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the blending of many diverse traditional Malay heritage mixed with Spanish, American and other Asian cultures. Pre-Hispanic, and non-Christian Philippine cultures are derived from many native traditions of the Austronesian primitive tribes called Malayo-Polynesian or the Malay people. The prehistoric Philippine Mythology and Philippine indigenous culture was later influenced by the Malay cultures of Southeast Asia, accompanied by a mixture of Western-Christianity, Eastern-Islamic, Hinduism and Buddhism tradition. Spanish colonization in the Philippines lasted from 1565 to 1898. Most of that time the islands were governed from Mexico and later directly from Spain. As a result, there is a significant amount of Spanish and Mexican influence in Philippine customs and traditions. Hispanic influences are visible in traditional Philippine folk music and dance, cuisine, festivities, religion, and language, though usually integrated with other influences. The most visible example of this are the Spanish names of Filipinos, which were given through a tax law (see: Alphabetical Catalog of Surnames), the thousands of Spanish loanwords in native languages such as Tagalog and Cebuano, and the majority Catholic religion. Later, the Philippines was a territory of the United States from 1898 until 1946. American influences are evident in the use of the English language, and in contemporary pop culture, such as fast-food, music, film and basketball. Other Asian ethnic groups such as the Chinese and Japanese have been settling in the Philippines since the colonial period and their influence is also present in the popularity of gambling games such mahjong, jueteng, Eskrima and other [[Asian cuisine]. Muslim Filipinos also celebrate their own customs and traditions. These groups follow a Philippine Islamic culture, and other Muslim recreation such as the Kali, Kulintang and Gamelan, are used by Islamic groups in the southern islands of Mindanao and Sulu archipelago. Way of life About two-fifths of the Philippines live in urban areas, while three-fifths of the people live in rural areas, although the proportion of people living in towns and cities is steadily increasing. The majority of the people follow age-old traditions as well as contemporary lifestyles and trends.  Religion in the Philippines Main articles: Religion in the Philippines and Philippine mythology
The Manila Cathedral in Luzon is one of many Christian churches in the country. The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Asia-Pacific, the other being East Timor. Over 90% of the Philippine population are Christians. About 5% Muslims and the rest either practice other religions or practice no religion at all.  Superstition Before the arrival of the Spaniards, and the introduction of Roman Catholicism and Western culture in the 16th century, the indigenous Malayo-Polynesian tribes of the Philippines were adherents of a mixture of Animism, Islam, Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism. Primitive gods and goddesses include "Araw" (Sun) and "Buwan" (moon), who are people who appear to remove tumors and diseased tissue by sticking their hands into a patient's body and extracting human flesh and blood, but leaving the patient scar free. Some see this performance as a sleight of hand false interpretation. Believers accept it as true, and accept it as an alternative healing method, and a way to take advantage of the placebo effect.  Arts of the Philippines Main article: Arts of the Philippines Arts of the Philippines cover a variety of forms of entertainment. Folk art and Primitive art consist of classic and modern features that flourished as a result of European and Indigenous influences.  Literature Main article: Literature of the Philippines The literature of the Philippines illustrates the Prehistory and European colonial legacy of the Philippines, written in both Indigenous and Hispanic writing system. Most of the traditional literatures of the Philippines were written during the Mexican and Spanish period. Philippine literature is written in Spanish, Filipino, Tagalog, English and other native Philippine languages.  Performing Arts  Music Main article: Music in the Philippines
Spanish settlers and Filipinos played a variety of musical instruments. known for his nationalistic themes and the opera singer Jovita Fuentes. Hariraya . Guide to Philippine Cultural and Folk Dances . They performed songs and dances to celebrate festive occasions. Barangay-Barrio. In the southern region of Mindanao. and Fort Santiago theatres.The Philippine Palabuniyan Kulintang musicians performing the Kulintang instruments which is the music of the Maguindanao people. including flutes. the composer Felipe P. Philippine folk dances include the Tinikling and Cariñosa. By the 21st century. Most music genres are contemporary such as Filipino rock. Singkil is a popular dance showcasing the story of a prince and princess in the forest. ukelele. violin. de Leon. Some are traditional such as Filipino folk music. and groups associated with the guilds of Manila. many of the folk songs and dances have remained intact throughout the Philippines. Modern day Philippine music features several styles. Molina. The early music of the Philippines featured a mixture of Indigenous. Some of the groups that perform these folk songs and dances are the Bayanihan. Islamic and a variety of Asian sounds that flourished before the European and American colonization in the 16th and 20th century. the Karilagan Ensemble.  Dance A Chavacano dance in Philippine Hispanic tradition. guitar. trumpets and drums. Many Filipino musicians have risen prominence such as the composer and conductor Antonio J. Bamboo poles are arranged in a tic-tac-toe pattern in which the dancers exploit every position of these clashing poles. Filipinescas. Filipino hip hop and other musical styles.
