Umar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, which was responsible for arbitrations among the tribes. His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hantammah daughter of Khattab, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. He is said to have belonged to a middle class family. In his youth he used to tend to his father¶s camels in the plains near Mecca. His father was famed for his intelligence among his tribe. He was a middle class merchant and is believed to be a ruthless man and emotional polytheist who often treated Umar badly. As obvious from Umar's own statement regarding his father during his later political rule, Umar said, "My father Al-Khittab was a ruthless man. He used to make me work hard; if I didn't work he used to beat me and he used to work me to exhaustion." Despite literacy being uncommon in pre-Islamic Arabia, Umar learned to read and write in his youth. Though not a poet himself, he developed a love for poetry and literature. According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Umar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling. He was tall and physically powerful and was soon to became a renowned wrestler. Umar was also a gifted orator, and due to his intelligence and overwhelming personality, he succeeded his father as an arbitrator of conflicts among the tribes. In addition, Umar followed the traditional profession of Quraish. He became a merchant and had several journeys to Rome and Persia, where he is said to have met the various scholars and analyzed the Roman and Persian societies closely. However, as a merchant he is believed to have never been successful.
During Muhammad's era
Umar's hostility to Islam
In 610 Muhammad started delivering the message of Islam. Umar, alongside others in Makkah, opposed Islam and threatened to kill Muhammad. He resolved to defend the traditional, polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was most adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad and very prominent in persecuting the Muslims.Umar was the first man who resolved that Muhammad had to be murdered in order to finish Islam. Umar firmly believed in the unity of the Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord among the Quraish. Due to the persecution at the hands of the Quraish, Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Abyssinia. As a small group of Muslims migrated Umar felt worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Muhammad assassinated.
Converting to Islam
Umar converted to Islam in 616, one year after the Migration to Abyssinia. The story was recounted in Ibn Ishaq's S rah; On the way to murder Muhammad, Umar met his best friend Nu'aim ibn Abdi 'Allah who had secretly been converted to a Muslim but he did not tell Umar anything about it. When Umar told him that he was going to kill Muhammad he was afraid. He
' We then went out in two groups. Umar slapped his sister so hard that she fell to the ground bleeding from her mouth. Umar went to inform the chief of Quraish. Umar was 27 when he accepted Islam. Umar thereafter openly prayed at the Kaaba as the Quraish chiefs. on the authority of Ibn Abbas related that he had asked 'Umar bin Al-Khattab why he had been given the epithet of Al-Farooq (he who distinguishes truth from falsehood). therefore.' I. Umar found his sister and brother-in-law Saeed bin Zaid (Umar's cousin). It was after this that Muslims offered prayers openly in Masjid al-Haram for the first time. According to one account. On that very occasion. When his sister came to rescue her husband. We headed for the Mosque in broad daylight. out of guilt he calmed down and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. when he accepted Islam Quraish were compelled to let us pray in the Mosque. that you are right in this world and in the hereafter.
Umar's Title of Al Farooq
Mujahid. Yet still they kept on saying "you may kill us but we will not give up Islam". I asked the Prophet : 'Aren't we on the right path here and Hereafter?' The Prophet answered: 'Of course you are! I swear by Allâh in Whose Hand my soul is. Amr ibn Hish m and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. as his sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Following his conversion. She gave him the paper on which was written the verses of the chapter Ta-Ha. Abdullah bin Masoud said:
Umar's embracing Islam was our victory. Umar¶s conversion to Islam gave power to the Muslims and the faith in Mecca. At this stage Umar even challenged anyone who dared to stop the Muslims from praying. Amr ibn Hish m. their faces went pale and got incredibly depressed and resentful.
All these things earned Umar the title of Farooq.knew Umar will attempt what he said. that we will leave our concealment and proclaim our noble cause publicly. Hamzah leading one and I the other. we didn't offer prayers in Al-Haram Mosque until Umar accepted Islam. So just to divert his attention he told him to set his own house in order first. the Prophet attached to me the epithet of Al-Farooq. He then went to Muhammad with the same sword he intended to kill him with and accepted Islam in front of him and his companions."
