and Pr6 are stored as 121-rows and
241-columns matrix (121x241) corresponding to each point in a grid
system.

The values of the longitude and latitude for all grid points are also
stored as 121-rows and 241-columns matrix (121x241) and can be
obtained from the following data files, see ??:

ESARAINLON.TXT è contains the longitude values for each grid


point.

ESARAINLAT.TXT è contains the latitude values for each grid point.

For each specific grid point (LONi, LATj) there will be Msij, Mcij and Pr6ij
corresponding values.

Parameter values for other geographical locations than the grid points
given in the above matrices are obtained by two-dimensional
interpolation technique.

The calculation of the specific rain attenuation


The calculation of specific rain attenuation is performed in two steps:

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RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

• first, a calculation is performed of the values of the coefficients


corresponding to certain assumptions concerning the distribution of
rain-drop size, form, temperature and type of polarization
(horizontal/vertical)

• then, a calculation is performed of the specific rain attenuation for a


given instantaneous rain intensity

Calculate the coefficients as follows

k H + kV + (k H − kV ) ⋅ cos 2θ ⋅ cos(2 ⋅ τ )
kf = .......................................(50)
2

k H ⋅ α H + kV ⋅ α V + (k H ⋅ α H − kV ⋅ α V ) ⋅ cos 2θ ⋅ cos(2 ⋅ τ )
αf = ..........(51)
2⋅kf

where
kH,aH,kV,aV = Frequency dependent coefficients that are provided
in Table 5
θ = The path’s elevation angle
τ = The polarization tilt angle relative to the horizontal
plane

Table containing the frequency dependent coefficients


The values of the frequency dependent coefficients
provided in Table 5 are for frequencies between 1
and 50 GHz (the symbol * implies values that have
been interpolated).

Frequency GHz kH kV αH αV
1 0.0000387 0.0000352 0.912 0.880
2 0.000154 0.000138 0.963 0.923
3* 0.000358 0.000323 1.055 1.012
4 0.000650 0.000591 1.121 1.075
5* 0.001120 0.001000 1.224 1.180
6 0.00175 0.00155 1.308 1.265
7 0.00301 0.00265 1.332 1.312
8 0.00454 0.00395 1.327 1.310
9* 0.00692 0.00605 1.300 1.286
10 0.0101 0.00887 1.276 1.264
11* 0.0140 0.01240 1.245 1.231
12 0.0188 0.0168 1.217 1.200
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13* 0.0239 0.0215 1.194 1.174


14* 0.0298 0.0271 1.173 1.150
15 0.0367 0.0335 1.154 1.128
16* 0.0431 0.0394 1.142 1.114
17* 0.0501 0.0459 1.130 1.101
18* 0.0578 0.0530 1.119 1.088
19* 0.0661 0.0607 1.109 1.076
20 0.0751 0.0691 1.099 1.065
21* 0.0838 0.0769 1.091 1.057
22* 0.0930 0.0853 1.083 1.050

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Frequency GHz kH kV αH αV
23* 0.1030 0.0940 1.075 1.043
24* 0.1130 0.1030 1.068 1.036
25 0.124 0.113 1.061 1.030
26* 0.135 0.123 1.052 1.024
27* 0.147 0.133 1.044 1.017
28* 0.160 0.144 1.036 1.011
29* 0.173 0.155 1.028 1.006
30 0.187 0.167 1.021 1.000
31* 0.201 0.179 1.012 0.992
32* 0.216 0.192 1.003 0.985
33* 0.231 0.205 0.995 0.977
34* 0.247 0.219 0.987 0.970
35 0.263 0.233 0.979 0.963
36* 0.279 0.247 0.971 0.956
37* 0.296 0.262 0.962 0.949
38* 0.314 0.278 0.954 0.942
39* 0.332 0.294 0.947 0.935
40 0.350 0.310 0.939 0.929
41* 0.368 0.326 0.931 0.922
42* 0.386 0.342 0.924 0.916
43* 0.404 0.359 0.917 0.909
44* 0.423 0.376 0.910 0.903
45 0.442 0.393 0.903 0.897
46* 0.456 0.410 0.897 0.891
47* 0.479 0.426 0.891 0.885
48* 0.497 0.444 0.885 0.879
49* 0.517 0.461 0.879 0.874
50 0.536 0.479 0.873 0.868

Table 5: Frequency dependent coefficients for the calculation of


specific rain attenuation.

The calculation of specific rain attenuation (dB/km) is performed as


follows
αf
γR = kf ⋅R ......................................................................................(52)

where
kf,af = Frequency dependent coefficients
R = Rain intensity, mm/h
The specific rain attenuation that is exceeded during 0.01% of the time,
can be calculated by relating the rain intensity to the reference level
0.01%, i.e.,

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α
γ R0.01 = k f ⋅ R0.01f ...................................................................................(53)

Figure 8 illustrates specific rain attenuation (dB/km) that are exceeded


during 0.01% of the time as a function of frequency (GHz) for three
different values of rain intensity, R0.01, for both horizontal and vertical
polarization.

Figure 8: Specific rain attenuation exceeded during 0.01% of the time


as a function of frequency.

Figure 9 illustrates the specific rain attenuation (dB/km) that are


exceeded during 0.01% of the time as a function of rain intensity for
four different values of frequency (GHz), for both horizontal and
vertical polarization.

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Figure 9: Specific rain attenuation exceeded during 0.01% of the time


as a function of rain intensity.

Figure 10 illustrates the specific rain attenuation (dB/km) that is


exceeded during 0.01% of the time as a function of rain intensity for
horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarization at 23 GHz.

At 23 GHz and horizontal polarization, the specific rain attenuation at


R0.01=30 mm/h is almost twice the value at R0.01=12 mm/h.

Figure 10: Specific rain attenuation exceeded during 0.01% of the time
as a function of rain intensity for a frequency of 23 GHz.

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Calculating total rain attenuation


The total rain attenuation for a radio link path can be calculated as
follows, if the statistical distribution of the rain cells along the path is
known

AR = γ R ⋅ d eff ......................................................................................(54)

where
AR = Total rain attenuation, dB
γR = Specific rain attenuation, dB/km
deff = Effective path length, km
The effective path length is calculated as follows

d eff = d ⋅ r ...........................................................................................(55)

where
d = Actual path length, km
r = Reduction factor
The reduction factor is arrived at as follows

1
r= ...........................................................................................(56)
d
1+
d0

The factor 1/d0 is coupled to rain intensity for the 0.01% reference
level. d0 is then

d 0 = 35 ⋅ e −0.015⋅R0.01 ...............................................................................(57)

The reduction factor accounts for the extensions of rain cells and
transforms actual path lengths to equivalent path lengths along which
the rain can be regarded as having a uniform distribution.

Calculating total rain attenuation for 0.01%


The total rain attenuation that is exceeded 0.01% of the time can be
calculated if the rain intensity is related to the 0.01% reference level, as
follows

AR0.01 = γ R0.01 ⋅ d eff ................................................................................(58)

where
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AR0.01 = Total rain attenuation that is exceeded during 0.01% of the


time, dB
γ R0.01 = Specific rain attenuation that is exceeded during 0.01% of
the time, dB/km
deff = Effective path length, km
The total rain attenuation that is exceeded during 0.01% of the time is
used later in the calculation of unavailability caused by rain.

Attenuation: obstruction
Obstruction losses are calculated based on the path’s geometry and on
the actual frequency used.

The geometry is a function of:

• topography

• The antenna’s height above ground level

• The earth-radius factor, k

Different k-values result in different obstruction loss values. Small k-


values result in the greatest obstruction loss due to the fact that the
beam tends to bend more towards the ground surface, or expresses in
another manner, the obstruction penetrates deeper into the Fresnel zone.

Knife-edge obstructions
A knife-edge obstruction is one that consists of an individual
obstruction having negligible length in the direction of the radio wave’s
propagation path, see Figure 11. The loss contributed by such an
obstruction is derived from the knife-edge loss curve, which is a
physically derived function.

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v>0 hLOS

A v<0 r1F
B

Equivalent earth surface

Figure 11: Knife-edge obstruction showing the obstruction’s height


relative the free line-of-sight.

In the case of knife-edge obstructions, the obstruction loss value, AH is


only dependent on the parameter ν, which is defined as the
obstruction’s relative penetration of the Fresnel zone:

hLOS
ν= .............................................................................................(59)
r1F

where
hLOS = The obstruction’s height above the free line-of-sight
r1F = The Fresnel zone’s radius at the point of the obstruction
The parameter ν, as defined above, differs by a factor of 2 ≅ 1.41
from the definition in Rep. 715-3, vol. 5, which means a difference of
approximately 1-3 dB in obstruction loss for the particular value of ν.

The height of the obstruction over the free line-of-sight may be defined
as

hLOS = (ground elevation + height of the tree line or building


height) - the height of the free line-of-sight

Knife-edge loss curve


The loss caused by an obstruction is arrived at from the knife-edge loss
curve, which is a physically derived function. Knife-edge loss AH as a
function of the relative penetration ν, is shown in Figure 12.

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Figure 12: Knife-edge loss as a function of the relative penetration


parameter.

When performing path calculations, realistic degrees of Fresnel zone


penetration are often considered as lying in the interval from -0.5 to 2
which means calculation of obstruction losses based on the diagram
insertion above.

For ν≥10, obstruction losses are calculated as follows:

AH = 16 + 20 ⋅ log(ν ) ν ≥ 10 .................................................(60)

where
AH = Obstruction loss, dB
v = The obstruction’s relative penetration of the Fresnel zone

Typical knife-edge losses


Figure 13 illustrates a few typical examples of loss values (dB) for the
knife-edge function.

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0 12 16 20
0 6

Figure 13: Typical loss values (dB) resulting from the knife-edge
function.

Single-peak method
The single-peak method calculates the value of the obstruction loss as
the greatest knife-edge obstruction loss attained as a result of an
individual obstruction lying along the path, see Figure 14.

The algorithm defines those peaks in the path profile between station A
and station B that penetrate the Fresnel zone. The penetration, ν, of
every peak is calculated relative to the Fresnel zone along the free line-
of-sight, AB . The corresponding knife-edge loss, AH, is calculated as if
only one peak existed along the path. The greatest loss value that is
found along the path is returned as the sought obstruction loss value.

A B

Figure 14: In the single-peak method the obstruction loss is taken as the
greatest knife-edge obstruction loss lying along the path.

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The single-peak method is, as is obvious, a pure application of the


knife-edge model. It works best for paths that have one dominant peak.
The results of the model are less reliable for more realistic paths having
a number of significant peaks.

Triple-peak method
Simply stated, the triple-peak method may be described as a calculation
of the obstruction loss value along the propagation path, based on the
sum of the three largest knife-edge losses.

The algorithm involves an initial calculation of the obstruction loss


based on the single-peak method, as described earlier. This first
calculation of the single knife-edge loss represents the first contribution,
A1, to the total obstruction loss.

The path profile is then split at that the point, M, which resulted in the
largest knife-edge loss, see Figure 15. The peak of point M is regarded
as being a common antenna or termination point along the partial paths
AM and MB . If the peak consists of trees, then the mast height of the
fictitious antenna is set to the height of the trees, otherwise the mast
height is set to zero. In the event that the fictitious antenna attains a
height beneath the original free line-of-sight, AB , then the mast height
is instead set so that the antenna exactly reaches the free line-of-sight.

A B

Figure 15: The path profile after the first split.

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The partial paths, AM and MB to the left and right of the located peak,
M, are each searched for two new paths in the same manner as was the
original path. Note that the partial paths, as illustrated in the figure
above, generally have other free lines-of-sight and Fresnel zones than
does the original path. Each partial path results in a separate knife-edge
loss value. The higher of the two values will represent the second
contribution, A2, to the total obstruction loss.

The particular partial path is then subdivided at the peak, N, that


resulted in the highest knife-edge loss, see Figure 16. The resultant
partial paths are then each searched in the same manner as was the
original partial paths. The third and final contribution, A3, to the total
obstruction loss is the largest knife-edge loss resulting from one of the
partial paths AN, NM, and MB.

The total obstruction loss, AH, is obtained by summing the three


contributions described above, A1, A2 and A3.

AObst = A1 + A2 + A3 ............................................................................(61)

N M

A B

Figure 16: The path profile after the second split.

The triple-peak method is entirely empirical, but it has proven to work


well in actual applications. It works better than the single-peak method
for practically all most occurring path profiles, since it accounts for
more than only the highest peak along the path.

The difference between the triple-peak method and a hypothetical


repetition (three times) of the single-peak method, lies in the fact that
secondary peaks in the triple-peak method will contribute less than the
primary peak considering the peaks’ penetration of the original Fresnel
zone. This is a function of two factors:
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• the partial paths are always shorter than the full path

• the partial paths’ free lines-of sight always lies higher than (or at the
same level as) the original full path

A shorter path results in a smaller Fresnel zone radius. Higher free line-
of-sight results in a relatively lower peak free line-of-sight. Together,
these factors result in a smaller relative penetration. The result is that
the secondary peaks cause lower obstruction losses.

The triple-peak method, as it is applied here, is a further development of


the original multiple-peak method introduced by Deygout, ”Multiple
Knife-Edge Diffraction of Microwaves”, IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. vol.
AP-14, 1966.

Smoothly spherical earth


In the case of smoothly spherical earth (flat-earth), the obstruction is
represented by an smooth surface, such as a sea or lake, penetrating the
Fresnel zone. Losses are calculated using a simple function that may be
derived from empirical considerations. The geometry of the smoothly
spherical earth is illustrated in Figure 17.

A
hA B
hB
dA dr dB
d

Figure 17: The geometry of the smoothly spherical earth.

The loss calculation is performed in accordance with the Cheriex


method. First the distances to the radio horizon from both antennas are
calculated as follows

d A ≅ 2 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ k ⋅ R ⋅ h A .....................................................................(62)

d B ≅ 2 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ k ⋅ R ⋅ hB .....................................................................(63)

where
dA = The distance from station A to the radio horizon, km
dB = The distance from station B to the radio horizon, km
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hA = The antenna height at station A, m


hB = The antenna height at station B, m
k = The earth-radius factor
R = True earth radius ( ≅ 6370 km)
The distance between both radio horizons may be easily calculated as

d r ≅ d − (d A + d B ) .............................................................................(64)

where
d = Distance between station A and B, km
The obstruction loss for evenly curved earth is calculated as
2

AObst ≅ 20 + 0.112 ⋅ 3 f ⋅k 3
⋅ d r .........................................................(65)

where
AObst = Obstruction loss, dB
f = Frequency, MHz

Typical losses resulting from smoothly spherical earth


Figure 18 illustrates typical loss values (dB) for smoothly spherical
earth for a path of 50 kilometers and a frequency of 2.2 GHz.

40

20

10

Figure 18: Typical loss values (dB) resulting from a smoothly spherical
earth.

For grazing lines-of-sight, i.e., the antennas have the same horizon (dA +
dB = d), the loss is 20 dB, which applies regardless of frequency and
path length.

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Clearance and path geometry

The Earth bulge


The local height of the Earth bulge (h) is dependent of the k-value. The
parameter h is very important for clearance purposes. The shadow
region in Figure 19 covers its local value.

y=-d/2 y=d/2
d1 d2 y

hmax
h

N B
A

k·R k·R-hmax k·R

Figure 19: The local height of Earth bulge.

The local height of the Earth bulge is given by

d1 ⋅ d 2
h= ...................................................................................... (66)
12.74 ⋅ k

where the distances d1 and d2 are normally expressed in km and h in


meters.

The local height of the Earth bulge is inversely proportional to the


earth-radius factor. For high k-values, the Earth surface is close to a
plane surface while for low k-values the Earth surface becomes more
curved and may penetrate the radio path.

Path geometry

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In what follows, clearance, obstacle penetration and antenna height will


be discussed. Figure 20 displays the path geometry for which the path
parameter clearance c is depicted. The height of the line-of-sight is x,
the bulge of the Earth is h and the height of the obstacle above the earth
surface is h3. The other parameters have their habitual designation.
Referring to the Earth surface, the height of the line-of-sight is x = c +
h3. The antenna heights are represented as “total” heights, that is, both
the terrain and the actual antenna heights are included.

c x-h 1
θ
h2

h3

x
h1 h

d1 d2
d

Figure 20: Path geometry.

The height of the line-of-sight


The height of the line-of-sight with respect to the Earth surface

h2 − h1
x= ⋅ d1 + h1 .................................................................................... (67)
d

where h1and h2 are given in m and d and d1 in km.

Path losses

Definition
The path loss is the sum of all losses and gains between the
transmitter’s and the receiver’s antenna contacts and is calculated as
follows:

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AS = Abf + AG + AObst + AL + ∑ AF − G ATx − G ARx .............................(68)

where
AS = Path loss, dB
Abf = Free-space loss, dB
AG = Gas attenuation, dB
AObst = Obstruction loss, dB
AL = Additional loss, dB
AF = Antenna feeder loss, dB
GATx = Transmitter antenna gain, dBi
GARx = Receiver antenna gain, dBi

Fade margin
Under interference-free conditions, the fade margin is defined as the
difference between the received signal level under ”normal” wave
propagation conditions (fade-free time) and the receiver’s threshold
level at a given bit-error level, i.e.,

M = PR − PTr ......................................................................................(69)

where
M = Fade margin, dB
PR = Receiver signal level, dBm
PTr = Receiver threshold level, dBm
Receiver signal level is calculated as the difference between the
transmitter’s output power and the path loss, i.e.,

PR = PTr − AS ......................................................................................(70)

where
PR = Receiver signal level, dB
PTr = Transmitter output power, dBm
AS = Path loss, dB

Power diagram
A power diagram is a schematic approach to the illustration of the
effects on a transmitter’s radiated power as it propagates towards a
receiving station, see Figure 21. Concepts such as fade margin and
receiver threshold value are also included in the definition.

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POWER
output
power antenna
gain

feeder loss

wave propagation losses

received power
feeder loss
fade margin
antenna gain
receiver threshold
value

Figure 21: The power diagram.

Effective fade margin


The receiver’s threshold value as defined earlier only applies under
negligible or interference-free conditions. In reality, this is however not
the case. A certain interference contribution is almost always present
when performing path calculations, which usually affects availability
results.

The interference contribution can be interpreted as degradation in the


receiver’s threshold value, i.e., threshold degradation. The effective
fade margin is therefore defined as the difference between the fade
margin and the threshold degradation. The effective fade margin is used
later in availability calculations.

Interference calculations provide the value of the threshold degradation.

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Fading - prediction models

The concept of outage


Outage is generally defined as the probability that a pre-defined bit-
error ratio is exceeded during a certain measured period of time.

Rain fading

Calculation of the fade margin based on a yearly basis


The fade margin that is exceeded during different periods of time based
on a yearly basis is calculated as follows

M P = 0.12 ⋅ AR0.01 ⋅ P − (0.546+ 0.043⋅log P ) ......................................................(71)

where
AR0.01 = Total rain attenuation that is exceeded 0.01% of the time,
dB
MP = Fade margin that is exceeded p% of the time, dB
P = The percentage of the time during which 0.001 < P < 1%
The total attenuation for 0.01% of time, A0.01, is calculated as a function
of the rain intensity (rainfall rate) for 0.01% of time, R0.01, and the
effective path length by equation (??).

The attenuation exceeded for a certain percentage of time can be


referred to as the fade depth. If we adapt the fade margin, M, to be as
much as the fade depth, then Ap can be replaced by M in both
expressions above.

In the previous ITU-model, the above expression was valid for all
values of latitude and longitude. In the new revision of the ITU-R
recommendation [2], however, the above expression is modified to fit
different values of the latitude. Thus, for radio links located at latitudes
equal or greater than 30° (North and South) the above expression is still
applied. On the other side, for latitudes lower than 30°N and 30°S (60°
belt along the equator), the valid expression is

Ap
= 0.07 ⋅ p −(0.855+ 0.139⋅log p ) ..............................................................(72)
A0.01

with the parameters defined as previously.

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Compared to the previous model, the new model presented in [2] does
not provide any remarkable improvement. In addition, it seems to be
statistically inconsistent since it gives higher p values than the model
used for latitudes equal to or greater than 30°N and 30°S.

When discussing both models for calculating the probability


(percentage of time) that the fade margin will be exceeded, transmission
network planners are encouraged to stress the inconsistency of the new
model to be used in the 60° belt along the equator. Particularly, the fact
the model does not provide any remarkable improvement.

Outage due to rain fading - annual basis


The prediction model for the rain fading across a particular area is a
cumulative distribution over fade margin. It calculates the probability
that a given fade margin will be exceeded.

The probability that a given fade margin M is exceeded, on an annual


basis, can be attained from the previous mathematical expression by
solving the equation for the fraction of time, P. The empirical
prediction model for rain fading becomes
  AR 
11.628  − 0.546 + 0.29812 + 0.172⋅log  0.12⋅ 0.01 

  M 
P = 10 
..............................................(73)

where
P = The time, expressed in percent of a year, during which a
given fade-depth M (fade margin) is exceeded, %
AR0.01 = Total rain attenuation that is exceeded 0.01% of the time,
dB
M = Fade margin, dB

Transformation between yearly and worst month basis

From yearly to worst month


The transformation from an annual probability to one based on a worst
month is achieved as follows

pw = Q ⋅ P ..........................................................................................(74)

where

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pw = The portion of time, expressed in percent of the worst


month, during which a given fade-depth M (fade margin) is
exceeded, %
P = The portion of time, expressed in percent of a year, during
which a given fade-depth M (fade margin) is exceeded, %
Q = Conversion factor (climatic constant), 12> Q >1
The probability pw and P are referred to the same threshold level. The
conversion factor Q is expressed as a function of P and the climatic
parameters Q1 and β. In the range of interest for microwave planning, Q
is given by following expression
1

-β  Q1  β
Q = Q1 ⋅ P for   < P < 3 % .............................(75)
 12 

Substituting (73) in (72), the transformation from yearly basis to worst


month basis is given by

pw = Q1 ⋅ P 1− β .....................................................................................(76)

The values of the climatic constants, for ”global planning” purposes are
specified by ITU-R as

Q1 = 2.85
β = 0.13

From worst month to yearly


The transformation from a yearly probability to worst-month
probability is obtained from expression (74)
1 1

P = Q1 1− β ⋅ p w 1− β ...............................................................................(77)

Climatic parameters
The values of the climatic parameters Q1 and β and the interval of
validity for pw are given in Table 6 for rain and multipath propagation
for different climatic regions.

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RAIN MULTIPATH

Region β Q1 p w interval β Q1 p w interval


Global planning 0.13 2.85 -4
1.9·10 - 7.4 0.13 2.85 1.9·10 -4 - 7.4
Europe (Nordic) 0.15 3.0 1.2·10 -3 - 7.6 0.12 5.0 8.1·10 -3 - 13.2
Europe (North West) 0.13 3.0 2.8·10 -4 - 7.8 0.13 4.0 2.6·10 -3 - 10.4
Europe (Mediterranean) 0.14 2.6 2.2·10 -4 - 6.7 - - -
Europe (Alpine) 0.15 3.0 -3
1.2·10 - 7.6 - - -
Europe (Poland) 0.18 2.6 2.5·10 -3 - 6.4 - - -
Europe (Russia) 0.14 3.6 -3
2.2·10 - 9.3 - - -
Canada (Prairie & North) 0.08 4.3 -5
3.2·10 -11.8 - - -
Canada (Cost & Great Lake) 0.10 2.7 -6
4.0·10 - 7.3 - - -
Canada (Central & Mountain) 0.13 3.0 -3
1.2·10 - 7.6 - - -
Japan (Tokyo) 0.20 3.0 -2
1.2·10 - 7.2 - - -
Congo 0.25 1.5 -3
2.9·10 - 3.4 - - -
Indonesia 0.22 1.7 1.7·10 -3 - 4.0 - - -
Table 6: Values of the climatic parameters Q1 and β for rain and
multipath fading for different regions. The range of validity is also
displayed.

The selection of the climatic parameters when transforming annual


worst-month time percentage to average annual time percentages may
have a conclusive impact when dimensioning microwave links. In a
near future, when more climatic values become available, employing
adequate values for the climatic parameters will increase in importance.

The range of validity of the conversion model is strongly dependent on


the climate and should be known by microwave designers.

Presentation of the rain fading models in diagram form


Figure 22 illustrates the rain fading models (worst month and on a
yearly basis) for different values of the quotient between total rain
attenuation exceeding 0.01% of the time (AR0.01) and the fade margin,
M. When the quotient is equal to 0.155, outage is set to 8·10-7.

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1010
Rain fading model
fade margin is exceeded, % 10-1 worst month

10-2
Percentage of time the

10-3
Rain fading model
10-4
annual basis

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8
0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10
AR0.01/M

Figure 22: The rain fading models for worst month and on a yearly
basis.

Multipath fading

The occurrence of multipath propagation


Figure 23 illustrates a multipath scenario.

Atmospheric layer

Figure 23: Multipath propagation illustrated by three radio beams:

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Beams that are reflected by the atmosphere or the ground travel a longer
distance than do direct beams. Dependent on the size of the time delays
and the employed channel bandwidth, fading can either be

• flat, or
• frequency selective

In general:

• Fading due to rain, for frequencies below 10 GHz, may be


considered as negligible in comparison with fading due to multipath
propagation, which is often dominant below 10 GHz.

• Fading due to multipath propagation, for frequencies above 10 GHz,


may be considered as negligible in comparison with fading due to
rain, which is often dominant above 10 GHz.

• A good rule of thumb is however, that there exists a cross-over


region between the frequencies of 10 and 18 GHz, and a point at
which fading due to rain and multipath propagation are of about the
same order of magnitude.

Flat and frequency selective fading


Flat fading implies that there does not exist any noticeable local
variation within the transmitted frequency band, see Figure 24, i.e.,
fading has the same degree throughout the band.

Frequency selective fading implies that there does exist a noticeable


variation within the transmitted frequency band (see the figure below).

A Flat fading A Frequency selective fading

B f B f

Figure 24: Flat and frequency selective fading.

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The extent of the influence of multipath propagation on a radio link


system depends on whether the system is analog or digital and whether
the fading is flat or frequency selective.

The effects of multipath propagation


The effect of flat fading for digital and analog connections is similar.
Signal level decreases and quality degrades. Continued quality
degradation will eventually lead to the breakdown of the connection.
Digital systems usually exhibit a somewhat higher tolerance to flat
fading than do analog systems.

In the case of base band, analog link connections utilize frequency


multiplexing in which each channel of N channels contains a small
(B/N) frequency band.

For frequency selective fading, signal levels vary locally within the
frequency band, both in amplitude and phase. The result, in the case of
analog connections, is that a number of channels may attain signal
levels that are so low that connection within these channels is virtually
impossible. The connection can, however, be maintained at a lower
capacity.

In the case of base band, digital link connections utilize the entire
frequency band, B, of all channels in a time-multiplexed manner. This
means that every channel has a time slot and synchronism is therefore
required for system management purposes.

In-band variations in the case of a time-duplexed digital connection


represents a loss of information, the connection loses synchronization,
resulting in the fact that the connection can no longer be maintained.
The disturbance affects all channels and is abated, only after
synchronization is once again established.

Measures taken against multipath fading


Measures that are aimed at suppressing fading due to multipath
propagation can be divided into three categories:

• diversity

Diversity implies that a signal reaches the receiver via a number (at
least two) of different alternatives, the purpose being that the received
signals are to be uncorrelated. Examples of diversity are frequency,
space, path, polarization and angle.

• adaptive equalizer

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The purpose of adaptive equalizer (in both the time and frequency
domains) is the equalization of signal amplitude and phase.

• system

By modifying system parameters or other system attributes, one can


attain an improvement in system tolerance to multipath fading. For
example, improvements can, in some cases, be achieved through the
modification of path geometry or by simply changing the antenna.

Outage due to flat fading

Introduction
Flat fading, also known as single-frequency, frequency independent or
narrow-band fading, can generally be predicted for any part of the
world. The method relies on the prediction of the distribution at large
fade depths in the average worst month. Unlike the former prediction
method, the present method normally employed for large fade depths
does not take into account the path profile and, therefore, is suitable for
initial planning, licensing or design purposes.

In addition, there is a method applicable for all fade depths, in which


the method for large fade depths and an interpolation procedure for
small fade depths are employed

Fade occurrence factor


Worldwide measurements and statistical compilations of fading events
indicate that the probability the received level fades F dB below the
free-space level is given by
F

p flat = p0 ⋅ 10 10
..................................................................................(78)

where the fade depth F is normally interpreted as the fade margin (M)
and p0 is the fade occurrence factor.

The fade occurrence factor, p0, is usually given as a function of climatic


and path parameters and is obtained as

p0 = K ⋅ d 3.6 ⋅ f 0.89 ⋅ (1 + ε )
−1.4
.............................................................(79)

where
K = Geoclimactic factor

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d = Path length, km
f = Frequency, GHz
ε = Path slope, mrad
M = Fade margin, dB
The estimations of the geoclimatic factor correspondent to different
climates are discussed in the following sections.

Flat fading and error performance


Generally, multipath fading is considered as negligible for frequencies
above 10 GHz for which rain is the dominating fading mechanism. The
significance of multipath fading in rain abundant regions may even be
negligible for frequencies lower than 10 GHz.

Multipath fading (flat fading and frequency selective) is normally the


main contributor to Severely Errored Seconds (SES). Comparing flat
and frequency selective fading, the former is usually more frequent in
narrow bandwidth systems.

Method for small percentages of time

Estimation of the geoclimatic factor


The geoclimatic factor is strongly dependent on the geographical path
location, antenna altitude and size of bodies of water in the vicinity of
the path (refraction anomalies). The geoclimatic factor is calculated for
known terrain (inland and coastal links) or for unknown terrain.

Inland Links
Inland links are links for which

• The entire path profile is above 100 m altitude (with respect to mean
sea level) or beyond 50 km from the nearest coastline or

• part or all the entire path profile is below 100 m altitude (with
respect to mean sea level) and entirely within 50 km of the
coastline, but having an intervening height of land higher than 100
m between the link and the coastline.

Links passing over a river or a small lake should normally be classed as


passing over land.

Normally, measured values of the geoclimatic factor Ki are not


available, but it can be estimated according to

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K i = 5.0 ⋅ 10 −7 ⋅ 10 −0.1⋅(C0 −CLat −C Lon ) ⋅ p 1L.5 .................................................(80)

Where
C0 =Antenna altitude coefficient, dB
CLat =Latitude coefficient, dB
CLon =Longitude coefficient, dB
pL =Percentage of time the refractivity gradient in the lowest
100 m of the atmosphere is lower than –100 N units/km in the
estimated average worst month, %

Antenna altitude coefficient


The values of the antenna altitude coefficients are classified according
to:

• Low altitude antenna: lower-antenna altitude less than 400 m above


mean sea level
• Medium altitude antenna: lower-antenna altitude in the range 400-
700 m above mean sea level
• High altitude antenna: lower-antenna altitude higher than 700 m
above mean sea level
The terrain type is classified according to:

• Plains

• Hills

• Mountains

The C0 values are displayed in Table 7 for links located on known


terrain and in Table 8 for links located on unknown terrain.

Low altitude Medium altitude High altitude antenna


antenna (0-400 m) antenna (400-700 m) (above 700 m)

Plains Hills Plains Hills Plains Hills Mountains

0 3.5 2.5 6 5.5 8 10.5


Table 7: Antenna altitude coefficient values for links located on known
terrain.
When the type of the terrain is not known, the following table gives the
C0 values for planning purpose.

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Low altitude Medium altitude High altitude antenna


antenna (0-400 m) antenna (400-700 m) (above 700 m)

1.7 4.2 8.0


Table 8: Antenna altitude coefficient values for links located on
unknown terrain.

Latitude coefficient
The latitude coefficient is given for three latitude regions according to

CLat = 0 for 53 °S ≥ ξ ≤ 53 °N

CLat = -53 + ξ for 53 °N or °S < ξ < 53 °N or °S

CLat = 7 for ξ < 60 °N or °S......................................

Longitude coefficient
CLon = 3 for longitudes of Europe and Africa

CLon = -3 for longitudes of North and South America

CLon = 0 for all other longitudes

Climatic factor pL
The specific value of the refractivity gradient, pD = -157 N units/km,
represents the boundary between super-refraction and ducting, thus
becoming the probability for the occurrence of a radio duct. Unlike pD,
pL values are readily available in the literature. In addition, it has been
found that pD and pL1.5 are highly correlated. Therefore pL values are
currently employed in the estimation of the geoclimatic factor.

The pL values for the entire world are obtained from the maps included
in Rec. ITU-R P.453-6 for four different seasons represented by the
months February, May, August and November. The highest value,
expressed in %, obtained from the four maps should be used for
planning purposes. An exception is when planning for latitudes greater
than 60 °N or 60 °S when the maps of May and August should be used.

Coastal Links
Coastal links are links having a fraction rc of the path profile

• Less than 100 m above a body of water

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• Within 50 km of its coastline

• No height of land above the 100 m altitude (relative to the mean


altitude of the body of water in question) between the fraction of the
path profile and the coastline.

Coastal links over/near large bodies of water


The size of large bodies of water is considered with respect to several
known examples:

• English Channel

• North Sea

• Large reaches of the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas

• Hudson Strait

• Other bodies of water of similar size

Normally, measured values of the geoclimatic factor K are not


available, but it can be estimated according to

K l = 10 (1− rc )⋅log K i + rc ⋅log K cl when K cl ≥ K i .................................(81)

Ki when Kcl < Ki


−0.1⋅C0 − 0.011⋅ ξ
K cl = 2.3 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 10 ............................................................(82)

where Ki is given by expression (51) and C0 is obtained from Table 7.


The condition Kcl < Ki occurs in a few regions at low and mid latitudes.

The parameter rc is the fraction of the path profile below 100 m altitude
above the mean sea level of the body of water in question and within 50
km of the coastline, without intervening height above 100 m altitude.

Coastal links over/near medium-sized bodies of water


The size of medium-sized bodies of water is considered with respect to
several known examples

• Bay of Fundy (East Coast of Canada)

• Strait of Georgia (West Coast of Canada)

• Gulf of Finland and other bodies of water of similar size


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Normally, measured values of the geoclimatic factor K are not


available, but it can be estimated according to

K m = 10 (1− rc )⋅log K i + rc ⋅log K cm when K cm ≥ K i ...............................(83)

Ki when Kcm < Ki

K cm = 10 0.5⋅(log K i + log K cl ) .........................................................................(84)

where Ki is given by expression (51) and C0 is given by Table 7. The


condition Kcm < Ki occurs in a few regions at low and mid latitudes. The
parameter rc is as above.

When the size of the body of water classification (medium or large) in


question is not easy applicable, then the geoclimatic factor should be
estimated according to

K = 10 (1− rc )⋅log K i + 0.5⋅rc ⋅(log K cm + log K cl ) ...........................................................(85)

where the parameters are defined above.

Links at other regions


There are regions consisting of extensive area of lakes or “water
systems”. Typical example is the region of lakes in southern Finland.

Links not located in coastal areas but near vast area of lakes are
considered as coastal areas and the geoclimatic factor should be
estimated according to

K = 10 0.5⋅[( 2− rc )⋅log K i + rc ⋅log K cm ] ...................................................................(86)

where the parameters are defined above.

Link and terrain parameters – overview


When topography databases are not available, the alternative “unknown
terrain” and the corresponding three antenna altitude coefficient
alternatives should be employed. When topography databases are
available, the parameter input for the flat fading prediction can
generally be structured according to Figure 25.

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1) Low altitude antenna (0-400m)


Unknown
2) Medium altitude antenna (400-700m)
terrain
3) High altitude antenna (above 700m)

1) Low altitude antenna (0-400m)


a) Hills
b) Plains
2) Medium altitude antenna (400-700m)
Inland Links a) Hills
b) Plains
3) High altitude antenna (above 700m)
a) Hills
b) Plains
c) Mountains

1) Over/near large
Known bodies of water
Coastal Links
terrain 2) Over/near medium-
sized bodies of water

Links at other
regions

Figure 25: The structure of the parameter input in the flat fading
prediction function.

Estimation of the path slope


Path slope is calculated as follows

h A − hB
ε= .......................................................................................(87)
d

where
ε =Path slope, mrad
hA =Antenna height + ground elevation at the transmitter, m
hB =Antenna height + ground elevation at the receiver, m
d =Path length, km
A general rule of thumb is that rays will penetrate a duct without being
significantly reflected when the path slope is approximately greater than
0.4° (7 mrad). This would correspond approximately to a path length of
7 km and an antenna height difference of 50 m or a path length of about
3 km and an antenna height difference of 20 m.

