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For its dimensions. A DICTIONARY MUSICAL TERMS BY OF J." The Scotsman.NOVELLO'S MUSIC PRIMERS AND EDUCATIONAL SERIES. Shilling." British Mail. It is particularly copious in German terms." Illustrated London News. or rather compression. Stainer and Barrett's well-known Dictionary of Musical Terms." The Musical Time* London: NOVELL^ *NP COMPANY. ' issue of this abridgment of Messrs. OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. which are now becoming of nearly as much use as the Italian. Its pages are crowded with succinct definitions of musical terminology. BARRETT. Stainer and Barrett's dictionarj happy thought. Ross. who has performed the task of reducing it to the slim dimensions of its primer' form. Paper Boards." Graphic. . M. Limited- .) 1s. an embarras des richesses as part of a book of reference for words in common use. the compression having been judiciously made by Mr. this little book is unquestionably the best dictionary ol musical terms in our language. "Of even more general utility is 'Musical Terms. useful to those by whom the original is inaccessible. The little book is the best shilling's worth in all musical literature. " The musical learner will find much useful information on the principles ol music and on many technicalities of the art only to be found in high-priced productions. M. which should be in every amateur s library. " In its condensed form the work contains a mass of information which is rarely to be met with in books of the class."— Daily Telegraph. 6d. of Messrs. and Mr. K. M." " Perthshire Advertiser. if not superfluous in themselves. Novello's series of 'Music Primers' in the shape of an abridgment.' reference this little volume should be on the table musician. K. One A. this excellent book of reference." No "An important addition is made to Messrs. ROSS. STAINER & W. (Compressed from the Imperial 8vo Edition by K.' Many amateurs cannot well afford the price of the complete work.. No other work of the kind "The was a decidedly ' conveys so much accurate information within the same compass. if any. As a dictionary or shelf of of every " Most of the special information contained in the large volume has been reproduced in this shilling pamphlet.' That work has ranked as a standard one ever since its publication. careful and judicious abridgment of the larger work. The present issue exactly meets the wants of the many. hardly a word being omitted.. words that the student can wish explained are absent from this little volume. while many others find its varied contents. and will be found Athenaum. Ross. individual with any pretensions to a musical taste should be withont Perth Citizen." " A "A most serviceable abridgment of Stainer and Barrett's well-known Dictionary. Few. has executed the business with evident care and intelligence.


FEB 23 1994 .

.. V..... .. . ... . . 5th Species in Combined Counterpoint 54 CHAPTER VIII. . v CHAPTER Counterpoint from a melodic point of view I. ... . ..CONTENTS. .. ..... . .. 46 CHAPTER The VII...... Combined Counterpoint ....... . 94 ........ . 13 CHAPTER The 2nd and 3rd Species ... .... . . ... Counterpoint from a harmonic point of view ..„ .. .. . 37 CHAPTER The 3rd and 4th Species ....... . .. IV. ... 1 CHAPTER II.. ... Preface .. VI... ..... . . 4 CHAPTER Passing-notes in the 2nd Species. in III...... .. 23 CHAPTER The 2nd and 4th Species ..... Florid and Imitational Counterpoint in three and fuur Pari 6S Appendix .. . ...


and which might be used as supplementary to other works. both in the text and in the examples.. as found in the works of the composers of the Polyphonic period. As Combined and Florid Counterpoint form now such an important feature of examination work. the first three Chapters deal with preliminary matters. in the writer's opinion. endeavoured to follow the excellent recommendations issued by the Council of the Union of Graduates the only difficulty being that in the case of some Canti Fermi in the minor key. or as crotchets at the second half of the bar in the 3rd and 5th Species form such an important feature of Counterpoint. and may not be necessary. which follow mainly the same lines as the modern works on Counterpoint in general use at the present time. better deferred until the student has completed a course of Counterpoint founded on our present tonal system. No attempt is made to deal with Modal Counterpoint. wholly or in part. In the various existing treatises on Counterpoint the greater part of the work is necessarily given up to the exposition of Simple Counterpoint. especially in their misuse of the § chord.PREFACE. feature of this book is the considerable number of worked exercises. With reference to Chapter II. The writer has. including every possible combination and arrangement of the parts in Common time. In studying the effect of the harmonic progressions it is suggested that the pianoforte be freely used. except that the 5th Species is the only species treated in combination with itself. As to its plan. As passing-figures whether used as minims in the 2nd Species. for the student who has a natural instinct for choosing the right harmonies and passing-notes. it is practically impossible to observe strictly the rule that no modulation shall be made before the primary key has been established. it is hoped that the somewhat lengthy Chapter . it is thought that there may be room for a book dealing only with those particular branches of the subject. the writer is well aware that he lays himself open to the charge of regarding the subject too much from the harmonic point of view. No new theory is advanced in these pages. A — — . but he was induced to include this Chapter by observing the feeble harmony so often displayed by students in their contrapuntal work. that subject being.

) Occasional use of a syncopated minim in the 5th Species against another moving part. — The (i. especially with a moving Bass. (ii. convenient to divide passing-notes in the 2nd Species into two classes: the workable and the less workable ones. and the descending Fourth.) A moderate amount of modulation allowed after the : (iii. memorandum issued by the critic's eye. as. is also dealt with in Sections 2 and 10 of the same Chapter. In the Chapter on Florid Counterpoint (Chapter VIII. and £ in any combination Free use of the prepared j? with the 4th or 5th Species. especially when the Canto Fermo moves a 3rd up or down. which present great difficulty in the addition of other moving parts. the student is liable to hamper his work by taking such passing-notes as the ascending and descending Ninth. Sections i and 8) attention is directed to the bad effect often produced by employing two quavers immediately before or after a crotchet that is dissonant with the Canto Fermo at the middle of the bar. on It seems this subject may not be considered superfluous. The fact that the syncopated minim is to be found in the strictest Counterpoint of Palestrina seems to justify its use.) primary key has been established. Other theorists go somewhat further.) following are general observances in this book No restriction as to change of harmony within the bar. and it is hardly likely that the worked is not exercises in this book will pass unscathed the ordeal of the Strict Counterpoint is indeed a thorny subject. notably Dering. English composers of about the same period. in choosing them indiscriminately. also sometimes made use of it.— VI PREFACE. Cherubini mentions this only in combining the 2nd and 4th Species. Although Council of the Union of the Graduates has done much towards standardizing it. The danger of ill-considered dissonances at the last part of the bar. line Bearing in mind this divergence of views. teachers matters of detail as to what is and still differ considerably on permissible. (iv. Against a Canto Fermo in semibreves there is not often occasion to use the uninverted chord of the prepared Seventh. to make his It is desirable that the student be stimulated such exercises sound as musical as possible. and a natural development of the idea seems to be to allow the use of these discords whenever they can be properly prepared and resolved. and to avoid . a tentative has been followed on some matters in the text.

2 bis Rue Vivienne. for permission to print certain Canti Fermi from the Mus. examination papers at those Universities. by Theodore Dubois. Charles Macpherson for several suggestions which he has acted upon. Hubert Parry and Mr. 25. Au Menestrel. With regard to the proper attitude of the student towards well-established rules. a wise remark by the late Sir John Goss to his pupil Sir Frederick Bridge. C. is without doubt the most important contribution to that subject that has appeared for many years. Bridge. seems to be very apposite " I am in favour of your occasionally breaking a rule. after this book was finished. Dr. This work. Two of the exercises are included by the courtesy of Dr. 43. Pearce. C." and are printed by permission of Messrs. when you know how to observe it. and to the Senate of the University of London. publishers and owners of the copyright for all countries.PREFACE. The writer also expresses his thanks to Sir C. the writer observing. B. and " Traite de Counter49. are from his point et de Fugue. 31." The Canti Fermi in exercises Nos. which the writer is permitted to quote. Professors of Music at the Universities of Oxford* and Durham respectively. 33. that a working of them had already appeared in his " Modern Academic Counterpoint. Heugel & Co. The writer's warmest thanks are due to Sir Frederick Bridge for advice freely given on various important matters. Harding) for permitting him to from their print a considerable number of Canti Fermi examination papers. 24. Vll harshnesses arising from the moving parts and crudities of harmony as would be considered bad in any Composition of a contrapuntal nature. Secretary. Paris. . Sir Walter Parratt has since resigned the Professorship. and should be of great value to advanced students. and the writer some help wishes especially to thank the Council of that institution (Hon.." — The writer expresses his thanks to Sir Walter Parratt and Professor J. A. with its erudite and comprehensive treatment of Fugue. his unique knowledge and experience in this subject rendering his opinion particularly authoritative. H. The idea of this to provide tions of book was originally prompted by the desire to students preparing for the examinathe Royal College of Organists. W.


But the majority of Canti Fermi. where all except the Canto Fermo consist of moving parts. extending to the extreme limit of an octave or more in the course of every few bars. the movement may be too strident or disjointed. This is not always possible with parts proceeding in semibreves. without too many of small dimensions. commencing on a low or medium note. The form of a melodic part may be said to be of the nature The curves of a well-written part will of a series of curves. COUNTERPOINT FROM A MELODIC POINT OF VIEW. perhaps. with its continuous crotchet movement. The highest point will then generally be felt to be in the first two or three bars. and is. But whatever form the melodic part takes. the melodic character of each of them should be insisted upon. usually at the 6th or 8th above. so that the climax may not be arrived at too suddenly. and finishes an octave lower. The melodic form of both Canto Fermo and the accompanying counterpoints can be of various forms. the higher ones alternating with lower ones. is particularly liable to fall short in either one or other of these respects. This is the type of melodic part to which the following remarks more particularly apply. and the remainder will take the form of a gradual diminuendo. and from being void of climax. . the most difficult species to write A . The 3rd Species. really well.CHAPTER I. vary in shape. As the melody proceeds the curves may gradually increase in height. There is the Canto Fermo which commences on a rather high note. but in Combined Counterpoint in three or four parts. part may be unmelodic through there being a frequent harping on the same notes within a too limited compass or. gradually ascend until they reach some culminating point. The cardinal feature of contrapuntal writing is that each voice or instrument shall have a good melodic part. In either case the part fails from lack of definite aim. and then recede again towards the note on which they started. no two curves will be exactly alike. on the other hand.

