You are on page 1of 20

1

Research Method
Quiz No.1 from 1 to 12 lectures
Repeated Mcqs ignore
According to Empiricism, which of the following is the ultimate source of all our concepts and knowledge?
1. Select correct option:
Perceptions
Theory
Sensory experience
Logics and arguments

The organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most general indicates is:
2. Select correct option:
One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
The degree of abstraction
An operational definition

The facts that should be collected to measure a variable, depend upon the
3. Select correct option:
Conceptual understanding
Dictionary meaning
Operational definition
All of the above

Which of the following is not a concept?


4. Select correct option:
Leadership
Total Quality Management
Human Resource Management
IQ

Which one of the following is not an assumption of science?


5. Select correct option:
There are reoccurring patterns in the world.
Events happen because of preceding causes.
We can discover solutions to problems of interest.
Theoretical explanations must agree with common sense.

What research is?


6. Select correct option:
A lab experiment
A report
A systematic Enquiry
A procedure

The independent variable is;


7. Select correct option:
The variable manipulated in order to observe its effects
The variable that is measured
The free spirited variable
A confounding variable

Which of the following steps of the scientific method is exemplified by the researcher reviewing the literature and focusing on a
specific problem that has yet to be resolved?
8. Select correct option:
Identify a topic.
2
Describe the procedures to collect information.
Analyze the collected information.
State the results of the data analysis.

To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------


9. Select correct option:
Tradition
Inductive logic
Deductive logic
The scientific method

A variable is:
10. Select correct option:
Any characteristic of interest that can take on more than one value
Defined as the groups manipulated in experimental research
The complete set of scores we use in statistical analysis
Completely specified only in observational research

When we say that science is parsimonious, we mean that:


11. Select correct option:
Scientific theories are based on laws.
We must be careful because causes can occur after specific effects.
The best scientific theories are those that offer the simplest explanations for a law.
Science accurately describes a wide range of behavior.

If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their merit and worth, he is likely conducting
which type of research?
12. Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Experimental

To say that a theory is falsifiable is to say that;


13. Select correct option:
It is based on results that are not replicable.
Investigators have replaced it with a simpler or more accurate theory.
We can imagine results that would contradict it.
It is so vague that it fits any and all possible results.

The following journal article would be an example of _____ research; "The benefits of
florescent lighting on production in a factory setting."
14. Select correct option:
Applied
Interview
Basic
Stupid

Which of the following is not a function of clearly identified research questions?


15. Select correct option:
They guide your literature search.
They keep you focused throughout the data collection period.
They make the scope of your research as wide as possible.
They are linked together to help you construct a coherent argument.

Which of the following statements is false?


16. Select correct option:
Discrete variables allow measurement of an infinite number of fractions of units of measurement.
3
Discrete variables can only have whole number values.
Continuous numbers can only have whole number values.
Continuous measures do not allow for scores that fall between two number values.

In the statement 'an examination of the effects of discretionary behaviour on employee performance' employee performance is
the:
17. Select correct option:
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Extraneous variable
Causal variable

Which of the following is most beneficial to read in an article?


18. Select correct option:
Methods
Introduction
Figures
References

A concept is a generalized idea about------ .


19. Select correct option:
A class of objects
Attributes
Occurrences
All of the given options

Which of the following statements is true?


20. Select correct option:
All concepts are variables and all variables are concepts
All variables are concepts but all concepts are not variable
All concepts are variable but all variables are not concepts
None of the above

Hypothesis refers to ________:


21. Select correct option:
The outcome of an experiment
A conclusion drawn from an experiment
A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
A tentative statement about the relationship

A one tailed hypothesis predicts-----------


22. Select correct option:
The future
The lottery result
The frequency of the effect
The direction of the effect

Which of the following is the best hypothesis statement to address the research question,
"What impact will the new advertising campaign have on use of Brand B?"
23. Select correct option:
The new advertising campaign will impact Brand B usage.
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B trial.
The new advertising campaign will cause increased Brand B usage at the expense of
Brand C.
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B's market penetration.