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Outage due to flat fading


The percentage of time pw that the system’s fade margin, M, is exceeded
in the average worst month is calculated as follows,

 M
− 
⋅ (1 + ε )
−1.4
pω = K ⋅ d 3.6
⋅f 0.89
⋅ 10  10 
...............................................(88)

where
K = Geoclimactic factor
d = Path length, km
f = Frequency, GHz
ε = Path slope, mrad
M = Fade margin, dB

Range of values for the climatic factor pL


The range of the climatic factor and its impact on the fading results is
examined. The probability to exceed fade margin as a function of path
length is displayed for different pL settings, ranging from 1% (areas of
high latitudes) to approximately 40% (specific areas in the vicinity of
the equator). Fade margin close to 30 dB and frequency 7 GHz are
normally frequent values in many link applications. The path is
considered horizontal through all calculations, thus giving somewhat
more pessimistic probabilities to exceed fade margin.

Considering the actual parameter settings, the corresponding probability


range to exceed fade margin is extremely large, approximately three
orders of magnitude, see Figure 26.

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10-1

Probability to exceed fade margin, % • p L (%)

10-2 Ž Œ 1
• • 5
Ž 10
10-3 Œ • 20
• 30
‘ 40
M = 30 dB C 0 = 0 dB
10-4
’ 50
ε = 0 deg. C Lat = 0 dB
“ 60
f = 7 GHz C Lon = 3 dB ” 70
10-5

10-6
0 10 20 30 40
Path length, km

Figure 26: The probability range to exceed fade margin for climatic
factor in the range 1% and 40%.

Method for small percentage of time - conclusion


The wide range of the parameter values has considerable effects on the
flat fading results. In fact, the influence of some parameters on the
model is rather noticeable.

Figure 27 displays two extreme planning alternatives: “easy” and


“difficult”. Typical for the “easy” alternative are lower frequencies and
low pL values, high altitude antenna situated on mountains in the
vicinity of the equator at longitude corresponding to North and South
America. Typical for the “difficult” alternative are higher frequencies
and high pL values, low altitude antenna situated on plains far from the
equator at longitudes corresponding to Europe and Africa. The range
displayed in Figure 27 is approximately three orders of magnitude and
it might be wider for regions with stronger refraction properties (high pL
values).

Since flat fading is one of the major contributors to severely errored


seconds (SES), the wide range of parameter values plays a decisive part
when dimensioning the path length to fulfil the actual error performance
objectives. The transmission network planners should therefore select
the parameter values with caution.

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10-1

Probability to exceed fade margin, %


M = 30 dB C 0 = 0 dB
10-2 pL =40% C Lat = 7 dB

ε = 0 deg C Lon = 3 dB

10-3 f = 7 GHz M = 30 dB C = 10.5 dB


0
pL = 1% C Lat = 0 dB

10-4 ε = 0 deg C Lon = -3 dB


f= 2 GHz

10-5

10-6
0 10 20 30 40
Path length, km

Figure 27: Two extreme planning alternatives: “easy” (the lowest


curve) and “difficult”.

Method for various percentages of time


The prediction method described below combines an empirical
interpolation procedure between the deep fading region of the
distribution and 0 dB with the prediction method for small percentages
of time described in the previous section.

The interpolation procedure is performed in the following steps:

a) The percentage of time pw that the fade margin 35 dB is exceeded is


calculated according to (59)

b) The parameter q’a for fade margin 35 dB and the corresponding pw


value from step a is calculated as follows

  100 − p w 
− 20 ⋅ log − ln 
  100 
qa =
'
........................................................(89)
M

c) The parameter qt is calculated according to

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qt =
(q '
a −2 )  − 20

M

− 4.310 +
M 
 M
  800  .......................(90)
−  
1 + 0.3 ⋅ 10 20  ⋅ 10
− 0.016⋅M

  

d) If qt > 0, repeat steps a) to c) for M = 25 dB to obtain the final qt


value.

e) Depending on the value of the fade margin, the percentage of time pw


can be calculated as follows:

• For M > 25 dB or M > 35 dB, as appropriate, calculate the


percentage of time pw that the fade margin M is exceeded using the
method given by (59)

• For M < 25 dB or M < 35 dB, as appropriate, calculate the


percentage of time pw that the fade margin M is exceeded

 
a q ⋅M

−10 20
pω = 100 ⋅ 1 − e  ......................................................................(91)
 

where the parameter qa is obtained as follows:

   M 
[ ]
M M
− −
q a = 2 + 1 + 0.3 ⋅ 10 20  ⋅ 10 −0.016⋅M ⋅ qt + 4.3 ⋅ 10 20 +  ............(92)
   800 

The value of parameter qt is obtained in step c or d.

The prediction methods for small percentages of time and various


percentages of time are compared in Figure 28 for a path length of 20
km and with the previous parameter setting. For fade margin values
normally employed in most link applications, the output of both
methods are comparable, then making the method for small percentages
of time more suitable since it is relatively straightforward.

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10 2

Probability to exceed fade margin, %


Various percentages
of time d = 20 km C 0 = 0 dB
10 1 ε = 0 deg C Lon = 0 dB

f = 7 GHz C Lat = 0 dB
10 0
pL = 5%

10 -1

10 -2
Small percentages
10 -3 of time

10 -4

10 -5
0 10 20 30 40 50
Fade margin, dB

Figure 28: Comparison between the prediction methods for small


percentages of time and various percentages of time

Range of validity for the flat fading method


The flat fading prediction models described above are valid within the
following ranges:

95 ≥ d ≥ 7 km

37 ≥ f ≥ 2 GHz

24 ≥ ε ≥ 0 mrad

Path lengths up to approximately 190 km have been checked for


frequencies as low as 500 MHz. The results indicate that the validity
ranges described above, can be extended for larger ranges of path length
and frequency, and that the lower frequency limit of validity is
inversely proportional to path length, given roughly by

15
f min = ............................................................................................(93)
d

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Main differences between Rec. ITU-R P.530-6 and Rec. ITU-R P.530-7
Comparing the methods for evaluation of flat fading depicted in Rec.
ITU-R P.530-6 and in Rec. ITU-R P.530-7, the main differences are the
following:

a) Flat fading in the former method (Rec. ITU-R P.530-6) is predicted


for paths with and without profiles. This option of path profiles are
included in the actual method (Rec. ITU-R P.530-7) via the parameters
(terrain type and antenna altitude coefficients) used for the calculation
of the geoclimatic factor

b) The classification of the antenna altitude comprises three classes (0-


400, 400-700 and above 700 m above the mean sea level) in Rec. ITU-
R P.530-7 while in Rec. ITU-R P.530-6 there are two classes (lower
than 700 and higher than 700 m above the mean see level)

c) The calculation of the geoclimatic parameter

d) The dependence on the grazing angle has been removed

In several climates, however, ground reflections are rather more


frequent than atmospheric reflections, in some cases 70 to 80% more
frequent. For those specific climates, the absence of the grazing angle
dependence in the flat fading model is therefore surprising.

As mentioned before (see b), there are now three antenna altitude
classes instead of two classes. Comparing inland links in ITU-R P.530-
6 and ITU-R P.530-7, the latter gives probability to exceed fade margin
about 3 and 1.7 times more pessimistic, for low and medium altitude
antenna, respectively. For high altitude antennas, however, the
probability to exceed fade margin is comparable in both
recommendations.

Outage due to frequency selective fading


In the case of frequency selective fading, waves from different paths
interfere with one another at the receiver. The different propagation
waves can often be the result of ground reflections, reflections in the
ducting layer or propagation in layers having highly positive refraction
gradients. Layers having horizontal structures can also result in
frequency selective fading.

Occasionally, the various constituents unite with one another so that a


field-strength minimum arises in the case of certain frequencies.
Atmospheric layer movement (changes in path geometry) causes these
minimums to shift across the frequency band. The speed of such
shifting can vary from tens to hundreds of MHz/sec.
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Frequency selective fading is often characterized with by specifying the


difference in propagation time between the direct and indirect waves.
The propagation time differences are in turn a function of certain path
parameters (e.g., path length and path inclination) as well as
meteorological parameters.

The first cause of frequency selective fading is in-band distortion,


which can be described with the aid of the transfer function’s slope
within the frequency band.

Measurements performed in Sweden and simulations employing the 3-


path model have shown that a slope of a minimum of 0.22 dB/MHz is
attained within bandwidth B if the relative delay, τ, fulfills the
following relation

50
τ≥ ................................................................................................(94)
B

where
τ = Relative delay, ns
B = Bandwidth, MHz
The choice of the 0.22 dB/MHz threshold for the transfer function’s
slope is directly related to the fact that in-band distortion has proven to
cause system outage at values as low as 0.2 dB/MHz.

For a bandwidth B=50 MHz, the relative delay, τ, becomes ≥ 1 ns and


multipath fading is classified as being frequency selective. For systems
having smaller bandwidths, the relative delay is longer for a given path
length which means that the system becomes less sensitive to frequency
selective fading, since longer relative delays are less probable than
shorter relative delays.

A rule of thumb is that multipath fading, for radio links having


bandwidths less than 40 MHz and path lengths less than approximately
30 km, is described as being flat instead of frequency selective.

The prediction of frequency selective fading is a very difficult task.


There exist many different prediction models, the results of which
unfortunately deviate considerably from one another. With the
exception of the fact that contributions from flat and frequency selective
fading are not weighted but are additive, the prediction models
described here is the model specified in the ITU-R F.1093
recommendation.

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ITU-R F.1093 model


The probability of the occurrence of multipath fading, P, is calculated
as a function of the probabilities of the occurrence of selective fading
ps and flat fading pf as follows
α
 α α
 2
P =  P + P
s
2 2
fl
 ................................................................................(95)

 

The parameter α in the above expression determines how the


probability of the occurrence of fading may be weighted.. The
probability of the occurrence of multipath fading is simply obtained by
the sum of the probabilities of the occurrence, ps and pfl .

The probability of the occurrence of flat fading, pf , is obtained


according to the previous section.

The probability of the occurrence of frequency selective fading is


obtained by

p s = η ⋅ Ps / mp ......................................................................................(96)

where
Ps/mp = Probability of the occurrence of fading caused by
intersymbol interference during multipath fading
η = Probability of the occurrence of multipath fading
The propagation parameter η is empirically obtained by the following
expression
 3 
 − 0.2⋅ P0 4 
η = 1− e  
...................................................................................(97)

where P0 is the fade occurrence factor and is expressed by

 M

 pω ⋅ 10 10 
 
P0 =   ................................................................................(98)
100

where
pw = Probability of the occurrence of flat fading during the worst
month, %
M = Fade margin, dB

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Note, however, that P0 in the above expression is not expressed as a


percentage.

The echo delay, τ, can be characterized by different types of


distributions. This method employs an empirical relation, which
assumes exponentially distributed delays. Thus, it is expressed as
follows
n
D
τ m = τ m 0 ⋅   .................................................................................(99)
 50 

where
τm = Mean value of the echo delay, ns
τm0 = Mean relative delay for a standard path of 50 km, ns
D = Path length, km
n = normalization exponent with values in the range of 1.3 and 1.5.
The mean relative delay for a standard path, τm0, is usually about 0.7
seconds for exponentially distributed delays.

The probability of the occurrence of fading due to intersymbol


interference during multipath fading can be written as follows
B

C ⋅ pb (1) ⋅ W ⋅ 10 20
⋅ 2 ⋅ τ m2
Ps / mp = ....................................................(100)
τr

where
Ps/mp = The probability of the occurrence of fading due to
intersymbol interference during multipath fading
C = Constant factor
pb(1) = The value of pb when b=1
W = Signature width, GHz
B = Signature depth, dB
τr = Reference delay for λa (average of linear signature), ns
The value of the product C⋅pb(1) is usually 2.16 and the value of the
reference delay τr is 6.3 ns.

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Refraction fading
Refraction fading, also known as k-type fading, is characterized by the
fact that a lower earth-radius factor, k, causes the effective earth radius
to be less (the curvature of the effective earth surface becomes larger).
This, in turn, may cause earth surface irregularities (buildings,
vegetation, mountains, etc.) to penetrate the first Fresnel zone and cause
obstruction attenuation. The lower the values of the earth-radius factor
the smaller the effective earth radius and the greater the obstruction
attenuation.

The probability of refraction fading is therefore coupled to obstruction


attenuation for a given value of earth-radius factor. Since the earth-
radius factor is not constant, the probability of refraction fading is
calculated based on the cumulative distribution of the earth-radius
factor.

The probability of refraction fading is calculated in four steps:

1. A table is first constructed containing probabilities that the various k-


values will not be exceeded. A k-value distribution table for any
specific pL factor is employed, in order to interpolate the probabilities
for given k-values.

2. Obstruction attenuation values for the given k-values in the above


table are calculated based on an algorithm selected by the user.

3. The calculated obstruction attenuation values then replace the k-


values in the table. The earlier table is transformed into a new table
containing the probabilities in which the different obstruction
attenuation values will be exceeded.

4. Finally, fade margin is coupled to obstruction attenuation by


applying the link budget and the probabilities are calculated that
different fade margin values will be exceeded.

The total fading outage


The total outage is calculated by adding the contributions from the
frequency selective fading, flat fading, rain and refraction fading as
follows

Ptot = p s + p w + p r + p k ...................................................................(101)

where

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ps = The portion of time, expressed as a percentage of the worst


month, that the system’s fade margin, M , for BER = 10-3, is
exceeded due to frequency selective fading, %
pw = The portion of time, expressed as a percentage of the worst
month, that the system’s fade margin, M , for BER = 10-3, is
exceeded due to flat fading, %
pr = The portion of time, expressed in percent of the worst
month, during which a given fade-depth M (fade margin) is
exceeded, due to rain fading, %
pk = The portion of time, expressed in percent of the worst
month, during which a given fade-depth M (fade margin) is
exceeded, due to refraction fading (k-type fading), %
The contribution from frequency selective fading is calculated in
accordance with equation (67), rain fading in accordance with equation
(46), flat fading in accordance with equation (59) and refraction fading
in accordance with the method described in “Refraction fading”.

Basic radio-meteorological parameters for RL-


design
Several prediction models previously described in this chapter demand
radio-meteorological parameters. In what follows, the definition of the
parameters is presented along with the references where they are
encountered.

More accurate local radio-meteorological parameters are always


preferable.

Earth-radius factor
Definition: the earth-radius factor accounts for the refractive properties
of the atmosphere

Used: design of path profile, estimation obstacle loss and refraction-


diffraction fading

Reference: estimated as a function of the refraction gradient

Surface water vapor density


Definition: the annual surface water vapor density is the seasonal
surface water vapor density in the lowest part of the atmosphere.

Used: estimation of the gas attenuation

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Reference: Rec. ITU-R P.836-1

Relative humidity
Definition: the ratio between the air’s vapor pressure and its saturation
pressure

Used: estimation of the gas attenuation

Reference: estimated as a function of the temperature

pL factor (refractive factor)


Definition: the pL factor is the percentage of time the refractivity in the
lowest 100 m of the atmosphere is lower than –100 N-units/km during
the estimated average worst month.

Used: estimation of flat fading.

Reference: Rec. ITU-R P.453-6.

Refractive gradient
Definition: the refractive gradient in the lowest layer of the atmosphere,
100 m from the surface of the Earth.

Used: estimation of the local Earth-radius factor

Reference: Rec. ITU-R P.453-6.

Rain frequency-dependent coefficients


Definition: the rain frequency-dependent coefficients involve the
assumptions concerning the distribution of rain-drop size, form,
temperature and type of polarization.

Used: calculation of rain attenuation

Reference: Rec. ITU-R P.838

Rain climate zones


Definition: 15 ITU-structured rain climate zones

Used: prediction of zone-wide precipitation effects

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Reference: Rec. ITU-R P.837-1

Rain intensity distribution


Definition: cumulative distribution of rain intensity for the
corresponding rain climate zone

Used: prediction of zone-wide precipitation effects

Reference: Rec. ITU-R P.837-1

Annual and worst-month statistics


Definition: conversion parameters for annual and worst-month statistics
for different locations.

Used: conversion between annual and worst-month statistics in


multipath and rain fading.

Reference: Rec. ITU-R P.841

Hardware failure
Hardware failure is calculated for systems with and without
redundancy. Passive redundancy applies to redundant systems
configurations including monitored hot standby.

The word standby, as used here, implies that a ”reserve” component is


connected when replacing one that has failed, i.e., passive redundancy.
Hot refers to the fact that the ”reserve” component functions optimally
from the point at which it is introduced into the system, no ”warm-
up/switch-over” is therefore required. Monitored implies electronic
control/supervision.

The calculation of the radio-link system’s MTBF


The MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) for a particular equipment
can be arrived at both theoretically and practically. Theoretical MTBF
values are attained in accordance with certain reliability models that are
applied to the equipment. This is performed on a component level and
is a highly complex operation since many different parameters may be
involved. Practical MTBF is, on the other hand, somewhat simpler to
estimate via life-cycle testing aided by the collection of reliability data
from the equipment that is included in numerous systems. However, to
arrive at reliable MTBF values, it is very important that the number of
investigated units (the population), from which reliability data is
collected, is sufficiently large.

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Modern radio-link equipment exhibits very high availability. MTBF


values between 10 and 15 years are no longer unusual. Radio-link
manufacturers often specify the total MTBF of their radio-links, where
the MTBFs of the individual components (Mux, BB, MF and RF units,
power supplies, etc.) are included. It is however important that one
always check which elements are included in the equipment’s MTBF
before starting unavailability calculations.

The system’s total mean time between failures, MTBFS, can be


expressed as a function of the component’s mean time between failure,
MTBFi, as follows

1
MTBFS = n
.......................................................................(102)
1

i =1 MTBFi

where
MTBFs = The system’s total mean time between failure, years
MTBFi = The component’s individual mean time between failure,
years
n = The number of components in the system

Non-redundant systems
The probability of hardware failure for non-redundant systems is
calculated as follows

MTTR
ps = 8760 ⋅ 100 .............................................................(103)
MTTR
MTBFS +
8760

where
ps = Probability of hardware failure for a non-redundant
system, %
MTBFs = The system’s total mean time between failure, years
MTTR = The mean time to restore, hours

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The factor (1/8760) transforms MTTR from hours into years, thereby
having the same units as MTBFS. Mean time to repair, MTTR (Mean
Time To Restore), is defined as the duration of the interruption. As a
rule, this time consists of the travel time required between a manned
supervising station and the station containing the failed equipment plus
the actual repair time. It is important to note that the waiting time that
always arises in connection with the ordering and delivery of spare
parts is often not included in MTTR. The mean time to restore concept
assumes that spare parts are always available when failure occur.

MTTR may be considered as a measure of a system’s maintainability


and is always, for practical purposes, specified in hours.

Figure 29 illustrates, for four different values of MTTR, the probability


of hardware failure of a non-redundant system as a function of MTBF.

0.10
0.10
Probability of hardware failure, %

0.08

MTTR= 48 hours
0.06

MTTR= 24 hours
0.04
MTTR= 12 hours

MTTR= 6 hours
0.02

0.00
0 3 6 9 12 15
MTBF, years

Figure 29: Hardware failure of a non-redundant system as a function of


the MTBF.

Redundant systems
The probability of hardware failure for redundant systems is calculated
as follows

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 MTTRu 
MTTR  MTTR MTBFu ⋅ 8760 
ps = ⋅  +  ⋅ 100 ..........(104)
MTBFS ⋅ 8760  MTBFS ⋅ 8760 MTTR 
 1+
 MTTRu 

where
pr = Probability of hardware failure of a redundant system, %
MTBFs = The system’s total mean time between failure of one the
duplicated equipment, years
MTBFu = The mean time between failure of the non-doubled (non-
redundant) equipment (base-band distributor + switch),
years
MTTR = The mean time to restore of one of the doubled ................
(redundant) units of a redundant system, hours
MTTRu = The mean time to restore of the non-doubled (non-
redundant) equipment (base-band distributor + switch),
hours
The function of the switch-unit is to automatically switch traffic from
failed equipment to equipment that is in proper operating condition. The
comments above therefore only apply under the premise that a switch-
unit fault does not cause total system failure due to the fact that the
switch is required for system recovery. This means that traffic continues
via the remaining operational equipment even if the switch-unit and one
of the doubled components are not operating.

The probability of hardware failure of a redundant system (monitored


hot standby-configuration) as a function of MTBF has been calculated
for four different values of MTTR and is illustrated in the figure below.
In the calculation, the values of MTBFu and MTTRu, for the non-
doubled equipment (the base- band distributor + switch), have been set
to 10 years and 12 hours, respectively.

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10-4

Probability of hardware failure, %

MTTR= 48 hours

-5
10-4
MTTR= 24 hours

MTTR= 12 hours

MTTR= 6 hours

10-6
0 3 6 9 12 15
MTBF, years

Figure 30: The probability of hardware failure of a redundant system as


a function of the MTBF.

Hardware failure per path


The probability of hardware failure is calculated per path. The
assumption is, however, that the input parameters apply to the entire
radio-link system in question. This means, therefore, that the MTBF of
the radio-link system includes all individual components, including
their respective MTBF values, for both the transmitter and the receiver
in a duplex-setup configuration. The calculation of the probability of
hardware failure is performed separately for each station. The total
probability of hardware failure for each direction of the path (go and
return) is obtained by adding the hardware failure contributions of both
stations.

The calculated probability of hardware failure is given in percent per


year.

The following parameters are required:

• Configuration: redundant, non-redundant or no calculation of


unavailability due to hardware failure.

• The path’s mean time between failure for the doubled equipment,
years
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• The path’s mean time between failure for the non-doubled


equipment, years

• The mean time to restore for the doubled units of a redundant


system, hours

• The mean time to restore for the non-doubled units, hours

Diversity

The basic concepts


Systems that include doubled sets of equipment or systems that transmit
the same signal in parallel over two or more radio channels having
different frequencies are referred to as being redundant systems. In this
respect, redundancy and diversity have the same meaning.

Diversity receiving is an effective means of reducing the effects of,


above all, multipath fading, where the received signal is the vector
addition of multipath components that primarily vary in time, phase and
angle of arrival.

Random signal variations often occur during very short periods of time
and may very well be described with the aid of the Rayleigh
distribution. One utilizes the fact that deep fading in radio channels that
transmit the same information but are sufficiently separated in, for
example, frequency and/or space, have low correlation. The lower the
correlation, the higher is the improvement gained by the use of
diversity. In practice, good improvement can already be noticed at a
correlation of 0.6. Diversity is therefore a method that provides
statistically independent multipath components at the receiver.

Two fading depth statistical distributions are compared when measuring


the diversity improvement on a radio connection: one for the path with
diversity and one for the path without diversity. The measured
improvement can be expressed in two different ways: diversity gain and
diversity improvement.

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Figure 31 illustrates two fade-depth statistical distributions, for one and


the same path. Points A (without diversity) and C (with diversity)
correspond to two different fading levels having the same probability.
The measured improvement is referred to as diversity gain and is
expressed in dB. Points A (without diversity) and B (with diversity)
correspond to two different probabilities for the same level of fading
and is referred to as the improvement and is expressed as a factor.
Diversity improvement can therefore be expressed as the ratio of two
probabilities.

C
-10
Fading depth, dB

Without diversity
-20

gain
With diversity
-30
improvement B

-40 A

-50
10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7
Probability of exceeding the fading depth, %

Figure 31: Two fade-depth statistical distributions for one and the same
path, without and with diversity.

The definition of the improvement factor


Diversity is primarily utilized to reduce the effects of multipath fading.
The improvement factor can therefore be associated with the statistical
cumulative distribution of fading depth during the year’s worst month
in accordance with the prediction model for flat multipath fading.

In the calculation of the improvement factor for digital links, the


expression for analogue or narrow-band systems is adjusted in the case
of frequency diversity. For space diversity, however, it is used the same
expression in the calculation of the improvement factor for both analog
and digital or narrow-band systems.

As shown in Figure 26, the improvement factor can be defined as the


ratio of two probabilities: with the use of diversity and without the use
of diversity. Note however, that the improvement implies that the
probability of a given event will be even less, i.e., outage will increase.
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Pwithout (M )
I= ..................................................................................(105)
Pwith (M )

where
I = Improvement factor
Pwithout(M) = Probability that the fading depth will be greater than or
equal to M dB during the worst month for a path without
diversity, (%)
Pwith(M) = Probability that the fading depth will be greater than or
equal to M dB during the worst month for a path with diversity,
(%)

The calculation of the improvement factor: space diversity


The improvement factor due to the use of space diversity is calculated
here using the same algorithm for both analog and digital links

[ ]
M − ∆G

I = 1 − e (−3.34⋅10 ) ⋅ 10
−4
⋅s 0.87 ⋅ f − 0.12 ⋅d 0.48 ⋅ P0−1.04 10
........................................(106)

where
I = The improvement factor for analog and digital links
s = Vertical separation between the antennas, m
f = Frequency, GHz
d = Path length, km
M = Fade margin, dB
∆G = The difference in antenna gain between the two antennas,
dB
Parameter P0 is calculated as
M
Pwithout (M ) ⋅ 10 10
P0 = .......................................................................(107)
100

where
Pwithout (M) = The probability that fading depth is greater than or
equal to M dB during the worst month for a path
without diversity, (%). Pwithout(M) is the outage
due to flat multipath fading for the worst month.
The prediction model is considered as giving valid results within the
following interval:
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3 ≤ s ≤ 23 m
2 ≤ f ≤ 11 GHz
43 ≤ d ≤ 243 km

The model’s validity for values outside of these boundaries is unknown.

The calculation of the improvement factor: frequency diversity

Analogue 1+1 system


The frequency-diversity improvement factor for a 1+1 analogue system
or path without strong surface reflections can be calculated as follows:
M
0.8  ∆f 
Ia = ⋅   ⋅ 10 10 .....................................................................(108)
f ⋅d  f 

where
Ia = The improvement factor for analog or narrow-band systems
f = Band center frequency, GHz
∆f = Frequency spacing, GHz
d = Path length, km
M = Fade margin, dB
The prediction model is considered as giving valid results within the
following interval:

30 ≤ d ≤ 70 km
2 ≤ f ≤ 11 GHz
∆f /f ≤ 5 %

The model’s validity for values outside of these boundaries is unknown.

Digital 1+1 system


The improvement factor for digital 1+1 system is adjusted from the
analogue expression according to the following expression

I d = 10 ⋅ I a ........................................................................................(109)

where
Id = The improvement factor for digital or narrow-band systems

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Ia = The improvement factor for analog or narrow-band systems

The calculation of the improvement factor: space-frequency


diversity
The improvement factor for combined space-frequency diversity is
given by

I sf = I s + I f .....................................................................................(110)

where
Isf = The improvement factor for combined space-frequency .....
diversity
Is = The improvement factor for space diversity
If = The improvement factor for frequency diversity

The calculation of outage when employing diversity


When calculating the improvement brought about by the use of
diversity, it is important to remember that the probability that is referred
to above is the outage due to flat multipath fading for the worst month.

Following the calculation of the improvement factor, the outage in


conjunction with the use of diversity can be attained from equation (80).

Pwithout (M )
Pwith (M ) = .......................................................................(111)
I

Passive repeaters

The basic concepts


Passive repeaters generally consist of larger mirrored surfaces than
those of reflectors and are often used either on mountain peaks as plane
reflectors or in conjunction with certain applications when they are
referred to as back-to-back reflectors.

Back-to-back reflectors are discussed here. These reflectors consist of


two parabolic antennas, often mounted back-to-back on a low mast and
are connected to one another by a short waveguide/cable. There exists
therefore no direct connection from either a transmitter or receiver to
these parabolic antennas. They are primarily used in cities where line-
of-sight transmission is not possible due to buildings and other
obstructions.
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Path calculation in connection with the use of back-to-back reflectors


requires the calculation of

• the received and radiated power of the repeaters

• path attenuation

• fade margin

The intention behind the use of back-to-back reflectors is consequently


to influence the final quality of the path.

Path calculation when using passive repeaters


An added attenuation arises when using passive repeaters between two
stations due to the fact that the path between A and B is calculated as
two independent paths: from station A to the repeater R, see Figure 32,
and from the repeater to station B.

The added attenuation consists of obstruction, gas attenuation and free-


space loss and affects the total path attenuation between A and B.

B
A

dA dB

Figure 32: A passive repeater consisting of two parabolic antennas


mounted back-to-back.

Before calculating the added attenuation, one must first calculate the
received and the radiated power of the repeater.

A repeater can be considered as being a directional antenna, both in the


directions of the transmitter and receiver antennas. The input signal at
R, from station A, is calculated as being

1
PR = PA ⋅ G A ⋅ G R ⋅ ..................................................................(112)
Lbf , AR

where
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PR = Power received by the receiving antenna at R (the repeater)


PA = Radiated power of the transmitting antenna atA
GA = Antenna gain of the transmitting antenna at A
GR = Antenna gain of the repeater R
Lbf,AR = Free-space loss between the transmitting antenna
and the repeater
Free-space loss Lbf,SR between A and R can be written as

 4 ⋅π ⋅ d A 
2

Lbf , AR =  ........................................................................(113)
 λ 

where
λ = Wavelength, m
dA = Distance between the transmitter antenna and the repeater,
m
If the repeater reflects the received power, PR, in the direction of the
receiver, B, the received power at B is

1
PR ' = PR ⋅ G R ⋅ G B ⋅ ..................................................................(114)
Lbf , RB

where
PR’ = Power at the receiver antenna B
PR = Radiated power of the repeater
GR = Antenna gain of the repeater R
GB = Antenna gain of the receiver B
Lbf,RM = Free-space loss between the repeater and the
receiver antennas
Free-space loss Lbf,RM between R and B can be written as

 4 ⋅π ⋅ d B 
2

Lbf , RB =  .........................................................................(115)
 λ 

where
dB = The distance between the repeater and the receiver
antennas, m
λ = Wavelength, m

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Note that free-space loss, Lbf,AR and Lbf,RB are transformed to dB


following logarithmic conversion, see equation (13).

The total path loss is calculated as follows

AS = Abf , AR + Abf , RB + AH − AR + AH − RB + AG − AR + AG − RB +
.................(116)
AKA + AKB − G A − G B − −G AR − G RB

where
AS = Total path attenuation, dB
Abf,AR = Free-space loss for the partial path AR, dB
Abf,BR = Free-space loss for the partial path BR, dB
AH-AR = Obstruction loss for the partial path AR, dB
AH-BR = Obstruction loss for the partial path BR, dB
AG-AR = Gas attenuation for the partial path AR, dB
AG-BR = Gas attenuation for the partial path BR, dB
AKA = Feeder loss at station A, dB
AKB = Feeder loss at station B, dB
GA = Antenna gain at station A, dBi
GB = Antenna gain at station B, dBi
GAR = Antenna gain for the antenna at R facing station A, dBi
GBR = Antenna gain for the antenna at R facing station B, dBi
The fade margin for a path using back-to-back antennas is calculated as
follows

M = PTr − Pth − AS ............................................................................(117)

where
M = Fade margin, dB
PTr = The transmitter’s output power, dBm
Pth = The receiver’s threshold for a given bit-error ratio, dBm
AS = Total path loss, dB

References
Rec. ITU-R P.341-4

Rec. ITU-R P.453-6

Rec. ITU-R P.525-2


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Rec. ITU-R P.526-5

Rec. ITU-R P.530-7

Rec. ITU-R P.581-2

Rec. ITU-R P.676-3

Rec. ITU-R P.834-2

Rec. ITU-R P.836-1

Rec. ITU-R P.837-1

Rec. ITU-R P.838

Rec. ITU-R P.841

Rec. ITU-R P.1057

“Radiowave Propagation”, Boithias, L., North Oxford Academic, 1987.

“Low-Angle Microwave Propagation: Physics and Modeling”, Giger,


A. J., Artech House, 1991.

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THE INTERNATIONAL
TELECOMMUNICATION UNION
(ITU)
This chapter deals with the ITU organization and its
administrative tasks. The chapter provides valuable
information on how to search and locate important ITU-R
and ITU-T reports and recommendations on specific
subjects related to radio-relay transmission.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 1
The new ITU organization ................................................................................................................................ 2
The administration of the ITU........................................................................................................................... 2
The Plenipotentiary Conference .......................................................................................................... 3
The Council......................................................................................................................................... 4
World Conferences on International Telecommunications ................................................................. 4
The Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) ......................................................................................... 5
Radio Communication Study Group Structure...................................................................... 5
The Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)................................................................... 9
The Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D)...................................................................... 9
The General Secretariat....................................................................................................................... 10
Advisory Groups ................................................................................................................................. 11
Financing of the ITU ......................................................................................................................................... 11
ITU Member countries ........................................................................................................................ 11
Other organizations (Sector members) ................................................................................................ 12
Publications and seminars ................................................................................................................................. 12
Telecom Information Exchange Services (TIES).............................................................................................. 13
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 13
ITU-R Recommendations matrix ...................................................................................................................... 13
Appendices........................................................................................................................................................ 14
Appendix A: ITU Top Management (1999-2002) .............................................................................. 14
Appendix B: Radio Regulations Board (1999-2002) - Members........................................................ 14
Appendix C: ITU Landmarks.............................................................................................................. 14
Appendix D: ITU Secretary-Generals (1869 to present)..................................................................... 17
Appendix E: Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 18
Appendix F: ITU-R Recommendations............................................................................................... 19
Appendix G: P Series Recommendations - Radiowave Propagation................................................... 20
Appendix H: F Series Recommendations - Fixed service ................................................................... 23

i
THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

Introduction
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has been a
specialized agency of the United Nations since 1947. Founded in 1865
in Paris, it was originally named the International Telegraph Union. It
has been operating under its present name and since 1934. In addition to
the Member States (basically the same countries which are members of
the United Nations), the ITU consists of about 575 members (by
November 1999) from scientific and industrial companies, public and
private operators, broadcasters and regional and international
organizations. There are 7 membership categories: 1) Recognized
Operating Agencies, 2) Scientific or Industrial Organizations, 3)
Financial or Development Institutions, 4) Other Entities dealing with
telecommunication matters, 5) Regional and Other International
Organizations, 6) Regional Telecommunication Organizations and 7)
Intergovernmental Organizations Operating Satellite Systems.

Both the private and the public sectors cooperate in the development of
the telecommunications area through several ITU activities, however
the primary purpose of the ITU is to adopt international regulations and
agreements aimed at managing all terrestrial and space uses of the
frequency spectrum, including the use of the geostationary-satellite
orbit.

The ITU also develops standards for making the interconnection of


telecommunication systems possible, irrespective of the type of
technology. Further, the ITU provides developing countries with
specialized technical assistance in the areas of telecommunication
policies, management, choice and transfer of technologies, financing of
investment projects, installation and maintenance of networks, research
and development.

Generally, the following issues are the responsibility of the ITU:

• Technical issues: improve the efficiency and usefulness of


telecommunication services and their general availability to the
public by offering and promoting the development and efficient
operation of telecommunication applications.

• Development issues: promote and offer technical assistance to


developing countries in the area of telecommunication through the
mobilization of human and financial resources.

• Policy issues: stimulate the adoption of a general approach on


questions concerning telecommunication and its connection to
economy and society on a worldwide scale.

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

The new ITU organization


Regulating the use of frequencies is an essential aspect of the work of
ITU. To increase the efficiency of this effort, it was decided to separate
the standards-setting activities of the former International Consultative
Radio Committee (CCIR) from its activities related to the efficient
management of the radio-frequency spectrum in terrestrial and space
radiocommunication.

Following a three year study and review performed by the Member


countries as to the need for the ITU to meet the rapidly evolving
requirements of modern telecommunications, the 1992 Additional
Plenipotentiary Conference reaffirmed the basic purposes of the Union
and updated the ITU structures.

The Conference restructured the ITU into three Sectors in order to


improve coordination, to improve the user interface and other
cooperating organizations and to provide for the continuous review of
strategy and planning.

The standards-setting functions were then merged with those of the


former International Consultative Telegraph and Telephone Committee
(CCITT) to form a telecommunication standardization sector; the other
technical activities were integrated into a new radiocommunication
sector along with the regulatory activities formerly carried out by the
International Frequency Registration Board (IFRB).

The administration of the ITU


The ITU administration body is composed of several departments and
sectors. The Radiocommunication Sector was created on 1 March 1993.
The other two Sectors are the Telecommunication Standardization and
Telecommunication Development Sectors. This is illustrated in Figure 1
below.

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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

Plenipotentiary
Conference

Council

Radiocommunication Telecommunication Telecommunication


Sector Standardization Sector Development Sector
World Conferences
on International
Telecommunications
World/ Radio Radio World World/Regional
Regional Regulation Assembly Telecommunication
Radio Board Telecommunication
Standardization Development
Conferences
Conferences Conferences

TS AG TD AB

Study Study
Groups Groups
RAG CPM Study SC
Groups

Member States and Sector Members Member States

Figure 1: The ITU governing bodies.