It is not suggested that this is the only possible type of melody. to mention only such well-known examples as the opening major. next time it rises the highest note especially if on the same part of the bar as before will probably be either higher or lower than D. Observe its use in both stanzas of our National Anthem. occur at different points. and the hymn-tunes the "Old Hundredth. not essential in a contrapuntal part." Elgar's " Land of hope and glory. . rises gradually to and then falls. In the above cases the climax is generally towards the end of the melody. This is also the case in connection with larger works. as is desirable. not necessarily exact. on account of the independent movement of the parts. and the themes generally in Tschaikowsky's Pathetic Symphony. Sequential movement.2 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. although they will generally be near to one another. theme from the slow movement of Beethoven's C minor. already referred to For instance " On the in the case of the National Anthem. if a melodic part commencing on F." &c. Melodies of every description have been written on the principle of the culminating high note. however." " Winchester Old. For instance." and a similar passage near the end of the Gloria in the Nunc Dimittis. and the culminating note in the last bar but one. is useful in leading to a climax. but it is probably the most useful one for the student to follow. See. banks of Allan Water." the Austrian National Anthem." " The British Grenadiers. and the exercises in this book are written on that plan. particularly on the same part of the bar. Day by day we magnify Thee. the effect of which is intensified by this note appearing only once in the course of the melody. In the works of the early English Church composers there are occasionally striking effects obtained by reserving an upper note in the Treble for a particular passage towards the end of Several such instances are to be found in the movement. the Toreador's Song from "Carmen" (both parts). each part in a counterpoint exercise has its climax. and Choral Symphonies." " Dundee." Schubert's Serenade. When." " The Lincolnshire Poacher. A repeated return to the same extreme high note should be avoided." " Melcombe. Our public singers know too well the value of the culminating high note. Byrd's Service in the fine effect of the Treble part at the words " Govern them — D — : — D D and lift them up for ever. in the Te Deum. Clay's" I'll sing thee songs of Araby. minor. these climaxes will. this particular position is. for example.

as far the exigencies of the particular species permit.COUNTERPOINT FROM A MELODIC POINT OF VIEW. as r r . Without particular attention to this on the part of the student. in order to test the effect of what has been written. the student must acquire the habit of constantly testing the melodic effect of each separate part. such as a course in ear-training. of course. In the meantime. This should. to be gradually and at last entirely dispensed w ith. If. viewed as a whole. be really singable. it is advisable to take some special means to improve this. as is unfortunately sometimes the case. be regarded as a temporary measure. he has only an indistinct idea of the sounds that he writes. after any addition to it has been made. as in the case of the use of artificial means of assistance by one learning to swim. Whilst imagining the effect of the parts sounding together as he writes the exercise bar by bar. frequent use of the pianoforte during the writing of the exercises is recommended. his Counterpoint will never be of a high order. and to see whether it sounds as w as expected. It 3 is important that each vocal part should.

— CHAPTER II. The firmness of the § chord permits of almost absolute freedom of movement in the Bass. but on certain degrees of the scale notably on the Tonic it can or Dominant. but will not justify a succession of ill-chosen and crude progressions of harmony. . A ^ will never sound amiss with the Bass next moving by 2nd. sound perfectly well. whether in three or in any 1. Weak. on the contrary. COUNTERPOINT FROM A HARMONIC POINT OF VIEW. as being the clearest means of representing the harmonic basis on which the moving Counterpoints may be — — constructed. although the most important consideration should be the melodic flow of the individual parts. —A Bass next | on the Tonic or Dominant rises a 4th or falls a 5th : sounds weak when the * Weak. In Counterpoint. number of parts. and injudicious use of this chord is often the cause of weak harmony. This is not always the case with the fj. The following remarks have reference to the use of the §. and to a less extent on the Supevtonic sound very unsatisfactory if followed by certain leaps in the Bass. The examples in this and in the following Chapter are written in four parts. :q: % & In the key of A minor these two chords. progressions tolerable which would sound bad if the parts moved note against note. it is also desirable that it be constructed on a satisfactory harmonic Melodious flowing parts will make some harmonic basis.

I -o ur — K—T^ — On the Tonic or Dominant. and of avoiding excessive use of the Tonic and Dominant harmonies. or falls Bass next rises a should be nearly always taken. as in the following examples : All good. either of the above movements in the that a § be taken on the Tonic or But with any other movement of the Bass a ^ should be occasionally used as a means of varying the harmony. Weak.COUNTERPOINT FROM A HARMONIC POINT OF VIEW. 2. when the a 4th. For occasional use. :o: i §=£ With recommended '-EL :S: ^ Bass it is Dominant. however. 5th. A § on the Tonic or Dominant also sounds the Bass next rises a 3rd to a % chord : 5 — weak when Weak. a § : 3. as in the following examples W^- . a § will not sound amiss if the 6th is approached and quitted by 2nd upwards. It is particularly effective when the Bass next rises or falls a 2nd.

The § on the other degrees of the major scale presents no particular difficulty as regards the movement of the Bass.— — COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. the harmonic The progression may be strengthened. whether the Canto Fermo is in the Bass or in an upper part. (d) P zz: & IS " £ -"g: =£21 W 6 — DZQI . the following example at (a) consists of the § on the Tonic. with the Bass rising a 4th. 4. With the addition of a moving Bass at (b) and (c) it becomes quite strong. is unwise. At the same time it must be borne in mind that with a moving Counterpoint in the Bass. the placing together of the opening chords of two successive bars does not necessarily to show progression between the bars. by the moving Bass. or even entirely changed. rises — A § on the Supertonic sounds weak when the Bass next : a 4th or falls a 5th. <9- Strong. On the Submediant some students seem to make a practice Such excessive use of this chord of always employing a §. With this movement of the Bass a % should be taken on the Supertonic Weak. the harmonic progression between the bars being as at (d) : (a) Weak. {b) Good (c) Good. or as regards harmonic progression. The foregoing remarks on chord-progression may be taken apply generally. i -Q- W^— &z St 5. especially with a leaping Bass. which is described on page 4 as weak. For instance. as a stronger effect is more often than not produced by employing a § on the Submediant.

{g) Good. Its use is inexpedient in contrapuntal writing against a Canto Fermo of semibreves. . . ancient or modern. {e) Weak. jj A progression which should be particularly avoided is the on the Dominant followed by the ^ on the Subdominant. : introducing the False relation of the Tritone — I Mi Composers progression. But in such examples of its use. J Similarly. — 8- of the Polyphonic period certainly made free use of this So characteristic is it of early Church music that modern composers employ it as a means of imparting ecclesiastical atmosphere to their vocal writing. (/) Good. both of the examples on page 4 admit of possible use. or almost entirely. described as weak on pages 4-6. With the 4th Species in the Bass. properly resolved. or even well. r m2±z: i-» 5) weak harmonic progression also sometimes sounds less objectionable. the weak progression of a § on the Tonic with the Bass rising a 3rd at [e) is strengthened at (/) by the addition of the root in the Bass at the middle of the bar. the Tonic. to A The above examples (a) to (g) all have reference to the on The progressions from the % on the Dominant and Supertonic.COUNTERPOINT FROM A HARMONIC POINT OF VIEW. it will be found that the parts move entirely. Both of these examples are perfectly satisfactory. and by the tied note in the inner part whilst at (g) will be recognized a familiar and effective dissonance. note-against-note. are not likely j| sound well even with a moving Bass in shorter notes. when one of the parts is syncopated.

It is therefore necessary when the Canto Fermo in the Bass descends from the Dominant to the Subdominant to take a § on either one. w^ Or. and especially it rises from the Dominant to the Submediant : As this movement of the Canto often leads to clumsy harmonization. the next chord progression is limited to one of the following The Dominant harmony : C.F. -Sr :g= when when Care should also be taken to avoid the above progression the Canto Fermo is in an upper part. If the Dominant | is used. if jGl. jQ.F. harmony is employed C. u=£tt— the : first inversion of the Dominant Rare.F. -© m ^B^fl 23 6 .— — — — 8 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. or on both of these notes : 122: :g: s -&L —T3C. some consideration. it Fermo in an upper part may be well to give it principal matter to decide is whether or not to use the for the first note.

Bennett— Combined Counterpoint— Novello—B . on account of the limited choice chord-progressions.F. and particular care taken with the movement of the Bass in the next bar or two.F.) To help establish the key or (iii. the following chord progression is also available : C. In such case. such as: (ii. is to take the Tonic harmony instead. But (with the Canto Fermo in an inner part) there : is an increased danger of consecutive 5ths m From the C. but imagine that the difficulty can be always avoided in that way. precedes or follows it. the harmonic limitations already referred to should be borne in mind.) To avoid a preponderance (i. as there may be as likely as not some good reason for employing the Dominant harmony. in addition to the above. J.) On account of what immediately of Tonic harmony The easier course idle to it would be . .F.COUNTERPOINT FROM A HARMONIC POINT OF VIEW. W C. 9 With the Canto Fermo in an inner part. 6. the foregoing remarks this it will be seen that the use of of the Dominant harmony with movement Canto Fermo of may present difficulty.

with this movement of the Canto Fermo. decidedly weak always to use the Subdominant and Tonic harmonies. as in the following examples. if only to avoid monotony. Otherwise. C. however. it is impossible (apart from a conceivable instance with a syncopated Bass) to take the Submediant chord immediately before the cadence. With a moving Bass these consecutive 5ths can certainly be avoided by employing two chords in a bar. when the Canto Fermo in an upper part proceeds in either of the following ways. X-F. for instance. The following are ways in which the first of the above progressions of the Canto Fermo can be harmonized : -Q- _o__ 3E It may. in the key of C : This is a case where with either one or both notes a secondary harmony might well be employed. It is.F. a certain infusion of secondary chords is desirable.— — 10 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. if either of the above progressions be used immediately before the cadence. be well to draw attention to the danger of consecutive 5ths between the Submediant and Dominant chords. . largely Whilst a Counterpoint exercise should be constructed on the stronger harmonies of the key.

practically limited to when the Bass next moves by 2nd up It is somewhat less restricted with a moving or down. — 1 the Supertonic is followed by the Dominant in the on the Supertonic sounds weak. based on the § on the Dominant. The remarks on the use of the $ (pages 4 7) may be also applied to a certain extent to the minor key. with this movement in the Bass. The dissonant i] on the Supertonic being unavailable. to take When Bass. being dissonant. it is generally best.COUNTERPOINT FROM A HARMONIC POINT OF VIEW. KEY. The complete unavailable. 7th of the key it provided that : may be used as the Bass of a be approached and quitted by 2nd downwards . as in the major key. is but in three-part writing an incomplete § is With the Canto Fermo in the Bass its use is possible. Bass. I I THE MINOR harmonic scale. a § an incomplete § : W^: ^ fr° tt I g -O- -te tt« The minor 6 chord.

however. . with the proper leading note. If introduced as part. a transition to the key of the relative major is generally effective and to be recommended. By this means any vagueness of tonality of tonality. an essential note of the chord in an uppei the minor 7th of the key induces a certain vagueness and may even sound like an unsuccessful attempt key of the relative major. The student is recommended not to use it in Combined Counterpoint. as in the Bass. with the exception of the 5-6 on the Supertonic in the 2nd Species. and when used it is advisable to introduce the Dominant harmony. at a modulation to the For this reason is arrested. generally upwards. be approached and downwards : It is also possible to use the ascending major 6th of the minor key as an essential note of the chord. it should not be often used as an essential note in an upper part. The minor quitted by 2nd 7th should. in the course of the next two or three bars. when the Canto Fermo admits of it. It.— COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. which is particularly useful at a cadence. and can seldom be profitably used. presents great difficulty with moving parts. The selection of chords in the minor key being rather limited. as in the following examples. but the primary key should be first established. provided that it be approached and quitted by 2nd.

PASSING-NOTES IN THE 2nd SPECIES. ill-chosen passing-note it may clash against the other parts and produce a dissonance at the last part of the bar which does not admit of satisfactory resolution. the cause being the use of unworkable passing-notes in the 2nd Species part : 4 9 m-TT zz Note example the : ugly progression between the bars in each m=m Albrechtsberger and Cherubini avoided this difficulty by practically discarding the use of passing-notes in the 2nd Species part in the few examples of Combined Counterpoint to be found in their treatises. excluding the less workable ones. The following examples are faulty in that respect. By so doing one of the most salient features of the 2nd Species is lost. .CHAPTER IN III. and the part is reduced to a more or less inelegant series of leaps in every bar. In Combined Counterpoint the 2nd Species requires care If that part has an as to the passing-notes employed. COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. The better plan seems to be to make a selection of those passing-notes which are most adaptable to the addition of other moving parts.