The scientific method is preferred over other ways of knowing because it is more;
24. Select correct option:
4
Reliable
Systematic
Accurate
All of the given options

If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple intelligences" of his students, he is
likely to be conducting which type of research?
25. Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory

Qualitative and Quantitative Research are the classifications of research on the basis of
26. Select correct option:
Use of the research
Time dimension
Techniques used
Purpose of the research

Under which of the following research method is not applicable?


27. Select correct option:
Health care
Business
Government offices
Imaginary worlds

Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a concept?


28. Select correct option:
Unambiguous meanings
Vague meanings
Clear meanings
Dictionary meanings

Which of the following is a concept?


29. Select correct option:
Leadership.
Total Quality Management.
Human Resource Management.
All of the given options

Why, as scientists, do we not want to rely on authority for explanations?


30. Select correct option:
Those in authority are often wrong.
Those in authority cannot be challenged.
Those in authority rely too much on objective information.
Those in authority often have no common sense.

The ________ is only useful if the concepts, ideas, questions, etc. to be investigated are
both testable and falsifiable.
31. Select correct option:
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experimental Method
Scientific Method

An operational definition is:


5
32. Select correct option:
One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.
One that refers to opera singers and their work.

_________ meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurements.


33. Select correct option:
Unambiguous
Vague
Clear
Dictionary

Why do you need to review the existing literature?


34. Select correct option:
To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of references
Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count
To find out what is already known about your area of interest
To help in your general studying

Quantitative researcher's preoccupation with generalization is an attempt to:


35. Select correct option:
Develop the law like findings of the natural sciences.
Boost their chances of publication.
Enhance the internal validity of their research.
Demonstrate the complex techniques of statistical analysis.

Which of the following is not a feature of theoretical framework?


36. Select correct option:
Making an inventory of variables
Specify the direction of relationship
Presenting findings
Making an inventory of propositions

Which of the following is a discrete variable?


37. Select correct option:
Age
Nationality
Test score
Income

In ______________ we collect same type of information from different respondents in different times.
38. Select correct option:
Cohort study
Time series Research
Panel study
Case studies

Which of the following is the least appropriate research problem?


39. Select correct option:
Does studying Latin improve the standardized vocabulary test scores of seventh grade students?
Do drilling fifth grade students with multiplication facts improve their standardized test scores?
What is the relationship between students' math attitudes and math achievement?
Should students have access to controversial novels in school?

Null hypothesis states:


40. Select correct option:
6
Absence of relationship
Existence of relationship
The direction of relationship
Casual relationship

Basic and Applied Research are the classifications of research on the basis of:
41. Select correct option:
Use of the research
Time dimension
Techniques used
Purpose of the research

What is a cross-sectional research?


42. Select correct option:
A study of one particular section of society
A comparison of two or more variables over a long period of time
The collection of data from more than one case at one moment in time
One that is conducted when environment is uncertain

What is the variable called that a researcher manipulates in an experiment?


43. Select correct option:
Dependent variable
Independent variable
Extraneous variable
None of the given options

Which of the following is Not a part of research design?


44. Select correct option:
Data collection technique
Tool of data collection
Objectives of the study
Data processing and analysis

Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?


45. Select correct option:
Elaborate the relationship among the variables
Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
Relates the previous studies.

The elaboration of the variables in the theoretical framework addresses which type of qestions?
46. Select correct option:
Why we expect certain relationships to exist
How we expect certain relationships to exist
Both of the given questions
None of the given questions

What is the first step in the research process?


47. Select correct option:
Preliminary data collection
Problem definition
Theoretical framework
Define broad problem area

Which of the following is an example of value-free research?


