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BUCKLEY-LEVERETT ANALYSIS Derivation of the fractional flow equation for a one-dimensional oil-water system Consider displacement of oil by water in a system of dip angle α

α

We start with Darcy´s equations

**⎞ kkro A ⎛ ∂Po + ρ o gsin α ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ µ o ⎝ ∂x ⎞ kk A ⎛ ∂P qw = − rw ⎜ w + ρ w gsin α ⎟ , ⎠ µ w ⎝ ∂x qo = −
**

and replace the water pressure by Pw = Po − Pcow , so that

qw = −

⎞ kkrw A ⎛ ∂ (Po − Pcow ) + ρ w gsin α ⎟ . ⎜ ⎠ µw ⎝ ∂x

After rearranging, the equations may be written as:

**µo ∂P = o + ρ o gsin α kkro A ∂x µ ∂P ∂ P −qw w = o − cow + ρ w gsin α kkrw A ∂x ∂x
**

−qo

**Subtracting the first equation from the second one, we get
**

− 1 ⎛ µw µ ⎞ ∂P − qo o ⎟ = − cow + Δρgsin α ⎜ qw kA ⎝ krw k ro ⎠ ∂x

Substituting for q = qw + qo and q fw = w , q and solving for the fraction of water flowing, we obtain the following expression for the fraction of water flowing:

Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics

Professor Jon Kleppe 21.09.10

5 0.4 0.6 fw 0.6 0.TPG4150 Reservoir Recovery Techniques 2010 Hand-out note 4: Buckley-Leverett Analysis 2/9 ⎞ kk ro A ⎛ ∂Pcow − Δρgsin α ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ qµo ⎝ ∂x fw = kro µw 1+ µo k rw For the simplest case of horizontal flow. when Δx → 0 and Δt → 0 .9 0.5 0.2 0.9 1 Water saturation Water saturation Derivation of the Buckley-Leverett equation For a displacement process where water displaces oil.3 0.7 0.8 0.09.2 0.1 0.8 Relative permeability 0.9 0.3 0.10 Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics .5 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.8 0. with negligible capillary pressure.9 1 0.3 0.1 0 0 0.4 0.6 0. the expression reduces to: 1+ fw = 1 k µ 1+ ro w µo k rw Typical plots of relative permeabilities and the corresponding fractional flow curve are: Typical oil-water relative permeabilities 1 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.8 0. reduces to the continuity equation: − ∂ ∂ (qw ρ w ) = Aφ (Sw ρ w ) ∂x ∂t Professor Jon Kleppe 21. we start the derivation with the application of a mass balance of water around a control volume of length Δx of in the following system for a time period of Δt : qw ρw qw The mass balance may be written: ρw [(qw ρw ) x − (qw ρw ) x +Δx ]Δt = AΔxφ [(Sw ρw ) t +Δt − (Sw ρw ) t ] which.1 0 0 0.7 Kro Krw 1 Typical fractional flow curve 0.

107-116 Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics Professor Jon Kleppe 21.TPG4150 Reservoir Recovery Techniques 2010 Hand-out note 4: Buckley-Leverett Analysis 3/9 Let us assume that the fluid compressibility may be neglected.09. we follow a fluid front of constant saturation during the displacement process. thus: ∂S ∂S 0 = w dx + w dt ∂x ∂t Substituting into the Buckley-Leverett equation. E. we have that qw = f w q Therefore − ∂f w Aφ ∂Sw = ∂x q ∂t Since f w (Sw ) . AIME. S. ie. Trans. 146. Derivation of the frontal advance equation Since Sw (x. ρ w = constant Also. 1942. M.t) we can write the following expression for saturation change dSw = ∂S w ∂S dx + w dt ∂x ∂t In the Buckley-Leverett solution. we get dx q df w = dt Aφ dSw Integration in time 1 Buckley. the equation may be rewritten as − df w ∂Sw Aφ ∂Sw = dSw ∂x q ∂t This equation is known as the Buckley-Leverett equation above. C.: “Mechanism of fluid displacement in sands”. after the famous paper by Buckley and Leverett1 in 1942.10 . and Leverett.

distance. and plotting water saturation vs.1 0 0 0.3 2 1 0.1 0.1 0 0 0.7 0.5 0. we get the following figure: Clearly.2 0.4 0.7 0.5 x 0.6 0. and the Buckley-Leverett solution to this problem is to modify the plot by defining a Computed water saturation profile 1 0.5 0.09.8 0.TPG4150 Reservoir Recovery Techniques 2010 Hand-out note 4: Buckley-Leverett Analysis 4/9 ∫ t dx dt = dt ∫ Aφ dS t q df w w dt yields an expression for the position of the fluid front: xf = qt df w ( )f Aφ dSw which often is called the frontal advance equation.5 0.6 0.8 0. this is a result of the discontinuity in the saturation function.3 0.8 0. since we have two saturations at each x-position.6 fw 4 fw dfw/dSw 0. The Buckley-Leverett solution A typical plot of the fractional flow curve and it´s derivative is shown below: Fractional flow curve and it's derivative 1 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.9 1 Water saturation 0 Using the expression for the front position.9 0.6 Sw 0.8 3 0.2 0.7 0.9 1 Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics dfw/dSw Professor Jon Kleppe 21. the plot of saturations is showing an impossible physical situation.9 0.10 .2 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.7 0. However.