6-5. 3-4. / iffl \Sy progression marked is omitted : (a) can only be taken the 5th. Mf -e- -Q_ ""w^ O —Q. In an upper part the workable passing-figures are at the following intervals above the Bass : 8-7. a 4/th. . THE PASSING The Bass Rising The scales of 8-7. -© Q. . — —— — M COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.fr ^y " . In the Bass the following can be taken in their inverted form : 8-7. or Falling a 5TH. effective use of the 8-7 is with this movement if of The being dissonant. 5-6. following examples show the various degrees of the C major and C minor on which the 8-7 can be taken. ra fr * tt The Bass Rising Dominant This progression is not of in the Bass : a 2nd. ' f°" 1 " 1 <T3 ' 1 ^ J rj 1 n a 1 T P O n 1 ' -**-r> 1 l 1 _ | 1 ' *y ' 1 l("J. great use except with the $ m m ^~ o » iijg u . The most the Bass. and 3-4. ^ Jf L'u f? Im F p r^ ' Vf ' 1 <Z> rj f-j n 1 — r> (*) "P 1 r • 3- te~ T~ri H 1 1 T-P-0-.— . ! eWt* bi (gja.

It I figured 6 in the following examples dissonant. is where the £. The 6-5 is a very useful passing-figure. a 2nd.THE PASSING 6-5.) On the Dominant (see dissonant. -g> :o_ trt- t=t f^ Q =P==^= w (6) rP—^-En n /L i 1 1 -p. It is generally better to take the descending form of the melodic scale. <* 3 « -&- Si B= &6 . 15 THE PASSING The Bass Rising 6-5. as in the following example : £ Ss BE (ii. being The following remarks refer to examples in the minor key at the top of the next page : (i. that interval can form part of either a § or chord. even if it makes a transition to the key of the relative major.) The 6-5 on the Supertonic with the upper notes of the ascending melodic scale moving downwards (see a) sounds crude.*3 1 1— —— T-&-&. the 3rd from the Bass b). Resolved on the interval of the 3rd. cannot be taken._q_: -j 1 ! 1 lm VU •7 t ' F |pS>~^l /~y (w. the complete § being must be omitted. but a % is recommended as generally best.

is perhaps the most useful and passing-figure. At (a) the raised 6th of the minor key must be approached by 2nd. \£^^Z • f* -<s>- rr> Ll_|J -H-^ p <>- ^ Q - — "1 1 — 1 ja. but it is hardly a strong progression on account of the similar motion in 6ths of : m=^ THE PASSING The Bass Falling The 5-6._i] 1 1 oi)\ * C»5 O ' 1 O | The Bass Falling a 3RD. This progression is useful at a cadence : («) T2\ Pllll iifctMf oq is . This treatment of the 6-5 can be taken on any degree the major or minor scale. generally from below.— — H — — 16 («) COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. which might almost be termed the Palestrina by the very important part it plays in that composer's Counterpoint. 5-6a 2nd. effective of all passing-figures.

17 The Bass Risixg a 5TH.THE PASSING 5-6.<=: zpz: g» The Bass Rising a 2\d. and on some degrees of the minor scale. but it is hardly a strong progression. g H-g -I — i- 22=:::p il=ei ^^ 22: 0r6 3 fat.J=tte£5lE . on account of the similar motion in 6ths : j3i m .TH. or Falling a 4. ~^: This treatment of the 5-6 can be taken on nearly every degree of the major scale.

3-4 sounds well whether the 3rd form part of a § or only figured 6 in the following examples where the 5th.— — i8 — t ' — T u n COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. THE PASSING The Bass Falling The of a § chord. a 2nd. cannot be taken. It is 3-4. at (a) has the minor 7th of the minor key This must be approached downwards from the The example in the Bass. other . being dissonant. ^£$E=L 6 6 6 t}6 6 6 t|6 -&-\> —Hi {jp'WJ^ (?):. : Tonic Bass Sat zx (6) ^ggj^ Wp. \> — ' — ~ 6 "1 — 6 _o — ' q=t- rj — r* "^ T ^4 A Q 6 -&— 1-0 Q~8 6 9— 6 A 3-4 is 6 passing not in movement of the Bass recommended with any Combined Counterpoint.

or:: -£2_ O 7?~5 ^ p 1 :a: P o ~ I It is also possible on certain degrees of the scale to resolve a passing 8-7 in the Bass on a § chord. A of the triad. except where there is a dissonant The following examples are intended to show the various movements of the Canto Fermo in an upper part which admit of a passing 7th from the Dominant being taken the Bass. . 19 PASSING-NOTES IN THE BASS. This progression is of far less importance than the resolution on a \ : # a——a $— e @J_J 1 1 1 — n u 1l & 1 —&—rs-A 1 <- £L_. "E^ . or a doubling of the leading-note : Possible.PASSING-NOTES IN THE BASS.4l P* cj rz ^^& . in These examples might be transferred to the other available Here and there a progression would degrees of the scale. The Inverted 8-7. prove impossible on account of the movement of an augmented interval. passing 8-7 in the Bass can be taken on any degree major or minor scale. TZT- JCL- E ft 1- w m T^=^ -Q-s]^.

- —— L 20 combined counterpoint. W • p —6 ^ Q t On I I -O- Occasionally the passing 3-4 is taken at the interval of an 8ve below the Canto Fermo. The Inverted 3-4. fej ?. —Q —f ^j-£*-7 ^ rz> t-O 3BEE tfcr: ^9-TT O^ T ( — 6 — >-T» h _. a 3-4 can be introduced in the Bass. as in the following examples. — . passing the Canto Fermo in an upper part falls a 2nd. The 6th from the Bass will then be represented in the other upper part. the following m W: 6 rZ2T. It When should : the most examples — likely nearly always resolve on a Bass notes are included § in Only chord. as in the following example. by taking the interval of the 6th below the first note of the Canto Fermo. Attention is drawn : to the 7th on the Dominant at the second part of the bar \J J VL> <-J * 'TaV C> [W« 1-2 \J> tJ ! -&—**-fr-jvF 1 6 — The student is recommended not to take a passing 3-4 in the Bass when the Canto Fermo proceeds by leap. The effect is certain to be bad with other moving parts added : I m 6 XX.

It notes remains to be said that the only other possible passing(i. that the is advised to shun them. So seldom can they be used with good effect. gth in an upper and in the Bass .) The Descending 4th in an upper part. In the progressions 5-6 and 6-5 the second minim is sometimes treated after the manner of an Auxiliary note. whether in the Bass or in an upper part.e. -9 iJ A--^ *B (W\« (w« vi^ ^r -i n CJ ^.) The Ascending and Descending part. 4th. 1— r^t &— rj -& 1 r T r> I r i — -o— -1 — ~~ <T2 1 1 e— — 5 6 . THE AUXILIARY NOTE. not really an Auxiliary note. up or down. If this produces the effect of a change of harmony. 2 1 The observant student will have noticed in the course of this Chapter that the most effective passing-notes are taken against the movement of a 2nd. of course. occasionally useful in the combination of the 2nd and 3rd Species. (ii. and their indiscriminate use in a 2nd Species part in Combined Counterpoint is the cause of much ill-sounding Counterpoint. In Combined Counterpoint it is not often that a workable minim passing-note can be taken when the Canto Fermo moves a 3rd.THE AUXILIARY NOTE. The Auxiliary note is of less musical value in a It is 2nd Species part than the true Passing-note. real Passing-notes as distinguished from Auxiliary : notes) not dealt with in this Chapter are (i. These are the less workable passing-notes referred to on page 13. and confine his minim passing-notes to those more workable ones recommended on student page 14. it is.. or 5th in the Canto Pernio.

if approached smoothly 3 chord. generally speaking.— — n COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. in order to resolve the dissonance : \J yu~ <raV (W \^s • . however. with the Bass next rising a 4th or falling a 5th. in the minim part : -7 /. or a Diminished 7th on the Leading-note of the minor key. When the 6-5 is employed in this way on the Tonic or Dominant. NJ> O O A minim that is dissonant with the Canto Fermo should. &w—^—— _o 2F ] —— 1 <"-> « ! 1 -&- M\ m rj (<*j. as the effect is likely to be harsh with another moving part added. not be treated as an Auxiliary note. The following. Canto Fermo in the Treble or inner part fall a 2nd. admits of possible use. the second minim has undoubtedly the effect of establishing a This is a useful progression. ^O — -U P 1 fj |_ ' m . can be introduced by means It is essential that the of an Auxiliary note in the Bass. A 7th on the Dominant.

This method may generally work very well. into Chapter and the following Chapters are divided sections. A preliminary plan might be made as in the following example. When combining the 2nd and 3rd Species it is possible to plan out first the 2nd Species part. and then add the other part. it is advisable to give particular consideration to the middle of the bar. not be overloaded with passing-notes. 2nd AND 3rd SPECIES. that part cannot be left entirely until last. When these parts together form a dissonance at the middle of the bar. nature : — ziz C. In combining minims and crotchets these two parts should there be generally consonant with one another an occasional dissonance is then welcome and effective. the bass part being completed Such plan must be considered of a tentative afterwards. — . . or some portion of it. as at (a) and (b).F. Similar motion can. number than in Simple it is advisable to have a fewer Counterpoint. except that if the 3rd Species part is in the Bass. Generally speaking. S^i 2. Such dissonance should generally be approached in contrary motion.] numbered In Combined Counterpoint a 2nd Species part should i.-3 CHAPTER THE [This IV. In Combined Counterpoint of whatever kind. the part in crotchets should approach it by 2nd.

°^-» -1 h- — •: ((*.^_ P* **— 1 —& — | * ' ***» 14_J —— # | # |_JJ [In the the pavt that has examples the Canto Fermo is ahvays represented by It is not considered a semibreve or semibreves. it. moving parts is in the Bass. change of harmony within the bar. and in similar motion : tH -1-47 ^ ¥-*—-'-3 /„\ v> . as these intervals do not occur in This applies to all similar cases where there is a successive chords. 7. bars 4 5. as at (c) and (d) : one of the (a) (&) (c) ( (d) 1 i -O J n . 12.— ' — =4 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. for instance. if however. 11. — . sometimes be taken without ill-effect. an accented passing-note can sometimes be effectively introduced at that point in the crotchet part. n | An exceptional case is when the crotchet part has changing notes. the case. this change of harmony occurs at the third crotchet of the bar.. generally at the end of the Chapter. as in the following examples: - — Although the stronger effect + + j—r--t— T~ :o: :^ ' 5 3 ' 5 3 5 2 There is no effect of consecutive 8ves and 5ths between the Tenor and Bass in the first of the above examples. it is When. . Exercises No.) necessary to indicate is generally obtained by 3. The two moving parts may then approach a dissonance at the middle of the bar by skip in both parts. — fj .. — * The numbered in Chapters IV. bars 8 9 and No. as is usually permissible occasionally to change it. (See. retaining the same harmony throughout the bar.* bars 6 7 No.) — . — Exercises referred to here and elsewhere will be found VIII.

and with the crotchet part moving by 2nd as at (b). It is recommended that the last note of a in the : figure be quitted by 2nd. should be sparingly used. 25 The bare 4th between the upper parts of a § chord the middle of the bar sounds thin. SPECIES.THE 2ND AND 3RD 4. at — The bareness of the 4th is not chord is in the Bass. Bennett — Combined Counterpoint — Novello— . following example at (a). There is another and more ancient type of Changing note the Nota Cambiata as adopted by Fux from the works employed also by Albrechtsberger of the early composers but rejected by Cherubini. — — — . G. ^z=* m 5. (c) Good. or to fall back on in case of — difficulty : - m W a »g ^^ =F * r=?***H^=f Changing note above examples. J. It is particularly objectionable when approached by similar motion. I ¥ T-d- Jl • 4. as indicated Such skips as the following are ugly fS^ tfaY v£l- -*^ "*<5> <S> 1 O \ —q U p 1 f 1 p^ ^ : 6. particularly motion. the progression is quite tolerable. as at (c) : felt if when approached the 3rd of the in contrary (a> Bad. (b) Better. consisting of a turn round a central note. The conventional Changing note figure. It is sometimes useful at a cadence. as in the If approached in contrary motion.