48. Select correct option:
Conscious favor
7
Sympathy for the loser
Unstructured interviewing
None of the given options

Ms. Roshi has been coordinating the Annual Festival at her school for the last several years. She wants to be sure the students
and parents enjoy the festival again this year. On which source is she LEAST likely to rely when making decisions about what
to do?
49. Select correct option:
Tradition
Personal experience
Research
Expert opinion

Which of the following is NOT a legitimate research problem as stated?


50. Select correct option:
What is the relationship between the number of books children read and their reading scores?
Should competitive games be banned from elementary schools?
What does it mean to be a special needs child "included" in Ms. Amara’s fourth grade class?
What are the major legal principles applied to educational cases decided by the Supreme Court?

What is the basis of the Scientific Method?


51. Select correct option:
To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

What is the final step of a scientific investigation?


52. Select correct option:
Analyze data
Collect data
Report the findings
Determine whether the hypothesis was supported

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good research topic?


53. Select correct option:
It is ethical.
It can be investigated through the collection and analysis of data.
It focuses on a philosophical or ethical issue.
It is theoretically or practically significant.

A literature review requires;


54. Select correct option:
planning
clear writing
good writing
All of the given option

A Literature review that summarizes what is known at a point in time is known as:
55. Select correct option:
Narrative literature review
Systematic literature review
Integrative review
Historical review

The following journal article would be an example of _______ research; "The benefits of florescent lighting on production in a
factory setting."
56. Select correct option:
8
Applied
Interview
Basic
Stupid

The study of research methods provides you with the knowledge and skills you need
57. Select correct option:
To solve the problem
To improve the decision-making process
To understand the research of others
All of the given options

Which of the following true about the relationship between theory building and data collection?
58. Select correct option:
When studies come out as expected, inductive support for the theory is gained.
If an experiment fails, discarding the experiment is an example of affirming the consequent.
When a hypothesis is not supported, virtually nothing has been learned about the theory.
A good theory will be inclusive enough to explain every possible research outcome.

The operational definition is also known as


59. Select correct option:
Working definition
Nominal definition
Conceptual definition
Dictionary definition

A theory is a coherent set of ________ used as principles of explanations of the apparent relationship of certain observed
phenomena.
60. Select correct option:
Disciplines
Propositions
Empirical Realities
None of the given options

Which of the following is included in research proposal?


61. Select correct option:
Data analysis
Results
Literature review
Conclusions section

Research questions are crucial because they will:


62. Select correct option:
Guide your decisions about what data to collect and from where.
Help you decide which research area interests you.
Ensure that your findings have external validity.
Prevent you from thinking about research strategies.

The application of the scientific method to the study of business problems is called;
63. Select correct option:
Inductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
Business research
Grounded theory

What is a relationship between the literature survey and the theoretical framework?
64. Select correct option:
Provides a solid foundation for developing the latter
9
Literature survey helps in the identification of the relevant variables
The theoretical framework explains the theory underlying these relations
All of the gven options

According to scientific method, which of the following is Not an empirical reality?


65. Select correct option:
Emotions
God’s reward for good deeds
Satisfaction
None of the given options

After a researcher has stated the specific problem to be studied in an experiment, he must then develop a(n):
66. Select correct option:
Theory
Conclusion
Hypothesis
Summary of the data

“The extensive use of chocolate causes pimples”. The given hypothesis is a (an):
67. Select correct option:
Descriptive hypothesis
Explanatory hypothesis
Non-Directional hypothesis
Co-relational hypothesis

The purpose of a literature review is to:


68. Select correct option:
Help you find out what is already known about this area.
Identify any inconsistencies or gaps in the literature.
Demonstrate an awareness of the theoretical context in which the current study can be located.
Find what is already known, identify gaps demonstrate awareness.

Theoretical framework is trying to develop a ________ model of our study.


69. Select correct option:
Functional
Conceptual
Operational
Practical

Descriptive and Explanatory Research are the classifications of research on the basis of:
70. Select correct option:
Use of the research
Time dimension
Techniques used
Purpose of the research

“High productivity is positively associated with Job commitment”. The given hypothesis is a (an):
71. Select correct option:
Descriptive hypothesis
Explanatory hypothesis
Non-Directional hypothesis
Co-relational hypothesis

Which of following statement is true?