. about his acceptance of Islam. Upon arriving at her house. He started quarreling with his brother-in-law . reciting the verses of the Qur'an(Surah Taha). although no one dared to interfere with Umar when he was openly praying. Upon hearing these words. his migration to Medina was our success and his reign a blessing from Allah. meaning he who distinguishes truth from falsehood. When he saw what he did to his sister now. This further helped the Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam openly. he also started quarreling with her. He was so struck by the beauty of the verses that he accepted Islam that day. asked the Prophet 'Why we then had to conduct clandestine activism. reportedly watched in anger. I swear by Allâh Who has sent you with the Truth. When the polytheists of Quraish saw us. he replied: After I had embraced Islam.
In 624 Umar participated in the first Battle between Muslims and Quraish of Mecca i. In the second phase of Battle when Khalid ibn Walid's Cavalry attacked Muslims at the rear changing the victory of Muslims to defeat. messengers have passed away before". In 629 Muhammad sent Amr ibn al-A¶as to Zaat-ul-Sallasal from where he called for reinforcement and Muhammad sent Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah with reinforcement. carried his arrows in his hand. Later in Umar's reign as caliph Muhammad ibn Muslamah would be assigned the office of chief inspector of Accountability. According to the Qur'an. Muslims remained in peace in Medina for approximately a year before the Quraish raised an army to attack them. the devoted disciple. serving under him were Abu Bakr and Umar.´ Not one of them followed him. rumors of Muhammad¶s death were spread many Muslim were warriors routed from the battle field. and came to the Kaµbah where the nobles of Quraysh were in the courtyard. he paired off each immigrant (Muhajir) with one of the residents of the city (Ansari). Umar was full of grief upon hearing the news. In 628 he was a part of Muslims' campaign to Khaybar. In 628 Umar participated in the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and was made one of the witness over the pact. joining Muhammad ibn Maslamah with Umar making them brothers in faith. the enlightened city. put his bow over his shoulder. When Muhammad arrived in Medina. Umar migrated to Medina accompanied by his cousin and brother-in-law Saeed ibn Zaid Life in Medina Medina became the new center of Islam and the religion spread rapidly across Arabia. "Muhammad is but a messenger. In 630 when Muslim armies rushed for the Conquest of Mecca he was part of that army. could not accept the reality that the "Messenger of God" has died. He was part of Muslim's army that went for the campaign of Tabuk under Muhammad's command and he was reported to have given half of his wealth for the preparation of this expedition.e.e. orphan his children and widow his wife then let him meet me behind this valley.In 625 he participated in the Battle of Uhud. died
. they attacked and defeated the enemy. Later in 630 he was part of Battle of Hunayn and Siege of Ta'if. Umar. and then prayed two rakaµat at the Station (of Ibrahim). Later in the year Umar was a part of campaign against the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. In 625 Umar¶s daughter Hafsah was married to Muhammad. Umar too was initially routed but hearing that Muhammad was still alive he went to Muhammad at the mountain of Uhud and prepared for the defenses of the hill to keep the Quraishi army down the hill.Migration to Medina
In 622 due to the growing popularity of Islam in the city of Yathrib (later renamed Al-Med na Al-Munawara. Muslims usually migrated at night due to fear of Quraish's resistance to that migration. or simply Medina) Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Medina.
Death of Muhammad
Muhammad died on 8 June 632. but Umar is reported to have migrated openly during the day time. i. He performed seven circuits. Later in 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the Battle of Banu Qurayza. Battle of Badr. Ibn Asakir narrated that Ali said: I don¶t know of anyone who didn¶t emigrate in secret except for Umar ibn al-Khattab. He also participated in a farewell Hajj of Muhammad in 631. because when he wanted to emigrate he strapped on his sword. Then he approached their circle one step at a time and said. Whoever wishes to bereave his mother.
then. Sunni Muslims say that this denial of Muhammad's death was occasioned by his deep love for him. let them know that Muhammad is dead. While Abu Bakr refused to accept Umar's opinion and Umar continue insisting for Khalid disposal even after Khalid's conquest of Iraq. He was confirmed in the office thereafter. Though at the beginning due to the apprehensive situation in Arabia Umar was opposing the military operations against the rebel tribes. let them know that God is alive and never dies. Umar then fell down on his knees in great sense of sorrow and acceptance of the reality.