The following examples show some ways in which 7. ^ — i 1 £5 & r-J Vf»-^ Tt> — rl —— +— rj :: This Changing note figure differs from the conventional turn in that the first three notes are all consonant with the Canto Fermo. Against an objection to its use on account of a certain ambiguity of harmony. The Not a Cambiata has undoubtedly more melodic interest than the conventional turn. it seems possible occasionally to introduce it over a § chord without offence. the 2nd and 3rd Species can be combined. bar 5 and 31. Exercises 29. the passing-notes in the 2nd Species part being limited to those workable ones recommended in — Chapter III. : of these and of the subsequent examples are also available in the minor key Many i rTf :ii£2i — &-. and although the aforesaid theorists made use of it in a way which would be hardly accepted in these days. with the 4th Species. it may be urged that this seems to be a case where the harmonic point of view should give way. : . on account of the excellent melodic effect. i 1 ro: J--4: -QT -?-+ Z± f-r :cz: m H} (i 1 j ZZZ1 ^—ra o> \i 'iff X — T~~ —*— -g— ^Q^S^Z? — ' ~t> 1 . £3 :ri: -«LJ_J_- . The following are suggested ways for its treatment (see also Exercise 5. bar 4) .— 26 — — * — 1 y COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. bar 8 and.

' ^ - - —r -> 13 g I In the last two examples it may be observed that the parts happen to form a passing chord at the second half of the bar. .) *1 1 1 -0- ^ iWi ((*. 8. 27 fk •> — l 1 | <^» id '"J # — <S> I i i 1 -J-J-t^Hr -&I I W -+.- m - -o- 1 -8I <kV (Wj . When the Canto Fermo in an upper part descends a 2nd between certain degrees of the scale. This is frequently the case with a moving Bass.-2 rj 5 rj 6 5 6 <r> 6 6 5 r> 1 7T J &-*-' *y J m e> (O —o « i 1 I ?-3 P * -Q- f m 1 r-j — 1 -i i A r 1 i 1 r~ fr£\' [(•/• N ——«> r o ^ 6 r> 5 6 5 6 5 6 r) \J y r J S J * # ' m m 1 1 T | ! | rj 4 -G>- t i o P i 1 rj « - r r °^ (<-£• ( W J • • A 6 l I rj TJ> --..> -<> ri> "# " | r-S -Gh- (3-4 in Bass. • r -f-r O ^ 1 ° i ' r> *"-> i .THE 2ND AND 3RD n SPECIES. a fundamental discord can be effectively introduced at the last part of — the bar. 5 5 6 3 4 (8-" in Bass.) 1 j? .

rj 1 rv 1 -O- Ar. bars 5 g 8 and 8. It will be observed that the two-bar pattern is not necessarily repeated entire. p© ~j° -?j — 7th. 4rr> — tr " 1 J J J-jn ~ :o L-G> 1 H # • U-Hn • r> ~&— r—<S> <~j £> -s»— 1 m-r —a —k w\ X" rm IsU P — | r 6th. . effect is can often be introduced with good of two notes Canto Fermo when a progression repeated a 2nd or 3rd higher or lower.j-& i Q . — . In the two first examples the parts meet in the middle of the bar at the interval of an 8ve.. bars 2 7 3. bars 4 7 12. . bars 4 5 5.. bars 1 4.O Wj>1 Effective use can be made of scale-passages moving in g. : is both prepared and resolved in the Dom. It — Sequential movement in the is of value in this combination. r> 6—5 10. — — . Dom.-0 f r 1 Dim. gth. Repetition at the interval of a 3rd is perhaps the most useful. In the last example they meet at the interval of a gth. with an accented passing-note in the Bass: — M— T-1 L-L-i- r n -* ' *V~ _£-» -J J J . opposite directions. and examples may be found in Exercises 2. bars 3 4.— — — 1 — — | 28 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. The harmony may be regarded as changing at the middle of the bar. | 7th. 7th. Observe how the dissonance Canto Fermo Dom. — . r -^ —— m J Added \ • m. 1 ' 1 ~~ \~ m * S J 1 — H \ Dim. the contrary motion to and from the dissonance making the effect satisfactory. — — . 7th.

and are nearly all available in the minor key. provided that the sequential character of the passage be sufficiently recognizable. bars 4 8). 29 Sometimes it is convenient to make the crotchets follow an independent line (see Exercise i. as in subsequent chapters. £= 1 — ~~o: -w ^-i zozzz: ^l H )— J—\ m J m /1 1 I g> P 75 n P fi I — e» — — -r -l — —e —m—m»i 3 m — L_ =°^ & <TJ 11 | ^ -0r-i — f-i p-r t= d— J * ^2: IS .THE 2ND AND 3RD SPECIES. — — 11. which may indeed produce the better effect. as in Exercise 10. The student is. The following are some of the many possible forms of cadence. bars 4 8. Occasionally. sequential movement which is not suggested by the movement of the Canto Fermo can be employed in the minim part. also referred to the — cadences at the end of the worked exercises.

) — conjunct movement in both parts. 1914. except for an occasional figure In most of the following and subsequent exercises the Bass is where there might be any question as to the implied harmony. not being direct. and the second 5th consisting of notes harmony. July.. The doubled leading-note is approached and quitted by (ii. I IN BASS. The They seem alternative small notes introduce 5ths between Treble and Alto.O. . A comma slur is — sometimes used — in preference to an extended to give some indication of the phrasing of a part. F. but they are hardly recommended unessential to the prevailing : . The 8ves between Treble and Bass are from Tonic Dominant.) Bars 1-2. in contrary motion.F. gEr^=g=f: -~- ^^^=f=^gi^^=FH^^ C.C. unfigured. to be permissible. (i. Bar 3.— r 30 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. CANTO FERMO Ex. S T*—pr ^B=m 1 — I I S^H=J= ^ to «Hee J=t :g=*z =ff=P= ^==t *= 1^ — Note. The above exercise might also commence in the following way.R. and both unaccented.

dissonant with the minim. l *~ I c ±: . January.C.THE 2ND AND 3RD SPECIES.) Bars 3-4. -r q==ez f- 3 "2^- T=^ Note. *?. (i. in addition to the conjunct movement in both parts.) Bar 6.F. — . Ex. From an Examination Paper. The Canto Fermo does not admit of the key of properly established until near the end. the case in Exercise 1 it forms part of a sequential passage which commences at bar 4.F.. . other note than the 8ve. 1897. —The is skip in the Treble. 3. 3 mm m C. — D minor being F. i*- .R. less objectionable than from a crotchet that is if it had been to any The doubled leading-note has even more to justify it than is (ii. 1^ Note. st ^^m EE±EE-J~E :— *=*=* 3g=^gJfEgJfz^zg: etBMi 3=t± " $ S== =* 1 ^ I —1~ f» --&==& • »^MB P 3E=S= *- I* I * : . as.O. « m C.

Nota Cambiata in Alto (see page 25). 1st Mus.r 32 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. (ii. the second 8ve is covered by the continued contrary motion to the following bar. IN TREBLE. (hi. Moreover.O. Bac. m A. 1915.C. m E=T 4==^ T-y-nrr-P 1 *_ p=F=P= T-g— t^^P =F= s»Tfr— £23 E --=3.F. C.) Bars 1-2. 5. The 8ves between Treble and Bass are by contrary motion and unaccented. January. 1895. Oxford.. 4.) At bar 9 is the "conceivable instance with a syncopated Bass" referred to on page 10 (see paragraph in smaller type).) Bar 8. g p -»-*- E fc£>=*=n 5»=P: * r » m r r J- 3$r^& mm Ex. — .R. £ ^=c 3r=i= :H=g * C- ^=Eg i ^Wrffe^ wlr*2d!3 1 r ^ — ^ ^ fr ^rf HI p^ Note. (i. CANTO FERMO Ex.

p-r-—— 1 -i 1 1 1 Ex. fJfc C. July. & b$ ^=^z iI I LPlI? <= T5 ^3- : • -1 — s? 1—<s>— : u i-stn^ . 1912. p — _ 1 jl y w t>b l — —F-=rv^ -M f P m 4=^=-f-m^ —1— — —— -U-L-U-P. F. 1913. Bac.. b 6. C..4 g=j^=fe ^ 1 1= aL |— r~r gjfe-J r r i J^ w rrtr J ^Uj^4*m . Bac. 8. 1st Mus.C.O. IN INNER PART. SPECIES. Oxford. 1st 33 Mus.THE 2ND AND 3RD Ex. .F. 5 — H6 CANTO FERMO Ex. 7.R.£^£___ — •&- rr r-S> fa r . Durham.F. 1915.

—i— -» 1 —2 — M —<s> — "P -i- - r"=J =q— f** 1 | =t= -H ^f-^ S>— ^=? — H —<s> — 1 w b JlI —m—m V=f-fw H— hsy -ri >-"r*~~f~i J-=t^3=3 — *&^=T L_J -H.-fc-*4—U. — F. Bac. --t- :^- . July.— lty» I /r. 10. 3=u: C. :{Sr==: HE ii iSS Ex. with a more extended compass than in an upper part.^.O .F. m C. 1914. ist Mus. The 3rd Species in the Bass sometimes assumes a more instrumental character.R. is -<=- Ex.4=«= -H--t ~ 1 1 e- Note. ft*^ p^=^ *=t ^^ 5 J— 3t* :~r 7^~ 1ft b . i^= Si» : -i— g^^^Eg^^S^^ .- 1 — 3 — — J H 34 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.a. -M=?=*l HZZMZ mt^^M Oxford. g..C.

C.F. .. 11. 12. p^ffr-rr C.. 1909..R. (ii.O. ^-*~l-* « »~ 3=r£ ^T=*= Ei_= §£^ ISe —J^__ 1 ^^i^ £ - --& p — - Si — 1 ftr^ 4Rrg >Ci. L J_L -fc=d -^ — n — <& — Note.. in Bar — Doubling of the Leading-note with conjunct movement both parts. -J 7. sequential movement is obtained Note.O. 1907. Ex. The skip from a crotchet that minim must be considered a licence.. — in the Treble. ^^^^f^^^^^^ A.THE 2ND AND 3RD fccttz -M~ SPECIES. Ex. -*£ 3 (i. Bars 5-6. I—-r C. January. m^: 5 6 *F=& t=i= f \[" f—^=£= a.) A working of the above exercise is difficult except by employing two chords in nearly every bar. 35 3= j=£=5= f~- &= Note.C.) By changing the harmony in Bar 1. January.R.. — is dissonant with the F.F.» [ «S> 1 (=> .