72. Select correct option:
Theory and Research are dichotomous
Theory and Research are interrelated
There is no difference between Theory and Research
10
None of the given statements is true

What type of process research is?


73. Select correct option:
A process to discover the truth
A process to invent the machines
A process to make new medicines
A process to create theories

The most critical areas of an article to read is;


74. Select correct option:
Results section
Introduction
Abstract
Limitations

Which of the following is the BEST hypothesis?


75. Select correct option:
Students taking formative quizzes will perform better on chapter exams than students not taking these quizzes.
Taller students will have higher test scores than shorter students.
Students taught in a cooperative group setting should do better than students in a traditional class.
Students using laptops will do well.

Rationalism is the application of:


76. Select correct option:
Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning
Previous findings

Before a researcher specified the relationship among variables, he must have a (an):
77. Select correct option:
Inventory of variables
Inventory of propositions
Arrangement of propositions
Schematic diagram

A good qualitative problem statement:


78. Select correct option:
Defines the independent and dependent variables
Conveys a sense of emerging design
Specifies a research hypothesis to be tested
Specifies the relationship between variables that the researcher expects to find.

The term “Extrapolation” is better explained by the statement:


79. Select correct option:
Facts lead to the rejection of theory
Identification of the gap in knowledge
Theory predicts facts
None of the given options

Which of the following can Not be a part of preliminary data collection?


80. Select correct option:
Review of literature
Focus group discussion
Making research question
Seek out the informants
11
A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an area is rarely published but it often is part of an educational program is
which type of review?
81. Select correct option:
Integrative reviews
Theoretical reviews
Self-study reviews
Historical reviews

The most difficult sources to locate are;


82. Select correct option:
Dissertations
Policy Reports and Presented Papers
Government Documents
Scholarly Books

Preliminary Data Collection may be considered as part of ----------------.


83. Select correct option:
Descriptive research
Explananory research
Exploratory research
All of the given options

In _________ definition, a concept is explained in terms of other concepts.


84. Select correct option:
Operational definition
Working definition
Theoretical definition
None of the given options

"What impact will the new advertising campaign have on use of Brand B?"
85. Select correct option:
The new advertising campaign will impact Brand B usage.
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B trial.
The new advertising campaign will cause increased Brand B usage at the expense of Brand C.
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B's market penetration.

What is the reason for consulting handbooks, yearbooks, encyclopedias, or reviews in the initial stages of identifying a research
topic?
86. Select correct option:
They are readily available.
They provide an overview of the issues related to a topic.
They are primary sources.
They avoid reporting statistical data so one can interpret the results more easily.

Which of the following should not be a consideration in writing a proposal?


87. Select correct option:
Understanding the problem situation
The appearance/form of the proposal
Responding to every element exactly as specified by the client
Knowing as much as possible about the proposal recipients

Which of the following is Not included in the Introduction section of a Research proposal?
88. Select correct option:
Background of the study
Objectives
Sampling technique
Significance
12
Hypothesis refers to __________:
89. Select correct option:
The outcome of an experiment
A conclusion drawn from an experiment
A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
A tentative statement about the relationship

After you locate a source, you should write down all details of the reference, except;
90. Select correct option:
Full names of the authors
Titles
Volumes
Price

All of the following are true about theories, except;


91. Select correct option:
They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.
They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under study.
They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of deduction.

“Skepticism” is a norm of science. It is better explained by which of the following statement?