Appointment as a Caliph
Due to his strict and autocratic nature. If.or killed."
Ab Bakr then recited these verses from the Qur'an:
"Muhammad is but a messenger. This became a major issue between Abu Bakr and Umar and a spacious chapter in Islamic history. messengers (the like of whom) have passed away before him. but later he seemed to agree with Abu Bakr's warlike strategies to crush rebellion. probably was the architect and main strategist behind the collapse of rebellion in Arabia. Umar would mostly adopt the policy of avoiding wars and consolidating his power in the conquered land rather than expanding his empire through continuous warfare. his successor. Later during his own reign. the most senior disciple of Muhammad. Khalid ibn Walid by late 632 had successfully united Arabia after consecutive victories against rebels. a rebel chief who was a state criminal. It is said that Umar promised to strike the head of any man who would say that Muhammad died. accordingly succession of Umar was initially discouraged by high ranking companions of Abu Bakr. Prior to Battle of Yamamah. Umar was reportedly misguided by Malik's brother that Malik was a Muslim and Khalid killed him because he wanted to marry his wife Layla bint al-Minhal. Umar was one of his chief advisers and secretary. Nevertheless. Abu Bakr decided to make Umar.
Hearing this from Abu Bakr. and whoever worshipped God. a renowned beauty in Arabia.
. Abu Bakr appointed Umar as his successor prior to his death in 634. Umar pressured Abu Bakr to call back Khalid. he dies or is killed. after the death of 300 memorizers of Quran in Battle of Yamamah. who had killed Malik ibn Nuwayrah. will you turn back on your heel?". It was Umar who advised Abu Bakr to compile Quran in the form of a book.
Caliph Abu Bakr's era
During Abu Bakr's short reign as caliph he mostly remained occupied with Ridda wars. At this point Abu Bakr is reported to have come out to the Muslim community and gave his famous speech which included:
"Whoever worshipped Muhammad. Umar was not a very popular figure among the notables of Madinah and members of Majlis al Shura. it was to enjoy their support in case of any possible foreign invasion by Romans or Persian. Umar along with Khalid ibn Walid. Umar was still well known for his extraordinary will power.
 On Friday prayers Umar addressed the people as follows:
Brethren.. impartiality. He has the satisfaction that he has successfully piloted the ship of the Muslim state to safety after negotiating the stormy sea. He successfully waged the apostasy wars.. After Abu Bakr...
Reign as Caliph
On 22 August Caliph Abu Bakr died. follow me. In the performance of my duties. Abu Bakr before his death called Uthman to write his will in which he declared Umar his successor. If I deviate from the right path. and will follow the examples set by the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr's decision would prove to be crucial in the strengthening of the nascent Islamic empire.
.. I will tell him that I have appointed the best man among your men.. The first challenge for Umar was to win out his subjects and members of Majlis al Shura.. I will be most soft and tender. In this task I seek your assistance. know ye brethren that you will feel a change in me. Islam is now supreme in Arabia. nevertheless he was rather more feared than loved. the mantle of Caliphate has fallen on my shoulders. the responsibility for leading the Muslims has come to vest in me.  Initial challenges
Umar was already not an endearing figure in Medina. The same day Umar assumed the office of Caliphate. and will make an earnest effort to discharge the onerous duties of the office to the best of my capacity in accordance with the injunctions of Islam.intelligence. After the assumption of office as the Caliph. But now that in national interest. Although almost all of the Muslims had given pledge of loyalty to him. I wished that it would have devolved on some other person more worthy than me. Umar addressed the Muslims in his Inaugural address as:
"O ye faithful! Abu Bakr is no more amongst us.. Whoever has said this is not wrong in his assessment. I will seek guidance from the Holy Book. His was perhaps one of the smoothest transitions to power from one authority to another in the Muslim lands. and he would use his ability to get a soft corner in the hearts of people. Allah has examined me from you and you from me. political astuteness. it has come to my notice that the people are afraid of me. they say that he (Umar) has become the Caliph now. Umar was a gifted orator. For those who practise tyranny and deprive others of their rights. I assure you that I will not run away from my post. and thanks to him.