The women paint the whole of one hand and a part of the other. Most of the paintings and sculptures between the 19th. Early modernist painters such as Damián Domingo was associated with religious. They paint themselves by first drawing blood with pricks from a very sharp point. Artist such as Fernando Amorsolo used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated Philippine culture.Further evidences of painting are manifested in the tattoo tradition of early Filipinos. and signs his name with his own blood on the right side of his paintings. and landscape art works. I used to say there. they painted themselves when they had performed some brave deed. whom the Portugese explorer referred to as Pintados or the 'Painted People' of the Visayas. In early 80s other unique folk artist exist one of these is Elito Circa as amangpintor the famous Filipino folk painter. and light. but by painting their entire bodies from head to foot as soon as they are young men with strength and courage enough to endure the torture of painting. religious imagery from Biblical sources. and secular paintings. In the former times they had to perform a new feat of bravery for each of the parts that were to be painted. In the old days.. Legaspi Filipinos began creating paintings in the European tradition during 17th century Spanish period. Cagayan. so that the painting takes many days to complete. that if they brought it to Europe a great deal of money could be made by displaying it. . The paintings are very elegant.Evidence of Philippine pottery-making dated as early as 6000 BC has been found in Sanga-sanga Cave.J. It has been proven that by 5000 BC. in his monograph ³Historias de las Islas el Indios de Bisaias«1668´ who termed tattooing as ³paint´. Francisco S. dark. Visual arts  Painting Early Filipino painting can be found in red slip (clay mixed with water) designs embellished on the ritual pottery of the Philippines such as the acclaimed Manunggul Jar. While other artist such as Fernando Zóbel used realities and abstract on his work. It was Alzina. some of the most elaborate painting done by early Filipinos that survive to the present day can be manifested among the arts and architecture of the Maranao who are well known for the Naga Dragons and the Sarimanok carved and painted in the beautiful Panolong of their Torogan or King's House. and 20th century produced a mixture of religious. political. The art of Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo showed a trend for political statement. nature and harmony. They do not paint the whole body at one time. as well as engravings. but part by part. Various designs referencing flora and fauna with heavenly bodies decorate their bodies in various colored pigmentation. and well proportioned to the members and parts where they are located. not by nature although they are well-built. with qualities of sweetness. Early Filipinos started making pottery before their Cambodian neighbors and at about the same time as the Thais as part of what appears to be a widespread Ice Age development of pottery technology. He uses his own hair to make his paintbrushes. and then over the fresh blood applying a black powder that can never again be erased. the making of pottery was practiced throughout the country. The earliest of these paintings were Church frescoes. He developed his own styles without professional training or guidance from masters. well-featured and white.. Sulu and Laurente Cave. Children are not painted. ³Historias de las Islas y Indios de Bisaias«1668´ 2Ib id. sculptures and lithographs featuring Christian icons and European nobility. following the design and lines previously marked by the craftsmen in the art. But it is only one chronicler¶s word against the others: "The Bisayans are called Pintados because they are in fact so."2 1Alzina. captivated and astonished by the appearance of one of these. Perhaps.
encaustic and layering. Considered lost art and highly collectible art form. Weavings of the Ga'dang tribe usually have bright red tones. The technique was practiced by the indigenous tribe of Samar Island between early 1600 and late 1800 A.D. The binakol is a blanket which features optical illusion designs. animal and plant pictorial themes. The Marananaos make similar carvings on housings called torogan. Itneg and Mindanao Tribal art The Itneg tribes are known for their intricate weaving production. Ikat textiles are woven into geometric patterns with human. One is a curved-line woodcarving and metalworking called okir. Abaca is a plant. similar to the Middle Eastern Islamic art. and its leaves are used to make fibre known as Manila hemp. The tribes of Mindanao such as the B'laan. This style is associated with men. Kut-kut is an exotic Philippine art form based on early century techniques²sgraffito. The fibre is dyed by a method called ikat. Very few known art pieces existed today.  Kut-kut art A technique combining ancient Oriental and European art process.  Cinema and television . The other style is geometric tapestries. plants and metals. Mandaya. multilayered texture and an illusion of three-dimensional space.  Islamic art Islamic art in the Philippines have two main artistic styles. Mansaka and T'boli became skilled in art of dyeing abaca fibre. Other tribes such as the Ilongot make jewelry from pearl. and is associated with women. Weapons made by Muslim Filipinos such as the kampilan are skillfully carved. The merging of these ancient styles produces a unique artwork characterized by delicate swirling interwoven lines. The Tausug and Sama-Bajau exhibit their okir on elaborate markings with boat-like imagery. Their weaving can also be identified by beaded ornamentation. red hornbill beak.