92. Select correct option:
Combining the previous knowledge
Critical reading of the previous researches
Providing the proper references of qouted text
Locating research reports in libraries

Which of the following provides a solid basis foundation for the theoretical framework?
93. Select correct option:
Survey
Literature Review
Experiment
Referencing

Solved 40 MCQS
Question # 1
The following journal article would be an example of florescent lighting on production in a factory
setting."
94. Select correct option:
Applied
Interview
Basic
Stupid
Question # 2
Which of the following is a concept?
95. Select correct option:
Leadership.
Total Quality Management.
Human Resource Management.
All of the given options

Question # 3
After you locate a source, you should write down all details of the reference, except;
96. Select correct option:
13
Full names of the authors
Titles
Volumes
Price

Question # 4
The scientific method is preferred over other ways of knowing because it is more;
97. Select correct option:
Reliable
Systematic
Accurate
Allof the given options

research; "The benefits of


Question # 5
Quantitative researcher's preoccupation with generalization is an attempt to:
98. Select correct option:
Develop the law like findingsof the naturalsciences.
Boost their chances of publication.
Enhance the internal validity of their research.
Demonstrate the complex techniques of statistical analysis.

Question # 6
What is the basis of the Scientific Method?
99. Select correct option:
To test hypotheses in conditions that are condusive to its success.
To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that
challenge the hypothesis.
To test hypotheses and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.
Reference & Explanation:
The principles and empirical processes of discovery and demonstration considered characteristic of or
necessary for scientific investigation, generally involving the observation of phenomena, the
formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena, experimentation to demonstrate the truth or
falseness of the hypothesis, and a conclusion that validates or modifies the hypothesis.

Question # 7
Which of the following is not a concept?
100. Select correct option:
Leadership
Total Quality Management
Human Resource Management
IQ
Explanation:
Concepts are the building blocks of theory, each of which represents a label given to a common
element of the social world. IQ is a measure of the concept of intelligence, it is not a concept in itself.

Question # 8
Which of the following is the best hypothesis statement to address the research question, "What
impact will the new advertising campaign have on use of Brand B?"
101. Select correct option:
The new advertisingcampaign willimpact Brand B usage.
The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B trial.
The new advertising campaign will cause increased Brand B usage at the expense of Brand C. The
new advertising campaign will increase Brand B's market penetration.

Question # 9
14
Which one of the following is not an assumption of science?
102. Select correct option:
There are reoccurring patterns in the world.
Events happen because of preceding causes.
We can discover solutionstoproblemsof interest.
Theoretical explanations must agree with common sense.

Question # 10
A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an area is rarely published but it often is part of an
educational program is which type of review?
103. Select correct option:
Integrative reviews
Theoretical reviews
Self-studyreviews
Historical reviews
Reference & Explanation:
Page # 26, Lecture # 08
Self-study reviews increase the reader’s confidence. A review that only demonstrates familiarity with
an area is rarely published but it often is part of an educational program. In addition to giving others
confidence in a reviewer’s command of field, it has the side benefit of building the reviewer’s self
confidence.

Question # 11
A literature review requires;
104. Select correct option:
planning
clear writing
good writing
Allof the given option
Reference & Explanation:
Page # 29, Lecture # 9
A literature review requires planning and good, clear writing, which requires lot of rewriting.
Keep your purposes in mind when you write, and communicate clearly and effectively.

Question # 12
The facts that should be collected to measure a variable, depend upon the
105. Select correct option:
Conceptual understanding
Dictionary meaning
Operational definition
Allof the above

Question # 13
Which of the following is the BEST hypothesis?
106. Select correct option:
Students taking formative quizzes will perform better on chapter exams than students not taking
these quizzes.
Taller students will have higher test scores than shorter students.
Studentstaught in acooperative group setting should dobetter than studentsin a
traditionalclass.
Students using laptops will do well.
Explanation:
The second alternative meets the four criteria; all other alternatives do not.

Question # 14
What is an hypothesis?
107. Select correct option:
15
A prediction of arelationship between certain variables.
An experiment that tests certain predictions.
An independent variable.
A dependent variable.