All ITU efforts in the field of radiocommunication have been


consolidated into the Radiocommunication Sector. A two-year cycle of
conferences and meetings, accelerated publications and a new ITU
management system have been introduced to facilitate timely and cost-
effective functions.

The following is a description of each unity.

The Plenipotentiary Conference


The Plenipotentiary Conference is the supreme authority of the ITU.
This body meets every four years to adopt the fundamental policies of
the organization and a strategic plan. It also makes decisions as to its
organization and activities.

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The Council
The Council is represented by a number of members corresponding to
25% of the ITU membership. Its responsibility is to act on behalf of the
Plenipotentiary Conference by meeting annually to consider general
telecommunication policy issues, the approval of budgets and the
coordination of the various ongoing tasks. The annual meetings also
ensure that the policies and strategies undertaken by the ITU are in line
with the frequent changes and developments arising in
telecommunication issues.

The fifteenth Plenipotentiary Conference of the International


Telecommunication Union (ITU) was held in Minneapolis, USA, during
October 12 and November 6, 1998. The next ITU Council was elected
for the period 1999-2002 and is composed of forty-six Members of the
Union elected by the Plenipotentiary Conference with due regard as to
the need for the equitable distribution of Council seats among all five
regions of the world:

Region A (Americas): Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Saint


Lucia, USA and Venezuela.

Region B (Western Europe): Denmark, France, Germany, Italy,


Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Region C (Eastern Europe): Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland,


Romania and Russia.

Region D (Africa): Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire,


Egypt, Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Morocco, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania
and Tunisia.

Region E (Asia & Australia): Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea


(Rep), Kuwait, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Thailand
and Vietnam.

World Conferences on International Telecommunications


The World Conferences on International Telecommunications take
place periodically to review and revise the international
telecommunication regulations applicable to administrations and
operators of international communications. The world conferences
establish the general principles related to the provision and operation of
public international telecommunications services.

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The Radio communication Sector (ITU-R)


The Radiocommunication Sector is in particular responsible for the
providing of impartial, rational, efficient and economical use of the
radio-frequency spectrum by all classes of radiocommunication
services, including those services employing geostationary-satellite
orbits. It handles technical and operational questions specifically related
to radiocommunication. It is also responsible for performing the
necessary studies on which the recommendations are then based and
adopted. Its policy and legislative functions are exercised at world and
regional telecommunication conferences and radiocommunication
assemblies supported by study groups.

Radio Communication Study Group Structure


More than 1,500 specialists, from telecommunication organizations and
administrations throughout the world, participate in the work of the
Radiocommunication Study Groups.

The functions of the Study Groups are:

• draft the technical basis for Radiocommunication Conferences

• develop drafts for ITU-R Recommendations as to the technical


characteristics of, and operational procedures for,
radiocommunication services and systems

• compile Handbooks on spectrum management and emerging


radiocommunication services and systems.

Drafted ITU-R Recommendations may be approved either by


correspondence or by the next Radiocommunication Assembly. Studies
of mutual interest to the Radiocommunication and Telecommunication
Standardization Study Groups are overseen by Inter-sector Coordination
Groups.

Conference Preparatory Meetings (CPMs) prepare a consolidated report


as to the technical, operational and regulatory/procedural bases for a
WRC. The appropriate Study Groups undertake regulatory studies of a
technical or operational nature. Regulatory/procedural matters are
addressed in a Special Committee. The CPM updates and evaluates the
material from the Study Groups and Special Committee, against any
new material submitted to it.

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Each group has a consular, a chairman and several vice chairmen. The
identification number of each study group follows the earlier group
numbering. After the reorganization of the ITU, some groups were
merged together forming a group with a specific number while some
other numbers were suppressed.

The groups are subdivided into working parties according to specific


fields, each working party having a chairman.

At present, there are 8 Study Groups (SGs), comprising 10 Task Groups


and 32 Working Parties, addressing the following topics:

SG 1: Spectrum management
Working Party 1A (Chairman: T. Jeacock): Engineering principles and
techniques, including computer-aided analysis for effective spectrum
management

Working Party 1B (Chairman: A. Pavliouk): Principles and techniques


for spectrum planning and sharing

Working Party 1C (Chairman: N. Kisrawi): Techniques for spectrum


monitoring

Task Group 1/4 (Chairman for Phase 2: D. Bacon): Electronic exchange


of spectrum management information

Task Group 1/5 (Chairman: M. S. Dhamrait): Unwanted emissions and


the modification of Rec. SM.328-8 concerning out-of-band emissions

Task Group 1/6 (Chairman: G. Chan): Development of method(s) for


the determination of the coordination area around Earth stations

SG 3: Radiowave propagation
Working Party 3J (Chairman: G. Brussaard): Propagation fundamentals

Working Party 3K (Chairman: E. J. Haakinson): Point-to-area


propagation

Working Party 3L (Chairman: R. Hanbaba): HF propagation

Working Party 3M (Chairman: M. P. M. Hall): Point-to-Point and


Earth-space propagation

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SG 4: Fixed-satellite services
Working Party 4A (Chairman: A. G. Reed): Efficient orbit/spectrum
utilization

Working Party 4B (Chairman: D. Weinreich): Systems, performance,


availability and maintenance

Working Party 4-9S (Chairman: W. Rummler): Frequency sharing


between the fixed-satellite service and fixed service

Working Party 4SNG (Chairman: A. Uyttendaele): Satellite news


gathering, outside broadcast via satellite

SG 7: Science services
Working Party 7A (Chairman: G. De Jong): Time signals and frequency
standard emissions

Working Party 7B (Chairman: R. Taylor): Space radio systems

Working Party 7C (Chairman: L. Ruiz): Earth exploration - satellite


systems and meteorological systems

Working Party 7D (Chairman: J. Whiteoak): Radio astronomy

SG 8: Mobile, radio-determination, amateur and related satellite


services
Working Party 8A (Chairman: O. Villanyi): Land mobile services
excluding FPLMTS; amateur and amateur satellite services

Working Party 8B (Chairman: R. L. Swanson): Maritime mobile


services including the global maritime distress and safety system
(GMDSS)and aeronautical mobile services excluding public telephone
services to aircraft.

Working Party 8D (Chairman: T. Mizuike): All mobile satellite services


except the amateur satellite service; radio-determination satellite
services; public telephone services to aircraft

Task Group 8/1 (Chairman: M. H. Callendar): Future public land


mobile telecommunication systems (FPLMTS)

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SG 9: Fixed services
Working Party 9A (Chairman: V. M. Minkin): Performance and
availability, interference objectives and analysis, effects of propagation
and terminology

Working Party 9B (Acting Chairman: A. Hashimoto): Radio-frequency


channel arrangements, radio-system characteristics, interconnection,
maintenance and applications

Working Party 9C (Chairman: N. M. Serinken): HF systems

Working Party 9D (Chairman: G. F. Hurt): Sharing with other services


(except for the fixed-satellite service)

SG 10: Broadcasting services (sound)


Working Party 10A (Chairman: L. Olson): Sound broadcasting at
frequencies below 30 MHz and antennas for sound broadcasting

Working Party 10B (Chairman: F. Konway): Terrestrial sound


broadcasting at frequencies above 30 MHz

Working Party 10C (Chairman: C. Todd): Audio-frequency


characteristics of sound broadcasting signals

Task Group 10-6 (Chairman: J. Chilton): Digital sound broadcasting at


frequencies below 30 MHz

SG 11: Broadcasting service (television)


Working Party 11A (Chairman: D. Wood): Television systems and data
broadcasting

Working Party 11B (Chairman: J. Johann): Digital television (source


coding)

Working Party 11C (Chairman: S. Perpar): Terrestrial television


(emission and planning parameters)

Working Party 10-11Q (Chairman: J.-P. Evain): Audio and video


quality evaluation (documents are posted under SG 11)

Working Party 10-11R (Chairman: P. Zaccarian): Recording for


broadcasting (documents are posted under SG 11)

Working Party 10-11S (Chairman: R. Zeitoun): Satellite broadcasting


(documents are posted under SG 11)
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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

Task Group 10/11 (Chairman: C. Weinzweig): Multimedia broadcast


evolution and common content format (documents are posted under SG
11)

Task Group 11/5 (Chairman: B. E. Aldous): Digital sound broadcasting


at frequencies below 30 MHz

SG CCV: Coordination Committee for Vocabulary (Ms. D. Fabiani)

The Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)


The Telecommunication Standardization Sector is responsible for the
study of technical, operational and tariff-related issues and to then
provide worldwide recommendations that are to be used as
documentation for telecommunications standardization. It is also
responsible for recommendations concerning the interconnection of
radio systems in public telecommunication networks and the necessary
performance and availability required by such interconnections.
Generally, ITU-T Recommendations are complied with since they
guarantee the worldwide interconnectivity of networks.

Supported by study groups, the policy-making and legislative functions


of the Telecommunication Standardization Sector present their findings
at World Telecommunication Standardization Conferences.

The Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D)


The Telecommunication Development Sector is responsible for
establishing and highlighting telecommunication developments by
offering, organizing and coordinating technical cooperation and
assistance activities. The policy functions are fulfilled by world and
regional telecommunication development conferences, which are
supported by study groups.

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The General Secretariat


The General Secretariat is responsible for administrative and financial
aspects, see Figure 2. In addition, it is also responsible for the
preparation, publication and distribution of reports dealing with changes
in telecommunication issues, the organization and provision of logistic
support to ITU conferences, the coordination of ITU efforts with the
United Nations and other international organizations, that its Members
and users cooperate fully, the organization of worldwide and regional
telecommunication exhibitions and discussion forums, to provide the
press, institutions, general public and telecommunications users with
available information, and finally, to make electronic documents,
publications and databases available and accessible.

Coordination Committee

Director Director Director Secretary General


BR TSB BDT Deputy Secretary
General

WTAC

Bureau Bureau Bureau General


BR TSB BDT Secretariat

Elected Officials Staff Advisory Board

Figure 2: The ITU secretariats.

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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

Advisory Groups
The Director of each Bureau is assisted by a number of advisory groups
(the Radiocommunication Advisory Group, RAG, the
Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group, TSAG, and the
Telecommunication Development Advisory Board, TDAB) whose role
is to:

• review Sector activity priorities and strategies

• review the progress of work-program implementation

• provide guidelines for the undertakings of the Study Groups

• recommend measures that foster cooperation and coordination with


other organizations as well as within the various constituents of the
Union.

The advisory groups are open to representatives of administrations, to


organizations authorized to participate in the work of the Union and to
Sector Study Group representatives.

The ordinary budget covers expenditures pertaining to the


Administrative Council, common Headquarters expenditures (staff,
social security, premises, mission expenses, office expenses) and
expenditures pertaining to ITU conferences and meetings. The
Technical Cooperation Special Accounts Budget covers administrative
expenditures associated with projects that are related to technical
assistance grants to developing nations. Such projects are financed by
the United Nations Development Program and funds-in-trust. The
Publications Budget covers production costs for all publications, and is
financed by the sale of these publications.

Financing of the ITU

ITU Member countries


At each Plenipotentiary Conference, ITU Member countries choose
their class of contribution, generally ranging from 1/16 to 40. The
classes, 1/16 and 1/8, are reserved for those countries classified as Least
Developed Countries by the United Nations plus other countries, as
selected by the ITU Council.

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The contribution of ITU Member countries covers their participation in


all sectors and in all activities with the exception of regional radio
conferences. The value of the contributory unit is calculated by dividing
the ordinary budget of the Union by the number of units contributed by
Members. Participation in regional radio conferences requires an
additional financial contribution, and is calculated by dividing the total
budget for the conference by the number of units contributed by the
Members of that region.

Other organizations (Sector members)


All other organizations that are permitted to participate in the work of
the Union, may choose a class of contribution between 1/2 and 40 with
the exception of those classified as belonging to the Development
sector, in which case classes of contributions may range from 1/16 to
40. The class of contribution is multiplied by 1/5th of the value of the
contributory unit of Member countries.

The contribution covers participation in all Sector activities including


its conferences and/or assemblies, with the exception of radio
conferences. A separate contribution is required for Plenipotentiary
Conferences, World Conferences on International Telecommunications
(which are not part of any Sector), radio conferences and Sector
conferences or assemblies in which the contributor is not a member. In
such cases, the value of the contributory unit is calculated by dividing
the total budget for the conference/assembly by the number of units
contributed by Members to the ordinary budget of the Union, multiplied
by 1/5.

Each member, non-exempted international organization, operating


agency and scientific or industrial organization chooses the class of
contribution in which it wishes to be included and then pays its annual
contributory share in advance, as calculated on the basis of the ordinary
budget.

Publications and seminars


The publications of the Sector are available for sale in three or more of
the six official languages of the ITU. They are distributed in a variety of
formats, including microfiche, CD-ROM, diskette and are also available
on-line.

The Bureau publishes the ITU-R Recommendations developed by the


Study Groups, as well as Radio Regulations, Frequency Assignment and
Allotment Plans, HF Broadcasting Schedules plus a weekly circular
containing notifications and findings.
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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

Telecom Information Exchange Services (TIES)


TIES is a set of networked information services and resources for the
global telecommunication community available via Internet. Some
working documents of Study Groups and other contributions related to
pre-working activities at conferences are only available via TIES. TIES-
membership is not charged for the Ericsson community and registration
is available at the following address: http://www.itu.int/TIES/.

References
General information and ITU factual information were gathered from
Internet ”http//www.itu.int” during November 1999.

General information may also be obtained via Ericsson’s Intranet:


http://standards.lme.ericsson.se. This is Ericsson’s source for
information, documents and www-links in Telecom Standards and
Regulations.

ITU-R Recommendations matrix


The ITU-R Recommendations currently used in the prediction cycle of
radio transmission planning are structured in Figure 3 according to the
main four activity blocks.

ITU-R SF.1008-1
ITU-R SF.358-5
ITU-R SF.406-8
ITU-R F.1093-1

ITU-R F.1092-1
ITU-R F.1189-1

ITU-R F.1098-1
ITU-R F.1099-3

ITU-R F.1094-1
ITU-R F.1108-2

ITU-R F.1191-1
ITU-R P. 836-1

ITU-R SF.1004
ITU-R SF.1005
ITU-R SF.1006
ITU-R P.341-4
ITU-R P.453-6
ITU-R P.525-2
ITU-R P.526-5
ITU-R P.527-3
ITU-R P.530-7
ITU-R P.581-2
ITU-R P.676-3
ITU-R P.833-1
ITU-R P.834-2
ITU-R P.835-2

ITU-R P.837-1

ITU-R P.840-3

ITU-R F.556-1
ITU-R F.557-4
ITU-R F.594-4
ITU-R F.634-4

ITU-R F.696-2
ITU-R F.697-2
ITU-R F.751-2

ITU-R F.384-7
ITU-R F.387-8
ITU-R F.497-6
ITU-R F.595-6
ITU-R F.635-5
ITU-R F.746-4
ITU-R F.748-3

ITU-R F.699-4
ITU-R P.1057

ITU-R F.1241

ITU-R F.1190
ITU-R P.838

ITU-R P.841

ITU-R F.695

Free-space
gAttenuation

Obstacle
Loss

Atmospheric
Rain
Reflection
n

Rain
i F a d
Mechanisms

Multipath - Flat

Multipath - Freq. Sel

Refraction - Diffract.
Availability

ITU-T G.821 based


Quality &

ITU-T G.826 based

ITU-T G.827 based

Frequency
arrangements
Interference
assessment

Figure 3: The ITU-R Recommendations matrix.

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Appendices

Appendix A: ITU Top Management (1999-2002)


Yoshio Utsumi (Japan): Secretary-General

Roberto Blois (Brazil): Deputy Secretary-General

Robert W. Jones (Canada) : Director, Radiocommunication Bureau


(BR)

Hamadoun I. Touré (Mali): Director, Telecommunication Development


Bureau (BDT)

Houlin Zhao (China): Director, Telecommunication Standardization


Bureau (TSB)

Appendix B: Radio Regulations Board (1999-2002) - Members


Radio Regulations Board (1999-2002) – Members:

Region A (Americas): Carlos Alejandro Merchán Escalante (Mexico)


and James R. Carroll (USA).

Region B (West. Europe): Pierre Aboudarham (France) and Gabor


Kovacs (Hungary).

Region C (East. Europe): Valery V. Timofeev (Russia) and Ryszard G.


Struzak (Poland).

Region D (Africa): Jean-Baptiste Yao Kouakou (Côte d'Ivoire), John


Ray Kwabena Tandoh (Ghana) and Ahmed Toumi (Marocco).

Region E (Asia and Australasia): Ravindra N. Agarwal (India), Mian


Muhammad Javed (Pakistan) and George Hugh Railton (New Zealand).

Appendix C: ITU Landmarks


1837 Invention of the first electric telegraph.

1865 17 May. Foundation of the International Telegraph Union by


twenty States with the adoption of the first Convention. First Telegraph
Regulations.

1868 Vienna - Telegraph Conference. Decision to establish Union


headquarters in Bern.
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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

1869 Publication of Telegraph Journal.

1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents his invention of the telephone.

1885 Berlin - Telegraph Conference. First provisions for international


telephone service.

1895 First signals transmitted by radio-relay system.

1902 First radio transmissions of the human voice.

1906 Berlin - International Radiotelegraph Conference


(Plenipotentiary). First Radiotelegraph Convention; Service
Regulations. Adoption of SOS signal. First trials of broadcasting (voice
and music) using radiotelephony.

1920 Birth of sound-broadcasting.

1924 Paris - Creation of CCIF (international Telephone Consultative


Committee).

1925 Paris - Creation of CCIT (International Telegraph Consultative


Committee).

1927 Washington - Radiotelegraph Conference (Plenipotentiary).


Creation of the CCIR (International Radio Consultative Committee).

1932 Madrid - Plenipotentiary Conference. Telegraph and


Radiotelegraph Conventions merged into a single International
Telecommunication Convention. Telegraph Union changes name to
International Telecommunication Union. Telegraph Journal becomes
Telecommunication Journal.

1947 Atlantic City - Plenipotentiary Conference. Creation of IFRB


(international Frequency Registration Board). Administrative Council
set up. ITU becomes a specialized agency of the United Nations.

1948 ITU headquarters transferred to Geneva.

1952 Buenos Aires - Plenipotentiary Conference. Start of ITU technical


cooperation activities.

1956 Geneva - CCIF and CCIT merged into new CCITT (International
Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee).

1957 Launching of Sputnik-1, the Earth's first artificial satellite.

1962 New building for ITU headquarters in Geneva.

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1963 Geneva - First World Space Radiocommunication Conference.

1965 Montreux - Plenipotentiary Conference. Centenary of the Union.


Commemorative ceremony in Paris.

1971 First World Telecommunication Exhibition and FORUM -


TELECOM 71.

1982 Nairobi - Plenipotentiary Conference. Independent Commission


for World-Wide Telecommunications Development established

1983 World Communications Year (WCY).

1985 Asia TELECOM 85 - First regional telecommunication exhibition


in Asia and the Pacific region.

1986 Africa TELECOM 86 - First regional telecommunication


exhibition in Africa region.

1988 America TELECOM 88 - First regional telecommunication


exhibition in the Americas region.

1989 Nice - Plenipotentiary Conference, Creation of the High Level


Committee to carry out an in-depth review of the structure and
functioning of the Union, in order to recommend reforms enabling the
organization to respond to the challenges of the new international
telecommunications environment.

1990 125th anniversary of the ITU

1992 Torremolinos - World Administrative Radio Conference for


dealing with frequency allocations in certain parts of the spectrum
(WARC-92) Geneva - Plenipotentiary Conference to adopt any
structural reforms deemed necessary in light of the Recommendations
of the High Level Committee. Creation of three sectors
(radiocommunications, telecommunication standardization and
development) into which functions previously carried out by organs
(IFRB, CCIR, CCITT, BDT) are integrated Europa TELECOM 92 -
First regional telecommunication exhibition in Europe.

1993 Helsinki - First World Telecommunication Standardization


Conference Geneva - First World Radiocommunication Conference and
Assembly.

1994 Kyoto - Plenipotentiary Conference.

1995 130th anniversary of the ITU.

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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

1998 Minneapolis - Plenipotentiary Conference.

Appendix D: ITU Secretary-Generals (1869 to present)


Louis CURCHOD (Switzerland) Director 1 January 1869 to 24 May
1872 and 23 February 1873 to 18 October 1889

Charles LENDI (Switzerland) Director from 24 May 1872 to 12 January


1873

Auguste FREY (Switzerland) Director from 25 February 1890 to 28


June 1890

Timothie ROTHEN (Switzerland) Director from 25 November 1890 to


11 February 1897

Emile FREY (Swizerland) Director from 11 March 1897 to 1 August


1921

Henri ETIENNE (Switzerland) Director from 2 August 1921 to 16


December 1927

Joseph RABER (Switzerland) Director from 1 February 1928 to 30


October 1934

Franz von ERNST (Switzerland) Director from 1 January 1935 to 31


December 1949

Leon MULATIER (France) Secretary-General from 1 January 1950 to


31 December 1953

Marco Aurelio ANDRADA (Argentina) Secretary-General from 1


January 1954 to 18 June 1958

Gerald C. GROSS (United States) Secretary-General from 1 January


1960 to 29 October 1965

Manohar Balaji SARWATE (India) Secretary-General from 30 October


1965 to 19 February 1967

Mohamed Ezzedine MILI (Tunisia) Secretary-General 20-Feb-1967 to


31-Dec-1973, 1-Jan-1974 to 31-Dec-1982

Richard E. BUTLER (Australia) Secretary-General from 1 January 1983


to 31 October 1989

Pekka TARJANNE (Finland) Secretary-General from 1 November 1989


to 31 December 1998.

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Yoshio UTSUMI (Japan) Secretary General from 1 January 1999.

Appendix E: Acronyms
ITU International Telecommunication Union

SG General Secretariat

WTAC World Telecommunication Advisory Council

ITU-R Radiocommunication Sector

BR Radiocommunication Bureau

ITU-R Recommendations

RRB Radio Regulations Board

SG Study Groups

RAG Radiocommunication Advisory Group

WRC World Radiocommunication Conference

RA Radiocommunication Assembly

RRC Regional Radiocommunication Conference

ITU-T Telecommunication Standardization Sector

TSB Telecommunication Standardization Bureau

ITU-T Recommendations

SG Study Groups

TSAG Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group

WTSC World Telecommunication Standardization Conference

ITU-D Telecommunication Development Sector

BDT Telecommunication Development Bureau

ITU-D Recommendations

SG Study Groups

TDAB Telecommunication Development Advisory Board


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WTDC World Telecommunication Development Conference

RTDC Regional Telecommunication Development Conference

WCIT World Conference on International Telecommunication

Appendix F: ITU-R Recommendations


BO Series Recommendations - Broadcasting satellite service (sound and
television) (20)

BR Series Recommendations - Sound and television recording (29)

BS Series Recommendations - Broadcasting service (sound) (46)

BT Series Recommendations - Broadcasting service (television) (63)

F Series Recommendations - Fixed service (123)

IS Series Recommendations - Inter-service sharing and compatibility


(10)

M Series Recommendations - Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and


related satellite services (122)

P Series Recommendations - Radiowave Propagation (67)

RA Series Recommendations - Radioastronomy (6)

S Series Recommendations - Fixed satellite service (57)

SA Series Recommendations - Space applications and meteorology (45)

SF Series Recommendations - Frequency sharing between the fixed


satellite service and the fixed service (16)

SM Series Recommendations - Spectrum management (41)

SNG Series Recommendations - Satellite news gathering (7)

TF Series Recommendations - Time signals and frequency standards


emissions (21)

V Series Recommendations - Vocabulary and related subjects (12)

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

Appendix G: P Series Recommendations - Radiowave Propagation


[P.310-9] Definitions of terms relating to propagation in non-ionized
media

[P.311-8] Acquisition, presentation and analysis of data in studies of


tropospheric propagation

[P.313-8] (REVISED) Exchange of information for short-term forecasts


and transmission of ionospheric disturbance warnings

[P.341-4] (REVISED) The concept of transmission loss for radio links

[P.368-7a] Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10


kHz and 30 MHz

[P.368-7b] Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between


10 kHz and 30 MHz

[P.368-7c] Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10


kHz and 30 MHz

[P.370-7] (REVISED) VHF and UHF propagation curves for the


frequency range from 30 MHz to 1000 MHz. Broadcasting services

[P.371-7] (REVISED) Choice of indices for long-term ionospheric


predictions

[P.372-6a] Radio noise

[P.372-6b] Radio noise

[P.372-6c] Radio noise

[P.372-6d] Radio noise

[P.372-6e] Radio noise

[P.373-7] (REVISED) Definitions of maximum and minimum


transmission frequencies

[P.452-8] Prediction procedure for the evaluation of microwave


interference between stations on the surface of the Earth at frequencies
above about 0.7 GHz

[P.453-6] The radio refractice index: its formula and refractivity data

[P.525-2] Calculation of free space attenuation

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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

[P.526-5] Propagation by diffraction

[P.527-3] Electrical characteristics of the surface of the Earth

[P.528-2] Propagation curves for aeronautical mobile and


radionavigation services using the VHF, UHF and SHF bands

[P.529-2] (REVISED) Prediction methods for the terrestrial land mobile


service in the VHF and UHF bands

[P.530-7] Propagation data and prediction methods required for the


design of terrestrial line-of-sight systems

[P.531-4] Ionospheric propagation data and prediction methods


required for the design of satellite services and systems

[P.532-1] Ionospheric effects and operational considerations associated


with artificial modification of the ionosphere and the radio-wave
channel

[P.533-5] (REVISED) HF propagation prediction method

[P.534-3] Method for calculating sporadic-E field strength

[P.581-2] The concept of ''worst month"

[P.616] Propagation data for terrestrial maritime mobile services


operating at frequencies above 30 MHz

[P.617-1] Propagation prediction techniques and data required for the


design of trans-horizon radio-relay systems

[P.618-5] Datos de propagación y métodos de predicción necesarios


para el diseño sistemas de telecomunicación Tierra-espacio

[P.619-1] Propagation data required for the evaluation of interference


between stations in space and those on the surface of the Earth

[P.620-3] Propagation data required for the evaluation of coordination


distances in the frequency range 0.85-60 GHz

[P.676-3] Attenuation by atmospheric gases

[P.678-1] Characterization of the natural variability of propagation


phenomena

[P.679-1] Propagation data required for the design of broadcasting-


satellite systems

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

[P.680-2] Propagation data required for the design of Earth-space


maritime mobile telecommunication systems

[P.681-3] Propagation data required for the design of Earth-space land


mobile telecommunication systems

[P.682-1] Propagation data required for the design of Earth-space


aeronautical mobile telecommunication systems

[P.684-1] Prediction of field strength at frequencies below about 500


kHz

[P.832-1a] World atlas of ground conductivities

[P.832-1b] World atlas of ground conductivities

[P.832-1c] World atlas of ground conductivities

[P.832-1d] World atlas of ground conductivities

[P.833-1] Attenuation in vegetation

[P.834-2] Effects of tropospheric refraction on radiowave propagation

[P.835-2] Reference standard atmospheres

[P.836-1] Water vapour: surface density and total columnar content

[P.837-1] Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modelling

[P.838] Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction


methods

[P.839-1] Rain height model for prediction methods

[P.840-2] Attenuation due to clouds and fog

[P.841] Conversion of annual statistics to worst-months statistics

[P.842-1] Computation of reliability and compatibility of HF radio


systems

[P.843-1] Communication by meteor-burst propagation

[P.844-1] Ionospheric factors affecting frequency sharing in the VHF


and UHF bands (30 MHz - 3 GHz)

[P.845-3] HF field-strength measurement

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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

[P.846-1] (REVISED) Measurements of ionospheric and related


characteristics

[P.1057] Probability distributions relevant to radiowave propagation


modelling

[P.1058-1] Digital topographic databases for propagation studies

[P.1060] Propagation factors affecting frequency sharing in HF


terrestrial systems

[P.1144] (NEW) Guide to the application of the propagation methods of


Study Group 3

[P.1145] (NEW) Propagation data for the terrestrial land mobile service
in the VHF and UHF bands

[P.1146] (NEW) The prediction of field strength for land mobile and
terrestrial broadcasting services in the frequency range from 1 to 3 GHz

[P.1147] (NEW) Prediction of sky-wave field strength at frequencies


between about and 1 700 kHz

[P.1148-1] Standardized procedure for comparing predicted and


observed HF sky-wave signal intensities and the presentation of such
comparisons

[P.1238] Propagation data and prediction models for the planning of


indoor radiocommunication systems and radio local area networks in
the frequency range 900 MHz to 100 GHz

[P.1239] ITU-R Reference ionospheric characteristics

[P.1240] ITU-R Methods of basic MUF, operational MUF and ray-path


prediction

[P.1321] Propagation factors affecting systems using digital modulation


techniques at LF and MF

[P.1322] Radiometric estimation of atmospheric attenuation

Appendix H: F Series Recommendations - Fixed service


[F.106-1] Voice-frequency telegraphy on radio circuits

[F.162-3] Use of directional transmitting antennas in the fixed service


operating in bands below about 30 MHz

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

[F.240-6] Signal-to-interference protection ratios for various classes of


emission in the fixed service below about 30 MHz

[F.246-3] Frequency-shift keying

[F.268-1] Interconnection at audio frequencies of radio-relay systems


for telephony

[F.270-2] Interconnection at video signal frequencies of radio-relay


systems for television

[F.275-3] Pre-emphasis characteristic for frequency modulation radio-


relay systems for telephony using frequency-division multiplex

[F.276-2] Frequency deviation and the sense of modulation for analogue


radio-relay systems for television

[F.283-5] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for low and medium


capacity analogue or digital radio-relay systems operating in the 2 GHz
band

[F.290-3] Maintenance measurements on radio-relay systems for


telephony using frequency-division multiplex

[F.302-3] Limitation of interference from trans-horizon radio-relay


systems

[F.305] Stand-by arrangements for radio-relay systems for television


and telephony

[F.306] Procedure for the international connection of radio-relay


systems with different characteristics

[F.335-2] Use of radio links in international telephone circuits

[F.338-2] Bandwidth required at the output of a telegraph or telephone


receiver

[F.339-6] Bandwidths, signal-to-noise ratios and fading allowances in


complete systems

[F.342-2] Automatic error-correcting system for telegraph signals


transmitted over radio circuits

[F.345] Telegraph distortion

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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

[F.347] Classification of multi-channel radiotelegraph systems for long-


range circuits operating at frequencies below about 30 MHz and the
designation of the channels in these systems

[F.348-4] Arrangements of channels in multi-channel single-sideband


and independent-sideband transmitters for long-range circuits operating
at frequencies below about 30 MHz

[F.349-4] Frequency stability required for systems operating in the HF


fixed service to make the use of automatic frequency control
superfluous

[F.380-4] Interconnection at baseband frequencies of radio-relay


systems for telephony using frequency-division multiplex

[F.381-2] Conditions relating to line regulating and other pilots and to


limits for the residues of signals outside the baseband in the
interconnection of radio-relay and line systems for telephony

[F.382-6] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems operating in the 2 and 4 GHz bands

[F.383-5] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for high capacity


radio-relay systems operating in the lower 6 GHz band

[F.384-6] (REVISED) Radio-frequency channel arrangements for


medium and high capacity analogue or digital radio-relay systems
operating in the upper 6 GHz band

[F.385-6] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems operating in the 7 GHz band

[F.386-4] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems operating in the 8 GHz band

[F.387-7] (REVISED) Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-


relay systems operating in the 11 GHz band

[F.388] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for trans-horizon radio-


relay systems

[F.389-2] Preferred characteristics of auxiliary radio-relay systems


operating in the 2,4, 6 or 11 GHz bands

[F.390-4] Definitions of terms and references concerning hypothetical


reference circuits and hypothetical reference digital paths for radio-relay
systems

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

[F.391] Hypothetical reference circuit for radio-relay systems for


telephony using frequency-division multiplex with a capacity of 12 to
60 telephone channels

[F.392] Hypothetical reference circuit for radio-relay systems for


telephony using frequency-division multiplex with a capacity of more
than 60 telephone channels

[F.393-4] Allowable noise power in the hypothetical reference circuit


for radio-relay systems for telephony using frequency-division
multiplex

[F.395-2] Noise in the radio portion of circuits to be established over


real radio-relay links for FDM telephony

[F.396-1] Hypothetical reference circuit for trans-horizon radio-relay


systems for telephony using frequency-division multiplex

[F.397-3] Allowable noise power in the hypothetical reference circuit of


trans-horizon radio-relay systems for telephony using frequency-
division multiplex

[F.398-3] Measurements of noise in actual traffic over radio-relay


systems for telephony using frequency-division multiplex

[F.399-3] Measurement of noise using a continuous uniform spectrum


signal on frequency-division multiplex telephony radio-relay systems

[F.400-2] Service channels to be provided for the operation and


maintenance of radio-relay systems

[F.401-2] Frequencies and deviations of continuity pilots for frequency


modulation radio-relay systems for television and telephony

[F.402-2] The preferred characteristics of a single sound channel


simultaneously transmitted with a television signal on an analogue
radio-relay system

[F.403-3] Intermediate-frequency characteristics for the interconnection


of analogue radio-relay systems

[F.404-2] Frequency deviation for analogue radio-relay systems for


telephony using frequency-division multiplex

[F.405-1] Pre-emphasis characteristics for frequency modulation radio-


relay systems for television

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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

[F.436-4] (REVISED) Arrangement of voice-frequency , frequency-


shift telegraph channels over HF radio circuits

[F.444-3] Preferred characteristics for multi-line switching


arrangements of analogue radio-relay systems

[F.454-1] Pilot carrier level for HF single-sideband and independent-


sideband reduced-carrier systems

[F.455-2] Improved transmission system for HF radiotelephone circuits

[F.463-1] Limits for the residues of signals outside the baseband of


radio-relay systems for television

[F.480] Semi-automatic operation on HF radiotelephone circuits.


