Hyderabad

The X Development Convention on

Millennium Development Goals:
Performance, Prospects and Challenges for South India
Under the aegis of the Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi 3-4 March 2011

We are happy to bring out this volume that contains the highlights of the Convention and hope this gives not only an account of its proceedings, but also stimulate further research in the performance, prospects and challenges for India in achieving the MDGs.
Prof RK Mishra Convention Chair

Dr Jayasree Raveendran Convention Convenor

The Making of the Convention

The Institute of Public Enterprise (IPE) takes pride in having organized and hosted the X Development Convention on ‘Millennium Development Goals: Performance, Prospects and Challenges for South India’ on 3-4 March 2011 at the Institute’s premises, under the aegis of the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR). In September 2010, when IPE got the opportunity and decided to host the Development Convention, the obvious choice of its theme was ‘Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs), given the universal thrust, significance, time, need for an assessment and the responsibility of an academic institution to provide a platform for deliberating on topical issues. The UN Millennium Declaration has set 2015 as the timeline for achieving most of the MDGs, which provide quantitative benchmarks for eradication of extreme poverty, hunger, illiteracy and diseases apart from achieving gender equality and empowerment of women, environmental sustainability and global partnership for development. Affirming its commitment to the MDGs, India has set the following targets for itself, to be achieved by 2015: • Halve the proportion of population below national poverty line (Goal 1) • Halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger (Goal 1)

• All boys and girls, alike, to complete a full course of primary education (Goal 2) • Eliminate gender disparity in all levels of education (Goal 3) • Reduce the under-five mortality rate by twothirds (Goal 4) • Reduce the maternal mortality ratio by threequarters (Goal 5) • Reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS (Goal 6) • Reverse the spread of malaria and other major diseases (Goal 6) • Reverse the loss of environmental resources (Goal 7) • Halve the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation (Goal 7) • Achieve a significant improvement in the lives of slum dwellers (Goal 7) • In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication (Goal 8) As South India has made considerably faster progress than the rest of the country in terms of achieving the above MDG targets, the Development Convention was specifically focused on South India.

IPE’s Organizing Committee immediately got down to disseminating information about the Convention to a large number of stakeholders, and began inviting participation from policymakers, Government departments, researchers, academicians, corporates and NGOs. The response was overwhelming, with as many as 91 abstracts of research papers received from across the globe. Members of the Steering Committee of the Convention met on 31 January 2011 and classified the discussion topics under the following eight Technical Sessions: • Health, Poverty and Employment • Primary Education • Food Security • Women’s Empowerment • Technology & Development • Sustainable Development • SHGs & Women’s Empowerment • Gender Disparity & Social Development

In all, 61 papers were presented over the two days, where the Technical Session Chairs ably added value to the discussions. There was also a Doctoral Colloquium on the following: • Development Issues in Health & Education • Development Issues in Agriculture & Environment Protection Select papers were published and two books were released during the Convention: • ‘Millennium Development Goals: The Indian Journey’ deals with the present status and the proximity to the achievement of MDGs in India. • ‘Millennium Development Goals and India: Cases Assessing Performance, Prospects and Challenges’ documents case studies on various MDG focus areas with a specific reference to South Indian states, apart from select studies of other Indian states.

The Inaugural Session
The Inauguration Session of the Convention had the esteemed presence of dignitaries representing the Government, Public Enterprises and academia. Delegates and paper presenters from all over India participated.

Dr Prajapati Trivedi (Secretary, Performance Management, Government of India) spoke on ‘Performance Monitoring and Evaluation System’, arousing spontaneous excitement coupled with the realization of the importance and mechanism of performance monitoring and evaluation in an objective manner. He observed that India is behind its MDG timelines due to ineffective delivery of public services, weak accountability systems, and gaps in implementation. Dr Prajapati Trivedi highlighted the following key points: • Countries can be classified according to their ability to implement policies and programs • Implementation depends on effective follow-up, Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) and ResultsBased Management.
Dr Prajapati Trivedi addressing the participants.

Prof RK Mishra welcoming the invitees.

Guest of Honor Prof Datuk Dr Zabid Abdul Rashid addressing the participants.