Question # 15
An operational definition is:
108. Select correct option:
One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
A definition of aconcept in termsof specific,empirical measures.
One that refers to opera singers and their work.
Reference & Explanation:
Page # 18, Lecture # 5
Operational definition is also called a working definition stated in terms of specific testing or
measurement criteria. The concepts must have empirical referents (i.e. we must be able to count,
measure, or in some other way gather thee information through our senses).

Question # 16
What research is?
109. Select correct option:
A lab experiment
A report
A systematic Enquiry
A procedure
Reference & Explanation:
http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_leedy_practical_8/0,9599,1569572-,00.html Research is the systematic
process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of the phenomenon
under study. It is the function of the researcher to contribute to the understanding of the
phenomenon and to communicate that understanding to others. This chapter explains what research
is and what it is not. Eight characteristics of research are presented. The process of research as a
helical cycle is discussed.

Question # 17
If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their merit
and worth, he is likely conducting which type of research?
110. Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Experimental

Question # 18
In the statement 'an examination of the effects of discretionary behaviour on employee
performance' employee performance is the:
111. Select correct option:
Independent variable
Dependentvariable
Extraneousvariable
Causal variable
Explanation:
The dependent variable is the variable that we are looking to explain, hence in this case it is
employee performance. Discretionary behaviour is the independent variable which is to be
manipulated so as to assess its causal relationship with employee behaviour.
http://vustudents.ning.com5
Question # 19
The most difficult sources to locate are;
16
112. Select correct option:
Dissertations
PolicyReportsand Presented Papers
Government Documents
Scholarly Books
Reference & Explanation:
Page # 28, Lecture # 9
Policy Reports and Presented Papers. The most difficult sources to locate are policy reports and presented
papers. They are listed in some bibliographies of published studies; some are listed in the abstracts or indexes.

Question # 20
A concept is a generalized idea about---- .
113. Select correct option:
A class of objects
Attributes
Occurrences
Allof the given options
Reference & Explanation:
Page # 16, Lecture # 5
A concept is a generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes that
has been given a name. In other words a concept is an idea expressed as a symbol or in words.

Question # 21
What is the reason for consulting handbooks, yearbooks, encyclopedias, or reviews in the
initial stages of identifying a research topic?
114. Select correct option:
They are readily available.
Theyprovide an overview of the issuesrelated toa topic.
They are primary sources.
They avoid reporting statistical data so one can interpret the results more easily.
Explanation:
The sources mentioned in this question are all secondary sources, and secondary sources provide
overviews of the topics being investigated.

Question # 22
What is opposite of a variable?
115. Select correct option:
A constant
An extraneous variable
A dependent variable
A data set

Question # 23
Qualitative and Quantitative Research are the classifications of research on the basis of
116. Select correct option:
Use of the research
Time dimension
Techniques used
Purpose of the research
Reference & explanation:
Page # 46, lecture # 15
One difference between the two styles involves timing.

Question # 24
The organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most general
indicates is:
117. Select correct option:
17
One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
The degree of abstraction
An operational definition
Reference & Explanation:
Page # 16, Lecture # 05
The organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most
general indicates the degree of abstraction.

Question # 25
The most critical areas of an article to read is;
118. Select correct option:
Resultssection
Introduction
Abstract
Limitations

Question # 26
Meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurements.
119. Select correct option:
Unambiguous
Vague
Clear
Dictionary
Reference & Explanation:
Page # 17, Lecture # 05
Vague meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurement.

Question # 27
Rationalism is the application of:
120. Select correct option:
Research solution
Logic and arguments
Reasoning
Previous findings

Question # 28
Why do you need to review the existing literature?
121. Select correct option:
To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of references
Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count
Tofind out what isalreadyknown about your areaof interest
To help in your general studying

Question # 29
The application of the scientific method to the study of business problems is called;
122. Select correct option:
Inductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
Businessresearch
Grounded theory

Question # 30
An operational definition is:
123. Select correct option:
One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
18
A definition of aconcept in termsof specific,empirical measures.
One that refers to opera singers and their work.