teen-oriented romantic comedy. starting from the 1930s. The 21st century saw the rebirth of independent filmmaking through the use of digital technology and a number of films have once again earned nationwide recognition and prestige. Scripts and characterizations in films came from popular theater shows and Philippine literature. were a time of discovery of film as a new medium of expressing artworks. comedy and action films. . Nationalistic films became popular. The advent of the Cinema of the Philippines can be traced back to the early days of filmmaking in 1897 when a Spanish theater owner screened imported moving pictures. From a high production rate of 350 films a year in the 1950s. The 1950s saw the first golden age of Philippine cinema  with the emergence of more artistic and mature films. who has won numerous awards for his role in Dekada'70. The 1990s saw the emerging popularity of drama. the artistry established in the previous years was in decline. The 1970s and 1980s were considered turbulent years for the Philippine film industry. however. the Philippine film industry production rate declined in 2006 to 2007. In the 1940s. Philippine cinema brought the consciousness of reality in its film industry. The Philippines. remains undisputed in terms of the highest level of theater admission in Asia. action.Piolo Pascual is one of many talented artist from the Philippines. drama. western. and movie themes consisting primarily of war and heroism and proved to be successful with Philippine audiences. This era can be characterized by rampant commercialism in films. being one of Asia's earliest film industry producers. The 1980s brought the arrival of alternative or independent cinema in the Philippines. the studio system monopoly came under siege as a result of labor-management conflicts. The formative years of Philippine cinema. By the 1960s. adult. Over the years. The studio system produced frenetic activity in the Philippine film industry as many films were made annually and several local talents started to gain recognition abroad. Award-winning filmmakers and actors were first introduced during this period. bringing both positive and negative changes. As the decade drew to a close. sound and writing. adult and comedy films developed further in picture quality. and significant improvement in cinematic techniques among filmmakers. In addition. the Philippine film industry has registered a steady decline in movie viewership from 131 million in 1996 to 63 million in 2004. The films in this period dealt with more serious topics following the Martial law era. and 200 films a year during the 1980s.
Some also eat with their hands. it is usually eaten together with other dishes. The Nipa hut (Bahay Kubo) is the mainstream form of housing. Regional variations include the use of thicker. The Philippines is considered a melting pot of Asia. Eating out is favorite Filipino past time. Rice. dinner and again a midnight snack before going to sleep. and the surrounding provinces. Iloilo. corn. and architecture which subsequently became the center of most towns and cities. Vigan. Architecture Modern day buildings in Makati City in the Philippines. Filipinos regularly use spoons together with forks and knives. American style suburban-gated communities are popular in the cities. snacks. The introduction of Christianity brought European churches. Islamic and other Asian architecture can also be seen depicted on buildings such as mosques and temples. and when eating seafood. including Manila. Rice is a staple in Filipino diet. and denser roof thatching in mountain areas. It is characterized by use of simple materials such as bamboo and coconut as the main sources of wood. snacks. The Coconut Palace is an example of Philippine Architecture. pancit (noodle dish) and lechón (roasted pig) are served on plates. Jaro and other parts of the Philippines. bamboo in place of leafy thatching and ornate wooden carvings. Spanish architecture can be found in Intramuros. The Spaniards introduced stones as housing and building materials. Cogon grass. A typical Pinoy diet consists at most of six meals a day. and popular dishes such as adobo (a meat stew made from either pork or chicken). Nipa palm leaves and coconut fronds are used as roof thatching. Most primitive homes are built on stilts due to frequent flooding during the rainy season. lumpia (meat or vegetable rolls). . Contemporary architecture has a distinctively Western style although pre-Hispanic housing is still common in rural areas.  Cuisine Main article: Philippine cuisine Filipinos cook a variety of foods influenced by Western and Asian cuisine. especially in informal settings. lunch. breakfast. or longer stilts on coastal areas particularly if the structure is built over water. The architecture of other indigenous tribes may be characterized by an angular wooden roofs.