Devices for remote connection to an automatic exchange by
radiotelephone circuits

[F.497-5] (REVISED) Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-


relay systems operating in the 13 GHz frequency band

[F.518-1] Single-channel simplex ARQ telegraph system

[F.519] Single-channel duplex ARQ telegraph system

[F.520-2] Use of high frequency ionospheric channel simulators

[F.555-1] Permissible noise in the hypothetical reference circuit of


radio-relay systems for television

[F.556-1] Hypothetical reference digital path for radio-relay systems


which may form part of an integrated services digital network with a
capacity above the second hierarchical level

[F.557-3] Availability objective for radio-relay systems over a


hypothetical reference circuit and a hypothetical reference digital path

[F.592-2] Terminology used for radio-relay systems

[F.593] Noise in real circuits of multi-channel trans-horizon FM radio-


relay systems of less than 2500 km

[F.594-3] Allowable bit error ratios at the output of the hypothetical


reference digital path for radio-relay systems which may form part of an
integrated services digital network

[F.595-4] (REVISED) Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-


relay systems operating in the 18 GHz frequency band

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

[F.596-1] Interconnection of digital radio-relay systems

[F.612] Measurement of reciprocal mixing in HF communication


receivers in the fixed service

[F.613] The use of ionospheric channel sounding systems operating in


the fixed service at frequencies below about 30 MHz

[F.634-3] Error performance objectives for real digital radio-relay links


forming part of a high-grade circuit within an integrated services digital
network

[F.635-3] (REVISED) Radio-frequency channel arrangements based on


a homogeneous pattern for radio-relay systems operating in the 4 GHz
band

[F.636-3] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems operating in the 15 GHz band

[F.637-2] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems operating in the 23 GHz band

[F.695] Availability objectives for real digital radio-relay links forming


part of a high-grade circuit within an integrated services digital network

[F.696-1] Error performance and availability objectives for hypothetical


reference digital sections utilizing digital radio-relay systems forming
part or all of the medium-grade portion of an ISDN connection

[F.697-1] Error performance and availabiltiy objectives for the local-


grade portion at each end of an ISDN connection utilizing digital radio-
relay systems

[F.698-2] Preferred frequency bands for trans-horizon radio-relay


systems

[F.699-4] Reference radiation patterns for line-of-sight radio-relay


system antennas for use in coordination studies and interference
assessment in the frequency range from 1 to about 40 GHz

[F.700-2] Error performance and availability measurement algorithm


for digital radio-relay links at the system bit-rate interface

[F.701-1] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for analogue and


digital point-to-multipoint radio systems operating in frequency bands
in the range 1.427 to 2.690 GHz

[F.745] CCIR Recommendations for analogue radio-relay systems


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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

[F.746-3] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems

[F.747] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems


operating in the 10 GHz band

[F.748-2] (REVISED) Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-


relay systems operating in the 25, 26 and 28 GHz bands

[F.749-1] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems operating in the 38 GHz band

[F.750-2] (REVISED) Architectures and functional aspects of radio-


relay systems for SDH-based networks

[F.751-1] Transmission characteristics and performance requirements of


radio-relay systems for SDH-based networks

[F.752-1] Diversity techniques for radio-relay systems

[F.753] Preferred methods and characteristics for the supervision and


protection of digital radio-relay systems

[F.754] Radio-relay systems in bands 8 and 9 for the provision of


telephone trunk connections in rural areas

[F.755-1] Point-to-multipoint systems used in the fixed service

[F.756] TDMA point-to-multipoint systems used as radio concentrators

[F.757] Basic system requirements and performance objectives for


cellular type mobile systems used as fixed systems

[F.758] Considerations in the development of criteria for sharing


between the terrestrial fixed service and other services

[F.759] Use of frequencies in the band 500 to 3 000 MHz for radio-
relay systems

[F.760-1] Protection of terrestrial line-of-sight radio-relay systems


against interference from the broadcasting-satellite service in the bands
near 20 GHz

[F.761] Frequency sharing between the fixed service and passive


sensors in the band 18.6-18.8 GHz

[F.762-2] (REVISED) Main characteristics of remote control and


monitoring systems for HF receiving and transmitting stations

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

[F.763-2] (REVISED) Data transmission over HF circuits using phase-


shift keying

[F.764-1] Minimum requirements for HF radio systems using a packet


transmission protocol

[F.1092] Error performance objectives for constant bit rate digital path
at or above the primary rate carried by digital radio-relay systems which
may form part of the international portion of a 27 500 KM hypothetical
reference path

[F.1093] Effects of multipath propagation on the design and operation


of line-of-sight digital radio-relay systems

[F.1094-1] (REVISED) Maximum allowable error performance and


availability degradations to digital radio-relay systems arising from
interference from emissions and radiations from other sources

[F.1095] A procedure for determining coordination area between radio-


relay stations of the fixed service

[F.1096] Methods of calculating line-of-sight interference into radio-


relay systems to account for terrain scattering

[F.1097] Interference mitigation options to enhance compatibility


between radar systems and digital radio-relay systems

[F.1098-1] (REVISED) Radio-frequency channel arrangements for


radio-relay systems in the 1 900-2 300 MHz band

[F.1099-1] (REVISED) Radio-frequency channel arrangements for


high-capacity digital radio-relay systems in the 5 GHz (4 400-5 000
MHz) band

[F.1100] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems


operating in the 55 GHz band

[F.1101] Characteristics of digital radio-relay systems below about 17


GHz

[F.1102] Characteristics of radio-relay systems operating in frequency


bands above about 17 GHz

[F.1103] Radio-relay systems operating in bands 8 and 9 for the


provision of subscriber telephone connections in rural areas

[F.1104] Requirements for point-to-multipoint radio systems used in the


local grade portion of an ISDN connection
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THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)

[F.1105] Transportable fixed radiocommunications equipment for relief


operations

[F.1106] Effects of propagation on the design and operation of trans-


horizon radio-relay systems

[F.1107] Probabilistic analysis for calculating interference into the fixed


service from satellites occupying the geostationary orbit

[F.1108-1] (REVISED) Determination of the criteria to protect fixed


service receivers from the emissions of space stations operating in non-
geostationary orbits in shared frequency bands

[F.1109] ITU-R Recommendations relating to systems in the fixed


service service operating at frequencies below about 30 MHz which are
not reprinted

[F.1110-1] (REVISED) Adaptive radio systems for frequencies below


about 30 MHz

[F.1111-1] (REVISED) Improved Lincompex system for HF


radiotelephone circuits

[F.1112-1] (REVISED) Digitized speech transmissions for systems


operating below about 30 MHz

[F.1113] Radio systems employing meteor-burst propagation

[F.1189] (NEW) Error-performance objectives for constant bit rate


digital paths at or above the primary rate carried by digital radio-relay
systems which may form part or all of the national portion of a 27 500
km hypothetical reference path

[F.1190] (NEW) Protection criteria for digital radio-relay systems to


ensure compatibility with radar systems in the radiodetermination
service

[F.1191] (NEW) Bandwidths and unwanted emissions of digital radio-


relay systems

[F.1192] (NEW) Traffic capacity of automatically controlled radio


systems and networks in the HF fixed service

[F.1241] Performance degradation due to interf. from other services


sharing the same freq. bands on a primary basis with digital radio-relay
syst. oper. at or above the primary rate and which may form part of the
intern. portion of a 27 500 km hypoth. ref. path

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

[F.1242] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for digital radio


systems operating in the range 1 350 MHz to 1 530 MHz

[F.1243] Radio-frequency channel arrangements for digital radio


systems operating in the range 2 290-2 670 MHz

[F.1244] Radio local area networks (RLANs)

[F.1245] Mathematical model of average radiation patterns for line-of-


sight point-to-point radio-relay system antennas for use in certain
coordination studies and interference assessment in the frequency range
from 1 to about 40 GHz

[F.1246] Reference bandwidth of receiving stations in the fixed service


to be used in coordination of frequency assignments with transmitting
space stations in the mobile-satellite service in the 1-3 GHz range

[F.1247] Technical and operational characteristics of systems in the


fixed service to facilitate sharing with the space research, space
operation and Earth exploration-satellite services operating in the bands
2 025-2 110 MHz and 2 200-2 290 MHz

[F.1248] Limiting interference to satellites in the space science services


from the emissions of trans-horizon radio-relay systems in the bands 2
025-2 110 MHz and 2 200-2 290 MHz

[F.1249] Maximum equivalent isotropically radiated power of


transmitting stations in the fixed service operating in the frequency band
25.25-27.5 GHz shared with the inter-satellite service

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QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY
TARGETS

This chapter provides an extensive description of digital


transmission network models used in error performance
analysis and quality and availability targets in accordance
with ITU-T Recommendations G.821 and G.826. The chapter
discusses quality and availability parameters, their calculation
and their relationships to existing atmospheric fading
mechanisms.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Predicting quality .............................................................................................................................................. 1
Quality and availability targets.......................................................................................................................... 1
Why and at what price? ....................................................................................................................... 1
Recommendations - background ......................................................................................................... 1
ITU-T Recommendation G.821 ............................................................................................ 2
ITU-T Recommendation G.826 ............................................................................................ 2
Digital transmission network models ................................................................................................................ 2
Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 2
Hypothetical Reference Connection (HRX)........................................................................................ 2
Definition .............................................................................................................................. 2
Classification......................................................................................................................... 3
Example ................................................................................................................................ 4
Other digital transmission network models ......................................................................................... 4
Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP)..................................................................................... 5
Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS) .................................................................. 5
Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)...................................................................................... 6
The ITU-T Rec. G821 - basic concepts............................................................................................................. 7
Bit error............................................................................................................................................... 7
Bit rate................................................................................................................................................. 7
Bit-error ratio ...................................................................................................................................... 7
Expressing the quality targets.............................................................................................................. 7
Bit-error ratio and time intervals ......................................................................................................... 7
Available and unavailable time - definition......................................................................................... 8
Available and unavailable time - example........................................................................................... 8
Expressing available and unavailable time.......................................................................................... 8
Definitions of events occurring during available time......................................................................... 9
BER at bit rate 64 kbit/s ...................................................................................................................... 9
Error performance objectives .............................................................................................................. 9
Definition of availability parameters................................................................................................... 9
Errored second ratio .............................................................................................................. 9
Severely errored second ratio................................................................................................ 9

i
Quality and availability parameters..................................................................................................... 10
Performance parameters and objective allocation ............................................................................... 10
Objective allocation for the three circuit classes ................................................................................. 11
End-to-end quality allocation in the network model HRX .................................................................. 11
The derivation of the quality parameters values.................................................................................. 12
Quality allocation - summary .............................................................................................................. 13
Radio applications............................................................................................................................................. 14
Local-grade portion of the HRX ......................................................................................................... 14
Quality objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.697-1 .............................................................................. 14
Availability objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.697-1 ....................................................................... 15
Medium-grade portion of the HRX ..................................................................................................... 15
Quality objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.696-1 (addresses to G.821) ............................................ 15
Availability objectives........................................................................................................... 16
Digital section - medium grade ........................................................................................................... 16
Quality classification and allocation - ITU-T Rec. 921......................................................... 16
Quality objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.696-1 .............................................................................. 16
The derivation of the quality parameters values - ITU-R Rec. F.696-1 ................................ 17
Unavailability objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.696-1 ................................................................... 18
High-grade portion of the HRX........................................................................................................... 19
Quality objectives - ITU-T Rec. G.821................................................................................. 19
Availability objectives........................................................................................................... 19
Hypothetical Reference Digital Path - HRDP (high grade)................................................................. 19
Quality objectives - ITU-R F.594.3 ...................................................................................... 19
Availability objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.557-3 ....................................................................... 20
Real Digital Radio Link (high grade) .................................................................................................. 20
Quality objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.634-3 .............................................................................. 20
Availability objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.695 .......................................................................... 20
Summary of network models............................................................................................................................. 21
G.821 - HRX ....................................................................................................................................... 21
G.821 - HRDS..................................................................................................................................... 22
G.821 - HRDP..................................................................................................................................... 23
G.821 - RDRL..................................................................................................................................... 23
G.826 - HRP........................................................................................................................................ 24
Quality and availability targets - summary ........................................................................................................ 24
Quality targets ..................................................................................................................................... 24
Availability targets .............................................................................................................................. 25
Reports and recommendations - summary......................................................................................................... 25
Quality and availability parameters versus fading mechanisms......................................................................... 26
Fading occurrence ............................................................................................................................... 26
Calculation of the unavailability parameters - Rec. G.821 .................................................................. 27
Unavailable time ratio (UATR)............................................................................................. 27
Available time ratio (UATR) ................................................................................................ 28
Severely errored second ratio (SESR)................................................................................... 28
Errored second ratio (ESR) ................................................................................................... 28
Planning unavailable time ................................................................................................................... 28
The ITU-T Recommendation G.826 - basic concepts ....................................................................................... 29
Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 29
Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP).................................................................................................... 29
Available and unavailable time ........................................................................................................... 30
Definition of block .............................................................................................................................. 30
Events occurring during available time ............................................................................................... 30
Errored Block (EB) ............................................................................................................... 30
Errored Second (ES) ............................................................................................................. 30
Severely Errored Second (SES) ............................................................................................ 31
Background Block Error (BBE)............................................................................................ 31
Definitions of quality parameters ........................................................................................................ 31

ii
Errored Second Ratio (ESR) ................................................................................................. 31
Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR) ................................................................................ 31
Background Block Error Ratio (BBER)................................................................................ 31
A comparison of SESR (G.826) and SESR (G.821) ........................................................................... 31
End-to-end objectives apportionment in the HRP ............................................................................... 32
Quality objectives allocation in the HRP ............................................................................................ 33
National portion .................................................................................................................... 33
International portion.............................................................................................................. 34
Unavailability allocation in the HRP................................................................................................... 36
Radio applications of the ITU-T´S Rec. G.826................................................................................................. 36
National portion of the HRP - basic sections ...................................................................................... 37
Quality objectives allocation................................................................................................. 38
Long-haul section.................................................................................................... 38
Short-haul section.................................................................................................... 38
Access section ......................................................................................................... 39
Summary of quality objectives .............................................................................................. 39
International portion of the HRP ......................................................................................................... 40
Radio applications of the ITU-T Rec. G.826 ...................................................................................... 42
The ITU-T Recommendation G.827 ................................................................................................................. 42
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 43

iii
ii
QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY TARGETS

Predicting quality
1. Is the connection available?

2. If yes, what are the values of the availability and quality parameters?

3. How good is the connection in comparison with the current


availability and quality targets?

Quality and availability targets

Why and at what price?


During the process of planning a radio connection, adequate quality and
availability targets are established following careful consideration of
those parameters that affect these attributes. These targets then provide,
to a certain degree, a ”built-in” confidence level that guard against
fading caused by interactions between the transmitted signals and the
atmosphere, topography and the signals transmitted by other radio
stations located in the vicinity.

Quality and availability targets are often a result of a compromise. A


compromise between, on the one hand, compliance with requirements
of the service, and on the other hand, current economic and technical
limitations.

Recommendations - background
The recommendations in this book take into account that services are
based on the concept of an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
The following ITU-T recommendations will be covered:

• Recommendation G.821

• Recommendation G.826

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ITU-T Recommendation G.821


Recommendation G.821 was developed during the late 70’s and
adopted in 1980. It defined quality and availability parameters and
objectives applicable to international digital connections operating at 64
kbit/s. An annex (Annex D) indicating how to derive error performance
data at higher bit rates was added to the former recommendation.

G.821 is now restricted to bit rates in the range between 64 kbit/s and
below the primary rate of the digital hierarchy. Additional experimental
work indicated in many cases, however, that the annex D turned out to
give doubtful results making necessary a new recommendation.

ITU-T Recommendation G.826


Recommendation G.826 was developed during the late 80’s and
adopted in 1993. It defines quality and availability parameters and
objectives applicable for constant bit-rate digital paths operating at bit
rates at and above the primary rate of the digital hierarchy.

Digital transmission network models


Introduction
In order to facilitate the study of the error performance of digital
transmission systems (bit errors, jitter, transmission delays, availability,
etc), it is occasionally necessary to define digital transmission network
models that comprise a combination of different types of transmission
devices. These models are hypothetical in that they include entities of a
defined length and composition corresponding to real digital radio-relay
links present in international networks.

Transmission may be conducted via optical fiber, radio-relay systems,


satellite systems or cable.

Hypothetical Reference Connection (HRX)

Definition
A digital HRX (Hypothetical Reference Connection) is a network model
in which studies relating to overall performance may be conducted,
thereby facilitating the formulation of standards and objectives. The
HRX is the starting-point for the apportionment strategy found in ITU-
T Recommendation G.821.
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The HRX is a 27,500 km connection operating at 64 kbit/s and is


subdivided into circuit grades (classes) that represent the sections in a
real end-to-end connection.

The grades may be local, medium and high and are illustrated in Figure
1.

27,500 km

1250 km 25,000 km 1250 km

LE ISC ISC LE

T T

Local Medium High Medium Local


grade grade grade grade grade

T=Terminal Point, LE= Local


ISC=International Switching Center

Figure 1: The Hypothetical Reference Connection and its grades.

A precise location of the boundary between the medium and the high
grade of the HRX is presently not available.

Classification
Local grade circuits are defined as those operating between the
subscribers and the local exchange at rates below 2 Mbit/s. Typically,
they are metallic subscriber loop circuits.

Medium grade circuits are those operating between local exchanges


and the national network. The combined length of the local and medium
grade links must not exceed 1250 km.

High grade circuits are long-haul links, for example, satellite


connections and international connections operating at primarily high
bit-rates.
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Example
An example of a possible geographical location of grades is illustrated
in Figure 2.

T
T

T
Local-grade
T T LE

T
Uunimannaq T

Medium-grade

High-grade

T = Terminal
LE = Local Exchange
ISC = International Switching
Center

High-grade
ISC
Copacabana
High-grade Fukuyama

Figure 2: Possible geographical location of grades.

Other digital transmission network models


The following digital transmission network models will be studied:

Hypothetical Reference Digital Link (HRDL) employed by ITU-T in


digital systems, the length of which is 2500 km.

Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP) employed by ITU-R and


which is equivalent to HRDL. Designed for the performance
specification of transmission systems as radio systems.

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Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS) employed by ITU-R


and designed to accommodate the performance specification of
transmission systems as digital lines and radio systems.

Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP)


An HRDP is built up of nine consecutive, equally long (approx. 280
km), radiolink sections (HRDS), see Figure 3. HRDP also includes nine
sets of digital multiplexing equipment in accordance with CCITT’s
(currently ITU-T) recommended hierarchical levels. Each of the units
may consist of a number of linked multiplexing units. HRDP comprises
a portion of the entire HRX.

2500 km

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s

First-order digital multiplexer

Other multiplexer eqipment located at the ITU-


recommended hierarchical

Digital radio section

Figure 3: The Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP).

Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS)


The path lengths have been chosen to be representative of digital
sections likely to be encountered in real operational networks, and are
sufficiently long to permit a realistic performance specification for
digital radio systems, see Figure 4.

This model does not include digital equipment such as multiplexers and
exchanges. An HRDS can form a constituent element of an HRDL.

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The appropriate value of the distance Y is dependent on the network


application. For now, the lengths of 50 km and 280 km have been
identified as being necessary.

Y km

X kbit/s X kbit/s

Terminal Terminal
equipment equipment
Figure 4: The Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS).

Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)


A digital HRP (Hypothetical Reference Path) is, like the HRX, a
network model in which studies relating to overall performance may be
conducted, thereby facilitating the formulation of standards and
objectives, see Figure 5. The HRP is the starting-point for the
apportionment strategy found in ITU-T Recommendation G.826.

Terminating Inter- Terminating


Intermediate countries
country country country

PEP IG IG IG IG IG PEP

J J J J J J J

National National
International portion portion
portion

Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)


27,500 km
PEP=Path End Point IG=International Gateway
Figure 5: The Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP).
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The ITU-T Rec. G821 - basic concepts

Bit error
Recommendation G.821 quantifies the occurrence of transmission
impairments (bit error) restricted to the bit rates in the range between 64
kbit/s and below the primary rate, operating as a part of an ISDN-
network, which is based on the control of bit impairment (bit error) of
each bit position.

Bit rate
Bit rate is the amount of transmitted bits per time unity, usually
measured in seconds. For example: 64 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s.

Bit-error ratio
Bit-error ratio is the amount of bit errors with respect to the total
amount of transmitted bits during a specified time interval.

Expressing the quality targets


The quality targets are expressed as the ratio of average periods, each of
time interval T0, during which the bit-error ratio (BER) exceeds a
threshold value. The ratio is assessed over a much longer time interval
TL, that is, TL>>T0.

Bit-error ratio and time intervals


The following bit-error ratios and time intervals are used in quality
target statements, in accordance with Recommendation G.821:

• BER > 1 ⋅ 10-6 during T0 = 1 minute

• BER > 1 ⋅ 10-3 during T0 = 1 second

• zero bit errors under T0 = 1 second, which is equivalent to the concept


of EFS (Error Free Seconds).

Thus, the reference values for time intervals are 1 minute and 1 second
while the reference values for the bit-error ratios are 1⋅10-3 (one bit
error per one thousand bits) and 1⋅10-6 (one bit error per one million
bits).

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Available and unavailable time - definition


A period of Unavailable Time (UAT) begins when, in at least one of
the transmission directions, one or both of the following conditions
occur for 10 consecutive seconds:

1. the digital signal is interrupted

2. the bit-error ratio (BER) in each second of the 10 consecutive


seconds is worse than 1⋅10-3. These 10 seconds are considered to be
unavailable time.

A new period of Available Time (AT) begins with the first second of a
period of ten consecutive seconds, of which each second displays a bit-
error ratio (BER) better than 1⋅10-3.

Available and unavailable time - example


Consider a measured period of 1 month divided into one-second
intervals, see Figure 6.

T0 =1 s
Available Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable Available Available

No bit No bit error No bit error No bit error TIME


error TL =1 month
BER=1·10-3
BER>3·10-3 BER<6·10-5
BER=6·10-3
BER=2·10-4
BER=3·10-3
BER=4·10-3 BER=2·10-4 BER=2·10-4

Available time Unavailable time

1·10-8 1·10-7 1·10-6 1·10-5 1·10-4 1·10-3 1·10-2 1·10-1 1·100 BER

Figure 6: Available and unavailable time.

Expressing available and unavailable time


AVAILABLE TIME + UNAVAILABLE TIME = MEASURED TIME

AT + UAT = 100%

or

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AT + UAT = 1

Definitions of events occurring during available time


Errored second (ES) is defined as any second containing one or more
errors.

Severely errored second (SES) is an errored second with a bit error


ratio worse than 1⋅10-3.

BER at bit rate 64 kbit/s


64
BER = = 1 ⋅ 10 −3 SES and UAT ......................(1)
64 000

Error performance objectives


The error performance objectives are stated in terms of the events
discussed earlier. These events constitute the error performance
parameters and should only be evaluated whilst the path is in the
available state.

The quality parameters (also known as performance parameters) are


usually defined with respect to the total available time during a
measured period, that is, generally as a ratio of the averaged measured
periods.

The measured periods over which the ratios are to be assessed have still
not been specified since the period may depend upon the application.

Definition of availability parameters

Errored second ratio


Errored Second Ratio (ESR) is the ratio of ES to total seconds in
available time during a fixed measurement interval.

Severely errored second ratio


Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR) is the ratio of SES to total
seconds in available time during a fixed measurement interval.

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Quality and availability parameters

PARAMETERS UNDER AVAILABLE TIME

ES

SES

1⋅10-8 1⋅10-7 1⋅10-6 1⋅10-5 1⋅10-4 1⋅10-3 1⋅10-2 1⋅10-1 1⋅100


BER

UAT

PARAMETERS UNDER UNAVAILABLE TIME

Figure 7: Parameters under available and unavailable time.

The parameters are divided in two parts: parameters under available


time and parameters under unavailable time, see Figure 7.

Performance parameters and objective allocation


The performance parameters and objective allocation is illustrated in
Table 1. The performance objectives illustrated in the table should be
met concurrently. In other words, the connection fails to satisfy the
objective if any of the requirements in the table are not met.

Performance Performance
classification objectives
Severely errored seconds < 0.002
Errored seconds < 0.08

Table 1: Performance parameters and objective allocation.

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Objective allocation for the three circuit classes


The quality parameters errored seconds and severely errored seconds are
related to the three classes a, b and c in an ISDN-connection. The
allocation is illustrated in Table 2.

Circuit Allocation of errored seconds and severely errored


Classification seconds given in the previous table
Local grade 15% block allowance to each end
(2 ends)
Medium grade 15% block allowance to each end
(2 ends)
High grade 40% (equivalent to conceptual quality of 0.0016% per km
for 25,000 km)

Table 2: Objective allocation for the three circuit classes.

Block allowance implies that the stated ratio of the overall end-to-
end allowance is allocated to a local or medium grade portion
regardless of its length.
The length of the circuit is considered when allocating the high-
grade portion. The high-grade allotment is then divided on the basis
of the length resulting from a hypothetical per-kilometer allocation,
that is, 40%÷25,000 km yields 0.000016 /km.
The actual length covered by the medium grade part of the
connection will vary considerably from one country to another.
Transmission systems in this classification exhibit a variation in
quality falling between the other classification.

End-to-end quality allocation in the network model HRX


The end-to-end allocation of quality in the HRX network model is
illustrated in Figure 8.

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1250 km 25,000 km 1250 km

LE ICS ICS LE

T T

15% 15% 40% 15% 15%


Local Medium High Medium Local
grade grade grade grade grade

Figure 8: The end-to-end allocation of quality in the HRX network


model.

The derivation of the quality parameters values


The quality parameters values are derived in accordance with Table 1
and Table 2, see Figure 9.

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ES
ES=8%

15% 15%

At one end At one end 40%

Local grade Medium grade High grade


ES=1.2% ES=1.2% ES=3.2%

SES
SES=0.2%

50% 50%
Additional
allowance
SES=0.1%
SES=0.1%

15% 15% 40%


? ?
At one end At one end

Local grade Medium grade High grade


SES=0.015% SES=0.015% SES=0.040%

Figure 9: The derivation of the values of the quality parameters.

Quality allocation - summary


The allocation of the quality parameters errored seconds and severely
errored seconds for the three different classes local, medium and high
grade is illustrated in Table 3.

Circuit Performance objective


classification
ESR SESR
Normal Adverse condition
Local grade 0.012 0.00015 ---------------------
Medium grade 0.012 0.00015 0.001
High grade 0.032 0.0004

Table 3: A summary of quality allocation.


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The remaining 0.001 SESR is a block allowance to the medium and


high grade classifications to accommodate the occurrence of adverse
network conditions occasionally experienced (intended to mean the
worst-month of the year) on transmission systems. The following
allowances are consistent with the total 0.001 SESR figure:

• 0.0005 SESR to a 2,500 km HRDP for radio-relay systems which can


be used in the high grade and the medium grade portion of the
connection

• 0.0001 SESR to a satellite HRDP

Whenever necessary, administrations may allocate the block allowances


for the local and medium grade portions of the connection but within
the total allowance of 30% for any one end of the connection.

The objectives presented above correspond to a very long connection.


However, large portions of real international connections will be
shorter, thus it is expected that a significant portion of real connections
will offer a better performance than the limiting values discussed above.
On the other hand, a small percentage of the connections will be longer
and in this case may exceed the allowances outlined in the
recommendation.

Radio applications

Local-grade portion of the HRX

Quality objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.697-1


The local grade is a portion in the HRX network model which together
with the medium-grade has a length of 1250 km. Local grade circuits
operate between the subscribers (T) and the local exchange (LE).

The following quality objectives apply to each direction and to each 64


kbit/s channel of a digital radio system when constituting the entire
local-grade portion of an ISDN connection. These quality objectives are
to take into consideration fading, short-term and long-term interference
and all other sources of performance degradation during periods under
which the system is considered to be available.

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• SESR: the bit error ratio should not exceed 1⋅10-3 for more than
0.00015 of any month with an integration time of 1 second.

• ESR: the total errored seconds should not exceed 0.012 of any month.

The quality objectives correspond to the values in the first row of the
Table 3.

Availability objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.697-1


So far, the ITU-T and ITU-R does not include availability objectives in
the local-grade portion of the HRX. For example, ITU-R
recommendation 697 does not include availability objectives of any
kind. There are, however, a number of values in ITU-T rep. 1053-1
suggesting that unavailability objectives should range between 0.01%
and 1%, averaged over one or more years for a bi-directional system.

For local-grade systems, unavailability is determined as a result of two


principal effects - equipment and adverse propagation.

Medium-grade portion of the HRX

Quality objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.696-1 (addresses to G.821)


The medium grade is a portion in the HRX network model which
together with the local-grade portion has a length of 1250 km. Medium
grade circuits operate between the local exchange (LE) and the
International Switching Center (ISC).

The following quality objectives apply to each direction and to each 64


kbit/s channel of a digital radio system when constituting the entire
medium-grade portion at each end of an HRX, realized entirely with
digital radio-relay systems. These quality objectives are to take into
consideration fading, short-term and long-term interference and all other
sources of performance degradation during periods under which the
system is considered to be available.

• SESR: the bit error ratio should not exceed 1⋅10-3 for more than
0.0004 of any month with an integration time of 1 second.

• ESR: the total errored seconds should not exceed 0.012 of any month.

The quality values correspond to the values in the second row of the
Table 3. Note that there is an additional allowance of 0.00025 over and
above the SESR value for adverse propagation conditions.

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Availability objectives
The ITU-T and ITU-R have not specified the availability objectives for
the medium-grade portion of the HRX.

Digital section - medium grade

Quality classification and allocation - ITU-T Rec. 921


The length of the local and medium-grade portion (1250 km) of an
international connection is often far from the actual sizes employed by
the countries. This means that it is difficult to define just one general
quality allocation for the medium-grade portion of the HRDS, which is
applicable to all countries.

Depending on the different applications, four section types with


different quality classifications are introduced in the medium-grade
portion, see Table 4. These classes were introduced by ITU-T’s
recommendation G.921 probably with the intention of allowing for
more scope in future quality specifications.

Section quality HRDS length Allocation Class


classification (km) (%)
1 280 0.45 High grade
2 280 2 Medium grade
3 50 2 Medium grade
4 50 5 Medium grade

Table 4: Digital section quality classifications for error performance.

The allocations in column 3 are the percentages of the performance


objectives for ESR (0.08) and SESR (0.001), see Table 1 and Figure 9.

Example: The SESR corresponding to the class medium-grade class,


section quality class 3, should be 2% (from column 3 of the above table)
of 0.001, which gives 0.00002.

Quality objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.696-1


The path lengths in the HRDS have been chosen to be representative of
digital sections likely to be encountered in real operational networks,
and that are sufficiently long to permit a realistic performance
specification for digital radio systems. This model does not include
digital equipment such as multiplexers and exchanges.

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The values for the quality parameters ESR and SESR are assigned
according to column 3, Table 5, for the four quality classes. The same
proportion is allocated as earlier, that is, 0.001 is allotted to SESR. The
true value is 0.002, however 0.001 is apportioned for errored seconds
and the remaining 0.001 is a block allowance for the medium and high-
grade classifications to accommodate for the occurrence of adverse
network conditions. In addition it is allocated 0.08 for ESR of the
available time.

The following quality objectives apply to each direction and to each 64


kbit/s channel when constituting the HRDS portion, realized entirely
with digital radio-relay systems. These quality objectives are to take
into consideration fading, short-term and long-term interference and all
other sources of performance degradation during periods under which
the system is considered to be available.

Classes 1 and 2 are allotted an additional allowance of 0.0005 for the


total 2500 km length of the HRDS to accommodate for the occurrence
of adverse propagation conditions. This corresponds to 0.000055 of the
280 km length representing the classes 1 and 2.

Performance parameters Ratio of any month


Class1 Class2 Class3 Class4
280 km 280 km 50 km 50 km
BER>1⋅10-3 (SESR) 0.00006 0.000075 0.00002 0.00005
One or more errors (ESR) 0.00036 0.0016 0.0016 0.004

Table 5: Error performance objectives for a digital section in the HRDS.

The quality objectives are used for dimensioning radio-relay links. It


has to be taken into consideration that the allocation in the table is a
block allowance and not a per kilometer allocation.

The derivation of the quality parameters values - ITU-R Rec. F.696-1


The derivation of the quality parameters values for a digital section in
the HRDS follows Table 4 and Table 5, and is illustrated in Figure 10.

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Class 1: 280 km 0.08 ESR=0.00036


0.0045 0.001 SESR=0.0000045
Additional allowance SESR=0.000060
0.000055

Class 2: 280 km 0.08 ESR=0.0016


0.02 0.001 SESR=0.00002
Additional allowance SESR=0.000075
0.000055

Class 3: 50 km 0.08 ESR=0.0016


0.02 0.001 SESR=0.000020

Class 4: 50 km 0.08 ESR=0.004


0.05 0.001 SESR=0.000050

Figure 10: The derivation of the values of the quality parameters.

Unavailability objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.696-1


The following values are assigned to the four different classes of the
medium-grade of an HRDS:

Class 1 (High grade): 0.00033 .......................... distance based allowance

Class 2 (Medium grade): 0.0005....................... block allowance

Class 3 (Medium grade): 0.0005....................... block allowance

Class 4 (Medium grade): 0.001......................... block allowance

The quality values are the same regardless of the length of a real HRDS
section. Then, there is no ”compensation” for the case when the length
of a real section is shorter than that of the corresponding class length.

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High-grade portion of the HRX

Quality objectives - ITU-T Rec. G.821


The high-grade is a portion of the HRX network model situated
between the International Switching Centers (ISC) having a length of
25,000 km.

The following quality objectives are employed:

• SESR: the bit error ratio should not exceed 1⋅10-3 for more than
0.0004 of any month with an integration time of 1 second.

• ESR: the total errored seconds should not exceed 0.032 of any month.

The quality values correspond to the values in the third row of the Table
3.

Availability objectives
The ITU-T and ITU-R have not specified availability objectives for the
high-grade portion of the HRX.

Hypothetical Reference Digital Path - HRDP (high grade)

Quality objectives - ITU-R F.594.3


The HRDP network model is composed of digital radio-relay systems
and its length is 2500 km. The quality objectives for an HRDP is related
to the quality objectives of the high-grade portion of an HRDP since,
according to the ITU-T, the length of the HRDP (2500 km) is one tenth
of the length of the HRX’s high grade (25,000 km).

The quality parameters SESR and ESR describing the quality objectives
of an HRDP are stated as for each direction of the 64 kbit/s channel of
the HRDP. The effects of fading, interference and all other sources of
performance degradation are taken into account. The following quality
objectives are one tenth of the corresponding values for the high-grade
portion of the HRX:

SESR = 0.00004 + 0.0005 = 0.00054

ESR = 0.0032

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Note that the SESR value is allotted an additional 0.0005 for adverse
propagation conditions.

Availability objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.557-3


The availability objective for digital radio-relay systems that constitute
part of an HRDP is 99.7% of the time, the percentage being considered
over a period of time sufficiently long to be statistically valid. It
includes all causes that are statistically predictable, unintentional and
resulting from radio equipment, power supplies, propagation,
interference and from auxiliary equipment and human activity.

The value of 99.7% is a provisional one and it is recognized that, in


reality, the selected objectives may fall into the range 99.5 to 99.9%.

Real Digital Radio Link (high grade)

Quality objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.634-3


Real digital radio-relay links with lengths shorter than 2500 km may
form part of the high-grade portion of an ISDN, and may occasionally
differ in composition from the HRDP.

The following quality objectives are applied to real digital radio links
intended to form a part of a high-grade circuit within an ISDN for which
the length of the link L is between 280 and 2500 km.

• SESR: the bit error ratio should not exceed 1⋅10-3 for more than
(L/2500) ⋅ 0.00054 of any month with an integration time of 1 second.

• ESR: the total errored seconds should not exceed (L/2500) ⋅ 0.0032 of
any month.

The availability objectives are valid for link lengths in the range 280
and 2500 km and include allowances for all performance degradations
over and above fading.

Availability objectives - ITU-R Rec. F.695


The following availability objective is appropriate for a real digital
radio link forming a part of a high-grade circuit within an ISDN

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L
UAT = 0.3 ⋅ ..............................................................................(2)
2 500

where L is the length of a link in the range 280 to 2500 km.

The availability objective is valid in the range between 280 and 2500
km. It includes all causes that are statistically predictable, unintentional
and resulting from radio equipment, power supplies, propagation,
interference and from auxiliary equipment and human activity. The
estimate of unavailability should also include consideration of the mean
time to restore.

The value of 0.3 is a provisional one and it is recognized that, in reality,


the value selected may fall into the range 0.1 to 0.5. The choice of the
specific value is dependent on various aspects, such as propagation,
geographical size, population distribution and the organization of
maintenance.

Summary of network models

G.821 - HRX

27,500 km

1250 km 25,000 km 1250 km

64kbit/s 64kbit/s

Local Medium High grade Medium Local


grade grade grade grade

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G.821 - HRDS
1250 km

Medium grade
PORTION OF HRX

HRDS

X kbit/s X kbit/s

50 km and 280 km
class1-4
One or more repeaters may occur.

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G.821 - HRDP
25,000 km

High grade PORTION OF HRX

HRDP

64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s
2500 km

Composed of nine consecutive identical radio sections of about 280 km


each.

G.821 - RDRL
2500 km
HRDP

RDRL

64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s
280 < L ≤ 2500km

L = The length of the model

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G.826 - HRP
27,500 km

National National
portion International portion portion

LE = Local Exchange
PC = Primary Center
SC = Secondary Center
TC = Tertiary Center
PC
SC
LE TC

Access Short Haul Long Haul

Quality and availability targets - summary

Quality targets
Table 6 furnishes a summary of the quality objectives for the studied
network models.

Network Portion/Class SESR ESR


model
Local 0.00015 0.012
HRX Medium 0.00040 0.012
High 0.00040 0.032
Class 1 (280 km) 0.00006 0.00036
HRDS Class 2 (280 km) 0.000075 0.0016
Class 3 (50 km) 0.00002 0.0016
Class 4 (50 km) 0.00005 0.004
HRDP High grade 0.0032 0.0032
RDRL High grade 0.00054 ·(L/2500) 0.0032 ·(L/2500)

Table 6: Summary of the quality and availability objectives for the


studied network models.

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Availability targets
Table 7 furnishes a summary of the availability objectives for the
studied network models.

Network model Portion/Class UATR


Local 0.0001-0.010
HRX Medium not defined
High not defined
Class 1 (280 km) 0.00033
HRDS Class 2 (280 km) 0.0005
Class 3 (50 km) 0.0005
Class 4 (50 km) 0.001
HRDP High grade 0.003
RDRL High grade 0.003 ·(L/2500)

Table 7: Summary of the availability objectives for the studied network


models.

Reports and recommendations - summary


Table 8 furnishes a summary of the reports and recommendations
dealing with quality and availability objectives for the studied network
models.

Local grade
Network model Quality objectives Availability objectives
HRX ITU-R Rec. F.697-1 ITU-R Rec. F.697-1

Medium grade
Network model Quality objectives Availability objectives
HRX ITU-R Rec. F.696-1 ---------------------
HRDS ITU-T Rec. G.921
ITU-R Rec. F.696-1 ITU-R Rec. F.696-1

High grade
Network model Quality objectives Availability objectives
HRX ITU-T Rec. G.821 ---------------------
HRDP ITU-R F.594.3 ITU-R Rec. F.557-3
RDRL ITU-R Rec. F.634-3 ITU-R Rec. F.695

Table 8: Summary of the ITU-T and ITU-R reports and


recommendations.