Abu Bakr was fully aware of Umar's power and ability to succeed him. If I will be asked by the God to whom I have appointed my successor.. but for those who follow the law. Succession of Umar was thus not as troublesome as any of the others. correct me so that we are not led astray. God knows how hard he will be. justice and care for poor and underprivileged people. Abu Bakr is reported to have said to the high-ranking advisers:
His (Umar's) strictness was there because of my softness when the weight of Caliphate will be over his shoulders he will remain no longer strict. In his will he instructed Umar to continue the conquests on Iraq and Syrian fronts. I swear it before God that I never coveted this office. I will be harsh and stern. If I follow the right path.
Other officers at the provincial level were:
1. until I have vindicated for him his rights. where the sovereign political authority was the Caliph. Umar took a bold decision of retrieving Khalid ibn Walid from supreme command on Roman front. that had accepted the suzerainty of the Caliphate. delivered to him his disputed estates in Khayber.
Umar's stress was on the well being of poor and underprivileged people. Provinces were further divided into districts. As this class made a bulk of any community. Umar ordered the general amnesty for the prisoners. Each district or main city was under the charge of a junior governor or Wali. I will put my cheek on the ground. We did not think it unlikely that as-Sakinah (the Divine Presence) spoke with the tongue of µUmar. but occasionally they were also appointed by the provincial governor. the Military Secretary. the Revenue Collector. I will not calm down until I will put one cheek of a tyrant on the ground and the other under my feet. said: When the right-acting are mentioned then begin with µUmar. At-Tabarani narrated it in al-Awsat. This made Umar quite a popular among the budoiene tribes. With necessary public support with him. The selection of which was made personally by Umar. but I will be a pillar of strength for the weak. The empire of Umar was divided into provinces and some autonomous territories like in some regions Azerbaijan and Armenia.
 Ali's View for Umar
Ali. The provinces were administered by the provincial governors or Wali. Though he followed Abu Bakr's decision over the dispute of land of Fidak. may Allah be pleased with him.
The following are the historic words of Umar. continued its status as a state property.Umar's addresses greatly moved the people. Katib-ud-Diwan. he that is weakest among you shall be in my eye the strongest. who was very fastidious in it. and their immediate emancipation. until he complies with the law. Sahib-ul-Kharaj. 3. usually appointed by Umar himself. he that is strongest I will treat as the weakest. the people were soundly moved by Umar's speeches and his popularity grew rapidly and continuously over the period of his reign. 2. In Ridda wars. in order to improve his reputation and relation with Banu Hashim. Katib. thousands of prisoners from rebel and apostate tribes were taken away as slaves during the expeditions. In addition to this Umar. and for the poor and weak. the tribe of Prophet Muhammad and Ali.
. over which he laid foundation of his rule:
 Political and civil administration
The government of Umar was more or less a unitary government. Next time he addressed the people as:
I will be harsh and stern against the aggressor. there were about 100 districts in the empire. the Chief Secretary.
5. and charged in Umar's administrative court.4. Syria was a province. On occasions the officers against whom complaints were received were summoned to Medina.
. I have sent you as leaders instead. In important cases Muhammad ibn Maslamah was deputed by Umar to proceed to the spot. This department acted as Administrative court. one of Umar's most trusted men. One of Umar's most powerful department was his intelligence department of secret services[dubious ± discuss]. Umar divided Palestine in two provinces Aylya and Ramallah. though the Governor (Wali) was in most cases the Commander-in-chief of the army quartered in the province. Sahib-Bait-ul-Mal.