Other popular dishes include: afritada. lambanog and tuba. In Bicol. polvoron (powder candy) and tsokolate (chocolate) are usually eaten outside the three main meals. longanisa (sweet sausage) and dinuguan (soup made from pork blood). Popular Philippine beverages include San Miguel Beer. students enter grade school (6 to 7 years). Filipino martial arts include Panantukan (empty-handed techniques). Eskrima. starting from Nursery up to Kindergarten. flan. and sinigang (tamarind soup with a variety of pork. and sliced tropical fruits). halo-halo (crushed ice with evaporated milk. empanadas. Pizza Hut are a common sight in the country. Wendy's. pinakbet (vegetable stew). sisig.  Education in the Philippines Main articles: Education in the Philippines and Higher education in the Philippines Education in the Philippines has been influenced by Western and Eastern ideology and philosophy from the United States. Popular snacks and desserts such as chicharon (deep fried pork or chicken skin).  Martial arts Main article: Filipino martial arts Filipino martial arts is a term used to describe the numerous martial art forms that originated in the Philippines. for example. pan de sal (bread rolls). cooked in vinegar and water with some spices like garlic and pepper). toyo. puto (white rice cakes). bagoong and banana catsup are the most common condiments found in Filipino homes and restaurants. kilawen. similar to how Silat describes the martial arts practiced in Asia. torta (omelette). bibingka (rice cake with butter or margarine and salted eggs). kare-kare (ox-tail stew). ensaymada (sweet roll with grated cheese on top). Tanduay Rhum. Students then take the College . paksiw (fish or pork. Every province has its own specialty and tastes vary in each region. pinapaitan.A roasted pig known as the Lechón. Some delicacies eaten by some Filipinos but may seem unappetizing to the Western palate include balut (boiled egg with a fertilized duckling inside). Patis. chorizo. one of the Philippines most popular cuisines. Spain and its neighbouring Asian countries. This is followed by high school (4 years). Western fast food chains such as McDonald's. Philippine students enter public school at about age four. foods are generally spicier than elsewhere in the Philippines. At about seven years of age. Kali. Arnis de Máno (blade and stick fighting) and Pananjakman (kicking). asado. suka. pescado (fried or grilled fish). fish or prawns). mani (roasted peanuts).
Popular sport stars include Manny Pacquiao. The year 2002 event included football (soccer). Catholic schools are preferred in the Philippines due to their religious beliefs. Flash Elorde and Francisco Guilledo in boxing. Paulino Alcántara in football (soccer). International school. badminton. ten-pin bowling. ten-pin bowling and chess. private Catholic schools are the most famous. Laboratory high school and Science High School. football (soccer). Arnis. and US$852 in Thailand. Dodge ball and badminton are also popular. billiards. softball. The uniforms of Catholic schools usually have an emblem along with the school colors. Of these schools. The Palarong Pambansa.Entrance Examinations (CEE). These are boxing. after which they enter college or university (3 to 5 years). In 2005. and volleyball. and Francisco Bustamante in billiards.582 in Singapore. Filipinos have gained international success in sports. horse racing and cockfighting. gymnastics. track and field. Other popular sports include basketball. association football. Most Catholic schools are unisex. and Universities eventually joined the national event. US$3. Rafael Nepomuceno in ten-pin bowling. a national sports festival. two-week semestral break in October and Christmas' and New Year's holidays. Carlos Loyzaga. archery. volleyball. swimming. chess. Efren Reyes. Eugene Torre in chess.  Sports in the Philippines Main article: Sports in the Philippines A professional basketball game being played in the country. taekwondo. Basketball is regarded many Filipinos. Private schools. and Mark Munoz in MMA. which became known as the "Palarong Pambansa" in 1976. boxing. chess. The school year in the Philippines starts in June and ends in March. University-preparatory school. with a two-month summer break from April to May. Other types of schools includes Private school. as one of the most popular sport in the Philippines. golf. competing at school and national level contests. tennis. table tennis. billiards. It serves as a national Olympic Games for students. the Philippines spent about US$138 per pupil compared to US$1. a form of martial arts is the national sport in the Philippines. Robert Jaworski and Ramon Fernandez in basketball.728 in Japan. baseball. . has its origin in an annual sporting meet of public schools that started in 1948.