Ex. tm 'jt2_ |S^=^ M WdH9 *m - ^w=^ -*-t-?- -»—»-- :~?zz IZZl ^=>- ^=P=F g^^Fg3^ =*=g= gm^^ =fifc » ggj S part.F. 191 I 1. Bac. 1st Mus.J 36 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. Durham. a 13.z^--Mz L -i ! — -F C. n n- Bar is with the Bass which 2. B=*== fe ^ Note. — — . The skip from the fourth crotchet which is dissonant is perhaps justified by the particular pattern of the Treble really an ornamentation of three minims B. C. B. • "-:«- tj * |flj* =1 1 --£=?. IN TRIPLE TIME.

7-6. it is convenient to consider that part first. and 6-5 can be accompanied by the passing figures recommended in Chapter III. It may be mentioned as a matter of practical experience.) to avoid : The (ii. to — . 4-3. consisting of a series of awkward skips. The means to this end are 2. with its limited compass. 2nd AND 4th SPECIES. that in cases where an unbroken syncopated part is impossible. and if no better unbroken solution could be found. what extent the Suspensions 9-8. — In any combination with the 4th Species. which he imagines will suffice because the syncopation is unbroken : The monotony of such a Counterpoint. V. .) (iii.37 CHAPTER THE i. the better result will often be obtained by interrupting the syncopation a bar or two earlier than is absolutely necessary. The following remarks and examples will make clear 3. the syncopation should somewhere be interrupted. care must be taken being a disjointed part. its repeated leap to the same upper note never rising as a climax to a higher note is evident. Bass led on In planning out a 4th Species part the student is sometimes by the movement of the Canto Fermo to write such a Counterpoint as the following. — With regard it (i. — — to the 2nd Species part. subject to the condition that the part can never be left entirely until last. and of the \ when the 4th Species is in the Bass.) use of Passing-notes where possible Judicious changes of harmony at the second half of the bar Occasional use of the prepared j? when the 2nd Species is in the Bass.

with the 3-4 in the (For further examples. 5-6.— 33 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. 5-6. ^= 122: 7 7 ^ £ 4 7J3 3 THE SUSPENDED Accompanied by the It is essential that the 5th 7-6. The and the second example the 9-8 in the Bass. and approached from the 2nd below :- g^ zgz^zgpl j j ms -_-J- 22: . use in three parts.) inner part. example has the 3-4 in the Bass at bars 2 and 4. Note the skip from the 6th at the end of the second bar. be perfect. The movement of this interval is free (except that on this particular Bass it happens to be the Leading note). THE SUSPENDED Accompanied by the This is 9-8. see Exercises 19 and 20. it being consonant with the Bass not of : much --TZL -£ :g£ 3 ^ Accompanied by the first 3-4. the absence of the 3rd of the chord making the progression sound thin.

-larsh. (See also Exercise 16. and should be seldom used. and it leads in the following bar to the sounding of the root of the chord against its gth.. the progression can only be taken with the Canto Fermo next falling a 2nd. see Exercise inversions of this progression are given at (c) and (d). bars 6 and 12. As the % at (c) happens to resolve on a diminished triad. see Exercise 18.• d A % 7 s. rise a 2nd. 3-4. & fj | l—o i tfiV ((*. 5 2 6 7 6 4 7 6 3 3 6 5 5 6 4 6 2 — — The progressions at with excellent effect : (c) and (rf) can be continued in sequence W all practical -&—&-! h- I§?=£± In the above examples the chords figured ^ and \ may be regarded for purposes as inversions of the prepared chord of the 7th. 39 Accompanied by the The It ? § (see 3 4 is really the first inversion of previous page). The Treble instead rises a 4th. At at (b) (a) is the position in the second bar 17. bars 7-8.— 1 1 v^> H ° 6 4 7 ] J S 9 f 5 q' | 1 _j!L_d_. which is harsh in some positions. and the suspension in the Bass is treated as an inverted 4-3.) The That at {a) ] ssible. At (d) the Treble cannot (c) sounds particularly well.) But when the resolved on a § containing a perfect 5th. j? . as this would sound extremely harsh against the suspension in the Bass. 1- —C —<S>-J —C2 <S>- f-i s_ " P -&i <—& . can only be taken with the Canto Fermo in the Bass next falling a 2nd. bars 3-4. is (For similar instances. that particular movement of the Canto Fermo is not essential. ^sk r-> 0' p i =1= .) (For an example. — 1 Good. whilst that more harsh. is tolerable.THE 2ND AND 4TH SPECIES. Good.

so that He should he may know how to introduce them into his exercises. m !P ZZ2Z s^i THE SUSPENDED Accompanied by the 6-5. -1 :«. noting against what movements of the Canto Fermo the various combinations are made. —*2 ^g_ C32fc :^: ZpZ 1 I ^ I I The student should study the foregoing examples. n $ zi (See also Exercises 14. | and \ can be made use of. 5-6. THE SUSPENDED Accompanied by the =^F 4-3. particularly note the conditions under which the intervals g.40 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. bar 2 . 8-7. . .) Accompanied by the 6-5. and 17. bar 3.

) 8ves. is 98 6 98 6 it 4th in Exercise 14. The alternative at (b). as being continued in the following bar. possible way out of the difficulty is to skip to the 6th from the Bass. It is sometimes necessary in this combination to finish with the 3rd of the chord in the Treble. — M * ^E^ 4 . as at (c). inadmissible. (See also Exercise 14. 3: 2± *&~^r 9S The bare by the same harmony 98 5. A make the inner part This progression also sounds inverted. Bennett— Combined Counterpoint— Novello—U . With the Canto Fermo in the Bass and the suspended 9-8 in the Treble. bar 7. SPECIES. others can be obtained by inverting the upper parts. 41 effect of the bare 4th between the upper parts chord has already been referred to on page 25. (0 Good. as at (a). this interval cannot always be avoided. with the very worst kind of hidden — The thin jj of a of course.Ql r 3 _Q_ ^=P=T 5 B q H - 1 EE 6 5 3 3 G J. (d) Good.THE 2ND AND 4TH 4. is covered The following are some of the forms of cadence. -jr± w m (6) Bad. as at (d) {a) — well with the upper parts Thin. and 5. bar not objectionable. is.

(2 f=j= ^J^^=pH==f=^^ Exercise 15 might also C.O. 1900. 1892.C.R.O. January..— — 42 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. _<s commence rz=: as follows : I m^=z- m fc^ES^^&E t= 22" 6 5 H ^ . 14.C. m *m 2Eir« S- :k s Ex. F.F.R. In the following exercises the complete figuring of the Bass given : is Ex.. July. F.F. &E£ C. m^ :=g—r~y tt^-p 4»- —p^l-f^^? 5 W^ m -^1 -_ -taT I 6 -p- 9 7 6 _£?: ex. 15.





Mus. Bac. igu.









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Si ^

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iH^Iili ^

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7 6




7 6







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resolution note sounded above it is undoubtedly harsh. Some justification of its use may be that the Treble part here imitates the pattern of the opening bars.



— The suspension with








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Ex. 20.













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4 6






6 5

or a $. the crotchet part can be treated as part of a % chord.—— — 46 CHAPTER THE 3rd VI. 2nd and 4th. 4. the 5th above the Bass. as at (b) : — '^ fBE1 -\w~\- . AND 4th SPECIES. and in contrary motion to the syncopated part : 2. the last inversion of a Suspended 9-8. as at (a). — With perfect. taken at the second crotchet of the bar : if i — ^SE A s 1 J J- 3The prepared discords and \ can be used as in combining the 2nd and 4th Species. may be a suspended 7-6. and the I. and is resolved on a % chord. — The moving parts may occasionally form a dissonance at the middle of the bar. It must not be confused with *-. in which the 6th from the Bass is not an essential note. When the 4th Species in the Bass is at the interval of a 2nd or 9th below the Canto Fermo. there will be no particular difficulty in combining the 3rd and 4th. provided that the crotchet part approach it by 2nd. The student is referred to Exercises 25 30 for examples of their use. !? — The * represents %. Having taken together the 2nd and 3rd Species.

THE 3RD AND 4TH 5. or their equivalent in the Bass. and not follow the same melodic pattern in two successive bars. (See the bars near the beginning and end of Exercise 29.) (also in — In These remarks apply also to cases where the 4th Species in Bass has a succession of suspensions at the interval of a 2nd or gth below the Canto Fermo. (See Exercises 22. and 24. 7. bars 4-7. (See Exercises 22. bars 3-4 and 6-8 and 24. bars 7-9.) . the crotchet part must be sufficiently varied. 47 a succession of two or more suspensions of the 7-6 a passage consisting partly of 7-6 and partly of simple § chords). SPECIES. — From the remarks in the previous section it will be understood that such treatment of the crotchet part should not be taken against a succession of Suspensions of the 7-6. —The following are some of ^£Z — the forms of cadence : &> 1 :: -F F- m I rT-MZ zresz: it— 5 3 i 1^21 4 — 3 — 6 5 — — S . last four bars.) the 6. In writing this part some ingenuity is required to avoid implied consecutive 8ves or unisons with either of the other parts. and the last five bars of Exercise 30. A figure consisting of four notes of the ascending or descending scale can sometimes be maintained with good effect in the crotchet part for two or even three bars.

ist Mus. 1915. Note. The sounding of the resolution note.48 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT CANTO FERMO Ex. Durham. ist Mus. approached by leap. is unusual. The contrary motion between the two against the Suspension. Baa. 21. Durham. 1916. — . IN BASS. parts within the bar palliates the harshness. Bar 9. Bac.

Ex. 23.

A.R.C.O., January, 1910.





l £*i=*±






* r C










by Dubois.




-£21 I


=tt -—4-,.


T -r * —


LgJ -



Pu J y^-*!

T=t =*==* J * *~^







m i

-*-?-* -^






— The


5th in the Alto




following bar.




C.F. by Dubois.



-U- V—m:


:*=*: *t








-f- y

Ex. 26.

r ±=t= *=*=*=?f-1-




ff=y g^p^E



45 "

^=±^ I^Hg




A.R.C.O., July, 1907.


Ex. 27.

F.R.C.O., January, 1914.













F.R.C.O., July, 1915.

. (i ) Bars 4-5.-m—£—mI 1 tPi: I - ^m 3 1 m &.C.F. July.O. :£=_ T 3=m -•-»- t= m :C=:zp!i -i —— 1- i^ a piiS™^i^l§=I 4 6 2 . the latter being syncopated. Ex.- fe^EEErZE &£ E-uM? fe^±= z*=B. 1907.O. January.) Bar 5.F. --*=£ ir—r—w 1 1 —— -- --2=M.r . at the 4th bar.K. The 8ves between Alto and Bass. F. 29. in the Alto. 1914. A. m 1=*= ^ is ^i : - §=e ^^^^^^^ ^=* fe iSle If* :£=*= ^=t T=g 1= — Note. — .. Nota Cambiata in the Treble also in Exercise 31. 3=£ C. Ex.j COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. 30..R. really represent a 10th followed by an Unison. m j^^^^^^ C.C. (ii.