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Quality and availability parameters versus fading


mechanisms

Fading occurrence
Figure 11 illustrates a fading occurrence. The received signal varies as a
function of time due to different types of fading mechanisms.

In this example, a simplified fading occurrence, the received signal


crosses the receiver’s threshold level for two different bit-error ratios,
10-6 and 10-3, and the errored events are registered as quality
parameters SESR and ESR.

POWER

Pr

BER=10-6 Ptr
≅3 dB
BER=10-3 Ptr

time<10 s time>10 s TIME


ESR SESR ESR ESR ESR
ESR

ATR UATR ATR

Figure 11: A simplified fading occurrence showing the received signal


varying as a function of time due to different types of fading
mechanisms.

The corresponding relationship between the quality and availability


parameters and the fading mechanisms is illustrated in Figure 12.

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QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY


PARAMETERS FADING MECHANISMS FADING EVENTS

UATR RAIN Slow fading

REFRACTION-DIFFRACTION Slow fading

ESR FLAT Rapid fading


MULTIPATH
PROPAGATION SELECTIVE Rapid fading

SESR HARDWARE FAILURE No fading

Figure 12: Correspondence between the quality and availability


parameters and the fading mechanisms.

The relationship between the quality and availability parameters and the
fading mechanisms is not described in any ITU recommendation or
report!

Calculation of the unavailability parameters - Rec. G.821

Unavailable time ratio (UATR)


UATR is the ratio of a measured period for which the bit-error ratio is
worse than 1⋅10-3 due to rain and refraction fading and hardware
failure.

Unavailable time ratio is calculated as the probability P1 that BER


exceeds 10-3 due to rain and refraction-diffraction fading:

UATR = P1 ........................................................................................(3)

Unavailability due to rain and refraction fading is obtained by using the


3-dB criterion, that is, assuming that the fade margin at the threshold,
BER = 10-3, is 3 dB greater than the fade margin used in the probability
calculation at the threshold for BER = 10-6.

Unavailability due to hardware failure causes interruption in the radio


connection and should therefore be included in the dimensioning of the
unavailable time.

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Available time ratio (UATR)


ATR, expressed as a ratio, is calculated as

UATR = 1 − UATR ...........................................................................(4)

Severely errored second ratio (SESR)


SESR is the ratio of the total AT during a measured period for which
the bit-error ratio is worse than 1⋅10-3 due multipath propagation (flat
and frequency selective fading).

Severely errored second ratio is obtained by calculating the probability,


P2, that BER exceeds 10-3 due to multipath propagation (flat and
frequency selective fading).

SESR = P2 .........................................................................................(5)

The fade margin, at BER = 10-3, is assumed to be 3 dB greater than that


at BER = 10-6.

Errored second ratio (ESR)


ESR is the ratio of the total AT in a measured period during which any
error occurs, regardless of the type of fading mechanism, but not
included in the unavailable time.

Seconds during which BER is worse than 10-6 appear both during
available and unavailable time. Thus, error seconds are obtained as a
ratio, by calculating the probability, P3, that BER exceeds 10-6 due to
multipath propagation (flat and frequency selective fading), rain and
refraction fading and then subtracting unavailable time, during which,
seconds having a BER worse than 10-3 are included, that is,

ESR = P3 - UATR ..............................................................................(6)

Planning unavailable time


Unavailable time was discussed earlier and the conclusion was that its
primary constituents resulted from the occurrence of two fading
mechanisms (rain and refraction) and radio equipment failure. But other
eventual causes must be considered, such as,
• auxiliary equipment

• human activity
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• interference

• power supplies

The ITU-T Recommendation G.826 - basic


concepts

Introduction
Recommendation G.826 is applicable to international, constant bit-rate
digital path at or above the primary rate (2048 kbit/s).

Recommendation G.826 is based upon the measurement of block error-


performance.

Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)


A digital HRP (Hypothetical Reference Path) is, as is the case for the
HRX, a network model in which studies relating to overall performance
may be conducted, thereby facilitating the formulation of standards and
objectives. The HRP, see Figure 13, is the starting-point for the
apportionment strategy in ITU-T Recommendation G.826.

Terminating Inter- Terminating


Intermediate countries
country country country

PEP IG IG IG IG IG PEP

J J J J J J J

National National
International portion portion
portion

Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)


27,500 km
PEP=Path End Point IG=International Gateway

Figure 13: The Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP).

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Available and unavailable time


A period of Unavailable Time (UAT) begins with the onset of 10
consecutive SES events. These 10 seconds are considered to be part of
unavailable time.

A new period of Available Time (AT) begins with the onset of 10


consecutive non-SES events. These 10 seconds are considered to be part
of available time.

Definition of block
A block is a set of consecutive bits associated with the path and each bit
belongs to only one block. Table 9 specifies the recommended range of
the number of bits within each block for different bit-rate ranges.

Bit rate (Mbit/s) 1.5-5 >5-15 >15-55 >55-160 160>3500 >3500


Bits/block 800- 2000- 4000- 6000- 15000- for further
5000 8000 20000 20000 30000 study

Table 9: Recommended range of the number of bits within each block


for different bit-rate ranges.

Because bit-error ratios are not expected to decrease dramatically as the


bit rates of transmission systems increase, the block sizes used in
evaluating very high bit rate paths should remain within the range of 15
000 to 30 000 bits/block. Preserving a constant block size for very high
bit-rate paths result in relatively constant BBER and SESR objectives
for these paths.

Events occurring during available time

Errored Block (EB)


Errored Block is a block in which one or more bits are in error.

Errored Second (ES)


Errored Second is a one-second period containing one or more errored
blocks.

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Severely Errored Second (SES)


Severely Errored Second is a one-second period containing ≥ 30%
errored blocks.

Background Block Error (BBE)


Background Block Error is an errored block not occurring as part of a
SES.

Definitions of quality parameters


The quality objectives are defined based on the events defined earlier.
These events constitute the quality parameters and should only be
evaluated whilst the path is in the available state.

Errored Second Ratio (ESR)


Errored Second Ratio is the ratio of ES to the total seconds of available
time during a fixed measurement interval. ESR is not expressed in
percentage.

Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR)


Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR) is the ratio of SES to the total
seconds of available time during a fixed measurement interval. SESR is
not expressed as a percentage.

Background Block Error Ratio (BBER)


Background Block Error Ratio (BBER) is the ratio of errored blocks to
total blocks during a fixed measurement interval, excluding all blocks
during SES and UAT.

A comparison of SESR (G.826) and SESR (G.821)


Assume an equipment having block size of 2,048 bits/block and a block
rate of 1000 blocks/s. The number of transmitted/received bits during a
period of one second is the following:

1000 blocks ⋅ 2,048 bits/block = 2.048 ⋅ 106 bits

One SES contains at least 30% errored blocks, that is, 30% of 1000
blocks yields a minimum of 300 errored blocks.

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As a result of the fact that one errored block contains a minimum of


one bit error, then 300 errored blocks contain a minimum of 300 bit
errors. The bit-error ratio is therefore a minimum of

300
BER = = 1.46 ⋅ 10 − 4 ............................................................(7)
2.048 ⋅ 10 6

The comparison between G.821 and G.826 yields:

G.821 SES 1.00 ⋅ 10-3

G.826 SESR 1.46 ⋅ 10-4

The value of SESR is then about 7 times lower than the value of SES
provided that the above requirements are valid.

If 300 errored blocks contain more than 300 bit errors, e.g. 2,048 bit
errors, then BER= 10-3, which means that SESR and SES have the
same value.

Smaller block size also causes BER in recommendation G.826 to be


comparable to BER in recommendation G.821. For instance, a block
size of 300 bits/block yields BER=10-3 if just one bit error appears,
thereby yielding the same value for both SESR and SES.

End-to-end objectives apportionment in the HRP


The quality parameters are allocated as ratios, which are related to the
total available time. The quality parameters apportionment for different
bit rates are illustrated in Table 10.

Bit rate (Mbit/s)


Quality 1.5-5 >5-15 >15-55 >55-160 >160-3500 >3500
ESR 0.04 0.05 0.075 0.16 Not confirmed For further study
SESR 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 For further study
-4 -4 -4 -4 -4
BBER 2⋅10 2⋅10 2⋅10 2⋅10 2⋅10 For further study

Table 10: The apportionment of quality parameters for different bit


rates.

The values in the table are not expressed as percentages.

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Quality objectives allocation in the HRP

National portion
The total allocation to the national portion, see Figure 14, is composed
of two components:

1. Each national portion is allocated a fixed block allowance of 17.5%


of the end-to-end objective.

2. A distance-based allocation of 1% per 500 km is assigned to the


portion between PEP and IG and is added to the current block
allowance. The actual route length (if it is known) and the air route
between the PEP and the IG should first be calculated. The
calculated air route should be multiplied by an appropriate routing
factor specified as follows:

• If the air route distance is shorter than 1000 km, the routing factor is
1.5

• If the air route distance is greater or equal 1000 km but shorter than
1200 km, the calculated route length is taken to be 1500 km

• If the air route distance is greater or equal 1200 km, the routing factor
is 1.25

When both actual and calculated route lengths are known, the smaller
value is retained. This distance should be rounded up to the nearest 500
km, that is, the two national portions comprise at least 500 km each.

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1%/500 km Distance-based Distance-based 1%/500 km


allocation allocation
17.5% Block allowance Block allowance 17.5%

Terminating Terminating
Intermediate countries
country country

Inter-
country
PEP IG IG IG IG IG PEP

J J J J J J J

National National
International portion portion
portion
Hypothetical Reference Path
27,500 km

Figure 14: The allocation in the national portion of the HRP.

When a national portion includes a satellite hop, a total allowance of


42% of the end-to-end objectives in Table 10 is allocated to this
national portion. This allowance completely replaces both the block and
the distance-based allowances otherwise allotted to the national
portions.

International portion
The total allocation to the international portion, see Figure 15, is
composed of two components:

1. The international portion is allocated a block allowance of 2% per


intermediate country, plus 1% for each terminating country.

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2. A distance-based allocation of 1% per 500 km is assigned to the total


international portion that may pass through ”intermediate countries”.
The actual route length between consecutive IGs (one or two for each
intermediate country) should be added in order to calculate the
overall length of the international portion. The air-route distance
between consecutive IGs should also be used and multiplied by an
appropriate routing factor specified as follows for each element
between IGs:

• If the air route distance between two IGs is shorter than 1000 km, the
routing factor is 1.5

• If the air route distance is greater or equal 1000 km but shorter than
1200 km, the calculated route length is taken to be 1500 km

• If the air route distance between two IGs is greater or equal 1200 km,
the routing factor is 1.25

When both actual and calculated route lengths are known, the smaller
value is retained for each element between IGs. This distance should be
rounded up to the nearest 500 km, but shall not exceed 26 500 km.

In cases where the allocation to the international portion is less than 6%,
then 6% shall be used as the allocation.

Independent of the distance spanned, any satellite hop in the


international portion receives a 35% allocation of the objectives Table
10. When allocating 35% to a satellite hop, employed in the
international portion, the distance spanned by the satellite is not
included in the distance-based allocation.

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Distance based
allocation 1%/500 km

Block allowance 1% 1%

Terminating Terminating
Intermediate countries
country country

Inter-
country
PEP IG IG IG IG IG PEP

J J J J J J J

National National
International portion portion
portion
Hypothetical Reference Path
27,500 km

Figure 15: The allocation in the international portion of the HRP.

Unavailability allocation in the HRP


The allocation of unavailability in the national and international
portions of the HRP is not defined in Rec. G.826.

Radio applications of the ITU-T´S Rec. G.826


The quality objectives defined in ITU-T’s Recommendation G.826
furnish a more detailed guidance for network dimensioning than
Recommendation G.821. The revised quality objectives are applicable
to both the national and the international portions of the HRP.

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National portion of the HRP - basic sections


Since there is one LE and one PC (alternatively one SC or one TC,
depending on the size of the country) between the PEP and the IG, the
national portion of the HRP (the portion between the PEP and the IG) is
further divided in three portions. These portions, digital sections, are
called ”Access”, ”Short Haul” and ”Long Haul” and are illustrated in
Figure 16. The quality objectives for the national portion are therefore
assigned separately to the three portions.

PC
SC
PEP LE TC IG

Access Short Haul Long Haul

PEP IG

Figure 16: The national portion of the HRP (the portion between the
PEP and the IG) is divided in three portions.

PEP=Path End Point, IG=International Gateway, LE=Local Exchange,


PC=Primary Center, SC=Secondary Center, TC=Tertiary Center.

The three portions are defined as follows:

Access is the section including the connections between the Path End
Point (PEP) and the Local Exchange (LE).

Short Haul is the section including the connections between the Local
Exchange (LE) and Primary Center (PC) - alternatively the Secondary
Center (SC) or Tertiary Center (TC), depending of the network
architecture.

Long haul is the section including the connections between the Primary
Center (PC) - alternatively Secondary Center (SC) or Tertiary Center
(TC) - and the International Gate (IG).

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Quality objectives allocation

Long-haul section
For each transmission direction and for each of the different bit-rates,
the quality objectives related to the long-haul section are to consist of a
distance-based allocation and a block allocation as illustrated in
Table 11.

Bit rate ( Mbit/s)


Quality 1.5-5 >5-15 >15-55 >55-160 >160-3500
ESR 0.04⋅A 0.05⋅A 0.075⋅A 0.16⋅A for further study
SESR 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅A
-4 -4 -4 -4
BBER 2⋅A⋅10 2⋅A⋅10 2⋅A⋅10 2⋅A⋅10 1⋅A⋅10-4

Table 11: The allocation of the quality objectives in the long-haul


section.

The parameter A in the table is calculated as follows:

L
A = A1 + 0.01 ⋅ ...............................................................................(8)
500

where

A1 has provisionally been agreed to be in the range of 1 to 2%

L the nearest 500 km value rounded up from L.

Short-haul section
For each transmission direction and for each of the different bit-rates,
the quality objectives related to the short-haul section are to consist of a
block allocation as illustrated in Table 12.

Bit rate ( Mbit/s)


Quality 1.5-5 >5-15 >15-55 >55-160 >160-3500
ESR 0.04⋅B 0.05⋅B 0.075⋅B 0.16⋅B for further study
SESR 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅B
BBER 2⋅B⋅10-4 2⋅B⋅10-4 2⋅B⋅10-4 2⋅B⋅10-4 1⋅B⋅10-4

Table 12: The allocation of the quality objectives in the short-haul


section.

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The value of B has provisionally been agreed to be in the range of 7.5 to


8.5%.

Access section
For each transmission direction and for each of the different bit-rates,
the quality objectives related to the access section are to consist of a
block allocation as illustrated in Table 13.

Bit rate ( Mbit/s)


Quality 1.5-5 >5-15 >15-55 >55-160 >160-3500
ESR 0.04⋅C 0.05⋅C 0.075⋅C 0.16⋅C for further study
SESR 0.002⋅C 0.002⋅C 0.002⋅C 0.002⋅C 0.002⋅C
BBER 2⋅C⋅10-4 2⋅C⋅10-4 2⋅C⋅10-4 2⋅C⋅10-4 1⋅C⋅10-4

Table 13: The allocation of the quality objectives in the access section.

The value of C has provisionally been agreed to be in the range of 7.5 to


8.5%.

Summary of quality objectives


A summary of the allocation of the quality parameters in the three
sections of the national portion of the HRP is illustrated in Table 14.

Bit rate Quality Long haul Short haul Access


(Mbit/s)parameter
ESR 0.04⋅A 0.04⋅B 0.04⋅C
1.5-5 SESR 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅C
BBER 2⋅A⋅10-4 2⋅B⋅10-4 2⋅C⋅10-4
ESR 0.05⋅A 0.05⋅B 0.05⋅C
>5-15 SESR 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅C
BBER 2⋅A⋅10-4 2⋅B⋅10-4 2⋅C⋅10-4
ESR 0.075⋅A 0.075⋅B 0.075⋅C
>15-55 SESR 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅C
BBER 2⋅A⋅10-4 2⋅B⋅10-4 2⋅C⋅10-4
ESR 0.16⋅A 0.16⋅B 0.16⋅C
>55-160 SESR 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅C
-4 -4
BBER 2⋅A⋅10 2⋅B⋅10 2⋅C⋅10-4
ESR For further study For further study For further study
>160-3500 SESR 0.002⋅A 0.002⋅B 0.002⋅C
BBER 1⋅A⋅10-4 1⋅B⋅10-4 1⋅C⋅10-4

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Table 14: Allocation of the quality parameters in the three sections of


the national portion of the HRP.

The following conditions are provisionally valid:

1) A% + B% + C% ≤ 17.5%

2) B% + C% are in the range 15.5 to 16.5%

3) The effects of interference and all other sources of performance


degradation are included in the above table.

4) The suggested evaluation period is one month for all of the


parameters, and the quality objectives apply only when the system is
considered to be available.

International portion of the HRP


The international portion of the HRP consists of the network between
the International Gateways (IG) of two countries. A connection in the
international portion may, however, pass through several countries.

The ITU has assumed that the connection passes through four countries
(each with two IGs) and that both terminating countries have one IG
each. This is illustrated in Figure 17.

Terminating country
Terminating country

Inter-
Intermediate countries country

IG IG IG IG IG
J J J J J

International portion

Figure 17: The international portion of the HRP.

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The following quality objectives, see Table 15, for different bit rates,
are allocated to the international portion of the HRP:

Bit rate ( Mbit/s)


Quality 1.5-5 >5-15 >15-55 >55-160 >160-3500
ESR 0.04⋅(FL+BL) 0.05⋅(FL+BL) 0.075⋅(FL+BL) 0.16⋅(FL+BL) for further study
SESR 0.002⋅(FL+BL)
BBER 2⋅ 10-4⋅(FL+BL) 2⋅ 10-4⋅(FL+BL)

Table 15: Allocation of the quality parameters in the international


portion of the HRP.

The values in the table are used with a distance allocation factor given
by

L
FL = 0.01 ⋅ .....................................................................................(9)
500

and a block allowance factor BL, which is applicable under the


following conditions:

Intermediate countries:

L
BL = BR ⋅ 0.02 ⋅ for Lmin < L ≤ Lref .........................................(10)
Lref

BL = BR ⋅ 0.02 for L > Lref ....................................................(11)

Terminating countries:

L
BL = BR ⋅ 0.01 ⋅ for Lmin < L ≤ Lref .........................................(12)
Lref

BL = BR ⋅ 0.01 for L > Lref ....................................................(13)

Block allowance factor: BR (0<BR≤1)

Reference length: Lref=1000 km (provisionally)

The following conditions are provisionally valid:

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1) The value of BR has provisionally been agreed to be 1. Further


studies are required to establish a final value for BRthat can be used for
different transmission components.

2) The effects of interference and all other sources of performance


degradation are included in the above table.

3) The suggested evaluation period is one month for all the parameters,
and the quality objectives apply only when the system is considered to
be available.

4) The overall length of the international path passing through one or


more countries should be rounded up to the nearest multiple of 500
km.

Radio applications of the ITU-T Rec. G.826


The objective values presented in ITU-T Rec. G.826 for the national
portion of the HRP are included in the ITU-R Rec. F.1189.

It is one of the prime objectives of ITU-T Rec. G.826 to define all


performance parameters in such a way that in-service estimation is
possible. Thus, parameter definitions based upon bit-error ratios are not
chosen.

As mentioned before, the quality objectives for the national portion of


the HDP are assigned separately to the three portions.

The ITU-T Recommendation G.827


The purpose of this recommendation is to specify the availability
parameters and objectives for path elements of international constant
bit-rate digital paths at or above the primary rate.

Two types of paths are considered: paths between the International


Switching Centers (ISCs) consisting only of an international portion and
paths extending beyond the ISC consisting of both national and
international portions. The ITU-T Rec. G.827 specifies objectives for
the availability performance of each of these paths.

Many of the subjects included in the ITU-T Rec. G.827 are, however,
still for further study. For instance, the exact location of the Path End
Point (PEP) in the international portion and the availability performance
objectives

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References
ITU-T Recommendation G.102

ITU-T Recommendation G.801

ITU-T Recommendation G.821

ITU-T Recommendation G.826

ITU-T Recommendation G.921

ITU-I Recommendation I.120

ITU-R Recommendation F.556-1

ITU-R Recommendation F.557-3

ITU-R Recommendation F.594-4

ITU-R Recommendation F.634-3

ITU-R Recommendation F.695

ITU-R Recommendation F.696-1

ITU-R Recommendation F.697-1

ITU-R Recommendation F.1092

ITU-R Recommendation F.1189

ITU-R Report F-930-2

ITU-R Report F-1052-1

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RADIO REGULATIONS

This chapter briefly describes the ITU-R publication


”Radio Regulations”, the publisher, the contents and the
general structure of the publication. The primary objective
of this chapter is to deal with the subject of Radio
Regulations in connection with the use of frequencies for
fixed terrestrial radio-links.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 1
What is meant by Radio Regulations?............................................................................................................... 1
Who is the publisher?........................................................................................................................................ 2
Content and structure......................................................................................................................................... 3
Volume 1, Radio Regulations.............................................................................................................. 3
Volume 2, Appendices ........................................................................................................................ 4
Volume 3, Resolutions and Recommendations ................................................................................... 4
The principle articles dealing with frequency allocation................................................................................... 4
Article 1 (RR footnotes 2 - 207).......................................................................................................... 4
Article 2 (RR footnotes 208- 234)....................................................................................................... 5
Article 4 (RR footnotes 264 - 298)...................................................................................................... 5
Article 6 (RR footnotes 339 - 373)...................................................................................................... 6
Article 7 (RR footnotes 374 - 390)...................................................................................................... 7
Article 8 (RR footnotes 391 - 952)...................................................................................................... 7
Article 9 (RR footnotes 953 - 989)...................................................................................................... 8
Article 10 (RR footnotes 990 -1040)................................................................................................... 9
Radio Regulations volume 4 ............................................................................................................................. 10
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

i
RADIO REGULATIONS

Introduction
The chapter does not consider all of the required provisions and, as a
result, is not to be construed as a substitute for the publication ”Radio
Regulations”. Instead, it is meant as a guide when seeking important
international treatise in the area of radio frequency allocations and radio
frequency management.

What is meant by Radio Regulations?


Radio Regulations is a set of documents consisting of three main
volumes and one additional volume containing updates. The volumes
constitutes an international radio communication treaty and deals with
the various radio communication services and their use of the radio-
frequency spectrum. The regulations contain allocation rules and
regulations relating to services using the radio spectrum up to 400 GHz.

The documents cover both worldwide and regional frequency


allocations as well as the priorities that are assigned to the different
services when sharing the same frequency band. The combination of
worldwide frequency allocation regulations together with regional
allocation regulations (that may vary from one region to another) is the
very foundation upon which interference-free global radio
communication services exist.

The objective of the regulations is to maintain efficient and economical


use of the radio-frequency spectrum and to coordinate the efforts that
will lead to the elimination of destructive interference between radio
stations located in different countries.

As for terrestrial fixed radio-link transmission services, Radio


Regulations controls the allocation of frequency bands both on a global
and on a regional basis, i.e., the allocation of worldwide frequency
bands as well as the allocation of frequency bands employed within the
different geographical regions of the world. These frequency bands may
either be exclusively allocated for fixed terrestrial radio or, under
certain conditions, may be shared with other services. Particular
attention is paid to the coordination between terrestrial services and
space services, between satellites and earth stations, and between fixed
and mobile services - all of which are strictly regulated.

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When attempting to establish frequencies for a radio-link hop or a


radio-link network in a particular country, Radio Regulations will
provide available frequency bands for the country or region in question
- frequency bands that are internationally approved for the service in
question. Based on these frequency allocations, the allotment will then
be made in accordance with the recommendations in the ITU-R series F
(Fixed Services) publications. The allotments consist of one or more
alternative radio-frequency channel arrangements. These arrangements
are then to be used as in accordance with the rules of the administration
in question. Based on the selected radio-frequency channel arrangement
and the stipulations found in Radio Regulations, the planning and
assignment of frequencies for the radio-link hop or radio-link network
can take place.

A significant portion of Radio Regulations deals with the handling and


assignment of frequencies in the areas of maritime and aeronautical
services and in the areas of vital safety and distress services.

Who is the publisher?


Radio Regulations is published under the authority of the Secretary
General of the International Telecommunication Union, ITU. As ITU is
a part of the United Nations, the Radio Regulation document represents
a treaty between most of the countries in the world.

Radio Communication Conferences are held every two years by the ITU
Radio Communication Sector, ITU-R, having their primary function as
the development and adoption of Radio Regulations.

Other bodies of the Radio communication sector that participate in the


Radio Regulations effort are:

• Radio Communication Bureau, which provides administrative and


technical support to Radio Communication Conferences

and the

• Radio Regulation Board, which among all its other activities also
approves the rules of procedure as used in the application of the
Radio Regulations.

The Radio Communication Conferences are open to all ITU Members,


Administrations, the United Nations, international organizations,
regional telecommunication organizations and intergovernmental
organizations.

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RADIO REGULATIONS

Content and structure


Radio Regulations is a consolidated document consisting of three
volumes which incorporate:

• Volume 1: Radio Regulations

• Volume 2 : Appendices

• Volume 3: Resolutions and Recommendations

• Volume 4: Articles, Appendix, WRC-95 Resolutions and


Recommendations

Volume 1, Radio Regulations


Volume 1 consists, for the time being, of 5197 regulatory footnotes that
are divided in 69 articles (subdivided into sections), 13 chapters and
two parts (A and B).

Volume 1
Parts A and B
Chapter I - XIII
Article 1 - 69 (subdivided into sections)
Regulations, footnotes 1 - 5197

Furthermore, volume 1 contains sections that are aimed at helping the


reader and at increasing the ease-of-use of the document. For the most
part, these sections consist of:

• Table of contents for all three volumes

• Analytical tables - a list of key words in alphabetic order covering


both the main body of the regulations as well as the Appendices to
the Radio Regulations.

• Analytical index - a set of eight tables containing the primary


content of the Resolutions and the Recommendations.

• Notes by the General Secretary where, for example, note 3 (N-3)


refers to ITU-R recommendations concerning the field of Radio
Regulations. Most of the other notes consist of flowcharts covering
radio regulatory procedures.

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Volume 2, Appendices
The appendices, referring to one or more articles or regulatory
footnotes, contain additional information over and above that provided
in RR volume 1. The information consists of more detailed and
specified texts, algorithms, tables and figures. Two examples are
illustrated below:

1. Appendix 6, ”Determination of Necessary Bandwidths Including


Examples for their Calculation and Associated Examples for the
Designation of Emissions”

2. Appendix 28, ”Methods for the Determination of Coordination Area


Around an Earth Station in Frequency Bands Between 1 GHz and 40
GHz Shared Between Space and Terrestrial Radio Communication
Services.

The Appendices are numbered in order, depending on the services they


cover. An analytical table is provided in volume 1.

Volume 3, Resolutions and Recommendations


The Resolutions and Recommendations contain administrative
decisions concerning principles, general procedures and cooperation.
They also regulate how and when actions that have been decided upon,
as well as future issues, are to be carried out.

The Resolutions and Recommendations are numbered in order,


depending on the services they cover. An analytical index is provided in
volume 1.

The principle articles dealing with frequency


allocation
The examples below deal with fixed terrestrial radio and cover the most
important sections of Radio Regulations. The examples do not
reproduce the entire text found in Radio Regulations, they only serve as
a guide to the contents therein. For all the provisions and their terms,
see Radio Regulations, Volume 1.

Article 1 (RR footnotes 2 - 207)


“Terms and Definitions”.

This article contains Terms and Definitions that are important to the
understanding of Radio Regulations.

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Three important definitions that relate to Frequency Management


(footnotes 17, 18 and 19):

• Allocation (of a frequency band): Frequency distribution to services.


Frequency allocation of a given frequency band for the purpose of
its use, i.e. the allocation of frequencies to specific services under
specified conditions.

• Allotment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel):


Frequency distribution to areas or countries. The allotment of a
designated frequency channel, that is specified in an agreed
frequency plan, for use in a country or area.

• Assignment (of a radio frequency or a radio frequency channel):


Frequency distribution to stations. The authorization granted by an
administration to a radio station allowing the use of a radio
frequency or radio frequency channel under specified conditions.

Article 2 (RR footnotes 208- 234)


“Nomenclature related to the Frequency and Wavelength Bands Used in
Radio Communication”.

The radio spectrum is subdivided into nine frequency bands that are
designated by band numbers (consecutive whole numbers). At present
the numbers cover the range four (4) to twelve (12). The frequency
range covers the spectrum from 3 kHz up to 3000 GHz.

The frequency bands also have corresponding symbols (e.g., VHF,


UHF), a metric band division (e.g., metric waves, decimetric waves)
and metric abbreviations (e.g., B.m, B.dm)

Article 4 (RR footnotes 264 - 298)


“Emission designations”.

Emissions are to be designated in accordance with their necessary


bandwidth and their classification. The classification is a description of
the type of modulation, nature of the signal and information to be
transmitted. The purpose of the designation is to achieve a concise and
standardized emission description, i.e., to achieve a concise and
standardized terminology in the communication between operators,
administrations and the ITU.

The designation describes:

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• Necessary bandwidth, by three numerals and one alphabetic


character. The alphabetic character is to be H (Hz), K (KHz), M
(MHz) or G (GHz) and is to occupy the position of the decimal
point and is to represent the unit of bandwidth. Example: The
bandwidth 28.0 MHz is designated as ”28M0”.

• The class of emission is to be designated by a set of alpha-numeric


characteristics. The basic characteristics are:

(1) first symbol - type of modulation of the main carrier. Example:


”G”, Phase modulation
(2) second symbol - nature of signal(s) modulating the main carrier.
Example: ”7”, Two or more channels containing quantified or
digital information;
(3) third symbol - type of information to be transmitted. Example:
”E”, Telephony;

• Optional additional characteristics consisting of two symbols, the


fourth and the fifth, are provided in Appendix 6, part A:

(4) fourth symbol - signal details. Example: ”D”, Four-condition


code in which each condition represents a signal element, e.g., one
or more bits;
(5) fifth symbol - nature of multiplexing. Example: ”T”, Time
division multiplexing;

The examples above give the designation: 28M0G7EDT for a signal


having a bandwidth of 28 MHz, that is phase modulated, that handles
digital telephony, in which the signal is coded with a four-condition
code and that is time division multiplexed.

Appendix 6, part B, provides a number of methods for the


determination of the necessary bandwidth for different modulation
methods. The appendix also includes some examples of their
calculation.

Article 6 (RR footnotes 339 - 373)


“General Rules for the Assignment and Use of Frequencies”.

Article 6 provides general rules relating to frequency economy, harmful


interference and stations in distress. The salient points are:

• Frequency economy: The limitation of the number of frequencies


and the used spectrum to the minimum required for the satisfactory
operation of the necessary services. Use the latest technical
advances.

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RADIO REGULATIONS

• Harmful interference: In order to avoid harmful interference,


frequencies are to be assigned to radio stations in accordance with
the Table of Frequency Allocations (Article 8). The frequencies
assigned near the limits of an allocated band may not cause harmful
interference to services allocated to adjoining frequency bands.
When allocating a band of frequencies to a variety of services in
adjacent regions, the basic principle is the equality of the right to
operate. No harmful interference may affect the services in other
regions.

• Distress: The Radio Regulations makes no provision for the


prevention of the use of a radio or any other means of radio
communications in situations of distress.

Article 7 (RR footnotes 374 - 390)


“Special Agreements”.

Two or more members (of the ITU) may, with some exceptions,
conclude special agreements regarding the sub-allocation of bands of
services or the assignment of frequencies to specific services. The
special agreements shall not be in conflict with any of the provisions of
the Radio Regulations, i.e., no radio system may be affected by harmful
interference resulting from such agreements.

Article 8 (RR footnotes 391 - 952)


“Frequency Allocations”.

This important part of the Radio Regulations contains information


concerning the allocation and regulation of frequency bands for all
services. This implies that the frequency spectrum from approximately
9 kHz up to 400 GHz is allocated and regulated by these stipulations.

The following subjects are of interest:

Article 8, Section I: Regions and Areas

The world has been divided into three regions (footnotes 393 to 399) for
the purposes of frequency allocation. Notes often exist that regulate the
use of the different frequency bands used in the smaller areas of a
region (such as in countries). The regions are shown on a map and
described in detail in the text.

The three regions are roughly the following:

Region 1: Europe, Russia, Middle East and Africa.

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Region 2: America, North and South.

Region 3: The remainder of the world.

Article 8, Section II: Service and Allocation categories

The Tables of Frequency Allocations found in Section IV of Article 8


indicate that some frequency bands are allocated to more than one
service, either on a worldwide or on a regional basis. These services are
divided into different categories, where the main categories are
(footnotes 413 - 425):

• Primary Service and Permitted Service which have equal rights,


except that, in the preparation of frequency plans, the primary
service as compared with the permitted service, shall have prior
choice of frequencies.

Secondary Service
a) shall not cause harmful interference to stations of primary or
permitted services to which frequencies already are assigned or to which
frequencies may be assigned at a later Date.
b) cannot claim protection from harmful interference from stations of
primary or permitted service to which frequencies already are assigned
or to which frequencies may be assigned at a later Date.
c) can claim protection, however, from harmful interference from
stations of the same or other secondary services to which frequencies
may be assigned at a later Date.

In addition, three more categories should be noted:

• Additional Allocations (footnotes 426 - 429)

• Alternative Allocations (footnotes 430 - 433)

• Miscellaneous Provisions (footnotes 434 - 436)

Article 9 (RR footnotes 953 - 989)


“Special Rules for the Assignment and Use of Frequencies”.

Article 9 deals with rules concerning safety services, the use of low
frequencies and the use of frequencies allocated to one service that are
used by other services, e.g., aircraft earth stations are in some cases
authorized to use frequencies allocated to maritime mobile-satellite
services.

Some examples of the contents are:

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RADIO REGULATIONS

Low frequencies that have long-distance characteristics, i.e., those in the


band between 5 MHz and 30 MHz, are to be reserved for long distance
communication as far as is possible.

Of special interest, from the radio-link transmission point of view, are:

Any emission capable of causing harmful interference to distress, alarm,


urgency or safety communication over the international distress and
emergency frequencies that have been established for these purposes by
Radio Regulations is prohibited.

Any administration may assign a frequency in a band allocated to the


fixed service to transmit from one specified fixed point to one or more
specified fixed points provided that such transmissions are not intended
to be received directly by the general public (i.e., point to multipoint
systems are allowed in the fixed frequency bands).

Article 10 (RR footnotes 990 -1040)


“International Frequency Registration Board”.

The International Frequency Registration Board (IFRB) formed prior to


1993 is a part of the former ITU organization, equal in stature to CCITT
and CCIR. Today, IFRB duties are carried out by the ITU-R Radio
Communication Bureau and Radio Regulations Board. Relevant
provisions in the present edition of the Radio Regulations (edition of
1990, revised 1994) still refer to the IFRB.

The constitution and essential duties of the International Frequency


Registration Board are defined in the ITU Convention. The Board has
frequent meetings, at least once a week.

Examples of functions of the Board are the following:

• Processing and administration of the Master International Frequency


Register. Compilation for publication of frequency lists reflecting
the data recorded in the Master International Frequency Register.

• The study, on a long-term basis, of the usage of the radio frequency


spectrum, with a view to making recommendations for its more
effective use.

• Assistance to the ITU or administrations in the investigation of


harmful interference in order to achieve the efficient use of the
radio-frequency spectrum. This is achieved through the use of
technical standards and training in the fields of spectrum
management and the utilization of frequencies.

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Radio Regulations volume 4


Radio regulation volume 4 is an update of Radio Regulations edition
1994. This publication is complementary to the three earlier mentioned
volumes of the Radio Regulations.

Volume 4 of the Radio Regulations is a consolidated document


incorporating the decisions of the World Radio Communication
Conference 1995 (WRC-95) concerning the revised provisions of the
Radio Regulationsthat came into force provisionally on 1 January 1997.

Revisions are made in:

• Article 8, Frequency Allocations.

• Article 28, Space Radio Communication Services Sharing Frequency


Bands with Terrestrial Radio Communication Services above 1 GHz.

• Article 29, Special Rules Relating to Space Radio Communication


Services.

• Appendices 1 and 2, concerning Notification and Recording in the


Master International Frequency Register of Frequency Assignments
to Terrestrial Radio Communication Stations.

• Appendix 3, Notices Relating to Space Radio Communication and


Radio Astronomy Stations.

• Appendix 4, Advance Publication Information to Be Furnished for a


Satellite Network.

• Appendix 5, concerning the Frequency Allotment Plan for Coast


Radiotelephone Stations.

References
”Radio Regulations” ITU publication, vol. 1-4, revised edition 1998.