• Effectiveness of follow-up and monitoring depends on quality and not quantity of M&E. Effective evaluation requires explicit rankings. • Degree of Accountability for results is synonymous with Evaluation. • Evaluation techniques for management control in government are different from evaluation techniques for strategic control. • The three systems required for performance improvement are Evaluation, Information and Incentive systems. • Accountability for results trickles down. • Performance Evaluation is different from Performance Explanation and Performance Monitoring.

Prof RK Mishra (Director, IPE and Convention Chair) welcomed the gathering and Dr Jayasree Raveendran (Asst Professor, IPE and Convention Convenor) presented the Convention theme and details of the Technical Sessions.

Prof Datuk Dr Zabid Abdul Rashid (President and VC, UNIRAZAK, Malaysia and CEO, Tun Abdul Razak Education Foundation) elaborated the MDGs in the context of Malaysia, which has shown commendable progress in moving towards them. The country’s economy has especially fared well in reduction of poverty, health care and education. The Convention also witnessed the signing of an MoU between IPE and UNIRAZAK.

Perceptions that government agencies do not deliver on what is expected of them have three influencers – the Results, the Citizens’ Charter and the Grievance Redress Mechanism. The influencers’ magnitude is as follows: At the beginning of each financial year, with the approval of the Minister concerned, each Department prepares a Results-Framework Document (RFD) consisting of the priorities set out by the Ministry, agenda spelt out in the manifesto if any, President’s Address, and announcements / agenda spelt out by the Government from time to time. The Minister decides the inter-se priority among the departmental objectives. After six months, the achievements of each Ministry / Department are reviewed by a Committee on Government Performance and the goals reset, taking into account the priorities at that time. This enables factoring in unforeseen circumstances such as droughts / natural calamities / epidemics. At the end of the year, all Ministries / Departments list their achievements against the agreed results in a report, which is finalized by the 1st of May. Dr Trivedi also highlighted the system design, capacity building and implementation parameters.

Prof RK Mishra (IPE) and Prof Zabid Abdul Rashid (UNIRAZAK) signing the MoU.

Prof Lata Mallikarjun (English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad) and other dignitaries released the following publications: • ‘Millennium Development Goals: The Indian Journey’. • ‘Millennium Development Goals and India: Cases Assessing Performance, Prospects and Challenges’.
Prof Lata Mallikarjun (left) releasing the book on ‘Millennium Development Goals: The Indian Journey’.

In his Presidential address, Mr Rana Som (CMD, National Mineral Development Corporation Limited) observed that poverty is the basic reason for distress in communities and income generation in a systematic, inclusive and sustainable manner had to be thought of. He reiterated the challenges that a mining company like NMDC faces and how it strives to address issues poverty reduction and environment protection. He also highlighted the responsibility of corporates in helping India achieving the MDGs and paving the way for prosperity.

Mr Rana Som making his Presidential Address.

• Journal of Governance and Public Policy. • Journal of Managerial Finance and Prof Lata Mallikarjun addressing Research. the gathering Ms J Kiranmai (Asst Professor, IPE) proposed the vote of thanks.