& .F. 1 •-J — r I V £fe H ^ -r-rm~r JbL-iedE. 31. CF. 53 TRIPLE TIME. Ex. -r~ '— i^^^ Q=^ 2 — 3 . C. te^r^r-r^^T IE**? v- ^M=ffZ zm^=-=*z ifeE b\.r THE 3RD AND 4TH IN SPECIES.i P <=«- igs -P zzttP . by Dubois.

) : Suspensions and other tied notes are of distinct value. 54 CHAPTER THE i. and preferably on the 2nd crotchet. is rarely satisfactory (ii.) Quavers should be both approached and quitted by 2nd. (See also Exercises 42." i * *—j I L . Bass of bar 3 and 51.) S. 5th SPECIES IN COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. Bass of bar 2. it may deficient (i. Thou art my God. except that they may be approached by the skip of an 8ve . (iii. as in the following examples. and consisting of a succession of alternate bars of minims and shorter notes.— — . There would also appear to be no ill-effect in skipping from the second quaver when. that note is merely an ornamentation of a descending scale-passage. S. A part entirely void of tied notes. VII. other the combination of the 5th Species with not be amiss to make a few recommendations as to the 5th Species part itself. Wesley made important use of this quaver figure in the final fugal . with regard to those points in which the student's treatment of it is sometimes Before considering moving parts. if not used to excess . movement of the anthem " O Lord.) Quavers should only be taken on the 2nd and 4th crotchets of the bar.

to the entire neglect of the 9-8 (vi. THE 5TH SPECIES (iv. consider the harmonic progression.) and 4-3 .— . Do not.) IN COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.) Do not use a 7-6 too frequently. The following are a few of the possible ways of doing so. as in the first of the following examples. as a general rule. 55 In choosing a suspension. for instance. use a 7-6 when. to the entire exclusion of crotchet ornamentation : m m w^ 'Jtr&z :gz* ^z=M: -*-* * * J ^-t-Q-li 1 =P=Szp: $ s 4 — — 4 6 2 . on account of the movement of the Bass. Vary the ornamentation of the Suspensions. Some students use far too frequently the quaver ornamental figure. a % would sound weak (v.

2. minim. In the first two of the following examples the syncopated minim introduces a Suspension. In the last example the harmony is exceptionally changed at the second crotchet of the bar. 39. C-J 1 <rj -g»—r-yj 7 6 (3—7 6 2 — The occasional use of a syncopated minim is possible. bars 8-9. dotted crotchet but the latter should be very rarely used.) — Additional means of variety are the dotted minim and 3. A crotchet tied to a crotchet is occasionally useful in a 5th Species part. see syncopated the (For other examples of Exercises 35. : — s-. a dissonant 5th. when combining with the 2nd Species.— 56 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. 36. and Exercise 38. when the harmony is changed at that point. 43. — Free use can be made of the prepared discords % and £. which is resolved in the following bar. . occasional crotchet rest in the 5th Species part should not be Instances may be found in Exercises 40-45.cL — te im — :t: 7 JPL JKE^I SEE 6 =s=p= 6 5 5 When combining the 3rd and 5th Species the value of an 5. and in the third example.) . 6. bars 10. (See Exercises 33. 4. at the middle of the bar. It is necessary that some other part mark the beat where the dot occurs. 3. (See the following examples. overlooked. and 45. bar 6) .11. A dotted minim may possibly introduce a suspension at the middle of the bar. and 36.

A.O.C. IN TREBLE.C. ^=ff: =<= 1-^ -I 1 r*F — f n 1 p Bennett— Combined Counterpoint— Xoveilo—E . IN BASS. July. 2nd AND 5th SPECIES. 1905. -Ml£z *-m*~ tZ^=^ g= . January. 34. ^W=P l -^-r-^-ri * G.F. 57 THE Ex. J. CANTO FERMO Ex. Ex.r^ 7= — =g F=rn ^8 C.ip=g^ Si 1-4- ^sz.— " THE 5'fH SPECIES IN COMBINED COUNTERPOINT..F. 32. 33. > w C. by Dubois.R.O. A. CANTO FERMO — =& 5^=^ te^B^ -——e* -I g m-*.. 1911..R.

fc-f^-j— a= » =* . &=« Ex 35. *-y : . by Cherubim. <=?ee£ -^ ig=rr ' -— Izb: H^: g- S F^=^g -#—r-*= -=fe —^=ft^ ^ :: == F E^ --&= -&> -lg=L--&Z . — 3=^ £==*=*=* J 4 ©s 1=^^= C.F.: y COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.

O. F. SPECIES.R. 1899.R... July. m C. ^=&z :r=: pg *fc: =fc=t==t=ff=£: B £=£*= m *^ '*-<•-&- Ex.C.m -W= ?=gm t^: ^S^r—w-r.THE 2ND AND jTH CANTO FERMO Ex.C. 59 IN INNER PART.O. iJ S|E^ . F. 37.F. ife^f -J?-*. July. 36.

-^T- -4 ^=fei=l J=:p zmr^r. 1897.O. IN BASS.C. F.— Pi THE Ex. COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.R. 3rd AND 5th SPECIES.L 6o Ex. July.— L_L E= I— !— U- Ml - t=d !_ Ex. ^ ^=p: ' A. CANTO FERMO w=% I fi C. It! fP g 1— I C.C.R. July. f^ ?-j I 33: ? ^ cf.. 1904.F. July..O. F.R. 33313 w 3~r —r~w zz ^^^fT^^^^^E^^^^^^^ I .C. 40.F. 1910.O. U.. —— _i 4= 1 £=~ £ 3^. 38. ^=t jgg==i 1 fc Qm^t?3^^g 4=: S^ ^ =tJ=f=aF=£ ^i^ r*i 1 1 -r~y ezfcrtr.. 39.

y i r F THE 3RD AND 5TH SPECIES. -f^m^^r =tr ^=*^ i—m^-m =*=* =t =*=£= i s OT=t= — 1 Pi tt— Bt •=*: =*=^ 3=p 1— rff=pz =s=p= 5t«=t ^ p —rP ii^»z ^=ft ±==fc i» *i §^^^ 1*3= 1 3z: te* o—l f^- . From an Examination Paper. 41. 6l ££ iptf: HE* F= =»£= r *j rp=P=p: == * I b r=r -L— r i ^- 1 4=r :£=*==? 3ti: ±=t Ex.

C. CANTO FERMO Ex.F. ay Cherubini. 42. r-rr-r -P-p- ^^^^ TtPtc I 1 I ±4=P=P E ^^q - i .F.F. IN TREBLE. p-t IP^EiE^P^ *E C.^ 62 r 1 1 — — r COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.p -f—i- -MHi i» — fS> ' —f»~ — _Jj__ : —p.ton* * * -^ V — • 1 = =f -F" -p—f-l—-1 :Z J— — m?m ** -J*—-*-' -i — fczfct=^= 3=* 3*^ Ex. efr¥== -« . by Dubois. I C.--O1 E 1 '- ~f~^ -?— T"—S~ =1= —S-1 -4- —— 1 11 4- ~H P -1 -1 — p~ 1 -1"-f. tTt~p : 1 P r«- -g= — :ff: 1 — P- =± ^rrrr^ e^i MjSfS-m t -m^r-m=t=* £gTfrrr rrrrg3=j3B3sg i P f^F-f^S^g^-P^^j. 43. ^^ .

July.R. i | b - ^ P _*— # r ^ £-*. 63 IN INNER PART.. 45. 1903.-r-p-=-f- fce= * c.C. 44. .^.f ^ THE 3RD AND 5TH CANTO FERMO Ex. 1894. July.R. F.C. —— g^-S i ' ^^^Eg =g —T =t=p=t T~r I 3s^_ fe Ex..O. F.O. SPECIES.

— with the 9th and 4th respectively in the Bass. -t gs — =j^===^U=- — e ===SU-I Note. Bar 1. 1911. it will probably be possible to introduce a Suspension at that point in the 5th Species part.) . bars 3 and 6 49. .F. the 5th Species part be not entirely void of tied notes. with the Bass suspended 4-3-3 The latter are inversions of the |:|. —The available Double Suspensions are :— 9-8 4-3 9-8 7-6 : 7-6 5-6 6-6 2- And.— 64 COMBINED COUNTER POINT. (See also Exercises 12 and 57. 9. One single tied note in the course of a 5th Species part will often prevent it degenerating into a rambling. (See Exercise 50. unsatisfactory part. 5 3 6 i £. — —Attention should anywhere to introduce a be directed to whether it is possible Double Suspension. IN BASS. C. I •f— r- £S 3/t L^i 1 fa. In combining the 4th and 5th Species it it desirable that 7. With crotchet movement some melodic gain can be occasionally effected by changing the harmony to a % at the middle of the first bar.) Or. CANTO FERMO Ex 46. if it is found necessary to break the syncopation in the 4th Species part.) . bar 5. The 4/th and 5TH Species.. (See Exercises 47. 8. bar 7 and 52. This should be considered exceptional.il fT I *A^ — -r— I Durham Final Mus. B.

R. in C. 5 4 — 3 =1^ =iiE ZZZL ®=S=I= =: -r-y-g ==t -a W --&-±z & *~ CANTO FERMO Ex.F. by Fux. SPECIES. 65 a^§ fc ff ? :| K= rp2=r-~ 1 -t=t r =£=p: £=*= :!=: £Pjf C. C. F.C.F.. 48. Jfc= ^ r^—fag I :£==^ 1 r =F=f^ 1= g ^ :3£i=] e =**= g=*-*-d^-Jih=c .F.O. IN TREBLE. January. 1Q04. 47.— THE 4TH AND 5TH Ex.

rg: g 1 ^E=ft jHjSfe E 1— ?=: - 3 3 is= &r=F=r^$ 1*-J 9 p-J ^*^S=« -J —*. C. ^?—g.66 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. by Cherubini .F.F. C. » MM C. Ex. 49. IN INNER PART. 50.piE 3: I r^==^ 8 6 H CANTO FERMO Ex.F. by Dubois.

52. F..O. 51. Mus. B. Interm.C. SPECIES. London.R. i£ =J=P ^z= "=|: ^g^jg^^^^^feg^^g^i^ l .THE 4TH AND 5TH Ex. m te t=jg 1 $ f=<—:=g r £ -(= —4^ :1 s -'f 5'f if Ex. 1 67 $= 5^=3SB ^— ~e) t=*= tf 1 : 4—1 e.. January.

Again. may be applied to the writing of Florid Counterpoint in several parts against a Canto Fermo in semibreves. Without doubt some of the most excellent and dignified Counterpoint. but Florid Counterpoint. in several parts. Facility in writing the 5th Species.68 CHAPTER VIII. for together. has been written without any quaver movement whatever. Compare the Exercises 62-65 by him in Sir Frederick Bridge's "Counterpoint" with Exercise 117 in the same book. is of the greatest value approaches more nearly to real composition than the it Counterpoint already dealt with. including Albrechtsberger. and others using them very sparingly. like Sir John Goss. the other part or parts may proceed in a quieter manner. or even excluding them entirely. one part has vigorous movement for a bar or two. or. other writers. instance. The practice with regard to the use of quavers has varied some theorists. It is important that the parts should not proceed too much Where. Florid Counterpoint. but with independence of movement. especially in four or more parts. as it is usually termed. — . When approaching the cadence they can employed with good effect more freely than bars. As Florid Counterpoint is practically a constant changing and blending together of the first four Species. and prevents any feeling of climax. and which is really only preparatory to it. from time to time making free use of them. and with the first exercise in the Appendix of this book. the rules and principles explained in Chapters IV. be entirely without quaver movement. is it is important that quavers be used in moderation. VII. but the movement be so distributed that each part is of equal interest. Although not suggesting that the student follow this plan. The principal interest must not be centred in the Treble or in any one part. and it recommended that a certain proportion of bars in each exercise . in sometimes be the opening constant jingling of quavers in every bar produces flippant undignified melodic parts. seemed to favour in Combined not their use in Simple Counterpoint. IN FLORID AND IMITATIONAL COUNTERPOINT THREE AND FOUR PARTS. A and .