Question # 31
Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a concept?
124. Select correct option:
Unambiguous meanings
Vague meanings
Clear meanings
Dictionary meanings
Reference & Explanation:
Page # 17, Lecture # 05
Vague meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurement.

Question # 32
Which of the following is a discrete variable?
125. Select correct option:
Age
Nationality
Test score
Income
Explanation:
A discrete variable is one that cannot take on all values within the limits of the variable. For
example, responses to a five-point rating scale can only take on the values 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The
variable cannot have the value 1.7. A variable such as a person's height can take on any value.
Variables that can take on any value and therefore are not discrete are called continuous.

Question # 33
Which of the following is a discrete variable?
126. Select correct option:
height
age
miles per gallon
number of children
Explanation:
A discrete variable is one that cannot take on all values within the limits of the variable. For
example, responses to a five-point rating scale can only take on the values 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The
variable cannot have the value 1.7. A variable such as a person's height can take on any value.
Variables that can take on any value and therefore are not discrete are called continuous.

Question # 34
According to Empiricism, which of the following is the ultimate source of all our concepts and
knowledge?
127. Select correct option:
Perceptions
Theory
Sensoryexperience
Logics and arguments
Reference & Explanation:
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rationalism-empiricism/
The dispute between rationalism and empiricism concerns the extent to which we are dependent
upon sense experience in our effort to gain knowledge. Rationalists claim that there are
significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense
experience. Empiricists claim that sense experience is the ultimate source of all our concepts and
knowledge.

Question # 35
19
If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple
intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be conducting which type of research?
128. Select correct option:
Basic
Applied
Evaluation
Grounded theory
Explanation:
The theory of multiple intelligences is fairly well established, and this researcher is trying to
understand how to use this theory in the classroom. In addition, there is no assessment of merit
or worth to suggest this could be evaluation research, nor is there any sense that the researcher is
conducting the research to solve a local, isolated problem.

Question # 36
Under which of the following research method is not applicable?
129. Select correct option:
Health care
Business
Government offices
Imaginaryworlds

Question # 37
Which of the following statements is false?
130. Select correct option:
Discrete variables allow measurement of an infinite number of fractions of units of measurement.
Discrete variablescan onlyhave whole number values.
Continuous numbers can only have whole number values.
Continuous measures do not allow for scores that fall between two number values.

Reference & Explanation:


http://www.uk.sagepub.com/breakwell/downloads/mcq/mcq_03/mcq_03.htm
Page # 19, Lecture 06
Any variable that has a limited number of distinct values and which cannot be divided into
fractions, is a discontinuous variable. Such a variable is also called as categorical variable or
classificatory variable, or discrete variable. Some variables have only two values, reflecting the
presence or absence of a property: employed-unemployed or male-female have two values.
These variables are referred to as dichotomous. There are others that can take added categories
such as the demographic variables of race, religion. All such variables that produce data that fit
into categories are said to be discrete/categorical/classificatory, since only certain values are
possible. An automotive variable, for example, where “Chevrolet” is assigned a 5 and “Honda”
is assigned a 6, provides no option for a 5.5 (i.e. the values cannot be divided into fractions).
Question # 38
To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of----------------------
131. Select correct option:
Tradition
Inductive logic
Deductive logic
The scientific method

Question # 39
Which of the following is most beneficial to read in an article?
132. Select correct option:
Methods
Introduction
Figures
References
20
Question # 40
Which of the following is not a function of clearly identified research questions?
133. Select correct option:
They guide your literature search.
They keep you focused throughout the data collection period.
Theymake the scope of your research aswide aspossible.
They are linked together to help you construct a coherent argument.
Reference & Explanation:
http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch03/?view=Standard
It is important to formulate some clear research questions from the outset of your project,
because completely open-ended research can lead to the collection of too much data and a lack of
focus for the analysis. If you decide on some fairly specific research questions before designing
your project, it will help to guide your literature search, data collection and analysis, as well as
form a coherent argument throughout your dissertation