The Technical Sessions
The eight Technical Sessions saw 61 papers being presented by representatives from various organizations including CESS, CSD, CDS, ISEC, NIRD, NEUPA, IIT-M, University of Allahabad, Rajasthan, Jaipur, Jammu, Madras, Anna University, Pondicherry University, Delhi, Kerala, Pune, Mumbai and JBIMS.
The Technical Sessions deliberated on the following issues: • Health, Poverty and Employment The session covered issues such as livelihoods, non-farm sector opportunities, working children’s health and rights, rational resource allocation in health planning, and HIV prevalence in Indian states. Prof Manoj Panda (Center for Economic & Social Studies, Hyderabad) and Prof NJ Kurien (Council for Social Development, Delhi) chaired the session. • Primary Education Issues covered in the session included universalization of primary education, child rights, elementary education, abolition of child labour, effectiveness of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, and teacher empowerment. Ms Chandana Khan, IAS and Prof R Siva Prasad (Council for Social Development, Hyderabad) chaired the session. • Food Security The session deliberated on issues such as food security, assessing NREGS, targeted PDS in India, and food security for the needy through religious institutions. Prof Surjit Singh (Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur) and Prof Kamaiah (University of Hyderabad) chaired the session. • Women’s Empowerment Issues discussed in the session included female agricultural workers, their economic status and freedom of movement, women empowerment strategies, gender gaps and gender budgeting. The session was chaired by Prof Manju Singh (Council for Social Development, Hyderabad) and Prof Meera Lal (BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus). • Technology & Development The session covered issues such as gender equality in basic education through ICT, accelerating financial inclusion through mobile phone technology, role of ICT in women empowerment, and environmental governance in India. Prof Bhanoji Rao (Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore) and Prof Khan Masood Ahmad (Jamia Millia Islamia) chaired the session. • Sustainable Development Issues discussed in the session included land redistribution & economic wellbeing, accounting for biomass usage in tobacco curing in India, organic farming for sustainable agriculture development, and village tourism. Prof Naresh Kumar Sharma (University of Hyderabad) chaired the session. • SHGs & Women’s Empowerment The session debated on issues such as the role of micro-finance in women empowerment, empowering rural women through SHGs, and self-help marketing. Prof C Vijayasree (OU Center for International Programs, Hyderabad) chaired the session. • Gender Disparity & Social Development Issues discussed in the session included gender disparity in education, multi-dimensional poverty index, increasing access to safe drinking water with financial viability, and environment & sociological analysis). Prof Kousar J Azam (OU Center for International Programs, Hyderabad) chaired the session. The Session Chairs steered the deliberations very systematically, highlighting methodological and implementation challenges in research in MDGs. The sessions comprehensively covered various facets of MDGs, critically assessing the performance, prospects and challenges before India. The paper presenters cited instances of problems faced in reality, case studies, empirical evidences and analysis of the reports of various agencies concerned with MDG monitoring and evaluation. Significant observations that emerged at the Technical Sessions included: • Mechanism of supply of staple food grains and other essential items at subsidized prices. • Employment in hazardous areas which needed a re-look on sustaining livelihoods. • Persistence of excess of rural over urban infant mortality in India. • Need for state-specific policies and interventions to arrest the spread of HIV/AIDS. • Some regional cultures promote practices that deter empowerment, especially of women. • The main problems are with implementation, and not the policy. • Rampant corruption and political interference. • Need for technology to reach rural India, in order to promote inclusive growth. A common hindrance pointed out was the lack of availability of updated macro-economic data where research agencies had a crucial role to play. Social science research still suffers from funding problems and resultant constraints in the quality and coverage of the issues, especially the ones pertaining to analysis of MDGs where the scope is vast and issues are deep. Methodological rigor was also felt to be the need of the day to enhance the intrinsic quality of research work. Measurement parameters had to be in place to make monitoring and evaluation more effective. Requirements for Achieving MDGs: • Implementation mechanisms • Performance consciousness • Accountability framework • Result orientation • Need for objectivity in various activities • CSR activities by private firms can aid significantly in the achievement of the MDGs.

A Technical Session in Progress

Doctoral Colloquium
Spread over two sessions, the Doctoral Colloquium covered the following issues: Development Issues in Health & Education Chaired by Dr Suresh Deman (Centre for Economics and Finance, UK). Development Issues in Agriculture & Environment Protection Chaired by Dr Stephen D’Silva (JBIMS, Mumbai).
Doctoral students interacting with Dr Suresh Deman.

The Valedictory Session

Award Winning Papers
The following three best papers presented at the Convention received special awards:
HIV Prevalence in High HIV Prevalence States in India: Patterns & Distribution Mr Saravana Kumar (CDS, Thiruvananthapuram)
Prof RK Mishra making his Concluding Remarks.

Way to Women Entrepreneurship: A Model of Marketing and Distribution of Eveready LED Torches by Rural Women Ms Kavita Laghate and Dr Stephen D’Silva (JBIMS) Area-Based vs. People-Based Targeting: Bringing Optimal Results from Rational Resource Allocation in Health Planning Mr Dipin Gupta and Mr Sony Pellisery (IRMA, Gujarat)

The Convention ended on a high note, with the Valedictory Session being held in the presence of eminent personalities from India and abroad. The Session started with a Welcome Address by Dr Jayasree Raveendran (Asst Professor, IPE and Convention Convener). The Convention Report was presented by Dr Shubhra Hajela (Asst Professor, IPE). Dr Vijaya Sree (Director, OUCIP, Hyderabad) highlighted that issues like language and communication contribute significantly to the success of MDGs. Ms Shalini Mishra Iyer, IAS, spoke about the missing links between the current development and MDGs in achieving goals. Dr Suresh Deman (Center for Economics and Finance, UK) spoke about the importance of ‘Game Theory’ in income generation.