General information and facts on ITU were gathered from Internet


”http//www.itu.int” during November 1999.

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THE RADIO SPECTRUM
AND
CHANNEL ARRANGEMENT

The chapter deals with the principles that apply to the


structuring of frequency channel arrangements, necessary
channel separation as a function of modulation method
and transmission capacity plus a reference to currently
applicable ITU-R recommendations concerning frequency
channel arrangements in the frequency band 1.5 to 55
GHz.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Available frequency bands ................................................................................................................................ 1


Available frequency-channel arrangements....................................................................................................... 1
The spectrum..................................................................................................................................................... 1
The radio spectrum.............................................................................................................................. 2
Channel width ..................................................................................................................................... 3
Modulation ........................................................................................................................................................ 5
Analog systems.................................................................................................................................... 6
Digital systems .................................................................................................................................... 6
Modulation and spectral efficiency ..................................................................................................... 6
Two-state Phase-shift Keying (2 PSK) modulation............................................................... 6
Four-state Phase-shift Keying (4 PSK) modulation .............................................................. 7
Eight-state Phase-shift Keying (8 PSK) modulation ............................................................. 7
Quadrature amplitude modulation......................................................................................... 7
Frequency-channel arrangements ...................................................................................................................... 8
Construction of channel arrangements ................................................................................................ 8
Alternated Pattern ................................................................................................................. 11
Co-channel band re-use......................................................................................................... 11
Interleaved pattern................................................................................................................. 12
ITU-R defined radio-frequency channel arrangements ..................................................................................... 12
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 14

i
THE RADIO SPECTRUM AND CHANNEL ARRANGEMENT

Available frequency bands


When attempting to establish frequencies for a radio-link hop or a
radio-link network in a particular country, Radio Regulations Article 8
will provide available frequency bands for the country or region in
question - frequency bands that are internationally approved for the
service in question.

Based on these frequency allocations, the allotment will then be made in


accordance with the recommendations in the ITU-R series F (Fixed
Services) publications. The allotments consist of one or more
alternative radio-frequency channel arrangements. These arrangements
are then to be used in accordance with the rules of the administration in
question.

Based on the selected radio-frequency channel arrangement and the


stipulations found in Radio Regulations, the planning and assignment of
frequencies for the radio-link hop or radio-link network can take place.

Available frequency-channel arrangements


Internationally recommended frequency channel arrangements exist to
facilitate the achievement of international coordination and a uniform
standard for the planning of spectrum utilization including standards for
the manufacturers of radio equipment. A number of frequency channel
arrangements that lie in the range from 1.5 to 55 GHz have been worked
out by ITU-R and may be found in the F series (Fixed Service)
recommendations. The frequency channel arrangements have been
adapted to various bandwidth requirements through suitable channel
spacing.

In ITU studies that have been carried out to date, a number of bands
have not been the subject of Recommendations for specific
radio-frequency channel arrangements which might be fitted into an
international pattern as has already been done in other parts of the
frequency spectrum. On a regional basis, one may find both other
frequency bands and other frequency channel arrangements than those
recommended by ITU.

The spectrum
Electromagnetic waves exist at all frequencies (or wavelengths). This
endless scale is referred to as the electromagnetic spectrum. The speed
of electromagnetic waves is constant (c ≅ 3⋅108 m/s in vacuum).

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The radio spectrum is a natural resource. It is limited, but to some


extent recoverable. It can also be misused and can be exposed to
”environmentally destructive forces” through laziness, unwise frugality,
and ruthless exploitation. As a result, it may be difficult to effectively
utilize portions of the spectrum that have been released and made
available for other usage.

It is necessary that one is aware of the consequences to other spectrum


users, when one is vigilant in accommodating one’s own
communication requirements. A change can create an unpredictable
chain reaction. A small-scale improvement may, from a more macro
point of view, prove to be a deterioration. The scarcity of the radio
spectrum requires that it has to be rationed, sometimes heavily.

On occasion, more than one radio service may share the same spectral
potion - a proviso being that all users must show consideration for one
another. It is often the case that one must forgo one’s own wishes so
that the collective capacity that available to the different services is as
great as possible.

In today’s information society, one is dependent on the fact that all


communications resources operate effectively. If a dominant services is
allowed to expand at the cost of a number of small services, the
dominant service may prove to be of little or no use - simply because
the dominating service is dependent on the support of the smaller
services.

The radio spectrum


The radio spectrum consists of electromagnetic fluctuations that have
the same physical properties as visible light, but have lower frequencies
(which is the same as greater wavelengths). Frequency is measured in
Hertz (Hz) and 1 Hz corresponds to one fluctuation (or cycle) per
second.

There is no physical limit, either upwards or downwards, for the


frequency of electromagnetic fluctuations, however, in accordance with
international Radio Regulations, it has been more or less arbitrarily
decided that frequency limits exist at 9 kHz and 3,000 GHz (equivalent
to wavelengths of 33 km and 0.1 mm respectively). These are the
administrative limits of the Radio Regulations, and it is within these
limits that the following traditional frequency ranges exist:

• HF, high frequencies (3...30 MHz)

• VHF, very high frequencies (30...300 MHz)

• UHF, ultra high frequencies (300...3000 MHz)


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• SHF, super high frequencies (3...30 GHz)

• EHF, extremely high frequencies (30...300 GHz)

• Not labeled (300…3000GHz)

The different frequency bands have different characteristics with respect


to range and the size of the antennas used.

Channel width
The frequency raster is a fundamental concept in the performance of
frequency planning activities. A raster is a subdivision of a frequency
range or a portion of an available spectrum into segments (channels).

Channel arrangements may be determined both for analog and for


digital systems. When constructing a raster, and during the
determination of channel assignment, consideration is given to the
method of modulation and the radio link’s capacity – both of which
affect bandwidth and interference tolerance. For a digital signal, the
capacity is equal to the information data rate expressed in bits/s. The
concept of modulation will be explained in the next section.

The method of modulation determines the required bandwidth for the


transmitted signal. The suitability of a given modulation method to a
particular application is determined by the following characteristics:

• Spectrum efficiency
A common definition of spectrum efficiency is transmitted quantity
of information per used spectrum. The transmitted quantity of
information within a given spectrum is expressed in bits/s/Hz.
Spectrum efficiency will increase with an increase in number of
modulation levels.

• Interference tolerance
Different modulation methods have different interference tolerance
characteristics. The interference tolerance of digital systems is
presented as a minimum C/I quotient (carrier/interference ratio) for
different bit-error ratios. In general, interference tolerance
deteriorates as the number of modulation levels is increased.

Table 1 gives some examples of modulation schemes and their


respective Nyquist bandwidths. The Nyquist bandwidth values are one
of the factors determining channel separation.

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Modulation Variant Nyquist bandwidth (bn)

PSK 2-state PSK B


4-state PSK B/2
8-state PSK B/3
16-state PSK B/4

QAM 16-QAM B/4


32-QAM B/5
64-QAM B/6
128-QAM B/7
256-QAM B/8
512-QAM B/9

TCM 16 TCM-2D B/3


32 TCM-2D B/4
128 TCM-2D B/6
512 TCM-2D B/8
64 TCM-4D B/5.5
128 TCM-4D B/6.5
512 TCM-4D B/8.5
Table 1:. Examples of different modulation schemes and their respective
Nyquist bandwidths.

bn = Nyquist bandwidth
B = Bit rate, code redundancy is not included
PSK = Phase Shift Keying
QAM = Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
TCM = Trellis Coded Modulation

The Nyquist bandwidth occupied by the modulated signal can be used


in comparing various modulation schemes. However, this does not
generally indicate the radio-frequency channel bandwidth that must, in
practice, be allotted to a digitally modulated signal. This channel
bandwidth is, in principle, a trade-off between the choice of modulation,
inter-channel interference and network constraints and is, in practice,
provided by the relevant ITU-R Recommendation on radio-frequency
channel arrangements. It is expected to vary in the range 1.2 bn to 2 bn
for various systems.

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Modulation
Generally speaking, modulation is a physical operation related to the
modification of certain wave characteristics in accordance with the
characteristics of another wave. In radio-relay systems, the baseband
signal containing the information to be transmitted from one place to
another is used to modulate the radio-frequency carrier (RF carrier)
during the transmission process. The reverse occurs during the reception
process in which the signal containing the information is extracted by
demodulating the received signal.

The RF carrier is a sine wave given by

U = A ⋅ cos (ö + 2 ⋅ ð ⋅ f) ........................................................................(1)

where

U = RF carrier strength

A = amplitude

ϕ= phase

f = frequency

Modification of the RF carrier (i.e., modulation) is possible by using of


one of, or combinations of the following three modes:

• changing its amplitude A, that is, amplitude modulation (AM)

• changing its phase ϕ, that is, phase modulation (PM)

• changing its frequency f, that is, frequency modulation (FM)

Direct modulation of the baseband on the RF carrier is usually


encountered in low-cost analog systems having low and medium
capacities. A two-step procedure can also be used, where the baseband
is modulated on an Intermediate Frequency (IF) in the first step, and the
frequency is up-converted to RF in the second step. Modern equipment
eliminates the IF stage by performing RF frequency generation and
modulation in one and the same circuit.

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Analog systems
Frequency modulation (FM) is usually employed in analog radio-
systems because it is more ”resistant” to distortion than amplitude
modulation (AM). Using frequency modulation, the IF and RF carrier
deviate from their nominal values as a function of baseband frequency.
The relation between frequency deviation and baseband frequency is
referred to as the modulation index. The higher the modulation index,
the better the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) but also the larger is the
bandwidth required in the RF and IF frequency spectrums.

Digital systems
Digital modulation is generally much more complex than analog
modulation. The following will introduce some general digital
modulation concepts.

A digital telephone channel requires 64 kbit/s as compared with 4 kHz


for an analog telephone channel. In addition, existing frequency plans
were originally established for analog transmission. The result is that
the transmission capacity of digital signals must be accommodated for
in such frequency plans. Economizing on the usage of frequency
spectrum is therefore of great importance when applying digital
modulation.

Bandwidth economy may otherwise be referred to as spectral efficiency


and is defined as the quotient between transmission capacity and RF
carrier bandwidth, that is, by bit/s/Hz. Spectral efficiency depends
largely on the modulation mode.

Modulation and spectral efficiency


The main objective of digital modulation is to bring the baseband signal
onto the RF carrier using a minimum of bandwidth. Basically, digital
signals have two amplitude states, 0 or 1, corresponding to phases 0 and
180 degrees.

Two-state Phase-shift Keying (2 PSK) modulation


The simplest modulation mode is two-state Phase-Shift Keying (2 PSK)
and is obtained by keying the two state conditions 0 and 180 degrees
onto the RF carrier by shifting the phase of the carrier. Shifting the
carrier phase by 180 degrees requires one hertz of the carrier frequency
for each bit of the baseband, which gives a spectral efficiency of 1
bit/s/Hz. Thus, a 2-Mbit/s baseband modulated with 2 PSK requires a
RF carrier with a bandwidth of 2 MHz.

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Four-state Phase-shift Keying (4 PSK) modulation


Four-state phase-shift keying modulation (4 PSK) is also called
quaternary PSK (QPSK) modulation because the binary signal is
converted into a quaternary signal and the four possible phases of the
quaternary signal are keyed onto the RF carrier by shifting the carrier
phase in steps of 90-degrees. The spectral efficiency is 2.0 bit/s/Hz.
Thus a 2-Mbit/s baseband modulated with 4 PSK requires a RF carrier
with a bandwidth of 1 MHz.

Eight-state Phase-shift Keying (8 PSK) modulation


By shifting the carrier in steps of 45-degrees, eight possible phases of
the signal are keyed onto the RF carrier. This is eight-state phase-shift
keying modulation (8 PSK). The spectral efficiency is 3 bit/s/Hz. Thus a
2-Mbit/s baseband modulated with 8 PSK requires a RF carrier with a
bandwidth of 0.67 MHz.

Quadrature amplitude modulation


Higher modulation mode, for instance 16 PSK, requires better signal-to-
noise performance, which is practically difficult to accomplish. In such
cases, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) which is a combination
of phase-shifting and amplitude modulation of the carrier, may be used.
In this case, two carriers that are 90 degrees out of phase (this is phase
quadrature) are amplitude modulated (AM) by a digital signal
(baseband) having a finite number, m, of amplitude levels - that are
subsequently added to one another. This is known by m-QAM.

For instance, 16 QAM gives 16 different signal states, which are both
amplitude and phase-shift modulated onto the RF carrier. This yields a
spectral efficiency of 4 bit/s/Hz. Thus a 140 Mbit/s baseband requires a
RF carrier that has a bandwidth of 140÷4 = 35 MHz. This fits the 40
MHz RF channel spacing for the bands in the range 4 to 11 GHz. 16
QAM modulation is however not applicable for the bands ranging from
2 to 8 GHz, where RF channel spacing is 29/30 MHz.

64 QAM modulation yields a spectral efficiency of 6 bit/s/Hz. Thus a


140 Mbit/s baseband requires an RF carrier that has a bandwidth of
140÷6 ≈ 23 MHz, which fits the 29/30 MHz RF channel spacing in the
frequency range mentioned above.

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Frequency-channel arrangements

Construction of channel arrangements


For radio systems that use Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) the
available frequency band is subdivided into two equal halves, a lower
and an upper duplex half. The separation between the lowest frequency
in the lower half and that of the upper half is referred to as the duplex
separation. The duplex separation is always to be sufficiently large such
that the intended radio equipment can operate interference-free under
duplex operation, i.e., concurrent transmission over, for example, the
lower duplex half and reception over the duplex separation of the upper
half.

An additional problem arises when more than one link is located at the
same site, namely that a transmitter belonging to a radio system may not
interfere the receiver belonging to another radio system. To achieve this,
a minimum frequency separation is required between the transmitter and
receiver in question. This minimum frequency separation is less than
the duplex separation, and is (among other factors) dependent on the
antenna isolation between the two systems. By selecting a separation
between the upper and lower duplex bands that at least corresponds to
this minimum frequency separation, the conditions required for
interference-free transmission will be met as long as all of the
transmitters in a given node are localized to one duplex band and all of
the receivers to the other.

Rec. ITU-R F.746-3 describes the construction of frequency channel


arrangements having two duplex halves. The recommendation also
includes a table containing frequency channel arrangements defined by
ITU-R plus a reference to currently valid recommendations.

ITU-R recommends that the preferred radio-frequency channel


arrangements should be developed from the homogeneous patterns
given by:

• alternated, Figure 1a

• co-channel band re-use, Figure 1b

• interleaved band re-use, Figure 1c

The primary parameters affecting the choice of radio-frequency channel


arrangements are:

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• XS, carrier spacing, defined as the radio-frequency separation


between the center frequencies of adjacent radio-frequency channels
of the same polarization and in the same direction of transmission;

• YS, defined as the radio-frequency separation between the center


frequencies of the go and return radio-frequency channels which are
nearest to each other. For the case where the go and return frequency
sub-bands are not contiguous, such that there exists band(s)
allocated for service(s) in the gap between them; then YS is to be
considered as including the band separation (BS) equal to the total
width of the allocated band(s) used by such service(s).

• ZS, defined as the radio-frequency separation between the center


frequencies of the outermost radio-frequency channels and the edge
of the frequency band. For the case where the lower and upper
separations differ in value, Z1S refers to the lower separation and Z2S
refers to the upper separation. For the case where go and return
frequency sub-bands are not contiguous, such that there exists
band(s) allocated for service(s) in the gap between them; then ZSi
will be defined for the innermost edges of both sub-bands and will
be included in YS.

• DS, Tx/Rx duplex spacing, defined as the radio-frequency


separation between corresponding go and return channels, constant
for each couple of i-th and i'-th frequencies, within a given channel
arrangement.

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FIGURE 1
Channel arrangements for the three possible
schemes considered in the text

DS
XS

Polarizations
1 3 1′ 3′
H(V)
a) Alternated pattern
Main frequencies
V(H)
XS 2 4 N 2′ 4′ N′ Channel number
2 XS YS ZS

A B

DS
XS

1 2 3 4 N Main frequency
Polarizations

1′ 2′ 3′ 4′ N′
H(V) pattern
b) Band re-use in the
co-channel mode
V(H)
1r 2r 3r 4r Nr 1′r 2′r 3′r 4′r N′r Channel number
YS ZS

A B

DS
XS
Main frequency
Polarizations

1 2 3 4 N 1′ 2′ 3′ 4′ N′
H(V) pattern
c) Band re-use in the
interleaved mode
V(H) N′r
1r 2r 3r 4r Nr 1′r 2′r 3′r 4′r Channel number
XS YS ZS
2 XS

A B
D01
A: “go” channels B: “return” channels

Figure 1: Channel arrangements for the three possible schemes.

The choice of radio-frequency channel arrangement depends on the


values of cross-polar discrimination, XPD [see equation 2], and net
filter discrimination, NFD [see equation 3], where these parameters are
defined as:

PRXH
XPD = ........................................................................................(2)
PRXV

where:

XPD = cross-polar discrimination

PRXH = power received on horizontal polarization transmitted on


horizontal polarization, mW.

PRXV = power received on vertical polarization transmitted on


horizontal polarization, mW.

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Equation (2) also applies for the case where the polarization plan is the
reverse.

PRX(ADJ)
NFD = ..............................................................................(3)
PRX(ADJ + filter)

where:

NFD = net filter discrimination

PRX(ADJ) = Adjacent channel received power, mW

PRX(ADJ+filter) = Adjacent channel received power by the main receiver,


mW following the RF (radio frequency), IF (intermediate) and BB (base
band) filters.

The XPD and NFD parameters are usually expressed in dB and


contribute to the value of carrier-to-interference ratio. When the ratio
between two received powers, expressed in mW is A, then the ratio in
dB becomes AdB=10⋅logA.

The XPD and NFD parameters (dB) contribute to the value of carrier-to-
interference ratio.

If XPDmin is the minimum value reached for the percentage time


required, the total amount of interfering power can be evaluated from
this value of XPDmin and from the adjacent channel NFD. The result
must be compared with the minimum value of carrier-to-interference
ratio (C / I)min that is acceptable to the modulation method adopted.

Alternated Pattern
Alternated channel arrangements can be used (neglecting the co-polar
adjacent channel interference contribution) if:

C
XPDmin + ( NFD − 3) ≥   dB ......................................................(4)
 I  min

Co-channel band re-use


Co-channel arrangements can be used if:

1 C
10 ⋅ log ≥  dB .........................................(5)
1
+
1  I  min
XPD + XIF NFD a − 3
10 10
10 10

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where:

XIF = XPD improvement factor of any cross-polar interference


countermeasures, if implemented in the receiver affected by the
interference.

NFDa = Net Filter Discrimination evaluated at XS frequency spacing.

The NFD value (NFD-3) takes into account double-sided like-


modulated interference.

Interleaved pattern
Interleaved channel arrangements can be used if:

1 C
10 ⋅ log ≥  dB ...................................(6)
1
+
1  I  min
XPD + ( NFD a − 3 ) NFD a −3
10 10
10 10

where:

NFDb = Net Filter Discrimination evaluated at XS / 2 frequency spacing.

ITU-R defined radio-frequency channel


arrangements
Table 2 and Table 3 (from Rec. ITU-R F.746-3) present a summary of
the currently ITU-R defined radio-frequency channel arrangements
including references to the relevant Recommendations.

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Band Frequency range Recommendation ITU-R Channel spacing


(GHz) (GHz) F-Series (MHz)

1.5 1.427-1.53 746, Annex 1 0.5; 1; 2; 3.5

2 1.427-2.69 701 0.5 (pattern)


1.7-2.1; 1.9-2.3 382 29
1.7-2.3 283 14
1.9-2.3 1098 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
1.9-2.3 1098, Annexes 1, 2 14
1.9-2.3 1098, Annex 3 10
2.3-2.5 746, Annex 2 1; 2; 4; 14; 28
2.5-2.7 283 14

4 3.8-4.2 382 29
3.6-4.2 635 10 (pattern)
3.6-4.2 635, Annex 1 90; 80; 60; 40

5 4.4-5.0 746, Annex 3 28


4.4-5.0 1099 10 (pattern)
4.4-5.0 1099, Annex 1 40; 60; 80
4.54-4.9 1099, Annex 2 40; 20

L6 5.925-6.425 383 29.65


5.85-6.425 383, Annex 1 90; 80; 60

U6 6.425-7.11 384 40; 20


6.425-7.11 384, Annex 1 80

7 7.425-7.725 385 7
7.425-7.725 385, Annex 1 28
7.435-7.75 385, Annex 2 5
7.11-7.75 385, Annex 3 28

8 8.2-8.5 386 11.662


7.725-8.275 386, Annex 1 29.65
7.725-8.275 386, Annex 2 40.74
8.275-8.5 386, Annex 3 14; 7

10 10.3-10.68 746, Annex 4 20; 5; 2


10.5-10.68 747, Annex 1 7; 3.5 (patterns)
10.55-10.68 747, Annex 2 5; 2.5; 1.25 (patterns)

11 10.7-11.7 387, Annexes 1 and 2 40


10.7-11.7 387, Annex 3 67
10.7-11.7 387, Annex 4 60
10.7-11.7 387, Annex 5 80

12 11.7-12.5 746, Annex 5, § 3 19.18


12.2-12.7 746, Annex 5, § 2 20 (pattern)

13 12.75-13.25 497 28; 7; 3.5


12.75-13.25 497, Annex 1 35
12.7-13.25 746, Annex 5, § 1 25; 12.5

14 14.25-14.5 746, Annex 6 28; 14; 7; 3.5


14.25-14.5 746, Annex 7 20

15 14.4-15.35 636 28; 14; 7; 3.5


14.5-15.35 636, Annex 1 2.5 (pattern)
14.5-15.35 636, Annex 2 2.5

Table 2: Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems in frequency bands below about 17 GHz.

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Band Frequency range Recommendation ITU-R Channel spacing


(GHz) (GHz) F-Series (MHz)

18 17.7-19.7 595 220; 110; 55; 27.5


17.7-21.2 595, Annex 1 160
17.7-19.7 595, Annex 2 220; 80; 40; 20; 10; 6
17.7-19.7 595, Annex 3 3.5
17.7-19.7 595, Annex 4 13.75; 27.5

23 21.2-23.6 637 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)


21.2-23.6 637, Annex 1 112 to 3.5
21.2-23.6 637, Annex 2 28; 3.5
21.2-23.6 637, Annex 3 28; 14; 7; 3.5
21.2-23.6 637, Annex 4 50
21.2-23.6 637, Annex 5 112 to 3.5
22.0-23.6 637, Annex 1 112 to 3.5

27 24.25-25.25 748 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)


24.25-25.25 748, Annex 3 56; 28
25.25-27.5 748 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
25.25-27.5 748, Annex 1 112 to 3.5
27.5-29.5 748 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
27.5-29.5 748, Annex 2 112 to 3.5
27.5-29.5 748, Annex 3 112; 56; 28

31 31.0-31.3 746, Annex 8 25; 50

38 36.0-40.5 749 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)


36.0-37.0 749, Annex 3 112 to 3.5
37.0-39.5 749, Annex 1 140; 56; 28; 14; 7; 3.5
38.6-40.0 749, Annex 2 50
39.5-40.5 749, Annex 3 112 to 3.5

55 54.25-58.2 1100 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)


54.25-57.2 1100, Annex 1 140; 56; 28; 14
57.2-58.2 1100, Annex 2 100

Table 3: Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay


systems in frequency bands above about 17 GHz.

References
Rec. ITU-R F.746-3.

Rec. ITU-R F.1101.

“Ang planering av frekvensraster”, Billström, O., Private


communication, Ericsson Radio Systems, 1993.

“Frekvensplanering”, Hultgren, D., GT/RA 9344, 1989.

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INTERFERENCE
BASIC CONCEPTS

The objective of this chapter is to introduce and describe


the basic concepts that apply to the analysis of interference
and, in particular, the origins and the possible sources of
interference. The chapter provides a detailed discussion of
the different types of interference sources and their effects
on radio-relay equipment. The location of several radio
systems to the same site is also discussed in some detail.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Background ......................................................................................................................................... 1
Interference sources and paths ............................................................................................................ 1
Basic concepts..................................................................................................................................... 2
Interference ........................................................................................................................... 2
Interference analysis.............................................................................................................. 2
Telecommunication conflicts ................................................................................................ 3
Nominal frequency................................................................................................................ 3
Frequency coincidence.......................................................................................................... 3
The co-location of more than one radio station................................................................................................. 3
Mutual interference ........................................................................................................................................... 4
Types of interference......................................................................................................................................... 5
Transmitter unwanted characteristics ................................................................................................................ 6
Transmitter harmonics......................................................................................................................... 6
Noise spectrum.................................................................................................................................... 7
The transmitter’s total spectrum.......................................................................................................... 8
Transmitter false frequencies .............................................................................................................. 9
Receiver unwanted characteristics..................................................................................................................... 9
Receiver intermodulation .................................................................................................................... 9
Blocking .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Secondary channels ............................................................................................................................. 9
Adjacent signal interference ................................................................................................................ 10
Interference-free networks................................................................................................................................. 10
How may interference be avoided? ................................................................................................................... 10
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 11

i
INTERFERENCE - BASIC CONCEPTS

Introduction

Background
The increased use of radio communications has given rise to significant
interference risks. The number of radio stations located in densely
populated areas is often, for example, so large that careful network
planning is of decisive importance in maintaining the availability and
quality of these radio connections. Every one of a network hops must
therefore exhibit such availability and quality that the entire connection,
subscriber to subscriber, maintains the dimensioning standard that is to
be achieved. The correct execution of optimized frequency assignments
should give rise to interference levels that are sufficiently low so as not
to affect radio connection availability and quality.

Interference sources and paths


The risk of interference between radio installations has increased in step
with the increased use of radio communications services for both public
and military applications. The increased demographic crowd has given
rise to a situation in which installations that transmit and receive radio
signals over adjacent frequencies are often placed so close to one
another that the risk of unintentional interference is very great.

Many different types of interference sources exist that can affect the
transmitters and receivers of a radio communication system: cosmic
radiation, radar and navigation systems, electrical power lines, spark
generating equipment, etc. This document only addresses interference
that is caused by other radio systems.

Interference may reach a receiver via its antenna, its power supply
system or via the equipment’s housing. In principle, numerous
alternatives are possible, interference may propagate from:

• the equipment housing of one unit to that of another unit, between


units housed in the same cabinet or in the same telecommunication
room

• the transmitter antenna to the receiver’s equipment housing

• the transmitter’s antenna to the receiver’s antenna

• the transmitter’s equipment housing to the receiver’s antenna

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• as a result of spurious signals in the power supply system

Figure 1 illustrates possible interference paths.

T R

Figure 1: Possible interference paths.

The complexity of large installations may be so significant that finding


a solution that prevents or that ”neutralizes” the effects of interference
may be very difficult. Regardless of an installation’s complexity, a
number of interference paths can be avoided by following certain rules
and regulations when placing equipment in the installation. This section
will however primarily address interference that is spread via antenna
systems.

Basic concepts

Interference
The concept of interference can be interpreted in many different ways.
In the context of radio links, one often encounters the concept of
interference in connection with frequency planning, which generally
entails the optimization of frequency utilization based on given
prerequisites such that unintentional telecommunications conflicts may
be avoided.

Interference analysis
Interference analysis, i.e., the study of possible interference risks under
given conditions. Interference analysis and frequency planning go
therefore hand-in-hand with one another.

Actually, interference includes many different concepts and embraces a


large number of applications. Knowledge in related areas is therefore
important, for example, knowledge of ITU-T and ITU-R
recommendations as well as knowledge of country-wide regional and
local frequency plans is of very great consequence.

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Telecommunication conflicts
Interference that is the result of other radio transmitters is referred to as
interference or as telecommunication conflicts and arises due to
improper frequency planning or as the result of imperfections in the
radio equipment. Such imperfections exist even in the latest generation
radio equipment. A transmitter designed to radiate a given frequency
may therefore concurrently radiate other frequencies (generally of lower
power).

Nominal frequency
An important concept is this context is nominal frequency which is
defined as the frequency to which a transmitter or receiver is tuned.

Frequency coincidence
Frequency coincidence refers to the fact that a radiated frequency
corresponds to the frequency of a receiver, such that

• a transmitter’s nominal frequency corresponds to the receiver’s


nominal frequency

• a transmitter’s nominal frequency corresponds to one of the


secondary channels of the receiver

• a false frequency or harmonic produced by a transmitter corresponds


to a receiver’s nominal frequency

• an intermodulation product between two or more transmitters


corresponds to a receiver’s nominal frequency

This section will describe the various possible types of interference that
may arise in both transmitters and receivers.

The co-location of more than one radio station


Co-location is a general concept that refers to a so-called multi-station
site consisting of numerous transmitters and receivers installed within a
limited geographical area. The site often consists of a number of
antennas that are all mounted on one and the same mast or distributed
among a small number of closely positioned masts.

The co-location of radio stations may give rise to significant


interference if not preceded by pre-studies and careful planning. In spite
of the risk of interference, the co-location of radio stations is
occasionally unavoidable for the following reasons:

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• for one reason or another, the licensing agency refuses to grant


permission for the new construction of a mast and refers the
applicant to use existing masts for the new radio users

• the characteristics of certain geographical locations are such that


they are perceived as being attractive from a radio coverage point-
of-view, for example locations that are situated high above the
surrounding areas that already have existing masts

• larger radio systems may often be made up of numerous stations that


must be co-located – for reasons such as the achievement of optimal
resource utilization, such as road networks, electrical power and
maintenance

Mutual interference
The co-location of more than one radio station may give rise to
interference between the transmitters and the receivers. The source of
the interference experienced by one of the co-located receivers may be
one or more of the other receivers or transmitters, which is most
common. Generally, the mutual interference that occurs between radio
stations may be subdivided into two main groups:

• interference between different radio systems that utilize the same


radio frequency

• interference between different radio systems that utilize different


radio frequencies

Interference between different radio systems that utilize the same radio
frequency is usually corrected by the governmental agencies whose duty
it is to assign frequencies. The guiding principle for such frequency
assignment is the size of the geographical distance that should be
applied between the different radio systems having the same frequency.
Interference between different radio systems that utilize the same
frequency is therefore not addressed here.

As mentioned earlier, interference between different radio systems that


utilize different radio frequencies is the result of imperfections in radio
equipment or is due to the predominance of a high-power signal that
interferes with a receiver that expects a signal of a comparatively lower
power level. One condition for the occurrence of interference is the
result of, among many other factors, a sort of ”collaboration” between
the transmitter’s and the receiver’s secondary characteristics, i.e., other
attributes over and above the attributes that were designed into the
equipment in order that they fulfill their intended function.

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Stated simply, equipment imperfections always exist and may therefore


lead to situations in which the transmitted power of frequencies that lie
outside of the transmitter’s nominal frequency may reach receivers that
are sensitive to frequencies that lie outside of their nominal reception
frequencies. The collaboration mentioned above refers to a certain
amount of correspondence between the ”other” frequencies of the
transmitter and the ”other” sensitivities of the receiver. This type of
interference will be addressed in detail.

Types of interference
The cause of the aforementioned radio equipment imperfections is the
non-linearities that are inherent in transmitters and receivers plus the
noise generated by the various components used in these transmitters
and receivers, e.g., those found in oscillators. Non-linearities are
unavoidable and are therefore an ”innate” problem in practically all
active components found in radio equipment. A sinusoidal signal,
sin (f0), that is applied to a non-linear amplifier stage will give rise to
harmonics having frequencies n⋅f0, see Figure 2.

Vout

Vin bg b g
c1 ⋅ sin f 0 + c2 ⋅ sin 2 f 0 +...

Vin Vout

bg
b ⋅ sin f 0 f0 f0, 2f0, 3f0, 4f0 ...

Figure 2: A non-linear amplifier stage gives rise to harmonics.

This ”collaboration” between a transmitter and receiver results therefore


in interference that makes its presence felt in different ways depending
on the secondary characteristics of the transmitter and receiver. These
secondary characteristics are primarily the result of the non-linearities
inherent in high-frequency circuitry.

The following interference characteristics may possibly appear in


transmitters:

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• transmitter harmonics

• transmitter false frequencies (spurious signals)

• transmitter noise

• transmitter intermodulation (more than one transmitter is involved)

The following interference characteristics may possibly appear in a


receiver:

• receiver intermodulation (more than one transmitter frequency are


mixed in one receiver)

• blocking

• receiver spurious signals

• secondary channels

• adjacent signal interference

Transmitter unwanted characteristics


The description that follows deals with the most important unwanted
characteristics of a transmitter that may give rise to interference.

Transmitter harmonics
The non-linearities mentioned above arise during signal amplification
(non-linear amplification), in transmitters or receivers. In general,
output signals are not completely proportional to the input signals which
may result in an individual input frequency giving rise to harmonics,
i.e., output frequencies that are integer multiples of the individual
frequency in question. These discrete harmonic frequencies are
illustrated in Figure 3.

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Power
P1
P3

P2
P4

f0 2 f0 3 f0 4 f0
Frequency

Carrier Harmonics

Figure 3: The basic tone and its harmonics that arise as the result of
non-linear amplification.

Harmonic generation occurs in the transmitters output stage. A


transmitter having a nominal frequency of f0 will exhibit all frequencies
n⋅f0. The power level of the harmonics diminish with increased n.
Normally odd values of n represents higher power levels than even.

Noise spectrum
Aside from the discrete interference products described in the preceding
section, the transmitter’s carrier frequency oscillator also generates a
noise spectrum around the carrier frequency that is of a continuous
character. This arises due to the oscillators’ inability to stably generate
one and only one frequency thereby generating the aforementioned
noise spectrum that is more or less centered around the transmitter’s
carrier frequency. Figure 4 below illustrates the frequency spectrum of
an oscillator.

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Unmodulated
carrier

Sideband noise

Frequency
B

Figure 4: The noise spectrum existing around the unmodulated carrier


frequency.

Noise spectrum interference is quantitatively expressed in terms of a


power density w (W/Hz), i.e., interference power per unit of bandwidth,
which normally diminishes with frequencies that lie further away from
the carrier frequency. The frequency band B, in Figure 4, therefore
contains an interference power of P = w⋅B.

The transmitter’s total spectrum


Discrete interference frequencies and noise almost always exist at the
same time.This means that the total frequency spectrum consists of the
basic tone (the ”clean” carrier frequency), the harmonics and the noise
spectrum, see Figure 5, where the levels of the basic tone and the
harmonics are expressed in W while the noise level is expressed in
W/Hz. Both levels may also be expressed in dBW (dB over 1 W) or dB
over 1 W/Hz.

Power
Unmodulated carrier
Harmonics

Sideband noise

f0 2f0 3f0 Frequency

Figure 5: The total frequency spectrum consisting of the basic tone (the
carrier frequency), the harmonics and the noise spectrum.

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Transmitter false frequencies


Since no radio equipment is perfect (this applies even to the latest
generation of radio equipment), a transmitter can transmit at other
frequencies (usually having lower power levels) than at the frequency it
was designed for. These frequencies are often referred to as false
frequencies.

In addition to harmonics, the frequency-generating portions (oscillators


and frequency multipliers) of the majority of transmitters also generate
other undesirable frequencies that do not give rise to frequencies that
are integer multiples of the transmitter’s nominal frequency. These
undesirable frequencies (frequencies both below and above the carrier
frequency) are specific to each transmitter type, may lie rather close to
the carrier frequency and ordinarily display very complex patterns.

Receiver unwanted characteristics


The description that follows deals with the most important unwanted
characteristics of a receiver that may give rise to interference.

Receiver intermodulation
Receiver intermodulation means that signals arriving from two or more
transmitters are mixed with one another and give rise to a combination
product that falls within the receiver’s pass-band. The mixing process
takes place internal to the receiver.

Blocking
The concept of blocking may be illustrated by the fact that the input
signal to the detector consists of two contributions – a situation that
arises when powerful interference signals exist alongside the desired
frequency: a weak payload signal and a stronger interference signal
(following insufficient filtering). The latter blocks the payload signal to
the detector.

Secondary channels
Receiver secondary channels arise when the receiver is sensitive to
other frequencies than its nominal frequency.

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Adjacent signal interference


Adjacent signal interference means that a signal, whose frequency lies
close to a receiver’s frequency, can interfere with the receiver. The
interference is due to the fact that the signal mixes with the noise of the
local oscillator plus the fact that the resultant noise mixture falls within
the intermediate frequency.

Interference-free networks
Entirely interference-free radio networks do not exist! A radio network
may, however, be considered as approximating an interference-free
network if some general rules and simplifications are applied, see
Figure 6.