1. Jazira was a province. the Police chief. in the bureaucracy and in the enemy land. In the upper reaches of the Tigris and the Euphrates. 3. in the army. and read the instrument of instructions before them. In order to minimize the chances of corruption. Azarbaijan and Fars. Do not praise them unduly. Under Umar the empire was divided into the following provinces.
Umar was first to established a special department for the investigation of complaints against the officers of the State. the Treasury Officer. Umar made it a point to pay high salaries to the staff. the Chief Judge. Egypt was divided into two provinces. the Governor was required to assemble the people in the main mosque. 6. The principal officers were required to come to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj. Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Sahib-ul-Ahdath.
In some districts there were separate military officers. for that is tyranny over them. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. investigate the charge and take action. Provincial governor received as much as five to seven thousand dirham annually besides their shares of the spoils of war (if they were also the commander in chief of the army of their sector). Qadi. Umar's general instructions to his officers were:
"Remember. Basra and Kufa."
Various other strict code of conducts were to be obeyed by the governors and state officials. Khorasan. lest they fall into the error of conceit. 4. And do not behave as if you were superior to them. lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. Iraq was divided into two provinces. Arabia was divided into two provinces. Every appointment was made in writing. 7. His agents were everywhere. Umar's iron fist rule on his empire. Mecca and Medina. On assuming office. 2. where the legal proceedings were personally led by Umar. during which people were free to present any complaint against them. 5. The Department was under the charge of Muhammad ibn Maslamah. For the officials of Umar it was said to be the most fearsome department[dubious ± discuss]. Persia was divided into three provinces. 6. At the time of appointment an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the conduct of Governors. Sometimes an Inquiry Commission was constituted to investigate the charge. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces. so that the people may follow your example. is often credited to this institution . I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people.
he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. Umar was the first to introduce the public ministry system. Fezzan. He was first to establish army as a state department. He was the first to discipline the people when they became disordered. he decreed that the Islamic calendar should be counted from the year of the Hijra of Muhammad from Mecca to Madinah. the garrison cities (amsar) of Basra and Kufa were founded or expanded. Azerbaijan. Persia. the Islamic jurisprudence. He established an advanced administration for the newly conquered lands.
 Military expansion
It is widely believed that Umar stressed more on consolidating his power and political influence in the conquered land. Cyrenaica. rather than pursuing conquests. Armenia. He is regarded by Sunni Muslims to be one of the greatest Faqih. he also began to build the political structure that would hold together the vast empire that was being built. after the conquest of Syria. Umar as a jurist started the process of codifying Islamic Law. a financial institution and started annual state sponsored allowance for the poor Muslims in Makkah and Al Madinah. Eastern Anatolia. Later however Umar regretted this decision. his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year 17 since the Hijra. The Islamic empire grew at an unprecedented rate. he established Bayt al-mal. He issued orders that these Christians and Jews should be treated well and allotted them the equivalent land in their new settlements. While under his leadership. During his rule. and ordered a census of all the Muslim territories. In 639. Accordiong to one estimate more than 4050 cities were captured during these military conquest. 'Umar was known for his simple. he extended and renovated the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) in Mecca and the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina. his most successful general due to his every growing fame and influence.
Umar is regarded as one of the greatest political geniuses in history. austere lifestyle. Caucasus and Makran were annexed to Islamic Empire. Umar also ordered the expulsion of the Christian and Jewish communities of Najran and Khaybar allowing them to reside in Syria or Iraq. Tripolitania. including several new ministries and bureaucracies. A year later he also started allowance for the poor. As a leader. Nevertheless under Umar. In 641.Umar was a pioneer in some affairs:
1. In 638. almost the whole of the Sassanid Persian Empire including Bactria. In 638. He was the first to appoint police forces to keep civil order. 3. Umar also forbade non-Muslims to reside in the Hejaz for longer than three days. Umar dismissed Khalid. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time. The military conquest were partially terminated between 638±639 during the years of great famine and plague in Arabia and Levant respectively. During his reign the Levant. where the records of officials and soldiers were kept. He undertook many administrative reforms and closely oversaw public policy. Umar had ceased all military expeditions apparently to consolidate his rule in Egypt and the newly conquered
. Egypt. the empire was expanding at a unprecedented rate. Umar was founder of Fiqh. 2. He also kept a record system that had the messages he sent to Governors and heads of states. Prior to his death in 644. underprivileged and old nonMuslim citizens of the empire.