7 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.3 0.9 1 Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics Professor Jon Kleppe 21.6 Sw 0.3 A1 A2 0.2 0.4 0. as shown: The final saturation profile thus becomes: Balancing of areas 1 0.7 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.10 .2 0.TPG4150 Reservoir Recovery Techniques 2010 Hand-out note 4: Buckley-Leverett Analysis 5/9 saturation discontinuity at x f and balancing of the areas ahead of the front and below the curve.3 0.5 0.2 0.9 0.1 0.8 0.9 1 Final water saturation profile 1 0.1 0 0 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.1 0 0 0.09.2 0.6 Sw 0.4 0.9 0.

4 0.3 0.4 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.1 fw Sw 0 0 0. the oil recovery factor may be computed as RF = Sw − Swir 1− Swir The water-cut at water break-through is WCR = f wf (in reservoir units) q wS 1 we may derive f wS = 1− f w Bw q wS + qoS 1+ f w Bo Since qS = qR /B.1 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.TPG4150 Reservoir Recovery Techniques 2010 Hand-out note 4: Buckley-Leverett Analysis 6/9 The determination of the water saturation at the front is shown graphically in the figure below: Determination of saturation at the front 1 0.5 0.3 0.10 .8 0.2 0.09.4 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.9 1 Water saturation At time of water break-through.6 0.7 0. and f wS = or Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics Professor Jon Kleppe 21.6 0.3 0.2 0.9 1 Water saturation The average saturation behind the fluid front is determined by the intersection between the tangent line and f w = 1 : Determination of the average saturation behind the front 1 0.1 f wf fw Swf 0 0 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.9 0.

we again apply the frontal advance equation: x Sw = qt df w ( )S Aφ dSw w At any water saturation. Sw .09.8 0.8 0.6 fw 0.6 Sw 0.TPG4150 Reservoir Recovery Techniques 2010 Hand-out note 4: Buckley-Leverett Analysis 7/9 WCS = 1 1− f w Bw 1+ f w Bo (in surface units) For the determination of recovery and water-cut after break-through.10 .5 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.1 0 0 0.9 1 Water saturation Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics Professor Jon Kleppe 21.1 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.4 0. we may draw a tangent to the f w − curve in order to determine saturations and corresponding water fraction flowing.3 0.5 Sw 0.9 0. Determining recovery after break-through 1 0.

8 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.6 0. ie.TPG4150 Reservoir Recovery Techniques 2010 Hand-out note 4: Buckley-Leverett Analysis 8/9 The effect of mobility ratio on the fractional flow curve The efficiency of a water flood depends greatly on the mobility ratio of the displacing fluid to k k the displaced fluid.2 0.9 1 Effect of gravity on fractional flow curve In a non-horizontal system.1 0 0 0.2 0.1 0. The lower this ratio.1 0 0 0.2 0. In addition to the two curves.2 0.9 1 Effect of capillary pressure on fractional flow curve Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics Professor Jon Kleppe 21.5 0.6 0.3 0. Effect of mobility ratio on fractional flow 1 0.3 0.5 Sw 0.7 0.6 Low oil viscosity High oil viscosity Piston displacement Fw 0.8 0.4 0.3 0. the more efficient displacement.7 0. Effect of gravity on fractional flow 1 0.8 0. Typical fractional flow curves for high and low oil viscosities. rw / ro . Typical curves for horizontal and vertical flow are shown below.9 0. Ulimate recovery efficiency is obtained if the ratio is so low that the fractional flow curve has no inflection point. are shown in the figure below. an extreme curve for perfect displacement efficiency. so-called piston-like displacement. no S-shape.5 0.4 0.6 Fw Horizontal flow Vertical flow 0.10 .4 0.09. and the curve µw µo is shifted right.5 Sw 0.3 0. with water injection at the bottom and production at the top.7 0. is included.8 0. and thus high or low mobility ratios.9 0. gravity forces will contribute to a higher recovery efficiency.

in addition to a less favorable fractional flow curve. the dispersion will also lead to an earlier water break-through at the production well. capillary pressure will contribute to a higher f w (since ⎞ kk ro A ⎛ ∂Pcow − Δρgsin α ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ qµo ⎝ ∂x . If capillary pressure is included in the analysis. kro µw 1+ µo k rw Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics Professor Jon Kleppe 21. and thus to a less efficient ∂x displacement.10 . this argument alone is not really valid.09. However. since capillary dispersion (ie. imbibition) will take place at the front. such a front will not exist. since the Buckley-Leverett solution assumes a discontinuous water-oil displacement front. Thus.TPG4150 Reservoir Recovery Techniques 2010 Hand-out note 4: Buckley-Leverett Analysis 9/9 As may be observed from the fractional flow expression 1+ fw = ∂Pcow > 0 ).

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