Are the radio relays yes


Probably an “interference-free”
sufficiently frequency
network
separated from each other?

no

Any appropriate antenna no


discrimination, obstacle Trouble!
loss and/or geographical
separation ?

yes

Probably an “interference-free” network

Figure 6: Interference-free networks.

How may interference be avoided?


Generally, interference may be avoided if the two following conditions
are met:

• interference signals are sufficiently weak

• receiver frequencies are sufficiently separated from interference


signals, i.e., no frequency overlap

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The first condition may be very difficult to meet, often as the result of
frequent occurrence of co-located radio systems (occasionally forced
co-location) – while the second condition may be attained but requires
careful frequency planning.

Interference need not necessarily occur even if the aforementioned


conditions are not met since all transmitters must be transmitting
concurrently if all possible intermodulation products are to have a
chance of arising. The probability that all, or even some, of the
transmitters are concurrently transmitting traffic, may however vary for
the different services – however, in the case of radio links, all
equipment is transmitting on a continuous basis and frequency planning
should always consider the case of multiple concurrent transmission.

If interference is to be avoided, it is also imperative that an installation’s


antennas be separated so that sufficient attenuation is achieved between
the different stations. Vertical separation often gives better results than
does horizontal separation.

References
”Telekonflikter i Radioanläggningar” (written in Swedish, English
translation of the title is ”Telecommunication conflicts in radio
installations”), written by Försvarets materielverk (The Swedish
Department of Defense), M7773-400210,1975.

“Radio System Design for Telecommunications (1-100 GHz)”,


Freeman, R. L., 1987.

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This chapter provides a discussion of the basic principles


and definitions used in the calculation of near interference;
some algorithms are also provided. The chapter contents a
presentation of intermodulation at the receiver and
transmitter, including some examples of intermodulation
products.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Near interference ............................................................................................................................................... 1


Intermodulation ................................................................................................................................................. 1
Intermodulation at the transmitter ....................................................................................................... 1
Intermodulation at the receiver............................................................................................................ 2
Intermodulation by corrosion of metallic joints .................................................................................. 2
The frequency of intermodulated signal .............................................................................................. 2
Intermodulation order........................................................................................................................................ 3
Third and fifth order products - example........................................................................................................... 3
Near interference in receivers............................................................................................................................ 5
Receiver spurious signals and secondary channels.............................................................................. 6
Spurious signal frequencies................................................................................................... 6
Mirrored spurious signals...................................................................................................... 7
Near spurious signals ............................................................................................................ 10
Receiver intermodulation .................................................................................................................... 11
Intermodulation in the RF stage ............................................................................................ 11
Intermodulation in the mixer stage........................................................................................ 13
Spurious signals caused by LO-signal distortion................................................................................. 14
Near interference at the transmitter ................................................................................................................... 15
Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 15
Transmitter spurious signals................................................................................................................ 17
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

i
NEAR INTERFERENCE

Near interference
The signification of the expression ”near interference” is somewhat
ambiguous. In this book, however, ”near interference” means the
interference contributions arising from transmitters and receivers
situated at the ”same site” or at its immediate vicinity. For the purpose
of interference analyses, other interference contributions will then be
considered as ”far interference”.

Intermodulation
Intermodulation occurs because of different kinds of nonlinear
processes taking place in the equipment forming the transmitter and
receiver. Furthermore, intermodulation may also occur at the periphery
of the transmitter, for instance, at antennas, towers and severe corrosion
of metallic joints.

Three types of intermodulation may be present:

• intermodulation in the transmitter

• intermodulation in the receiver

• intermodulation caused by corrosion of metallic joints

Intermodulation disturbances are generally not expected to affect radio


links (here considered as systems using wave-guides and parabolic
antennas) and therefore they are normally excluded during the process
of radio-link planning. The are two main reasons for excluding
intermodulation from radio-relay planning: 1) the higher degree of
antenna isolation for typical radio-link antennas and 2) the cross section
of waveguides (employed for frequencies higher than 2 GHz) normally
does not fit the frequencies (wavelengths) of the intermodulation
products and the frequencies of radio systems operating in other
frequency bands.

Intermodulation at the transmitter


Intermodulation at the transmitter occurs when external signals arrive at
the transmitter through the antenna and occasionally together with the
transmitter signal generate interfered signals in the nonlinear
components. This is illustrated in Figure 1.

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TX1 RX

TX2

TX3

Figure 1: Intermodulation at the transmitter.

Intermodulation at the receiver


Intermodulation at the receiver is possible when external signals arrive
at the receiver through its antenna. In this case the local oscillator at the
receiver may also contribute to the resultant intermodulated signal.
Intermodulation at the receiver is illustrated in Figure 2.

TX1

TX2 RX

TX3

Figure 2: Intermodulation at the receiver.

Intermodulation by corrosion of metallic joints


Intermodulation caused by corrosion of towers, antennas and metallic
joints is strongly dependent on the environment conditions like climate
and air pollution. It is, therefore, very difficult to know in advance
whether or not intermodulation will be formed.

The frequency of intermodulated signal


An intermodulated signal is formed by the addition of the interference
signals and their integer products. The intermodulated signal is then
expressed by

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f IM = ± a1 ⋅ f 1 ± a 2 ⋅ f 2 ± ... ± a z ⋅ f z ..................... (1)

where

fIM = intermodulated signal

f1...fz = interferer’s frequencies

a1...az = positive integer coefficients

When the signals are formed at the receiver, the local oscillator is
included as follows

f IM = ± a1 ⋅ f 1 ± a 2 ⋅ f 2 ± ... ± a z ⋅ f z ± alo ⋅ f lo ...... (2)

where

flo = frequency of the local oscillator

alo = Positive integer coefficients of the local oscillator

Intermodulation order
The integer coefficients may assume all positive integer values and this
gives an infinitely number of possible combinations. In order to
facilitate the calculations, it is necessary to simplify the number of
combinations. This is possible by defining an order term N as follows
z
N = a1 + a 2 + ... + a z = ∑ a n ............................... (3)
n =1

The higher the order term the lower the strengths of the intermodulated
signals. The coefficient alo is not included in the definition of the order
term N.

Third and fifth order products - example


Table 1 illustrates the third and fifth intermodulation products obtained
with two and three intermodulating transmitters (f1, f2 and f3).

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TWO TRANSMITTERS THREE TRANSMITTERS


THIRD ORDER FIFTH ORDER THIRD ORDER FIFTH ORDER
2⋅f1-f2 3⋅f1-2⋅f2 f1+f2- f3 3⋅f1-f2- f3
2⋅f2-f1 3⋅f2-2⋅f1 f1+f3- f2 3⋅f2-f1- f3
f2+f3- f1 3⋅f3-f1- f2
2⋅f1+f2-2⋅f3
2⋅f3+f2-2⋅f1
2⋅f2+f1-2⋅f3
2⋅f3+f1-2⋅f2
2⋅f1+f3-2⋅f2
2⋅f2+f3-2⋅f1
Table 1: Third and fifth order intermodulation products for two and
three transmitters.

Figure 3 illustrates the location of third order intermodulation


frequencies with respect to the center frequencies for two and three
transmitters.

Two transmitters

2 f1 − f 2 f1 f2 2 f 2 − f 1 f

Three transmitters

f
f1 + f 2 − f 3 f1 f1 + f 3 − f 2 f2 f3 f 2 + f3 − f1

Figure 3: Location of third order intermodulation frequencies with


respect to the center frequencies for two and three transmitters.

Figure 4 illustrates the location of the fifth order intermodulation


frequencies with respect to the center frequencies for two and three
transmitters.
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Two transmitters

3 f1 − 2 f 2
f
f1 f2 3 f 2 − 2 f1

Three transmitters

2 f1 + f 2 − 2 f 3 2 f1 + f 3 − 2 f 2 2 f 3 + f1 − 2 f 2 f3 3 f 3 − f1 − f 2 2 f 3 + f 2 − 2 f1
3 f1 − f 2 − f 3
2 f 2 + f1 − 2 f 3 f1 f2 3 f 2 − f1 − f 3 2 f 2 + f 3 − 2 f1 f

Figure 4: Location of fifth order intermodulation frequencies with


respect to the center frequencies for two and three transmitters.

Near interference in receivers


Figure 5 illustrates a desired signal of level Pr (dBm) and a frequency of
fr that arrives at the RF stage. At the output of the IF filter, the level of
the desired signal is Pd (dBm), which provides a certain level of
transmission quality. The level following the IF filter corresponds
therefore to a certain value of C/N, where C is a function of Pr and N of
the receiving system’s receiver noise factor F and the IF filter’s
bandwidth (the receiver’s effective bandwidth) B (see Section 3).

Desired input signal Desired output signal


following the IF-filter

Pr, fr Pd , fIF
RF-amplifier Mixer ~
~
~
Psp, fsp Pm,n , fx
interfering signal
Intermodulation product
Local following the IF-filter
flo oscillator

Crystal

Figure 5: Near interference in the receiver.

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Assume that a powerful interfering signal (e.g., a spurious signal)


having a level of Psp and a frequency of fsp arrives at the input to RF
stage. Spurious frequencies (the secondary channels) result in an
undesirable intermodulation product having a level of Pm,n and
frequencies that are very close to the desired receiver frequency, thereby
falling into the pass-band of the IF filter. This interfering signal is
combined with the normal receiver noise N (following the IF amplifier)
and C/N reduces, leading to reduced transmission quality.

The spurious attenuation, P (dB), for the frequency fsp is defined as the
difference in levels at the input to the receiver between the spurious
signal Psp and the desired signal Pr, i.e.,

P = Psp − Pr ......................................................... (4)

An allowable level of Pm,n, i.e., the level resulting in the maximum


allowable increase in N, is a function of a number of factors, such as
transmission quality requirements and type of modulation.

Receiver spurious signals and secondary channels


Receiver secondary channels arise as the result of receiver sensitivity to
frequencies other than the nominal frequency of the receiver. Non-
linearities in the RF amplifier and mixer can result in receiver spurious
signals as in the case of the combination products arising in the RF
stage that acquire frequencies close to the desired receiver frequency.

Spurious signal frequencies


Since the filtering out of spurious signals before the mixer is practically
impossible, spurious signals that fall close to the frequency of the
receiver can be a very difficult proposition. Figure 6 illustrates a mixer,
an IF filter and a local oscillator.

Desired signal
fm f m − f lo fIF
Mixer ~
~
fsp m ⋅ f sp − n ⋅ f lo ~ fx

Local
flo oscillator

Crystal

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Figure 6: Incoming spurious signals at the receiver’s mixer.

The desired input signal, having a frequency of fm, arrives at the mixer
input together with an unfiltered spurious signal of frequency fsp.
Together with the local oscillator frequency flo, the spurious signal gives
rise to an intermodulated signal having an intermediate frequency of fx
at the output of the IF filter. The combination product that arises can be
calculated as

f x = m ⋅ f sp − n ⋅ f lo .............................................. (5)

where m and n are positive whole integers. The wanted combination is


calculated as

f IF = f m − f lo ...................................................... (6)

Spurious frequencies are often described as a function of the desired


receiver frequency fm and the intermediate frequency fx, which, when
applying equations (5) and (6), gives

⋅ [(n + 1) ⋅ f x + n ⋅ f m ] ...............................
1
f sp = (7)
m

Note that if n=-1 and m=-1 in the above equation, the result is fsp = fm,
which is the desired combination.

Mirrored spurious signals


There exists two possible cases of undesirable output signals, namely fm
> f0 and fm < f0. Spurious signal frequencies for both cases, as shown
above, can be expressed by considering fx as positive (fx > 0 ⇒ f0 > fm)
and negative (fx < 0 ⇒ f0 < fm).

Mirrored signals, m


= n
=1
If n=1 and m=1, equation (7) gives the following spurious signal
frequencies for the two cases mentioned above:

f0 > fm f sp = f m + 2 ⋅ f x .................................. (8)

f0 < fm f sp = f m − 2 ⋅ f x ................................. (9)

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From a frequency aspect, the mirrored signal falls into the opposite side
of the local oscillator frequency and the frequency separation between
the desired signal fm and the mirrored signal is therefore 2⋅ fx . The
mirrored signal is illustrated by a whole line and the desired input signal
by a dashed line, see Figure 7.

2⋅ fx

f0 < fm
fx < 0

Mirrored signal f0 fm

2⋅ fx

f0 > fm
fx > 0

fm f0 Mirrored signal

Figure 7: Mirrored frequencies for fm > f0 and fm < f0 when m=n=1.

Mirrored signals, m


= n
>1
The most dangerous spurious signal frequencies, i.e., the smallest
frequency separation to the desired input signal for given values of m
and n, results when m=n < 0 which when entered into equation (7)
gives

m −1
⋅ [(− m + 1) ⋅ f x − m ⋅ f x ] = f m +
1
f sp = ⋅ fx ( 10 )
−m m

If the above equation is applied to both cases, the results are

m −1
f0 > fm f sp = f m + ⋅ f x ......................... ( 11 )
m

m −1
f0 < fm f sp = f m − ⋅ f x ......................... ( 12 )
m

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The most troublesome spurious signals (i.e., those closest to the desired
input signal and that have the lowest ordinal numbers) occur when
m=n= 2. The spurious signal frequencies that are considered as
dangerous in this case are illustrated in Figure 8 as having whole lines.

Spurious signal frequencies that are considered as not dangerous, i.e.,


those having greater frequency separation to the desired input signal for
given values of m and n, occur when m=n > 0 which when entered
into equation (7) gives

m +1
f sp = f m + ⋅ f x ........................................... ( 13 )
m

These non-hazardous spurious signal frequencies (high filter selection


requirements aimed at eliminating mirrored signals, generally result in
sufficient filter attenuation for the elimination of these spurious signals)
are illustrated in Figure 8 by dashed lines.

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m (m-1)/ m

2 1/2

3 2/3

4 3/4

2⋅ fx

f0 < fm

f
f0 fx / 2 fm
Mirrored signal
2 fx / 3

3 fx / 4

2⋅ fx

f0 > fm

f
fm fx / 2 f0 Mirrored signal

2 fx / 3

3 fx / 4

Figure 8: Mirrored signal frequencies for fm > f0 and fm < f0 when


m=n>1.

Near spurious signals


Certain combinations of m and n give rise to spurious signal frequencies
that fall in the vicinity of the desired receiver frequency and therefore
pass through the input filter without being subjected to any appreciable
attenuation. Near spurious signals refers to spurious signals whose
frequencies are fsp ≅ fm. The most dangerous spurious signals, so-called
extremely near spurious signals, are naturally those spurious signals for
which fsp = fm. Entering fsp = fm = f into equation (7) gives

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(m − n ) ⋅ f = (n + 1) ⋅ f x ......................................... ( 14 )

which may be rewritten as

f x (m − n )
= ....................................................... ( 15 )
f (n + 1)
Certain m, n combinations give rise to a critical value of fx / f, causing
the frequency of the undesired signal to correspond exactly to the
receiver frequency – the same situation as in the case of the frequency
of the combination product corresponding exactly to the frequency of
the desired output signal from the mixer.

Receiver intermodulation
The RF stage is often well isolated from the local oscillator’s signal via
the mixer – which means that at least two powerful interference signals
must be introduced if troublesome combination products
(intermodulation) are to arise in the RF stage.

Intermodulation in the RF stage


Two powerful interfering signals having frequencies in the vicinity of
the desired signal’s frequency, (fm + ∆1) and (fm + ∆2), give rise to
receiver intermodulation. The situation is illustrated in Figure 9. The
figure deals with intermodulation generated in a RF stage. The
frequency positions of the interfering input signals (that are the cause of
the intermodulation), are to be adapted so that their combination
product corresponds to the desired receiver frequency (in the IF
following the mixer).

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Desired signal
fm
fm fm
~
~
bf g
+ ∆1
b g b
m ⋅ f m + ∆1 + n ⋅ f m + ∆ 2 g ~
m
Spurios
signal pair bf m +∆ g
2

Spurious signals

Desired signal

f
fm
bf m + ∆1 g bf m + ∆2 g
Figure 9: Intermodulation at the RF stage.

The desired signal fm, is as shown in Figure 9,

f m = m ⋅ ( f m + Ä 1 ) + n ⋅ ( f m + Ä 2 ) ........................ ( 16 )

which may be rewritten as

(m + n − 1) f m + m ⋅ Ä 1 + n ⋅ Ä 2 = 0 ....................... ( 17 )

where ∆1 << fm and ∆2 << fm. The above equation is applicable when

(m + n − 1) = 0 ...................................................... ( 18 )

(m ⋅ Ä 1 + n ⋅ Ä 2 ) = 0 .............................................. ( 19 )

The following applies in the case of third order intermodulation, m=


2 and n= 1 which gives ∆2 = 2⋅ ∆1 and equation (16) may be
rewritten as

f m = 2 ⋅ ( f m + Ä 1 ) − 1 ⋅ ( f m + Ä 2 ) = f m + (2 ⋅ Ä 1 − Ä 2 ) ( 20 )

Thus, third order intermodulation arises if the interfering frequencies


are located at each side of the desired receiver frequency – at a
separation of ∆1 and 2⋅∆1 respectively, see Figure 10.

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∆2
∆1

fm f
Figure 10: Possible interference frequencies for third order
intermodulation are located at each side of the desired frequency at a
separation of ∆1 and 2⋅∆1 respectively.

The following applies in the case of fifth order intermodulation, m=


3 and n= 2 which gives 3⋅ ∆1 = 2⋅ ∆1 and equation (16) may be
rewritten as

f m = 3 ⋅ ( f m + Ä 1 ) − 2 ⋅ ( f m + Ä 2 ) = f m + (3 ⋅ Ä 1 − 2 ⋅ Ä 2 ) ( 21 )

Thus, fifth order intermodulation arises if the interfering frequencies are


located at each side of the desired receiver frequency – at a separation
of ∆1 and 3/2⋅∆1 respectively, see Figure 11.

∆2
∆1

fm f
Figure 11: Possible interference frequencies for fifth order
intermodulation are located at each side of the desired frequency at a
separation of ∆1 and 2⋅∆1 respectively.

Intermodulation in the mixer stage


The occurrence of intermodulation in the mixer stage is very similar the
earlier case (i.e., the occurrence of intermodulation in the RF stage).
The signal from the local oscillator may even play a part in the
formation of the combination product, see Figure 12.

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Desired signal
fm f m − f lo = f IF fIF
Mixer ~
~
~
Spurious bf m g
+ ∆1 fx
signal pair bf m +∆ g
2

Local b g b g
m ⋅ f m + ∆ 1 + n ⋅ f m + ∆ 2 − f lo

flo oscillator

Crystal

Figure 12: Intermodulation in the mixer stage.

The desired signal is consequently

f x = f m − f lo = m ⋅ ( f m + Ä 1 ) + n ⋅ ( f m + Ä 2 ) − f lo ( 22 )

Third and fourth order intermodulation products are the same as those
in the case of intermodulation in the RF stage (see above).

Spurious signals caused by LO-signal distortion


Additional combination products may arise if the signal generated by
the local oscillator contains numerous frequency components, see
Figure 13.

Desired signal
fm fm − k ⋅ f0 fIF
Mixer ~
~
fsp m ⋅ f sp − n ' ⋅ f 0 ~ fx
flo

f0 Local k ⋅ f 0 = f lo
oscillator

Crystal

Figure 13: Spurious signals caused by LO-signal distortion.

The desired signal is given by

f IF = f m − k ⋅ f 0 .................................................. ( 23 )

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The combination product that arises may be expressed as

f x = m ⋅ f sp − n'⋅ f 0 ............................................... ( 24 )

and the spurious signal frequencies may be expressed as

f sp =
1
[n'⋅ f m − (n'−k ) ⋅ f x ] ............................. ( 25 )
k ⋅m

The relationship between the coefficients k and n’ may be expressed as

n'
n= .................................................................. ( 26 )
k

which when substituted into equation (25) gives

f sp =
1
[n ⋅ f m − (n − 1) ⋅ f x ] ................................. ( 27 )
m

Providing that n is allowed to assume other values than just integer


values, the above expression corresponds to spurious signal frequencies
that were studied earlier, see equation (7).

If the local oscillator’s third harmonic (k=3) is used to generate the


desired intermediate frequency, see Figure 13, at the same time as n’=1,
2, 3, 4, … then he following will apply n=1/3, 2/3, 3/3, 4/3, …. which
implies the occurrence of additional spurious signal frequencies.

Near interference at the transmitter

Introduction
Transmitter intermodulation may arise in the output-stage amplifiers of
the transmitters if the mutual isolation between the transmitters is
insufficient. A mutual coupling may thereby exist between the output of
the combiner that connects the transmitters to a common antenna or
between separate but neighboring transmitter antennas. Both cases are
illustrated in Figure 14.

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Disturbing Disturbing
transmitter transmitter
Tx2 Tx2 C fI
f2 f2
o
m
Disturbed b
Disturbed transmitter f2 i
transmitter n
f2 Tx1 e
Tx1 f1
fI r
f1
fI

Disturbed
receiver
fI
Rx
2f1-f2 Disturbed
2f2-f1 receiver
Rx fI
2f1-f2
2f2-f1

Figure 14: The effect of the transmitter intermodulation product on


receivers sharing a common antenna or mounted on separate but
neighboring antennas.

An example of a typical near interference scenario is a large number of


transmitters that are concentrated to one and the same mast or
concentrated base station locations that transmit and receive numerous
modulated carrier waves. The transmitters described in this scenario
may generate interference signals in the form of intermodulation
products that interfere with neighboring receivers.

Assume an interference signal having a frequency of f2 that lies in the


vicinity of the transmission frequency f1, i.e.,

f 2 = f 1 + Äf for Äf << f 2 ........................ ( 28 )

The frequency of the resultant combination product having a


transmission frequency ordinal number n and an interference frequency
ordinal number m, may be expressed as

f I = n ⋅ f1 − m ⋅ f 2 ............................................. ( 29 )

Using equations (28) and (29) gives

f I = (n − m ) ⋅ f1 + m ⋅ Äf ................................... ( 30 )

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which indicates that only combination products having |n-m| = 1 and


where the size of m is moderate will fall in the vicinity of the
transmission frequency. The combination product’s ordinal number is
determined, as indicated earlier, by |m| + |n| and the lowest ordinal
number of interest are the third and fifth, i.e., |m| + |n| = 3 and |m| + |n| =
5 respectively.

Transmitter intermodulation responds to the combination products


between the desired output signal from the transmitter and the generated
interference signals. The desired output signal from a transmitter having
a frequency of f1, see above, often dominates the combination process
and causes the level of the combination products fall off slowly with
ordinal number n of frequency f1 but fall off sharply with increasing
ordinal number m of frequency f2 of the interfering signal.

Transmitter spurious signals


The occurrence of transmitter spurious signals may generally be
addressed in the same manner as are receiver spurious signals, see under
section 4.

Non-linearities in sections of the transmitter such as in the section that


generates the carrier frequency or in the RF amplifier, can give rise to
transmitter spurious signals that of themselves or via generated
combination products in the RF stage, attain frequencies that are close
to the desired receiver frequency.

References
TEMS LinkPlanner, User’s Guide, Rev. 5.0, 1999.

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FAR INTERFERENCE

This chapter presents general concepts considered in the


field of far interference and provides guidelines for
interference calculation. A typical performance diagram
and interference scenario is discussed. The chapter
provides the algorithm for the calculation of the
contributions of the individual interference signal levels,
plus the resulting interference level at one receiver and
threshold degradation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Performance diagram ........................................................................................................................................ 1
Interference-free signal...................................................................................................................................... 3
Interfering scenario ........................................................................................................................................... 3
Interference-free reception ................................................................................................................................ 4
Reception with interference............................................................................................................................... 5
Example............................................................................................................................................................. 6
Interference tolerance........................................................................................................................................ 7
Interference signal level .................................................................................................................................... 7
Resulting interference level ............................................................................................................................... 8
Threshold degradation method.......................................................................................................................... 9
Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 9
Example .............................................................................................................................................. 9
General comments............................................................................................................................... 10
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

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FAR INTERFERENCE

Introduction
For a particular bit-error ratio (BER), the presence of interfering signals
will degrade the receiver’s threshold level. In order to maintain the
performance, an increasing at the receiver input level during fading-free
time is necessary to an unchanged fade margin.

The influence of interfering signals is first noticeable during fading


conditions as a deterioration of the receiver threshold level, that is, as a
decrease of the path’s fade margin.

Far interference is present when a received signal is disturbed by signals


sent on the same or an adjacent channel and generated by a transmitter
located far away from the receiver.

Performance diagram
Performance diagram is a diagram used for the purposes of planning
digital radio-relay equipment in a network. The performance diagram is
some kind of radio-relay equipment “signature”, that is, each radio
equipment type presents a specific performance diagram, basically
dependent on, among other properties, the equipment’s capacity and
modulation method.

The diagram illustrates the bit-error ratio (BER) as a function of the


receiver input level for different values of the carrier-to-interference
ratio (C/I), see Figure 1, and is for an equipment operating at 2 GHz and
with transmission capacity 2048 kbit/s.

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.001

1.E-4

Bit-Error Ratio

1.E-5
C/I=10 dB

1.E-6 C/I=15 dB

C/I "infinite" C/I=20 dB

1.E-7

1.E-8
-96 -95 -94 -93 -92 -91 -90 -89 -88 -87 -86 -85 -84 -83 -82 -81
Received Signal Level (dBm)

Figure 1: Performance diagram for co-channel interference for an


equipment operating at 2 GHz and with transmission capacity 2048
kbit/s.

Manufactures of digital equipment normally provides set of curves (see


Figure 1) which display the BER dependence on co-channel and
adjacent channel interference for different modulation schemes.

The two important conclusions on the performance diagram illustrated


in Figure 1 may be drawn:

1. The received signal level becomes higher with decreasing carrier-to-


interference ratio (C/I) if the bit-error ratio (BER) is maintained at
the same value. In practice, a higher fade margin is required in order
to sustain the same quality targets.

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2. The bit-error ratio (BER) gets worse for decreasing carrier-to-


interference ratio (C/I) if the received signal level is retained at the
same value, which means decreased quality. In practice, the
equipment threshold value gets lower and the fade margin increases,
and as expected it is easier to fulfill low-quality requirements.

Performance diagram is normally used for analysis of co-channel and


adjacent channel interference. It is not always presented as curves in the
equipment data sheet, often as a C/I value corresponding to a
degradation value, for instance, co-channel C/I=15 dB and adjacent
C/I=-20 dB for 3 dB degradation.

Interference-free signal
A signal is theoretically interference free when the following condition
occurs

C
≥ ∞ .................................................................................. (1)
I

For most practical applications, however, a signal can be considered


interference free when

C
≥ 25 dB ........................................................................... (2)
I

which means that the carrier C is approximately 316 times higher than
the interference signal I. The carrier and the interference signal are
equal when C/I= 0 dB.

Interfering scenario
Figure 2 illustrates a simplified scenario containing two paths. The
receiver located at site A is disturbed by the transmitter located at site D
giving rise to an interfering path AD. In this specific case, the resulting
interference level at the disturbed receiver located at A consists of the
contribution arriving from the transmitter located at D, that is, its output
power and other path and frequency dependent contributions.

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Disturbed
PR = Receiver input level of the A receiver
wanted signal at the disturbed receiver, dBm
PR C
PT = Disturbing transmitter’s output θ1 PI
power, dBm

Interfering Disturbing
PI = Resulting interference level at the path path
disturbed receiver, dBm θ2
B
θ1 = Angle between the interference-free
PT
path and the interfering path

θ2 = Angle between the disturbing Disturbing D


and the interference path transmitter

Figure 2: Simplified interfering scenario containing two paths.

Interference-free reception
In interference-free reception, see Figure 3, the path fade margin is
solely dependent on the path parameters and it is written as

M = PR − Pth ........................................................................ (3)

where

M = path fade margin, dB

PR = received signal at the receiver, dBm

Pth = receiver’s threshold, dBm

It should be pointed out that the receiver’s threshold value is always


connected to a given bit-error ratio.

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Interference-free reception means Power (dBm)

The path fade margin is solely


PR
dependent on the path parameters
M
Pth = Receiver threshold level for
undisturbed receiver, dBm Pth
at given BER!!!
PR = Receiver input level during
fading-free time, dBm

M = Fade margin for interference-free


reception, dB

Figure 3: Interference-free reception.

Reception with interference


In reception with interference, see Figure 4, the fade margin is changed
because the receiver’s threshold is degraded for the same bit-error ratio.
The degradation is generally the result of two level contributions: the
resulting (total) interference level (I or PI) at the receiver and the
receiver noise level (N), that is, (N+I). Now, the actual fade margin
(including interference), the effective fade margin, is as follows

M eff = PR − PthI ................................................................... (4)

where PthI is the receiver’s threshold value when affected by a resulting


interference level PI (dBm) and PR (dBm) as above.

The degradation is therefore given by

D = PthI − Pth ....................................................................... (5)

where D is the degradation (dB) and the other parameters as above. It


follows that the effective fade margin as a function of the degradation is
obtained as

M eff = M − D ..................................................................... (6)

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Now, the carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I) symbolizes the interference


level arriving at the receiver, PI, thus imposing a new threshold value
PthI. If C is considered as PthI (valid during fade depths equal to the
fade margin), this may be expressed as follows

C
= PthI − PI ........................................................................ (7)
I

or solving for the threshold PthI

C
PthI = PI + ....................................................................... (8)
I

Power (dBm)
PR = Receiver input level during fading-free time, dBm

Pth = Receiver threshold level for undisturbed receiver, dBm

M = Fade margin for interference-free reception, dB


PR
N = Noise level at the receiver input, dB M-D
M
PthI
PI (=I) = Resulting interference threshold level, dBm D
Pth at given BER!!!
C/I
N + I = Sum of the noise and interference levels, dBm
N+I
D = Threshold level degradation, dB D
N
PthI = Resulting interference threshold level , dBm I
PI
M - D = Effective fade margin for reception
with interference, dB

Figure 4: Reception with interference.

Example
To operate correctly, a digital system normally requires a carrier-to-
interference ratio (C/I) of 15-20 dB, depending on the used modulation
scheme. In a complex network with many different interference
configurations, a 15-20 dB C/I–value must be maintained, even under
fading conditions. This means that the interfering level has to be 15-20
dB below the receiver threshold.

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For instance, if the receiver threshold is –85 dBm for a specific bit-error
ratio and the fade margin is 35 dB, then the interference level must be at
least 15-20 dB below the receiver threshold, that is, between –100 and -
105 dBm [-85 dBm + (-15 to 20 dB)]. To make the fade margin of 35
dB fully usable for covering fading, then a C/I–value of 15-20 dB must
still be available at the receiver threshold. Hence, the total requirement
of ”isolation” (unfaded carrier to the inteference level) must be between
50 and 55 dB (35 dB+15 to 20 dB).

Interference tolerance
The tolerance of digital channels to interference depends on the
modulation scheme. In particular, a modulation scheme which requires
a low C/I for a certain bit-error ratio is more tolerant to interference.
Robust modulation schemes are 2PSK and 4PSK, while more complex
modulation schemes as 128QAM require much larger C/I-values.

Interference signal level


Any interference signal level among j - individual interference signals is
generally calculated as following:

PIj = PT − Abf − AG + Gθ1 + Gθ 2 − AFT − AFR − AA ............... (9)

where

PIj = The level of a single interference signal j, dBm

PT = The output level of the disturbing transmitter, dBm

Abf = The basic free-space loss between disturbing transmitter and


disturbed receiver, dB

AG = The gas attenuation, dB

Gθ1 = The antenna gain θ1 degrees from maximum gain, dBi

Gθ2 = The antenna gain θ2 degrees from maximum gain, dBi

AFT = The feeder attenuation at the transmitter station, dB

AFR = The feeder attenuation at the receiver station, dB

AA = The additional attenuation (obstacle loss, RF attenuators, etc), dB

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The antenna gains are calculated in the direction given by the angles
θ1 and θ2, defined as follows

θ1 = angle between the interference-free and the interference signal

θ2 = angle between the interfering signal and the interference path

Resulting interference level


The resulting interference level of the combined individual interference
levels at the receiver is given by

n (PIj − Aad ) 
PI = 10 ⋅ log ∑10 10  ................................................... ( 10 )
 j =1 

where:

PI = resulting interference level, dBm

PI j= level of an individual interference signal, dBm

Aad = adjacent-channel attenuation, dB

For co-channel Aad= 0.

The Aad attenuation depends basically on channel separation.

Applying the equation above for 1 interfering signal (n=1) the result is:
( PI 1 − Aad )
1 
PI = 10 ⋅ log ∑10 10  .................................................. ( 11 )
 j =1 

and performing the operations the final result is

 ( PI 1 − Aad )  P − Aad
PI = 10 ⋅ log10 10  = 10 ⋅ I 1 ⋅ log(10) = PI 1 − Aad ( 12 )
  10

This result is expected since the resulting interference level in dBm at


the receiver, considering only one interfering signal, can be obtained by
subtracting the adjacent-channel attenuation from the only individual
interfering participating in the interference scenario. Note, however, that
the result will not be simply expressed by a subtraction when
considering more than one participating interferer.

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Threshold degradation method

Introduction
Generally, the degradation imposed by interfering signals in a radio
network is taken into account by considering the degradation value as a
free parameter. Thus, the resulting interference level and finally the fade
margin for the path can be obtained. This is performed in five steps:

Step 1: Assume a suitable degradation D for the receiver’s threshold


level

Step 2: Find the value for the receiver’s input level during interference-
free condition for a given bit-error ratio according to equation (1) in the
performance diagram, see Figure 1.

Step 3: Calculate the degraded threshold level using equation (5)

Step 4: Determine, in the performance diagram, the C/I level


corresponding to the degraded threshold level for the given bit-error
ratio

Step 5: Calculate the resulting interference level by using equation (8)

Example
The performance diagram is for co-channel interference for an
equipment operating at 2 GHz and with transmission capacity 2048
kbit/s.

Step1: it is assumed a 2.5 dB degradation

D= 2.5 dB

Step 2: the receiver’s input level for interference-free reception for


BER= 10-3 is read off on Figure 1, approximately.

Pth= -94.5 dBm

Step 3: the degraded threshold level is obtained by equation (5), that is,

PthI= -94.5 dBm + 2.5 dB= -92 dBm

Step 4: the corresponding C/I level for BER= 10-3 in the performance
diagram is

C/I= 15 dB

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Step 5: finally, the resulting interference level is obtained by equation


(8).

PI= PthI - C/I= -92 dBm - 15 dB= -107 dBm

General comments
Advantage: the influence of the bit-error ratio (BER) on the
performance and availability is considered when starting the planning
(the effective fade margin is known)

Disadvantage: the final extension of the network has to be estimated


with some accuracy. For example, if the number of interfering paths is
less than the estimated (the network never reaches the number of
planned links), the performance will be overestimated. If the number of
interfering paths is larger than the estimated, existing antennas may
have to be changed or another frequency band has to be employed in the
network. In both cases the result is an unnecessary expensive network.

A certain economical risk is, however, normally present.

References

TEMS LinkPlanner, User’s Guide, Rev. 5.0, 1999.

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This chapter covers some of the issues that may arise


concerning path profiles, line-of-sight requirements, input
signals and their variation, diversity, reflections and
frequency planning. In addition, surveying possible radio-
link paths and site requirements are discussed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Objective and scope .......................................................................................................................................... 1


Initial planning .................................................................................................................................................. 1
Network configurations ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Star network, alternative 1................................................................................................................... 2
Star network, alternative 2................................................................................................................... 3
Chain network ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Loop network ...................................................................................................................................... 4
Line of sight ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
Clearance........................................................................................................................................................... 5
Path profiles ...................................................................................................................................................... 7
Link budget ....................................................................................................................................................... 9
Fading................................................................................................................................................................ 11
Fade margin......................................................................................................................................... 11
Rain ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
Multipath propagation......................................................................................................................... 11
General ................................................................................................................................................ 12
Diversity............................................................................................................................................................ 12
Space diversity .................................................................................................................................... 12
Frequency diversity ............................................................................................................................. 13
Improvement ....................................................................................................................................... 13
Reflection .......................................................................................................................................................... 14
Path and site surveys ......................................................................................................................................... 17
Frequency planning ........................................................................................................................................... 18
General ................................................................................................................................................ 18
Far interference ................................................................................................................................... 19
Near interference................................................................................................................................. 20
Frequency economy ............................................................................................................................ 23
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 23

i
PATH AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

Objective and scope


In preparation for the configuration of a radio link network, a number of
tasks must be performed that will eventually supply input to the
necessary path calculations. These tasks are described herein and deal,
for the most part, with terrain, climate, equipment data and site
configuration. Frequency planning is considered as one of the more
important tasks in the planning of a network.

This section will cover some of the issues that may arise concerning
path profiles, requirements regarding line-of-sight, input signal and their
variation, diversity, reflections and frequency planning. A section is
included which deals with the survey of possible radio-link paths and
site requirements.