The winner is determined by who has the most shells at the point when all small pits become empty. Traditional Filipino games Main article: List of traditional Filipino games Traditional Filipino games include yo-yo. who traveled to Negros and discovered a toy using beetles to create a periodic gong effect on a kerosene can as the beetle rotates above the contraption. a Malay indigenous tribe of Mindoro in the Philippines. Mangyan. and sweeping it circular rotation to make an interesting sound. pusoy and sungka. that settled in the islands thousands of years ago. Sungka is played on a board game using small sea shells in which players try to take all shells. They are the descendants of the original Austronesian inhabitants of the Philippines. and in the process have retained their Indigenous customs and traditions. Individuals play the game by trying to get rid of all the cards by choosing poker hands wisely. piko. patintero.  Filipinos have created toys using insects such as tying a beetle to string. . The "Salagubang gong" is a toy described by Charles Brtjes.  Tribal groups A Negrito woman is one of a few indigenous tribal groups who is completely different from the Malay population of the Philippines. Pusoy is a popular gambling game. Main article: Indigenous peoples of the Philippines The Indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of Malay ethnic groups. bahay kubo. an American entomologist.
and Corregidor Day) May 1 . have as much contact with the outside world.  Celebrations Main article: Public holidays in the Philippines  Regular holiday y y y y y y y y y January 1 . thousands of Filipinos migrate to work abroad through overseas employment agencies and other programs. Other Indigenous tribes include the Bukidnons. International employment includes an increasing number of skilled Filipino workers taking on unskilled work overseas. in cases where doctors undergo retraining to become nurses and other employment programs. although they did not. IT professionals. equivalent to about 11% of the total population of the Philippines. resulting in what has been referred to as brain drain. They showed a high degree of creativity such as the production of bowls. They have also covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integration and acculturation with Christian Filipinos. who built the Rice Terraces thousands of years ago. Each year. These tribes displayed a variety of native cultural expressions and artistic skills. Overseas Filipinos often work as doctors. in a sense.Good Friday April 9 . These groups have remained isolated from Western and Eastern influences. teachers. Kalinga and Kankana-ey. caregivers. more than 100 highland tribes constituted approximately 3% of the Philippine population. accountants.In 1990. nurses. baskets. engineers. Isneg. This term is applied to people of Filipino ancestry.Philippine Independence Day August 31 .Labor Day June 12 . The folk arts of these groups were.New year s Day March or April . Also. a group that includes the Bontoc. Ifugao. Other individuals emigrate and become permanent residents of other nations. weapons and spoons.Bonifacio Day December 25 . There are about 11 million overseas Filipinos living worldwide.Christmas Day . military servicemen. These tribes ranged from various groups of Igorot people.All Saints day November 30 . domestic helpers and household maids. Often. Ibaloi. architects. The highland tribes are a primitive ethnic group like other Filipinos. Over the centuries. the employment can result in underemployment. students. as a group. entertainers. technicians. the isolated highland tribes have retained their Indigenous cultures. for example. clothing. particularly in the health and education sectors.Araw ng Kagitingan (Bataan.  Philippine diaspora Main article: Overseas Filipino An Overseas Filipino is a person of Philippine origin. who lives outside of the Philippines. these Filipinos are referred to as Overseas Filipino Workers. the last remnants of Indigenous traditions that flourished throughout the Philippines before the Islamic and Spanish contacts. who are citizens or residents of a different nation.National Heroes Day November 1 .
March or April . food and delicacies. and Manila.Rizal Day  Nationwide holiday y y y August 21 . people attend church services. A festival celebrated by farmers as they welcome the fertile season.y December 30 . friends and families visit the cemeteries. Bicol Region. Sinulog in Cebu. Quezon where houses are decorated mainly with dried rice papers in different shapes and colors. Crops also accentuate these houses in artistic shapes. and All Souls Day). Camarines Sur. Ati-Atihan Festival in Kalibo. and Souls Day.Araw ng Pasko. Celebrations around towns showcase crops. During All Saints.The Black Nazarene procession in Quiapo. rather than a solemn celebration.The Dinagyang Festival in Iloilo. One of the most celebrated festivity is the "Pahiyas".Flores de Mayo. "Día de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead. Same-sex marriage is not allowed under Philippine law."Araw ng mga Patay".Ninoy Aquino Day November 1 . Año Nuevo (New Year). bisexual. gay. December 24 . All Saints Day.Pintados-Kasadyaan Festival (A Festival honoring Santo Niño de Leyte) in Tacloban City.Noche Buena (Christmas Eve). Navidad (Christmas). Also known as "Undas". The Peñafrancia Festival is also celebrated by a fluvial procession in the Bicol River.Bagong Taon.The Fiesta del Santo Niño de Cebu (Festival of the Child Jesus of Cebu). a colorful festival in Lucban.The Peñafrancia Festival in Naga City. followed by parades on the streets. The cemetery becomes a party atmosphere. . which explicitly requires that the contracting parties must be a male and a female. Last week of May . Last Sunday of January . Third Sunday of January . and transgender (LGBT) people See also: LGBT culture in the Philippines and LGBT rights in the Philippines Homosexuality in the Philippines commonly exists. During the festivities. October 31 to November 2 .  Other cultural realm  Lesbian.Semana Santa (Holy Week). Aklan. May .New Year's Eve  Traditional holiday y y y y y y y y y y y January 9 . and pay homage to their dearly departed. though it is viewed with discrimination because of the nation's strong moral and straight beliefs rooted in the Roman Catholic religion. fireworks and feasting. December 25 . and styles.All Saints Day December 31 . Leyte Third Saturday and Sunday of September . January 1 .