+ + Vi-H — -s>1 L_j _j_ D -O- ' ^m—m . : All good. Q j—m—m 1 ' rz> 1 ' 1 + — ^ J : + *-<5> ' -w i ' Jm J J r-4 - \ — 1 — But with a more extended movement of the part. Tenor of bar 3 57. .T m m + "C? 1 i 1 J n + 1 ( a) Good. A dissonance at the middle of the bar should be introduced smoothly.) . (See Exercises 53. . as at (a) : Not recommende d. Alto of bar 7 56. Alto of bar 1 and Treble of bar 2 54. Treble of bar 6) . Each of them would be satisfactory with the elimination of the first quaver. n c? -U 1 T^ -0 % ' 1* r± »„ <T3 7Zi -G>— ^ c <-3 . the quavers tend to throw too strong an emphasis on the dissonance at the middle of the bar. Xor is sound bad preceded by two quavers. not in such a manner that a strong emphasis is thrown — upon it. if the which it occurs is restricted in that bar Exercises 56* Tenor of (See the following examples. 69 FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS. and bar 7 and 61.— f — : 1 u FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PART-. A compass it likely to of the part in to a 3rd or 4th. crotchet forming a dissonance with the Canto Fermo at the middle of the bar will generally sound satisfactory if the part in which it occurs has no quaver movement in the same bar. 1. -f-pj-i -O. and it is recommended that such passages as the following be avoided. &c. Bass of bar 5.

however. Care must be taken that the movement from bar to bar sounds well. It is. which sounds very well. $ — s J-Q- j j n i T5 ~ ZH H 2. and especially at . without exception. B "O" d& EE m is liH isl In the last of the above examples the passing 7th in the Bass the interval of a qth from the Canto Fermo. The following are some of the few possible ways in which a passing-note will sound well at the last crotchet of the bar with this movement of the Canto Fermo : All good.— — — 70 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. only when the Canto Fermo moves a 3rd up or down that there is any real difficulty in this matter. The student is recommended to avoid. a dissonant crotchet followed by two quavers in the same part. In that case. the student is when the Canto Fermo moves a 3rd up or down. Apart from this progression. as the effect is invariably clumsy and ill-balanced : Not recommended. particularly if the Canto Fermo is in an upper part. a harsh effect may be produced by an ill-considered dissonance at the last part of the bar.

It is then often convenient to have a tied note in the other part : All good.o: 1 33ZZZ\ ~m W X n ^. which refers to the use of passing-notes in the 2nd Species. The foregoing remarks do not entirely apply when the same harmony is employed in the two bars. provided it resolve in contrary motion to the Canto Fermo. or consonant with the Canto Fermo. Clumsy progressions of this kind can be avoided by making the last crotchet or quaver in the bar consist only of notes that are essential to the harmony.. as being likely to produce such uneuphonious passages as the following : — Not recommended. In that case a 7th or 9th from the Canto Fermo at the last part of the bar is not likely to sound bad. 1 i w^ •> i^i :z.J 1 & 1 CJ • <"3 Q ' i i -G>- & r l m-^y 0— 1 p 1- • 0— 1 . if 71 warned in a general way against taking in an upper part the interval of the 7th or 9th from the Canto Fermo at the last crotchet of the bar. see the paragraph in small type on page 21. u . In support of the fact that the movement of a 3rd in the Canto Fermo presents more difficulty than any other interval.—— —— — FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS.

proceeding to its resolution note. as in the following examples : A case might also arise where such crotchet movement would be useful (See Exercise 67.— With combined Florid Counterpoint it is not often convenient or advisable to take a minim passing-note.) As a general rule this leap of a 3rd is better avoided by the use of quavers. 3. is in crotchets at the last part of the bar. that a smoother effect is obtained by using crotchet movement. Alto of bar 4. This movement has some affinity to a changing-note figure. (See also Exercise 55. in either of the following forms : S^ — =t -<9-— A Suspension may exceptionally descend a 3rd before 4. . For instance.— — 72 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. The more practical way of employing the passing-figures recommended in Chapter III. Alto of bar 6. but it will occasionally happen with freely-moving parts. the 5-6 may appear in the Treble or an inner part.) to establish a point of imitation.

Bennett- Combined Counterpoint— Novello— . — — — — . (See Exercises 54. and the upper note of can be justified on other grounds.-"! rj ^ 1 r* — —&-= — ' 1 ' \-— —'p-i —m m ' 1 — 1 —^ J 1 1 rj fj *o (c) Good. Consecutive 5ths with a note intervening are always permissible when either of the 5ths includes an unessential note. a minim however. monotony likely to ensue from the repeated use of the same rhythmic pattern.) 5ths separated only theorists. where the 5ths are equally prominent. Alto of bars 6 7. Here first 5th is unessential to the harmony. a crotchet tied tied to a crotchet is generally preferable to a crotchet tied to a crotchet. (b) Not recommended. With of freelyis moving and parts. Treble of bars 6 7 and 63. at (d) The passage the (a) Bad. Bass of bars 6 7. — Consecutive all by a Suspension are (a). "-" — — <s> —r-i ^. 7—8. J. Treble 62. as also that at (b). 60. tfh D fj I •' ' wfit) (W. the 5ths occur a more transitory manner on the unaccented parts of the bar. their ill-effect to entirely disappear. condemned by occasionally The progression at although made use of onwards. as at (c). 1 1 ]/ a W if -far— S - — _i 1 m 1 1 1 # —<s> i J * 1 1 m— 1 r^ (^ P 1 m i-d 1 - »—a I 9 -m— V UJ fj 1 'ffrr rrf\' (W. and Treble of bars 8 9 . to a crotchet the occasionally of value in adding to the elasticity to prevent a certain part. — As in Simple Counterpoint. With a in freer movement seems of the parts. s—^ ° CJ G. of bars 6. 5.— f — — 73 FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS. must be strictly by the great masters from Palestrina avoided. r1 (d) Good.

7.— — 74 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. The following are ment of the exercise useful figures for Imitation at the : commence- l=E £=*: (• m- 3=F ~W 1 >- m P~ I ^^=rrf^f=^ v^ ^ I i -e • d s ^— &- *= znzrzr .— When the student has acquired a certain degree of facility in the writing of the Florid parts. he should make some attempt at Imitational Counterpoint.

zp W?== —f I b - s> eg rrrrrp^m^ s 5 6 3 Ex. January. 75 The exercises commencing with a point CANTO FERMO of imitation are placed last in each group./\ ^^£ ..C. 54. IN BASS.R. A. 53 C. e=teE £3 SeSe C. 191 7.FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS.O. -r * ^.F. Ex.

— COMBINED COUNTERPOINT..-J— — —P— f !" 1 1915.. ' : ^ /Pb — — —h— -r— — — —^— — r= A. 1912. January.C . 1^1 A. Treble commences exceptionally with the 3rd. - 1 j .R.C. 55. ^ § =feg=3S=E =£=J^ ±=-:=t =ff=*: ??=Z2=£ 5*^= Ex..F. J rf p- f r ^ 1 3*— C.O.— — ^ 76 Ex. 56. . i p r 1- -U-c :fc"— — p F • p \ r— J.O. January.R. in order to establish a point of imitation. -t— »-r |g LfeSB =^ll t g^gsE —The IffC g Note. i^^sii : -t- *t«r£: r ^~ -<s> ^ T" cf.

I m S^e J - i g" 1— Z*=pE£- . 58. -ffit) r~ ' — r* -« -5 * —• r_# h h •J C. July."?• «_ r 1 t^ 5 r^ _1 1 I 1 1 *j -J ^-^F-m L 1 — .O. Ex. A. A. ' 77 CANTO FERMO Ex. 1913.— FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS. 57. 1912.O. = LJ P T ! —r~V 1 L 6 $ m Note.R. January.F.C.C... -£—*- —The prepared dissonance in the Alto at bar 6 is resolved in the following bar. 1 IN TREBLE. 1£ F 1 m m r= _j5 —— r [I (2 I ! -r— # f— —^—F—m— =~_J .R.

..C.C.R.R. IN INNER PART. January. 59. CANTO FERMO Ex.78 Ex. A. July.O.O. COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. 1914 m 6 — . 60. 1911. A.

C.~ 1 1 FLORID COUNTPOINT IN THREE PARTS. 6l. rrn*- r * Eft 1 te=^: C.R.. 1 • p t r - H -tH # - J d j-1 1 f»fef =t— -ta-J .F.F. Ex. n? n — 1 F=*=b-» *— -p — — f —1—=t=P= -6 — r-i te — C. 62. July. A. 79 ftt-^-g=|gg= EEr-r l I- —p -1* A. January.O.O.C.. 1916. 5£5 ?v — p: ^± Ex. 1913.R. is f& -*- pp—w -^ ^ 1-.

^^j=^=jg^^£j=j U-^=^^F^^ai 6 c. COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. fee ^a^r^s^g S=p: >* > * =t^= i Ift^^^fg B ^n^^ m-rr^-U-i—L_ 0> ^ ^ r-«— . 64.. i=^^=i^ 8 6 i -rs- ^ 1 tSF* B E E^^ Six bars in Canon.F.r «0 Ex.O. B./\ Ex. IN TRIPLE TIME. 63. _A. July. m fBjJE C.C. - —r-r Durham Final Mus..R. 1916. 1916.

—The remarks may greater force to Counterpoint in four parts. > 1 SSL is eat . dissonant with the Canto Fermo.) . \^- rj *r> J 1 h-n — 1 above examples. 1 1 1 # 1 1 1— -1 1 *44A 1 r—A — A J ' " n u Cr£\(W. A passing chord. : more limited degree. 1 1 1 1-.— 1 —— FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS. However. and. and the Tenor during the bar conform to the ordinary rules of a Bass part. — A to a passing chord can be taken on the Tonic or Dominant. and similar ones introducing as a passing chord. The Canto Fermo in the Bass must then be regarded as a Pedal. 77. (See Exercises 75. Bass of bar 5 80. Treble of bar 5 Alto of bar 5. point to or Chapter apply with even Very ugly Counterresult from injudicious use of quaver movement leading in section i of this from a dissonant crotchet. on the Submediant n A li . can be taken at the middle of the bar. should not be lost sight of. can also be taken in the first inversion on the Mediant Bass. Note the chord of the diminished 7th in the second of the following examples first The of the the Dominant harmony : ^k gi J-Q*. . the possibility of preceding a dissonant crotchet by quaver movement. 81 FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS. and Treble of bar 6. 1 —s> 1. 8. 9. under the limited conditions referred to in the third paragraph of page 69.