Prof Datuk Dr Md Zabid Abdul Rashid (President and VC, UNIRAZAK, Malaysia) stressed upon priority issues and resource management in India, for which income is required. Padmabhushan Mr K Padmanabhaiah, IAS (Retd), spoke on reducing poverty by devising MDG policies and strategies. He emphasized that implementation plays a vital role after the policies are devised, and that research should focus more on implementation challenges and issues. Mr Shekhar Agarwal (President, FAPCCI) focused on the essential factors in ensuring India’s growth, for which discipline is a crucial factor. He observed that South India has high potential in terms of literacy, income levels and infrastructure. To facilitate this, government money should reach the stakeholders. Prof RK Mishra (Director, IPE and Convention Chair) gave the concluding remarks, and Ms Punam Singh (Asst Professor, IPE) proposed the vote of thanks.

Mr Saravana Kumar receiving an award for his paper ‘HIV Prevalence in High HIV Prevalence States in India: Patterns and Distribution’.

Ms Kavita Laghate and Dr Stephen D‘Silva receiving an award for their paper ‘Way to Women Entrepreneurship: A Model of Marketing and Distribution of Eveready LED Torches by Rural Women’.

Acknowledgements
ICSSR Steering Committee • Dr Lakshmanan (MIDS, Chennai) • Dr R Siva Prasad (CSD, Hyderabad) • Dr Vijayamohanan Pillai (CDS, Thiruvananthapuram) • Prof Manoj Panda (CESS, Hyderabad) • Prof KS James (ISEC, Bengaluru) Sponsor GAIL Ltd. Organizing Committee • Dr Resmi Ann Thomas • Dr Shubhra Hajela • Ms J Kiranmai • Ms Punam Singh • Ms Lalitha Shanthkumar • Mr K Srinivas Administrative Support • Mr Ch Upender • Mr Gokul Goverdhan • Other faculty and staff of IPE • IPE Publication Division

Mr Shekhar Agarwal delivering his Chief Guest Address.

Padmabhushan Mr K Padmanabhaiah, IAS (Retd), addressing the gathering.

Media Partner Indian Express - Edex Design and Graphics Wide Reach Advertising Pvt. Ltd.

Feedback
The convention was well received by the participants, who found the deliberations very useful. Indian Express - Edex was the ‘Media Partner’ for the Convention, which received wide press coverage in several national publications and news channels including The Hindu, Business Standard, Business Line, Andhra Jyoti, Andhra Prabha, Hindi Milap, Eenadu, Sakshi, Vaartha and Raj News.

Publishers Allied Publishers

The Student Organizing Committee with Prof RK Mishra (Director, IPE)

Papers presented during the Convention
Livelihoods Issues & Concerns in the Bauxite Mining Area of AP Prajna Paramita Mishra
Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Hyderabad

Application of NREGA in Paddy Field for Improving Food Security in Kerala: A Theoretical Analysis AD Manikandan
Research Associate, Centre for Wage Employment & Poverty Alleviation, NIRD

Implications of Cosmopolitanism & Rights-Based Approach on MDGs: Ensuring Gender Equality in Basic Education through ICT A Josephine A
PhD Scholar, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, IIT-Madras

Prof M Gopinath Reddy
Research Unit for Livelihoods & Natural Resources, CESS, Hyderabad

Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index: Relevance and Application in the Indian Context Dr P Sivakumar
Asst Professor, Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Chennai

Can Non-Farm Sector Contribute More for Rural India? Opportunities and Choices D Swati Jain
Guest Faculty, Department of Economics, University of Allahabad

Food Insecurity in India: Problems & Remedies Dr K Vidyasagar Reddy
Research Associate, Department of Political Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad

Review of Environmental Governance in India: Cataloguing of the Current Initiatives Ramakrishna Nallathiga
Knowledge Manager - Infrastructure & Environment, Centre for Good Governance, Hyderabad