technological. Its consumers are the general public. It refers to products that are generally recognized and enjoyed by the majority of the people.Manila: Bench/Suyen Corp. the masa (masses) and the bakya (uncultured).php?articleid=502 (accessed on August 14. within the general category of pop culture there are still degrees of quality. Love of pop culture is often stereotyped as a sign of poor taste and cheapness but in fact. there are those loved by particular groups. Pop culture has visual. There are types of pop culture that are so much a part of Philippine life that all Filipinos have an attachment to these. and the masa. and Chaves. 2007). so Philippine culture is actually dominated by pop. . 2001. 12 May 2006. Most of all it is about the Pinoys." Pinoy Pop Culture. such as hip-hop or rock. Mandy. auditory. it is a fusion of folk.G." Tsinoy. ethnic. search Pop culture is short for popular culture. there are those that seem lacking in value and quality but attract the uneducated. In the Philippines these people comprise 95 percent of the population. representing or playing upon current interests while at the same time building upon previous working formulas. foreign.Philippine Pop Culture From WikiPilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. http://www. M. Pinoy pop culture is an urban phenomenon. "Pinoy Pop Culture.tsinoy. Usually media influences play a large role in the popularizing of these aspects of culture. Many of the elite see pop culture as lowbrow and look down on it. I. Often imitative. They are most often trendy. Philippine pop culture is easily recognized. "Identifying Pinoy Pop. G.. Their popularity may not last but their influence is quite strong while they are popular.com/article_item. and gustatory aspects.  Reference Fernando.
Max Surban. and operated by the ingliserong Pinoy. Metro Manila). The communication loop of the Pinoy version of the seven arts of the West consists of the artist as producer of art works which are "consumed" by the viewer-listener-reader appreciator. the Pinoy copies of Western art. i. The artist is a product of an educational system which is biased toward the West. These manifest the hierarchy in the arts. That should be valid enough reason to study Pinoy pop art. graduate students. Copying the west still pays. OPM. "Because they are our heritage too and probably say more about us than our copies of the seven arts of the West. the Pinoy version of Western art is enjoyed. They are not part of my small reading public obviously. in the eyes of our own government.Why study (Filipino) popular art? by Edilberto Alegre BusinessWorld. listened to. are categories not made by culture analysts. That says a lot about our educational system. receive kudos and monetary award of a lesser degree. Examples abound: our movies. our official cultural institution. literature in English -. explicates.in our textbooks. They are studied amply by undergraduates.e. or read by only a very minor trickle of our population.music composed ouido. High art. scholars. or music composed by a UP College of Music graduate are also cultural expressions and are. By the elite. 1 May 2002 Some have asked me why I bother with Pinoy pop art such as our movies. Yoyoy Villame. Their question manifests a haughtiness that should not be bothered with. The consumer is also shaped by the same system. They are also rewarded generously by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA). What is common to these three is this: they are manned. and practicing art critics. but because they are copies of the West. And the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) continues to honor the Filipinos who excel in the seven arts of the West. Not because they are Pinoy. The middle person critic who explains. In contrast. But they.literature in a Philippine language. music composed by a degree holder -. legitimate concerns of cultural anthropology too. listening to or reading them. in our mass media. And a few are architects in Cebu (Central Visayas) and other academicians there. expounds . viewed. the Filipinos who are proficient in the English language. in short. indigenized Western cultural borrowings. therefore. TV shows Millions enjoy our pop art. novels. Millions spend viewing. TV popular program? They are the hoary academicians of University of Philippines (UP) Diliman (Quezon City. take a dominant position -. The situation can change only by showing through force of logic and adamantine data that there is much to admire in not completely westernized Pinoy pop art. romance. Those who excel in the indigenous arts and crafts." I'd reply and refuse to go beyond that. of course. Pinoy culture encompass all our products and actions and the distinction high art -.low art. our mass media. such as kulintang music and abaca weaving. and our government. literature in English. say. managed.