he was received by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah. Umar personally supervised the rehabilitation of the displaced people. Palestine and Syria to take the supply caravans to the desert settlements deeper into Arabia. many districts in Syria and Palestine were devastated by plague. at Elat. By early 639 conditions begun to improve. Abu Ubaidah died in 639 due to plague.
 The great plague
While famine was ending in Arabia.
 Marriage to Ali bin Abu Talib's daughter Umm Kulthum
It is accepted by Sunni sources that Umar bin Khattab married Ali bin Abu Talib's daughter Umm Kulthum. At his death in November 644. and Umar wrote to the provincial governors of Syria. Soon the reserves of food at Madinah began to decline. Bedouin people began to die because of hunger and epidemic disease. The timely aid of Umar's governors saved the lives of thousands of people through out Arabia.
Later. They were given adequate amounts of rations and were exempted from payment of zakat for that year and the next year. governor of Syria. The first governor to respond was Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah. A state of emergency was declared in Madinah and Arabia. the governor of Syria and supreme commander of Rashidun army. After the plague had weakened in late 639 Umar visited Syria for political and administrative re-organization.000 Muslims in Syria.Sassanid Empire (642±644). In sunni sources it is mentioned that Umar asked for her hand because of a hadith he heard from Muhammad. who informed him about plague and its intensity and he was suggest to go back to Madinah. Umar tried to persuade Abu Ubaidah to come with him to Madinah but he denied to leave his troops in that critical situation. the domain of his rule extended from present day Libya in west to the Indus river in east and the Oxus river in north. Hundreds of thousands of people from all over Arabia gathered at Madinah where food was rationed. While Umar was on his way to visit Syria. which was headed personally by Umar. Arabia fell into severe drought followed by a famine. which also cost the life of 25. Arabia received precipitation and as soon as the famine ended. which in turn saved millions from starvation. Once an adequate supply of rations reached Madinah. Palestine and Iraq for aid. which according to one estimate had attendance of more than hundred thousand people. Shi'ah believe that the wife of Umar was Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr. Umar dispatched his men to the routes of Iraq. He sent a historic letter to Umar saying
I am sending you the Caravans whose one end will be here at Syria and the other will be at Madinah. as most of the veteran commanders and governors had died of plague. Umar hosted a dinner every night at Madinah. For internally displaced people.
 The great famine
In the year 638. Abu Ubaidah paid a personal visit to Madinah and acted as an officer of Disaster management cell. "Every lineage and means will be severed on the Day of Judgment except my
 3. There were Persian children slaves in Madina.) married his daughter to such a person´. In October 644 Umar went for Hajj in Mecca. but his conversion is generally doubted by the Shi'ite scholars. the assassins started the hoopla of Umar's possible death that year. The Imam. who was also a foster brother of Saad ibn Abi Waqqas. It is related that when Umar stood at Mount Arafat he heard a voice saying:
"O Caliph. The assassination was planned several months earlier. 4. He will never come here again. Ja'far al-Sadiq (a. Piruzan."
During one of rituals of Hajj. never again will you stand on the Mount of Arafat". before the Fajrprayers (the morning prayers before the dawn) Abu Lulu will enter Al-Masjid alNabawi. He was Persian Commander in Chief and was captured and brought to Umar at Madinah where to save his life he apparently converted to Islam. "Whoever holds such a viewpoint is misled. at zenith of his power." Umar wanted to be closer to Muhammad. Hormuzan. 2. and the massive crowd of the congregation was used by the conspirators as a veil to hide themselves.
In 644. One of Umar's advisors.
It was Abu Lulu who was assigned the mission of assassinating Umar. in response to the Muslim conquest of Persia. This Umar sees eaten my heart.s.