Dr MB Dhanya
Asst Professor, Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Chennai

Food Security: The Contemporary Multi-Dimensional Issue Kulkarni Sharad Raghunath
Faculty of Management, Sanjay Bhokare Group of Institutes, Miraj

Environment & Dange Dhangars: A Sociological Analysis Prabhakar Draxe
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Dr Ghali College, Maharashtra

Working Children’s Health and Rights C Balaramalingam
Research Scholar, Department of Sociology, Pondicherry University

Dr C Aruna
Asst Professor, Department of Sociology, Pondicherry University

Issues of Food Security & Targeted Public Distribution System in India: A Review L Reddeppa
Asst Professor, Council for Social Development, Hyderabad

Accelerating Financial Inclusion through Mobile Phone Technology: Opportunities, Challenges & Policy Options for India Dr Sumanjeet
Asst Professor, Department of Commerce, University of Delhi

Eliminating Gender Disparity in Primary Education: Performance, Prospects & Challenges in AP and Tamil Nadu Prof SN Tripathy
GIPE, Pune

Area-Based vs. People-Based Targeting: Bringing Optimal Results from Rational Resource Allocation in Health Planning Mr Dipin Gupta
Institute of Rural Management, Anand, Gujarat

Role of ICT in Women Empowerment in India Dr T Satyanarayana Chary
Head - Department of Commerce, Telangana University, Nizamabad

A Concept Note on Food Security for the Needy Through Religious Institutions: With Special Reference to Sri Jagannath Temple, Puri Dr Abhijit Dutta
Professor of Finance and Dean of Mahendra Institute of Management and Technical Studies, Bhubaneswar

Neelakantam Tatikonda
Associate Professor, SV College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad

Improving PHC Performance: The Key to Meet MDGs Primary Health Care in South India: Role of Health Care Professionals Sumathi GN, TJ Kamalanabhan and M Thenmozhi
IIT-Madras

Mr Sony Pellissery
Institute of Rural Management, Anand, Gujarat

HIV Prevalence in High HIV Prevalence States in India: Patterns & Distribution R Saravana Kumar
Research Scholar, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram

Rethinking Development-Globalization Dichotomy Tanvir Aeijaz
Former Head - Department of Political Science), Ramjas College, Delhi University

Dr Usha Jumani
Independent Management Consultant and an Alumnus of IIM-Ahmedabad

A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Quality of Emergency Obstetric Care S Rajasulochana
IIT-Madras

Millenium Development Goals (India – Far Away from the Goals) Pujari Sudharsana Reddy Dr G Praveen Kumar
Velangini Institute of Management, Bhogaram

Sustainable Urban Development: The Case of Hyderabad Dr P Padmanabha Rao
Associate Professor, Center for Economic & Social Studies, Hyderabad

Maternity & Employment Policy Issues & Challenges Dr Soumya Vinayan
Asst Professor, Council for Social Development, Hyderabad

K Venkatesh
Associate Professor, Centre for Economic & Social Studies, Hyderabad

Policy Implications on Horizontal Inequalities: Case Analysis of ‘Universalisation of Primary Education’ Among Muslim Women in India Josephine A
IIT-Madras

Child Rights and Elementary Education: Chances and Challenges Ajay Kumar Singh
Senior Program Coordinator, PHRN, Patna

Female Agricultural Workers in Dry Lands of South India P Aparna
Visiting Fellow, Research Unit for Livelihoods & Natural Resources, CESS, Hyderabad

Land Redistribution & Economic Wellbeing: Evidence from South Indian States Gurpreet Singh
M Phil Scholar, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram

CSR in Education of the Under-Privileged: A Study of Top Companies in IT / ITES, Manufacturing and Banking Sectors in Tamil Nadu Nimmu Vasanth JSN and Prof MV Supriya
Anna University

Abolition of Child Labour & Universalization of Primary Education through Gram Panchayat: Case Study of Village Patha (Suryapet, AP) Dr CS Singhal
Professor of Psychology & Head, National Institute of Rural Development

Rajeev Sharma
PhD Scholar, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram

Is Economic Status Influencing Freedom of Movement and Women Empowerment in Karnataka? R Mutharayappa
Associate Professor, Population Research Centre, Institute for Social & Economic Change, Bengaluru