Initial planning
Before starting the actual planning of a radio link path, one should
acquire an overview of the construction of the entire network (of which
the path in question is to be a part of), and of the network functionality
that the proposed path is to provide. This background knowledge will
enable decision as to the quality and availability standards that should
be conformed to when dimensioning the path.

Network planning is generally based upon the network’s operational


requirements. These can be expressed in terms of:

• Quality

• Availability

• Traffic requirements and capacity

The manner in which one goes about determining the requirements


pertaining to the dimensioning of individual radio-link paths is a
function of the configuration and the dimensioning of the local network
and, if such be the case, of other surrounding networks that may be
involved. Every network component path is to exhibit a level of
availability and quality such that the entire connection, subscriber-to-
subscriber, maintains the overall standards that were selected.

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The International Telecommunication Union, ITU, publishes


recommendationsthat provide guidance as to the dimensioning of
networks intended for international connection. Practical examples of
this type of network is found in the transmission to/from the radio base
stations of a mobile telephone network or in the internal company
networks that are connected to public communications networks. See
the section ”QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY TARGETS”, for more
information.

Network configurations
A number of examples are included below including common network
configurations in which a number of radio base stations (RBS) are to be
connected to a mobile telephone exchange (MSC), see Figure 1.

MSC

Figure 1: RBS sites that are to be connected to an MSC.

Star network, alternative 1


Figure 2 illustrates a usual pattern, in which all sites are connected
directly to the MSC in a star network. In principle, this configuration is
simple and offers the following advantages:

• The RBS-sites may be established to expanding requirements in an


area instead of network configuration requirements.

• The network may gradually be taken into service in phase with the
establishment of new sites.

However a star network configuration represents some disadvantages:

• It involves a large number of incoming MSC routes and their


respective antennas. This may cause both space and strength
problems for antenna support structures.

• The high number of incoming routes may lead to problems in


finding sufficient frequencies, i.e., bandwidth.
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• A number of the sites may be too remote, leading to range problems,


i.e., distances are too great.

MSC

Figure 2: Star network, alternative 1.

Star network, alternative 2


Figure 3 illustrates another version of the star network. Here,
connections are made in two stages. The more distant sites are
connected first to a common node, which is then connected to the MSC.
The link from the common node to the MSC must generally have higher
capacity than the individual RBS connections. It may also be necessary
to assign a lower frequency band to the link between the common node
and the MSC in order to handle the longer distance involved. A higher
frequency band may often be used for the connection of the individual
links.

MSC

Figure 3: Star network, alternative 2.

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Chain network
Figure 4 illustrates another configuration in which the individual sites
are connected in chains , or in tandem, to the MSC. This often provides
minimum length per link. Two disadvantages of the configuration are
the poorer reliability caused by hardware faults since the links are
coupled in sequence, and the increase in capacity requirement along the
chain. Drop insert or DDC (Digital Cross Connect) may help to
minimize capacity requirements.

MSC

Figure 4: Chain network.

Loop network
Figure 5 shows all sites connected in a loop. The advantage of this
configuration is that it is possible to achieve a redundant (duplicated)
network. In the event of a breakdown in one link, traffic can be diverted
in the other direction around the loop. If the loop has sufficient capacity
to carry all the traffic from every site in both directions, then one has
achieved complete redundancy. The capacity requirement is then the
total sum of the individual capacity requirements. Here again, drop
insert or DCC, would help to minimize capacity requirements.

Unavailable time caused by hardware faults is reduced in this type of


network without the necessity of doubling the radio equipment. On the
other hand, if network capacity is not increased, the ability to handle
traffic decreases.

MSC

Figure 5: Loop network.

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It should be observed that a looped network may involve special


synchronization problems. Under normal conditions, rate
synchronization is supplied from the transmission end, which passes the
rate to the receiving end. Using a loop to route traffic in the event of
hardware failure or long lasting fading requires that the base station
handle traffic to/from two directions. In this case, the base station
requires the capability of handling two connection routes, both from the
traffic and synchronization standpoints.

Line of sight
Frequencies above 7 GHz require free line-of-sight between the
transmitting and receiving antennas. Obstructions that penetrate into
and above the line-of-sight cause signal attenuation that may cause the
path to be unusable. Such obstructions may be composed of terrain,
forests, buildings, chimneys, etc. If one uses maps to investigate free
line-of-sight conditions, one should be especially observant as to
obstructions close to the sites (in the vicinity of 100-200 meters) that
may not be indicated due to inaccuracies in the map due to insufficient
resolution. Maps are not the besttool to judge the height of buildings
and other man-made obstructions. A line-of-sight investigation should
always be performed on site before finally selecting station sites.

Clearance
Even if one finds that a path exhibits proper line-of-sight characteristics,
path obstacles may have attenuating effects on the signal if they are
situated sufficiently close to the path. Usually, one defines a Fresnel
zone around the center line of the path, see Figure 6. The first Fresnel
zone is defined as a zone that takes the form of an ellipsoidal shell,
having its focal points at the antennas of both sites. The Fresnel zone
diminishes with increasing frequency. (See the section ”RADIO WAVE
PROPAGATION”).

Provided that there is no obstacle within the first Fresnel zone, obstacle
attenuation can be ignored, and clearance demands are in most cases
satisfied. If one has, for example, a backbone network operating at a
lower frequency than for example 7 GHz, the path length may require
more clearance than that required by the first Fresnel zone. One may be
required to keep the first Fresnel zone free from obstacles at a smaller
effective earth-radius than for k=4/3. For example, the requirement may
entail a free first Fresnel zone for k=0.5.

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On the other hand, at frequencies less than about 2 GHz, one may be
able to tolerate some obstacle attenuation. The need for clearance for
these frequency bands must be calculated for each individual path.

The first Fresnel zone can be calculated as follows:

d1 ⋅ d 2
r = 17.3 ⋅ (1)
f ⋅ (d 1 + d 2 )

where
r = The radius of the first Fresnel zone at a given point along a
path, m
d1 = The distance from the first site to this point, km
d2 = The distance from the second site to the point, km
f = Frequency, GHz

d
d1 M d2

Rn
Sight line
A B

Effective Earth

Figure 6: Fresnel zone.

Some examples of how the radius of the Fresnel zone varies with path
length for different frequency bands are shown in Table 1. The table
shows the Fresnel zone’s mid-path, which provides an indication of the
clearance requirements that are demanded.

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Frequency (GHz)

Distance (km) 0.45 7 15 23 26 38

5 29 7.3 5.0 4.0 3.8 3.1

15 50 12.7 8.7 7.0 6.6 5.4

40 82 20.7 - - - -

Table 1: Radius (m) of the first Fresnel zone (mid-path) for some
frequencies. The distance of 40 km is not applicable in the frequency
range 0.45 to 38 GHz as indicated by the table.

Path profiles
The intention of the path profile is to provide material for the decision
as to whether a free line-of-sight exists between the selected sites for the
stations and whether sufficient clearance exists to avoid obstacle
attenuation. The path profile is also useful when calculating variations
in received signals (fading).

The path profile is essentially a plot of the Earth’s elevation as a


function of distance along the path between the transmitting and
receiving sites. Data is derived by locating the two terminals on an
elevation contour map, drawing a straight line between the two points,
and then reading the elevation contours at suitable distance intervals.

Topographical information, used in the construction of path profiles,


may also be derived from topographical databases. Such databases are
required to include both altitude data and land-use data.

A path profile is plotted in a so-called path-profile chart. Path profile


charts are constructed by computing earth bulge, ∆h , see Figure 7:

d1 ⋅ d 2
Äh = (2)
2⋅k ⋅R

where:

∆h = The Earth bulge at a given point along the path, m

d1 = The distance from one site to the point, km

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d2 = The distance from the opposite site to the same point, km

k = Earth radius factor

R = The true earth radius, km

Earth elevaition

∆h

d1 d2

Distance

Figure 7: Earth bulge.

A radio ray beam may be shown as a straight line in a path profile that is
constructed having an earth radius factor that corresponds to the
conditions defined by a normal atmosphere for the particular
geographical locations at which the sites are located.

A factor that may be used for the calculation of the particular k-value
(∆N ) for different parts of the world can be found in Rec. ITU-R P.453-
6 ”. The maps show ∆N from ground level and up to an altitude of one
km.

The transformation from ∆N to k-factor is performed in accordance


with section ”RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION”.

The path profile chart may now be completed. Antenna height and line-
of-sight information are added to the chart. Adding the first Fresnel
radius to the chart will allow the determination of free line-of-sight and
whether or not sufficient clearance exists along the path. The path
profile is to clearly indicate any forest areas, buildings and other man-
made obstructions, see Figure 8.

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Figure 8: Path profile.

Link budget
A link budget is established to enable calculations involving signal
reception under fade-free conditions. The budget contains a summation
of all losses and amplifications of the signal as it propagates from the
transmitter to the receiver. This is illustrated in Figure 9.

Abf AG AL
Transmitter G G Receiver
AF AO AF

Pout Pin

Figure 9: Losses and gains along a path.

The power received by the radio link terminal, as illustrated in Figure


10, can be calculated as follows:

Pin = Pout − ∑ AF + ∑ G − Abf − A0 − AG − AL (3)

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where

Pin = Received power, dBm

Pout = Transmitted power, dBm

AF = Antenna feeder loss, dB

G = Antenna gain, dBi

Abf = Free space loss between isotropic antennas, dB

AO = Obstacle loss, dB

AG = Gas attenuation, dB

AL = Additional loss, dB

POWER
output
power antenna
gain

feeder loss

wave propagation losses

received power
feeder loss
fade margin
antenna gain
receiver threshold
value

Figure 10: Losses and gains.

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Fading

Fade margin
The incoming signal that is calculated with the help of the link budget
applies to fade-free time. Actual incoming signals to the radio-link
receiver vary over time due to fading. To allow for a sufficient power
range in connection with incoming signal variations, paths are
dimensioned so that a given margin is attained between fade-free
incoming signal levels and the receiver threshold value. This is referred
to as the fade margin. The fade margin is to be sufficiently large so that
the probability of it being exceeded due to fading is sufficiently small in
order to meet with the functional demands that are placed on the path.
The requirements placed on fade-margin size are indirectly set as a
result of the norm used when dimensioning the path. Fade margins lying
in the range 25 to 40 dB are most common. Climate, terrain and path
length are factors that affect the degree to which a radio-link path is
sensitive to fading.

Rain
The most common types of fading are ordinarily the result of
precipitation (rain), multipath propagation and refraction.

For frequencies greater than 10 GHz, rain is generally the determining


factor. Rain intensity is a parameter that is required when calculating
fading due to rain. The algorithms that are generally employed require a
value for the rain intensity that is exceeded more than 0.01% of the time
(based on an annual average). Actual values of the ”rain-intensity-at -
0.01% value”, for different parts of the world, can be found in Rec.
ITU-R PN.837-1.

Multipath propagation
For frequencies less than 10 GHz, multipath propagation and refraction
are the dominant causes of fading. A climate dependent factor is
involved in the calculation of fading caused by multipath propagation,
which may be found in Rec. ITU-R PN.530-7.

It should be noted that more small-scale climactic variations may exist


than those found in the ITU-R recommendation (also applies to rain).
For example, for paths that for the most part traverse large bodies of
water, the results of the algorithms are often too optimistic when
applying large-scale ”normal” climactic factors in the calculation of
fading due to multipath propagation.

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The climate dependent portion of the algorithm should, in such cases,


be adapted to ”local climactic conditions” in order to assure better
results.

General
More on fading, its causes and how it is calculated are described in the
section ”RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION”.

The calculated probability related to how the different types of fading


along a radio-link path are expected to behave are then transformed into
quality and unavailability objectives that are defined in the norm that is
applied in the dimensioning of the path. The quantities that are
commonly applied are generally standardized by ITU. See the section
”QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY TARGETS”.

Diversity
Diversity should be used when constructing paths that are heavily
exposed to fading caused by multipath propagation. Extreme cases of
fading due to multipath propagation are usually the result of long paths,
atmospheric disturbances or reflections of the radio waves by large flat
surfaces. Radio-link paths over water, are examples of paths that often
require diversity. Diversity techniques reduce the effects of fading but
also cause an increase in the amount of hardware required.

The basis for diversity lies in the fact that radio waves are given the
possibility of reaching the receiver via two or more paths. Incoming
signals arriving along different paths are assumed to have faded to
varying degrees, independent of one another, and are as a result,
uncorrelated. The receiver then selects the signal that contains the
greatest amount of energy or in some applications, a combination of
both of the received signals. The most commonplace forms of diversity
are space diversity and frequency diversity.

Space diversity
A transmitter antenna and two receiver antennas are used when
employing space diversity. The two receiving antennas make it possible
to receive signals propagating along different paths. The approach
requires twice as many antennas at each end of the path, a unit that
selects the best signal and duplicated receiver equipment (either entirely
duplicated or partially duplicated).

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Frequency diversity
One and the same signal is transmitted via two different frequencies. As
a result of the difference in frequencies, there is no correlation between
the fading of the two signals. Only one antenna is required at each end
of the path, but equipment for the selection of the better signal as well
as duplicated transmitters and receivers are required. The inferior level
of frequency economy generally causes space diversity to be chosen
over frequency diversity.

Combinations of the two approaches are not unusual when solving


extremely difficult fading situations.

Improvement
Improvements that are achieved as the result of diversity are expressed
as a factor, referred to as the improvement factor, which affects the
calculated probability of multipath fading, see Figure 11. The
improvement varies for different fade depths. It is greatest for deep
fading where improvements of up to 100 times can be achieved. The
improvement factor is calculated using a number of algorithms,
depending on the selected diversity method. The factor is affected, for
the most part, by antenna separation in the case of space diversity and
by frequency difference in the case of frequency diversity.

C
-10
Fading depth, dB

Without diversity
-20
gain

With diversity
-30
improvement B

-40 A

-50
10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7
Probability of exceeding the fading depth, %

Figure 11: Diversity improvement.

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Reflection
Radio wave reflections from large plane surfaces, e.g., lakes and other
large bodies of water, can cause degradation of a connection’s quality
and availability. The reflected wave propagates along a different path
than that taken by the direct wave, and therefore traverses a different
distance before arriving at the receiving station. This difference in
distance causes the arriving waves to be phase-shifted with respect to
one another. In addition to the phase-shift caused by the aforementioned
difference in path length, another source causing phase difference is the
phase-shift produced at the moment of reflection.

The desired signal is attenuated as a result of phase differences in the


direct and reflected incoming waves. The decisive factors as to the
seriousness of the effects of such reflections are the electrical
characteristics of the ground, the grazing angle, the frequency, the
signal’s polarization, and any small-scale variations in elevation that
exist at the point of reflection.

Radio-link paths for which reflections are likely to occur should be


constructed employing space-diversity. The distance between the
primary and the diversity antennas should be adapted to the path’s
geometry so that one always achieves the best possible signal in one of
the antennas.

To calculate the optimum height difference between the diversity


antennas, one first calculates the height difference between two adjacent
points along the mast, at which signal strength is a minimum (or a
maximum). This calculation is naturally performed for both stations, A
and B. For example, assume that an antenna is mounted on a mast at a
given position, i.e., at a given height. As the antenna is moved from this
starting position, the resultant signal strength, i.e. the sum of the signal
strengths of the direct and the phase-shifted reflected waves, will either
increase to a maximum or decrease to a minimum depending on the
direction of movement. The distance between the points in which
minimum (or maximum) signal strength is measured is the distance
referred to above.

 
0.3 ⋅ d  1 
δh A' =   ⋅ 10 3 (4)
2⋅ f  ' dB 
2

 hB − 12.74 ⋅ k 

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 
0.3 ⋅ d  1 
δhB' =   ⋅ 10 3 (5)
2⋅ f  ' dA 
2

 h A − 12.74 ⋅ k 

where
δh ' A = The height difference between the two maximums/minimums
at station A, m
δh ' B = The height difference between the two maximums/-
minimums at station B, m
h' A = The antenna height above the point of reflection at station
A, m
h' B = The antenna height above the point of reflection at station
B, m
dA = The distance between station A and the point of reflection,
km
dB = The distance between station B and the point of reflection,
km
d = The distance between station A and B, km
f = Frequency, GHz
k = Earth-radius factor
The distance between the stations and the point of reflection is
calculated as described in section ”RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION”.

The distance required between the diversity antennas is then calculated


as follows:

δh A'
δh A = (6)
2

and

δhB'
δh B = (7)
2

where
δh A = The height difference between the antennas at station A, m
δh B = The height difference between the antennas at station B, m

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If possible, station locations should be selected so that the risk of


reflection is avoided, see Figure 12, or reduced, e.g., do not, if possible,
select paths that cross large bodies of water. If, however, one is forced
to select paths that are likely to cause reflections, one should attempt to
select antenna heights and a wave propagation path such that reflected
waves are, as far as is possible, attenuated by obstructions that are
situated along the path of reflection. The risk of interference is as a
result considerably reduced through planned attenuation.

A B

Figure 12: Obstacle attenuation in a reflected wave.

In addition to the reflection problems caused when radio waves


propagate across large bodies of water, these regions also cause other
transmission difficulties due to the propagation-impairing atmospheric
conditions that often prevail in these areas. These factors sufficiently
motivate the use of space-diversity when constructing such paths, even
in the event that one feels fairly certain that the effects of reflections
have been reduced through planned obstacle attenuation.

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Path and site surveys


Site and path surveys are often necessary in conjunction with the
planning of proposed radio-links. This process may be subdivided into
two activities. The first of which is the actual inspection of the path
itself and the nature and positions of any obstacles along the path, the
study of the reflective attributes of the path, the actual positions of
obstacles that are expected to attenuate reflections, etc. The second
relates to the inspection of the station site, including activities such as
the physical inspection of the antenna masts, their height, their
structural properties and their ability to carry the required antenna
equipment, whether or not sufficient space has been allotted for the
mounting of antennas, the availability of secure and sufficient electrical
power, etc.

The checklist below includes a number of the essential points that


should be investigated.

Find/verify:

• Geographical position of the site.

• Antenna carrier height above ground level.

• Antenna carrier type, strength and torsional strength.

• Ground level above mean sea level.

• Possibility to mount antennas at necessary heights.

• Obstacles in path directions, height and width.

• Potential reflecting surfaces.

• Radio environment, other radio equipment in the vicinity or


potential sources of signal interference.

• Distance between indoor and outdoor equipment.

• Floor/wall space for mounting indoor equipment. Power.

• Battery backup.

• Possibility of mounting antenna feeder or multi-cable between the


indoor and outdoor equipment, considering space, wall entrance,
bend radius, etc.

• New sites - proximity to roads and power transformer stations.

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Frequency planning

General
The objective of frequency planning is to assign frequencies to a
network using as few frequencies as is possible and in such a manner,
that the quality and availability of the radio-link’s path is minimally
affected by interference. It is not economically feasible to achieve
completely interference-free networks through the use of frequency
planning techniques. Frequency planning is often performed based on
the acceptance of a given and calculated level of interference that results
in acceptable threshold degradation, at the radio-link receiver, of
approximately no more than 3 dB. This requires that the fade margin be
3 dB higher than the demands made due to wave propagation and
hardware. Equipment data describes maximum interference levels that
can be tolerated by the particular radio-link equipment before the 3 dB
threshold degradation level is exceeded. The data describes the
allowable level of the interfering signal, I, in relation to the radio signal,
C, for a given frequency separation. The “3 dB threshold degradation”
approach is, however, not recommended in a computer environment in
which more sophisticated methodology is strongly recommended. At
the end, the final limitations are provided by the quality and availability
objectives.

Both near and far interference contributions are considered when


performing frequency planning.

The following are the basic considerations involved in the assignment


of radio frequencies:

• Prevention of mutual interference such as the interference between


the radio frequency channels in the actual path, interference to/from
other radio paths, interference to/from satellite communication
system, etc.

• Frequency economy of the available radio frequency spectrum.

• Proper selection of frequency band that conforms to the required


transmission capacity.

• Frequency band suitable to both path characteristics (path length,


site location, terrain topography) and atmospheric effects

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Far interference
By far interference is meant unwanted disturbances between a
transmitter and a receiver that are not co-located (i.e., located in very
close proximity to one anther), see Figure 13. The distance between the
disturbing transmitter and the disturbed receiver may vary between a
few kilometers, or perhaps a few hundred meters, up to many tens of
kilometers.

The most serious interference caused by interfering transmitters occurs


when they transmit at the same frequency at which the disturbed
receiver is tuned to. This type of interference is referred to as co-
channel interference. A common requirement on signal-to-interference
ratio in the case of co-channel interference is C/I= 20 dB.

In some cases, serious disturbances may arise even though the


interfering signal lies in an adjacent and separate channel than the
channel containing the desired signal, so-called adjacent-channel
interference. C/I = -15 dB is a common require for the avoidance of
adjacent-channel interference. These requirements are equipment
dependent and vary for the adjacent-channel case as a function of
frequency separation between the disturbing and the disturbed signal.
The bandwidth of the interfering signal in relation to the bandwidth of
the disturbed receiver also affects the demand placed on the C/I ratio.

Planning a network that is free from the effects of far interference


requires knowledge of the geographic locations at which the sites are
located, the layout and dimensioning of the radio-link paths (including
both the paths and the transmitting and receiving sites and their
respective equipment), equipment data, existing network frequency
assignment and a model allowing the study of wave propagation
between the disturbed receiver and the interfering transmitter.

Far interference is often the primary factor that limits the number of
paths that can be set up within a given geographical area. It also affects
the possibility of realizing a variety of network solutions, for example,
the number of possible paths within a node located in a star network.
High quality antennas, which are often analogous with large antennas,
are advantageous in the achievement of one’s planning objectives.

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Tx=f2
Rx=f1

Tx=f1
Rx=f2

Tx=f1
Rx=f2
Tx=f2
Rx=f1

Figure 13: Far interference.

Near interference
Near interference refers to receiver disturbances that are generated by
transmitters that are grouped at one and the same site. Disturbances may
be caused both by in-house and foreign equipment, either individually
or as a result of their interaction.

Disturbances may appear in the form of intermodulation effects, i.e., the


mixture of two or more transmitter frequencies that may arise close to a
particular receiver frequency, see Figure 14.

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f1 f2 2f2-f1 3f2-2f1

frx ftx

Figure 14: Near interference.

Disturbances arising from intermodulation effects in cases where


waveguide-bound frequency bands are used (i.e., ≥ 6 GHz) are
negligible. Of course wave-guide-bound systems may contribute to
intermodulation effects in systems working at lower frequency bands
and therefore using coaxial cables as antenna feeders. It should be noted
that this effect is due to the fact waveguides are more frequency
discriminating (hi-pass filter characteristic) then antenna feeder cables.

Degraded performance can also be the result of transmitter frequencies


that lie too close to a receiver’s frequency thereby directly degrading
reception quality.

An additional cause of degraded reception quality is blocking. Blocking


can arise even if the disturbing transmitter frequency lies well separated
from the receiver frequency if the emitted field-strength by the
transmitter is sufficiently strong. Examples of situations in which
blocking can arise is when the radio-links are co-located with high-
power transmitters such as radar stations and radio broadcasting
stations.

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Another important characteristic, that should be considered when


calculating the effect of near interference, is the coupling loss between
two antennas located at the same site, see Figure 15. This identifies that
portion of the radiated power, from one of the antennas, that leaks over
to the other antenna.

P1

P2

P2 = P1 − A A = Coupling loss

Figure 15: Coupling loss between two antennas.

The following isolation values may be used when performing rough


estimates:

• approximately 40 dB between two antennas made up of dipoles

• approximately 80 dB between two parabolic antennas

These values are in reality, naturally dependent on the distance and


angles between the two antennas.

The selection of proper duplex-bands for transmitter and receiver


equipment, during the frequency-allocation process, is essential if one is
to control the risk of disturbances that arise as a result of insufficient
transmitter-receiver frequency separation. Allocating all the transmitters
to one of the duple-bands and all the receivers to the other always
attains maximum site frequency economy for a specific radio-frequency
channel arrangement. This often results in also satisfying the
requirement of maintaining the necessary frequency separation between
transmitter and receiver frequencies.

Making use of one of the ITU’s standardized radio-frequency channel


arrangement generally facilitates the planning process. These standards
are internationally and widely accepted by numerous government
frequency regulating bodies.

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Frequency economy
Some general pointers that should be followed in the frequency
planning process:

• Reuse frequencies, i.e., repeat the use of frequencies as often as is


possible.

• Use antennas having high front-to-back ratios and large side-lobe


suppression. These result in both good frequency economy and, in
the final analysis, good overall network economy. High performance
antennas may be a suitable alternative.

• Do not use higher radio-link output power than necessary.

• If the choice is between higher transmitter output power and larger


antennas, choose (if possible) a larger antenna. Power will be
concentrated along the intended path, i.e., towards the receiver.

References
Rec. ITU-R P.453-6

Rec. ITU-R P.530-7

Rec. ITU-R P.837-1

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RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION
DISCUSSION

The primary objective of this chapter is to encourage a


discussion on specific and general subjects of interest in
transmission network planning, for instance, practices
versus theory, current trends in today’s world market that
affect radio-relay transmission, personal experience and
future prospects for radio-relay technology.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 1
World market trends.......................................................................................................................................... 1
New technology................................................................................................................................................. 1
Future outlook ................................................................................................................................................... 2
References ......................................................................................................................................................... 3
Question form.................................................................................................................................................... 4

i
RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION - DISCUSSION

Introduction
Commercially operated radio-relay transmission facilities have been in
existence for some 60 years. Radio-relay technology has seen vast
development during that period of time, progressing from the stages of
the earlier, now antiquated, analog systems to systems based on modern
digital technology. Modern transmission technologies, such as optical-
fiber transmission, were introduced during the last two-three decades.
Despite the limited transmission capacity of radio-relay systems, in
comparison to optical fiber, radio-relay transmission still seems to be
the best alternative for many applications. Future trends and the
prospect of new applications seem to confirm the continued suitability
of utilizing radio-relay in future networks.

World market trends


Radio-relay transmission will undoubtedly play a major role in the
social-technical structure of the future - a structure upon which the
envisioned global information society is to rest. Nowadays, about ten
major companies are competing in the area of radio-relay transmission
and for the past 20 years, an almost constant amount of radio-relay
equipment has been manufactured per year on a worldwide basis (about
50,000 transmitters and receivers). Furthermore, radio-relay equipment
is constantly getting better, smaller and less expensive.

Present world market trends in this area seem to indicate that the
coming years will see an increase in both the need for, and the
production of, radio-relay transmitter and receiver equipment. This
equipment will be utilized in responding to the demands for:

• high-capacity short-haul urban systems

• small and medium-capacity rural and urban access systems

• high-capacity long-haul systems applicable to the regional networks


of developing and geographically inaccessible countries

New technology
In addition, worldwide business transformations that have been
implemented during recent years, aimed at creating greater deregulation
and reduced centralization, have also acted as catalysts in the creation of
new business opportunities and markets.

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The traditionally long-haul high-capacity systems installed in extremely


large countries such as China, Russia, India and Brazil will certainly be
extended to greater transmission capacities. The majority of systems
based on older radio technologies and cable connections will certainly
be replaced by newer technologies, in many cases new radio-relay
systems will appear as the best and most cost-effective alternative. In
addition, as installed radio-relay systems around the world grow older
and approach obsolescence, they will require continuous maintenance
and upgrading programs to maintain sufficient efficiency, flexibility and
productivity.

Short-haul systems will undoubtedly be highly integrated with compact


cost-effective equipment operating at higher frequency bands. These
systems will be characterized by their short installation time, their ease
of maintenance and will be used in the following applications:

• the interconnection of long-haul routes with urban exchange stations

• the interconnection of cellular base stations with one another and


with the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

• Radio in the Local Loop (RLL) for the final subscriber

Future outlook
New radio-relay technologies that are suited to the new market demands
will most certainly appear and advances will very likely appear in the
following areas:

• Frequency bands below 20 GHz will become more crowded and


consequently a shift will take place towards higher frequencies

• more sophisticated modulation methods will improve frequency


utilization

• higher transmission capacities will, in many situations, complement


optical-fiber cable transmission systems

• greater digitalization of the signal processing stages plus built-in


intelligence

• increased equipment integration will produce more compact and


more cost-effective equipment

• adaptive equalization and automatic output power regulation

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RADIO-RELAY TRANSMISSION - DISCUSSION

Since the establishment of the first commercial link between Calais and
Dover some 60 years ago, the importance of radio-relay transmission
has steadily increased - resulting in more reliable and cost-effective
transmission systems. It is not at all unlikely that radio-relay
transmission will emerge as being the best transmission alternative for
many future applications yet to come.

References
”Radio-Relay Systems”, Huurdeman, A. A., Artech House, 1995.

“Radio-System Design for Telecommunications (1-100 GHz)”,


Freeman, R. L., 1987.

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Question form
If you have any question or subject of general interest for discussion,
please fill in this form and forward it to the course instructors. Issues
concerning path and frequency planning, methods, trends or “country
specific” matters such as access to frequencies/ frequency bands, error
performance and availability, interference aspects, hardware
requirements, climate effects on radio-relay transmission, etc. are
welcome. We believe the form will facilitate structuring your questions
and subjects and improve the outcome of our discussion.

__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK
PLANNING - APPLICATION

This chapter provides an extensive exercise in the subject


of radio-transmission network and frequency planning.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Assign values for the planning parameters and establish a network.................................................................. 1
Assign channel table............................................................................................................................ 1
Assign Radio Systems ......................................................................................................................... 2
Assign quality and availability targets................................................................................................. 3
Assign default parameter values.......................................................................................................... 3
Establish sites ...................................................................................................................................... 6
Establish paths..................................................................................................................................... 6
Planning procedures .......................................................................................................................................... 7
Path planning guidelines ..................................................................................................................... 7
Frequency assignment guidelines ........................................................................................................ 8
Final path calculation .......................................................................................................................... 8

i
RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK PLANNING - APPLICATION

Introduction
The purpose of this exercise is to provide an introduction to radio
transmission network and frequency planning. Instructions and advisory
guidelines will facilitate the initialisation and the final analysis of a
radio transmission network comprising 20 sites. One of the sites will be
considered as the joint-point site for all connections.

The following will be considered:

• Assign values for the planning parameters

• Establish a network

• Perform planning procedures

Assign values for the planning parameters and


establish a network

Assign channel table


Select Define - Channel table. Create a new channel table according to
Table 1, and give it the name “RTNFP practice”. Use channels B1, B2,
C1, D1, D4 and D9. The channel configuration is illustrated in Figure 1.

Upper Band Lower Band


Frequency Frequency Channel spacing
MHz MHz 3.5 MHZ 7 MHz 14 MHz 28 MHz
14921.00 14501.00
14924.50 14504.50 D1
14928.00 14508.00 D2 C1
14931.50 14511.50 D3
14935.00 14515.00 D4 C2 B1 A1
14938.50 14518.50 D5
14942.00 14522.00 D6 C4
14945.50 14525.50 D7
14949.00 14529.00 D8 C5 B2
14952.50 14532.50 D9

Table 1. Channel table.

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B1 B2

C1

D1 D4 D9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Channel
D1 D4 D9
C1
B1 B2

3.5 MHz

Figure 1. ML channels RTNFP training network.

Assign Radio Systems


Select Define - Radio System. Define 4 different radio systems.

Radio System 1:
Copy E-CAP 2x2. Select the copy and rename it as “ML 15 E 2x2 HP”.

Select the following components:

Radio: ML 15 E 2x2 HP

Antenna type: ML 15 0.6 HP

Channel table: RTNFP practice

Configuration: Not doubled

MTTR: 8 hours

Radio System 2:
Copy E-CAP 4x2. Select the copy and rename it as “ML 15 E 4x2 HP”.

Select the following components:

Radio: ML 15 E 4x2/8 HP

Antenna type: ML 15 0.6 HP

Channel table: RTNFP practice

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Configuration: Not doubled

MTTR: 8 hours

Radio System 3:
Copy E-CAP 8x2. Select the copy and rename it as “ML 15 E 8x2 HP”.

Select the following components:

Radio: ML 15 E 8x2/2x8 HP

Antenna type: ML 15 0.6 HP

Channel table: RTNFP practice

Configuration: Not doubled

MTTR: 8 hours

Radio System 4:
Copy E-CAP 8x2. Select the copy and rename it as “ML 15 E 8x2
HP1,2”.

Select the following components:

Radio: ML 15 E 8x2/2x8 HP

Antenna type: ML 15 1.2 HP

Channel table: RTNFP practice

Configuration: Not doubled

MTTR: 8 hours

Assign quality and availability targets


Select Define - Quality and Availability targets. Press the “New“
button and assign the name “G821” to the existing table.

Assign default parameter values


Select Define - Default parameters. Create a new default table with
the name “RTNFP practice”.

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Equipment default

Path Radio System: ML 15 E 2x2 HP

Antenna height: 36 m

Polarisation: Vertical

Algorithms

Obstacle attenuation: Smooth-spherical-earth method (Cheriex).

Multipath fading, flat: ITU-R Rec. P.530-7

Multipath fading, frequency selective: ITU-R Rec. F.1093

Parameters

• Earth-radius factor (k):


k-value statistics use k-distribution related to the actual pL factor, see
Chapter 15 [4. Refractive gradient and 1. Earth radius factor as a
function of the refraction gradient].
k at normal atmosphere will automatically be set from k-value
statistics.

• Gas attenuation:
Temperature, 30°C.
Relative humidity, the most unfavourable parameter value, see
Chapter 15, [2. Relative humidity as a function of temperature].

• Rain fading:
Use the 0.01 % value, see Chapter 15 [7. Rain climate zones and 8.
Rain intensity distribution].
SESR fraction, 0 %.

• Flat multipath fading:


pL-factor, most unfavourable parameter value, see Chapter 15 [3.
Refractive factor (pL factor)].
Terrain class, Inland links.
Terrain type, Plains.
Coastal fraction, 0 %.

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• Interference, Far interference


Use C/I matrix: Yes
Adjacent channel attenuation: 20 dB
Interference radius: 200 km

Result presentation:
Exclude interferes when threshold level/interference level is > 40 dB.
Highlight interfered paths when threshold degradation is > 3.0 dB.

Presentation

Quality template: Final.rrt.


Report title: e.g. name and date.

Time unit: Second

Do not forget to SAVE the default parameters!

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Establish sites
• Open the project “RTNFP practice” and select “RTNFP practice” as
default parameters (save).

• Open the version “RTNFP practice version 1” and assign new sites
according to Table 2. Label the sites 1, 2, 3,.....20.

Site La Lo Z
1 24 19 19.5 75 37 56.2 50
2 24 15 50.3 75 42 14.1 50
3 24 16 48.5 75 41 14.8 50
4 24 17 17.7 75 41 59.9 50
5 24 18 11.3 75 40 37.3 35
6 24 17 19.7 75 39 27.4 50
7 24 18 43.5 75 39 38.4 46
8 24 18 03.7 75 42 00.0 50
9 24 17 42.2 75 43 17.3 50
10 24 18 45.6 75 41 15.5 50
11 24 18 37.1 75 43 22.7 50
12 24 19 44.8 75 42 00.4 47
13 24 18 17.0 75 37 31.5 54
14 24 14 31.9 75 44 12.5 50
15 24 21 39.9 75 41 06.5 50
16 24 31 30.4 75 44 25.3 74
17 24 24 53.0 75 44 30.1 65
18 24 27 15.4 75 41 44.7 65
19 24 29 21.5 75 45 08.8 65
20 24 30 21.2 75 46 13.9 65

Table 2. Sites

The entire network is displayed at the end of this chapter.

Establish paths
All paths are MINI-LINK 15-E, 0.6m HP antennas (except path 15 to 19
in which 1.2m HP antennas are used).

For each path, select Q&A target, Rec. G.821, medium grade, class 3.

Check if the default radio system is valid. The radio system may have to
be changed according to Table 3.

Make each path active.

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Path Site Antenna Site Antenna Capacity


no height no height Mb/s
1 to 7 1 36 7 41 2x2
2 to 4 2 27 4 26 2x2
2 to 14 2 35 14 32 2x2
3 to 4 3 24 4 27 2x2
4 to 6 4 26 6 36 4x2
5 to 7 5 36 7 40 8x2
5 to 10 5 36 10 40 8x2
5 to 12 5 36 12 38 8x2
6 to 7 6 32 7 40 8x2
7 to 13 7 41 13 37 2x2
8 to 10 8 19 10 36 2x2
9 to 11 9 26 11 28 2x2
10 to 15 10 40 15 28 8x2
11 to 12 11 30 12 30 2x2
12 to 17 12 30 17 30 8x2
15 to 19 19 33 15 28 8x2 (*)
16 to 20 16 26