. therefore requested Ali's daughter. I will take his heart out. a former Jewish Rabbi." Shi'ah believe that Umm Kulthum bint Ali (a. Jafinah. Seeing them. former governors of Busra. who was until then sitting down. His assassination was carried out by a Persian. which he accepted. he was slave of Mughira ibn Shu'ba the then governor of Busra. Umar was assassinated. ³People claim that Ali (a.s. some one threw a stone on Umar that wounded his head.). Amongst the conspirators was:
1.) was married on only one occasion. According to the plan.lineage and my means. Firoz is quoted saying:
You have been enslaved at such a tender age. the Ramy al-Jamarat (stoning of the Devil). the main mosque of Madinah where Umar led the prayers and will attack Umar during the prayers. Jabir bin Mutaam is reported to have said:
We saw a man standing at the top of the hill and crying 'Verily that is the last Hajj of Umar. the Christian Arab from Iraq. who apparently had converted to Islam.s. the alleged mastermind of the plot. and will flee or will mix with the congregation at mosque. stood up and said angrily. and that was to µAun ibn Ja'far. Ka'ab al-Ahbar. popularly known as Abu Lulu.
A companion of Umar. a voice was heard that Umar will not attend the Hajj ever again. Umar ibn Adheena asked the Sh µah Im m.
On 3 November 644. I instruct you to be good to the Dhimmis for they are your responsibility. They contribute to our revenues. In the distribution of booty and other matters be above nepotism. Be simple in your living and your habits. he was buried next to Al-Masjid al-Nabawi alongside Muhammad and Caliph Abu Bakr by the permission of Aisha. Umar died of the wounds three days later on Sunday. be good to them. it may tempt you. They should be taxed only on their surplus wealth. make one for me as well. See that all the legitimate requirements of the people are met. and seek light from God. In the matter of administration do not prefer the rich to the poor. Be concerned for their welfare. Those who are strong but do wrong. In a sullen mood. Let there be no show or ostentation about you. and in all that you do keep His pleasure in view. Firoz said. owning to his daily income. Freely consult the wise men around you. They are the outer line of our defense. that proved fatal. Do not tax them beyond their capacity. Ensure the safety of their person and property. they are the target of the anger and distress of our enemies. As you are the leader of the Muslims. The Satan is at large. he in his efforts to escape is reported to have wounded twelve other people. Take strong steps to guard the frontiers. Treat all the people as equal. those who are bad overlook their lapses. Be gracious to the Bedouins as they are the backbone of the Arab nation. Umar is reported to have left the following testament:
Be kind and generous to the Muhajirun and the Ansar. Umar wrote to Mughirah and inquired about the tax. With regard to the people. Apply your own mind in difficult cases. Rise above all temptations and perform your duties in accordance with the injunctions of Islam. May God bless you. Abu Lulu stabbed him six times in the belly and last on the navel. Umar than is reported to have asked Abu Lulu:
I heard that you make windmills. Lead life as a model Muslim. Ensure that they pay the Jizya without undue inconvenience. " Verily I will make such a mill for you. and in the matter of Allah do not be afraid of the people. make them pay for their wrong-doings. See that the frontiers of our domains are not violated. Umar was left profusely bleeding while Abu Lulu tried to flee but people from all sides rushed to capture him. Those out of them who are good. Get guidance from the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Let no consideration of relationship or selfish interest weigh with you. Show them no mercy. At last he was captured but committed suicide from the same dagger. Be a pillar of strength for those who are weak and oppressed. justify your leadership by being the best among them all. while leading the morning prayers. that whole world would remember it ". I enjoin upon you to administer justice with an even hand. Umar was attacked.
. six or nine of them later died. Mughirah's reply was satisfactory Umar held that the tax charged from Abu Lulu was reasonable. Do not rest content until you have brought the miscreants to book.
As per Umar's will. In the matter of people fear God. Fear God. Be hard against those who violate the law. 7 November 644. Be good to the people of the conquered lands.Abu Lulu brought a conjectural complaint to Umar about the high tax charged from him by his master Mughirah.