Provision of Affordable Quality Elementary Education for all under Sarva Siksha Abhiyan in Tamil Nadu P Geetha Rani
Associate Professor, National University of Educational Planning and Administration

Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture Development in Karnataka: Policy Perspective GB Lokesh
Asst Professor, Institute for Social & Economic Change, Bengaluru

Health, Education and Social Development at Intra-State and Inter-State Level in India Kalyany Shankar
CDS

Women Empowerment Strategies in Kerala: A Critical Analysis MG Mallika
Asst Professor, Zamorin’s Guruvayurappan College, Kerala

GT Maradi
Research Associate, Institute for Social & Economic Change, Bengaluru

The Subsistence Mode of Consumption and Deforestation: A Case Study of Deogarh District of Odisha Sandeep Kumar Kujur
CDS

S Kannappan
Joint Director, Sarva Sikhsa Abhiyan, Chennai

Primary Education in All Southern States by 2015: Comparative Perspective Dr L Krishnaveni
Associate Professor, Siva Sivani Institute of Management, Secunderabad

Way to Women Entrepreneurship: A Model of Marketing & Distribution of Eveready LED Torches by Rural Women Kavita Laghate
Associate Professor, Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, University of Mumbai

Village Tourism: A Way to Sustainable Development & Global Partnership Shipra R Upadhyay
Research Fellow, Department of Archaeology, Deccan College, Pune

Agricultural Changes under Population Pressure: A Case Study of Assam Ashapurna Baruah
CDS

An Evaluation of Programmes for Universalization of Primary Education in India Manoj Kumar Mishra
Economic Officer, Program Evaluation Organization, Planning Commission, Kolkata

Dr Stephen D’Silva
Director, Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, University of Mumbai

Role of Micro-Finance in Empowerment of Self-Employed Women in India Dr Arvind Kumar
Senior Faculty, Department of Commerce, LSR College, New Delhi

Violence in Odisha: Impacting Communities, Cause and Effect: A Critical Review Prof Ashok Rathore Efficacy of National Policy on Land Acquisition Act and Resettlement and Rehabilitation Subhashree Banerjee
CDS

V Ravi
Senior Faculty, Department of Statistics, LSR College, New Delhi

Persuasive Path Towards Non-Formal Primary Education – Case Study in Tamil Nadu JSN Nimmu Vasanth
Research Scholar, Department of Management Studies, Anna University, Chennai

Family Limitation & Women’s Empowerment in the Context of Development Dr TN Bhat
Asst Professor, Population Research Centre, Institute for Social & Economic Change, Bengaluru

Empowerment of Rural Women through SHGs: A Study of South Odisha Dr Krishna Chandra Pradhan
Senior Lecturer - Economics, Khemundi College, Ganjam, Odisha

NREGA to Bridge the Missing Link for Food Security: Improving the Natural Resource Access for Small Land Holders S Sanju and Sony Pellissery
Institute of Rural Management, Anand, Gujarat

Empowerment of Women: A Challenge to the Corporate World Dr PVL Ramana
Plot 4, Survey No 752, Dharmapuri Colony, Uppal, Hyderabad - 500039

A Study on Women Empowerment through SHGs in Karaikudi Taluk (Tamil Nadu) A Oswalt
Head - Institute of Social Work, Adaikalamatha College, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu

Labour Market Dynamics of Kerala: A Gender Perspective Mallika MB
Zamorin’s Guruvayurappan College, Kerala

The Performance and Prospects of Micro-Finance in India Krishna Reddy Chittedi
CDS

Food Insecurity in India: Reality or Myth – A Critical Review Ashok Rathore
Emeritus Professor & Foundation Director - Animal Welfare & Veterinary Science Institute, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences

Women Empowerment Through Micro Finance: An Evidence From Andhra Pradesh Gundeti Ramesh
Faculty, Department of Economics, Satavahana University, Karimnagar, AP

Gender Disparity in Education: The Indian Experience T Neelakantam
SV College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad

Anket Doshi
SV College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad

Sheep Rearing as a Strategy of Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Padmanabha Rao and Srinivas
CESS

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OU Campus, Hyderabad – 500007, AP, India. Ph: +91-40-27098145 / 8937 Fax: +91-40-27095478 www.ipeindia.org

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