so very difficult to break because they are so very good. the study of the laws which govern languages. The only way to counter this vicious. structuralism. Quite very Western apparatus. The only equipment I had were those which I acquired in the academe -. Of course. The viciousness derives from its spitefulness to anyone and anything which does not belong to the loop. the rich inglisero. Such are the habits of class. I am an opsi -. How did we divide time? From the smallest to the biggest: araw or day (which we broke into. pop or otherwise. after short. There are compound expressions for the day before yesterday (noong isang araw) and the day after tomorrow (bukas makalawa). It was my way to our culture. and therefore. These are time indicators though just like kahapon. the media and the relevant government institutions which are also owned or managed or operated by the same socio-economic class. an act of self-liberation. ngayon. . and took the first steps to know who we are and what we are like. takip-silim (evening). It also stems from its erroneous reasoning: any art which is not Western or like the West's is inferior.madaling araw (dawn). because it is logical and is based on field data. Language was what I had as data and for this there was no need to go to the field. I had an abiding passion for linguistics. for me. taon (year). bukas (tomorrow). That elite has been in power for centuries and knows all the tricks to stay unchallenged. a bit of post-structuralism. today). hapon (afternoon). The loop passes on their preferences to those outside of it via the schools.traditional criticism. kahapon (yesterday). Comparative Literature in UP.A. The said loop is oppressive since it bears down on the rest of our population and keeps the latter subservient by harshness and coercion. However. beginning from dawn -. To study pop art is thus. and bukas. PINOY TIME AND POP ART Using language as the starting point. neo-criticism. since 1958 when I first enrolled in M. where I was employed. I have never looked back. though the means to achieve this can be subtle and. ngayon (now. incontrovertible. sporadic forays into the land of the natives they return to their lovely homes and lovely offices in which they have been ensconced. appear to be neither harsh nor coercive.and praises the art work derives his livelihood and reputation from the loop. therefore. how so very iba (different) the natives are! Some get their paper thesis or dissertation data from the natives and score pogi points for their promotion and prestige. oh. buwan (month).math and my road to freedom started only 18 years ago when I boldly turned my back to the ways of the academe. oppressive set-up without bloodshed is to present an alternative view that is acceptable. gabi (night). Unfortunately. tanghali (noon). let us examine our concept of time and its relation to art. and. There are those who belong to the loop who go slumming outside of their vicious circle so they can entertain their kind about having gone "native". umaga (morning).
American fiction is specially action-oriented. as the words indicating them immediately shows: segundo.Oedipus. and measurements of time. in a linear manner an action has a beginning.buo. Our term for it is riswats. climax and denouement are logical aspects of time as a quantity or length. the whole night. the suffix -an is a Pinoy construction. This plot as a structure fits aptly for it rose from the Western concept of time. and an end. which is an expression of quantity. he is never alone. Rising action. A beginning. The Rambo series is interesting but our hero is FPJ who's low-key in comparison. Or the length of time can be one-half (kalahati. Our sense of clock time and the idea that time has to be or can be measured to the briefest second are borrowed. two months. the whole morning. Time is a linear path which they travel or traverse. a fortnight or whole -. a middle. Transferred to fiction. And must therefore have a different approach to or ideas about plot line and narrative structure. The unraveling requires conflict which leads to rising action. The millions of Filipinos who do not punch time cards or do not have deadlines to meet simply ignore watches. Western fiction is plot-oriented because the protagonist is unraveled in time. of course.e. kalahating buwan). dalawang buwan. And always has a sidekick. There is Dencio Padilla who is forever loyal and a lady love. denouement.meaning the whole day. Action pushes the story forward.Time as a quantity are. Hindi siya nag-iisa (he is not alone). A numeral or counter can specify the number of the days. three years). as all Western heroes. We also call the watch orasan. . Loman. climax. which moves in a linear manner from time1 to time2 time3 and so on. Hero that FPJ is. middle. That genre never quite took roots here. are alone. isang araw. For we have a different concept of time. then the Western plot must have a defined beginning. oras. an end. Rising action. The epitome of the action -. buong araw. Macbeth. King Lear. Rambo might be on a different trajectory.oriented Western narrative is the whodunit or detective story. indicated by araw. tatlong taon (one day. months or years -. But they. the American salesman. They experience a fall. strictly speaking. There is the terrible aloneness of all the Western tragic heroes -. Time as a quantity which can be measured to the tick of a second or minutes or hours is a Spanish introduction. respectively. Overt action also depicts the character of the protagonist. but not to us. They are more numerous than the Filipinos who are tied to and enslaved by time machines. a narrative image of life. Relo came from Spanish reloj. clock time. Since time is a measurable quantity. a middle. climax. and end. and denouement or resolution (of the conflict). buong umaga. The problem of adaptation rises when we realize that that is valid to them. and taon. minuto.g. buong gabi -. the Español and the 'merkano. It was the Americans though who introduce wrist watch for that to the Spaniards is reloj de pulsera. buwan.