In the second example there is a chord of the leading 7th at the last part of the bar. with the Canto Fermo a diminished 5th from the Bass falling a 4th. the leap in the bass makes the progression impossible. In Section 2 of this Chapter reference was made to the danger of introducing ill-considered dissonances at the last part of the bar. whether the chord at the last part of the bar be regarded as a ^ or |. such progressions as the following must be avoided. With the Canto Fermo in an upper part. with this movement of the Canto Fermo such progressions as the following. or rises a 5th. the leap in the Bass has an effect akin to what is commonly expressed as "cutting the ground from underneath one's feet " : — When the Canto Fermo falls a 4th.— — 82 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. are resolved quite correctly. which introduce a complete passing-chord at the last part of the bar. must be avoided. passing fundamental discords can be effectively introduced at the middle of the bar : 10. taken alone. Had the Canto Fermo descended a 2nd. but being all dissonant with the Bass. the progression would be excellent. The upper parts. In four-part writing. In the first example. especially when the Canto Fermo next proceeds by 3rd. — — . up or down.

on account of its avoided against stagnant effect. 70. the underlying principles are the same in both cases spirit and practice of the to be able to infuse some musical interest into his contrapuntal work. (See Exercises 67. . if tied over to a crotchet or It ment may also be taken if followed by a rest at the of the following bar. The value of an occasional rest in a 5th Species part has been already referred to in the previous Chapter. . whether natural or acquired. 83 —A semibreve may be taken occasionally. 11. a In a case of extreme difficulty it may be better to repeat the note <sl. — — Although Strict Counterpoint is written upon a more limited harmonic basis.) Otherwise. — A rest is particularly good before a point of imitation. The repetition of a note at the end of the bar is not necessarily bad.) In conclusion. a notable illustration of which is found in the second bar of the following theme from Bach's Canzona for the Organ : 12.— FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS. the importance to the student of a good ear. and a study of the contrapuntal works especially of Bach's " Das Wohltemperirte of the great masters Klavier " and organ works may be emphasised. (See the Bass parts of Exercises 78 and 79. J rather than have an untied semibreve. As the commencing note of a moving figure it may be the means of adding a rhythmic interest to the part. minim in the following bar. and fettered by an unyielding Canto Fermo of and he who is most imbued with the above-named works is the most likely equal notes. in commence- Canto Fermo a semibreve should be semibreves. and 74.

65. 191 -1- = " .R.C. ^=f£: ff==3± -g *m m ir pESE^EH *—g- .O.R..I* fefe^ ff==2^ ii==^ &»l cf..r =*=£=] | ( -4 — " <s> —\ H -f-F —1 —» -p1«— —1—-T^f- F — pfg= =f= <s> 1 -y —r =f= — 1 — 1*' |£= -1 uJ —n St - —s> Ex. a F. 66. 1 1 — — r — — F.O. 1910. COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. CANTO FERMO IN BASS.—— — 84 Ex.C. January. s r— — -*--*:(5 1*4-^—m -1 -P. July.

R. -r-ar 3=T Z&r 1 m r 1- — i- r * £==^c iczp: r' ?= -r~pff^ -H— :| — i U - p- -<— g- E Z^J^Uf^g * :p=F=^ T=? * r *—P. Note.. Ex.C. 85 i i £ c^. January.O.3=1= r =5=P= »=R= :| E: t fezZZ^ F. bar 5 . is accompanied by the and compare Treble of Ex. January.r FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS. 67. 1912. 1907. 5th.O. See also Ex. — The prepared 7th on Dominant 69. Bar 5. 65. bar 5.. F.R. .C.

O. x ^ — — ^=3— —— ——— =j= C. =f^ 7m— -1 = 1 A (» 1 -—f 'IJ L-1 ^ b b" « — n C. ~fiP h- p *-^-r -iff * —^ -t^ =iKJ—d 4 s) -j1 r --T 1 r.C.F. =f= = —9 f A \-f -1 h —— ——— T 1 r 1 w~ f ©TV C...F. 70.F. — * —F r » P~ l- 1 — ^j t- ' \- 1 c * Bb = 4R. F.R. ^ *. f r -P— j* —H uj=i. January. COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. ~ . urn— ?\V—\ "i" r kizh^^i £=p^ £ E f$5== E=frg=gfc S^^= g . by Cherubini. 69. — ^=p L I _ U „_ M7*-jjT?3r r-w — ffzi^a: i ^~ r-ry -r— feEt ^^ B 1 P^ £» i=t w Ex.r — — r-=^~ r —— — —— ' 86 Ex. g 1 ZJ~ r ! — 3=3= 4Rr— -r ZJ - .J r~i w * r\ - es. 1916.

O.J JB ?* *=:=^ =£= S—H q=^= g g ^Se b 1 * 1T=:C — ffr £ ^ + E§=^=rE =^=k -I— -r — ^ i^g^^^^p Note. p=g *==^: 1 —With beginning of bars 4-7. I* ^=¥* *3t fe-3 rbltsi J J • * it=P=P=*= I I -!-r I *- «S ^^ l^S a^g wm ^ CANTO FERMO IN TREBLE. .C.. 71. 1916. see reference to the 5ths between the Treble and Bass at the paragraph at bottom of page 24. gill m K"- 4=t r r A I . July. F.R. Ex.— r y FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS.

— COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.. The small notes are an alternative. 73.R. July. to meet any objection to the consecutive 8ves at the beginning of bars 6 and 7.— 88 Ex. 72.EiEEE 1 — P 1" * "I ^ yk m iw fcthfe^ ZM'=gZ 3==Z£l r*=f^: 3=t * m mm i m =t= IE 1 ^f—Z^^^E^g^^EgEEg^gEg ^ Note. 1914. l •J fr h ^ C. — .F. F. Ex. r — . A 1 1 - = = =1= -* p.p=£=— | r-r .C. i^ ft*~h* —™ — ^ r ] -p _4 — ^~* j^_l —M~^ ' = =£ TTf-= -iit^- — ^ l_L^ J * ^ £ . Another working of the same.O. between the Treble and Alto.

I — Q — FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS.O. J..C. January. 1911. Ex n i|8= 89 74. V r> ~ £ 5^0£f= :£=£ r BQE . F. =p=*=p=s= » =p=Ni :* Ifr ~-i= i *~=^- r * I?— ^ rsz s^rt— s*±* :£z£= »=j»= Ife SE m — m- t * it=t ^ :*=£ ».R.»— Exercise 74 might also commence as follows: I 5E5^ Hs=e=^5 &"" *=£^ ^ggg^E^JfUf^El if* E 3=t G-. Bennett—Combined Counterpoint—Novello — .

v. 75.. 1906. CANTO FERMO Ex. B. S^S m=i^^EzKzm*0=2^mm3m ±m pMmr&tz^m tjtrr-g ^ J^sg^Eg al==gl=p • !* - gg i lj j^i^ggg» Ex.go COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. B. 1915 tz—z=3-tz=L**r-T 3=** *-£: §iP t. IN ALTO. Se=I=K n^P Oxford 1st Mus. London Final Mus.. I ^ & m «- gg^jgjf^^^igg^ 3=r£ t=- j^S mmm=m. 76. 1 jp^-F- H^HH^^ili^lii F^± I^Hl :&=q: .

.O.C. i ! r -(= T : =g= =p=g — £L -(= ffij= :£=* S^ m — g= iiH^ H^l fee P Se£ 3ijs iSMJ ^3Jr~7^ . P i- nr Et^£ r ir * j =S=C H mu pH^^l^pi^MS^l ~"f£— (- Ex. F. 77. 1911.R. July.— — 9' FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PART? m==?sz H f .

F.O.C.C. :<=- F. 1912. . CANTO FERMO Ex.O. 78. July.R.. -UiC ±=t: •=*-- We* «£ C..R. July. 1015.^. I «=-- £ -*Jt. IN TENOR.92 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.

3t -»— ggz=J «L± zsa !==C — —— I 1910.O._• — F~ 1* . 8o..J ' — 1 FLORID COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS.R.»~ --[ J ' 1 — f — m—S< i t- - =p?=l "SP • — 1 -^— — _^> -I . 1= i' I*=Z*t i^ C. £2-b— *- I-F-*— F--1— -f* ~r» *~ <* -p r— 3^ ^ i d ^ -•—II 1 . b :«=ff w? t~ S—J-0-mSt-"t F.C. 93 i i- m Ex. £ : ^ =3= T=* zS^-t^S=fo i— 1— gj^-— -i — ~f~1— — rfr._l I 1 t±±=j ./<~. January.

Bpp^^jg^^fp^Eg^EEEEpEf^gipg^l . may be of interest. The following examples of a freer type of Counterpoint. The first example. Were it not for the chromatic movement of the Bass in bars 4 and 5.— 94 APPENDIX. a working in Florid Counterpoint by Sir John Goss of the well-known Canto Fermo by Fux. Lea Southgate. although entirely beyond the scope of this book. the example might be considered fairly strict : io =t l^s s ^m. T. the writer was permitted to copy from a manuscript book in the possession of the late Dr.

— E — APPENDIX 9 5 The next two examples were late written in the class-room of the Joseph Rheinberger at the Munich Royal School of Music. der ist mein Leben.' ^^ 3* :* ^ti* j—^=g^=-*=^» ^L=J. "Christus.. They are for strings. and the upper parts can in either example be inverted in any position : Choral.^ — Z?=M1 ^z=£ — tfc=i — I !- 1 .^ -I— I—I—I— IN ft''iUJ feagfiifei^gjg. and exemplify the type of Counterpoint taught by him.

J-Jte P T ^^^E^^gz=--^ a^=^3 IP^^^S 'J* JS3 ^ #^ : fc :ff=p. ±=4= r|r*=g: =t= £=E ^ r " g'rTTrr r IJ —-^ :*=g= M-l J Jfr~ ^^d^feipi^ .— 96 APPENDIX. i rff=p. t —4 " — 1 ^1 3?=p= :fc=E -tr i *=^=3S&i *H-H j Jjt^ =*=S= -x=3r- zprg: *r:rg: US m FSt *TO = 4r3 .

(I. New York: THE W. Mackenzie Pair of 1 6 Nocturne. H. Introduction and Melodrama...H.. C.. and ' E flat Mozart 2 <> Minuet.. III.) 1) BeetJioven 1 Prelude "Colomba . . — Sonata to in E fiat (Op. ..... Bennett. A. 2 Three Minuets. 4) in F Tscha'ikoxcsky 2 o Slow Movement.A. Jubal" ... — "The A. —" A C. in B fiat minor 1 Tscha'ikoxvsky 6 Coronation March Tschaikoxcsky C. CRAY Co. — "Blest again"). 31.. . " (Act Finale ("O may we soon Sirens" . Limited.) .. "Parsifal" (Act Good Friday Music— " Parsifal" Prelude to "Parsifal" (Act ) Wagner 1) : Wagner (Acts) 1 (> Wagner 1 6 To be continual London: NOVELLO AND COMPANY.. C. Sou-: Agents for the U.H... Parry Dream " Mendelssohn 1 6 Midsummer 1 Night's 1 6 6 — Transformation Scene. ORGAN TRANSCRIPTIONS BY George J... — Symphony (No.— Symphonies in G minor. .. . . S. Dream of Mackenzie i 6 Prelude to " Lohengrin" (Act i Wagner minor i o Andantino. — Pianoforte Concerto .S.

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