The relationship comes first.parents. Speaker-self. "I love you. So with our OPM. tayo. Too. Not rising action based on conflict but melodrama. to several others -. Our concept of time and our "I" -persona. pronoun. I ate what was left on the table. In that time line (t-1.weak on the plot structure. which very unfortunately is dismissed as just merely pop by the inglisero critics. We borrowed the movie camera and we came out with Pinoy na Pinoy movies -. the very Pinoy English of "Mahal kita"). these two words translate as "Love you" (and that is how we say it. An explicitly named subject and a predicate. melodramatic story. Unlike the Western heroes. Less height and less acute on angle but rolling hills and flatlands. A verb for us reveals not so much who and action or who object of the action. if required. Still on relationship. we are not conflict -.driven in the same linear time of the West and what would result is not tragedy but a comic. Put this relationship -.ako in kita. t3) he'd seek not ako. abloom with deep and meaningful relationships even if there are bakbakan (fight) scenes. kami excludes the person addressed). The infix (-um. Kinain ko yong natira sa mesa. FPJ. sibling.) Kumain refers to who ate. aesthetic criticism." (I've eaten. Emphasis on the relationships. . an action word. Relationship. family. our main protagonist is always connected -.g. So with our TV soap operas. the nominative case. a recipient of the action e.resolution driven. Dolphy and his family who resides in a "Home Along Da Riles" (home by the railroad tracks) -. Juan Tamad.to one other. So with our romance novels. TV soap operas. We direly need theories about ourselves so we can better appreciate our own art. Kita is the distinctive "exclusive dual". speaker-object. second person. mahal. What they are there or not our own art will continue on. We shun away from confrontations. "I love you"." There's no other way to say this. It would be folly to demand Western standard on these very Pinoy pop arts. What we need is a canon of appreciation so we can "upgrade" our popular art to academic. first person. a friend or a lady love. "Kumain na ko.We have no such tragic heroes. No such terrible aloneness. With and through the movie camera we have been telling our own story. Dolphy. But in the end they don't matter. Not tragedy but comedy. "Mahal Kita": verb. plural number. Where went "I"? Literally. t2. movies. Our own art. Kinain to what was eaten. of course. in many Philippine languages. and kami (tayo includes the person addressed. and. in short. In our case. FPJ and Dencio and a lady love or FPJ and a daughter like Judy Ann Santos. Look at their sentence constructions. but the what of the action. -in) depends on whether the speaker is referring to himself as actor or the object of his action. singular "I" but "I" in it's many relationships: Juan Tamad and the princess. created and continues to create our own form of fiction. It means "I-and-you (singular) only" and nobody else. nominative case.
a barrio called Santa Lucia. let their hair grow as long as it would. It is in our popular art where we truly are. I did not run out very far. Occasionally we'd espy Mangyans. the church . Back to Top Back to Tagalog Homepage When institutions are breaking down: The family by Edilberto Alegre BusinessWorld Online Edition. The crucial seven years (1946-1953) of my childhood and early adulthood were spent in Victoria. for which there is no English word. My father. and that's where I stayed until 1953 when I entered the University of the Philippines. Less than a year after the war ended we returned to my mother's hometown. I was three. They hew closely to the falling of the rain and the fruiting of the trees. I was born in November 1938. chewed betel. As he and his family were hunted by the Japanese we moved into the jungles of Mindoro and had to keep changing our residence. a medical doctor. For these are the stuff of our daily lives which are there already embodied and expressed in our popular art. I spent it playing -. my mother. to the west right after the poblacion. My youth there was defined by the trees in our orchard. who were clad skimpily in bahag (loincloths). and my older brother. When the war ended I was of school age. We were periodically on the run. I saw a gravel road and said: "Ang haba ng ilog na ito! (This is a very long river. and kept their distance from us. My older brother was always with me anyway. In Victoria we could rove a wider space. 9 May 2002 My consciousness as a child was formed by the physical presence of my immediate family: my father.climax -. my maternal grandmother.gamboling in the rain and wrestling in the dust and running in the wind. We were inside the jungle for almost four years. We didn't have neighbors.denouement we should graph our di-pagkakaunawaan misunderstanding and our tampuhan. My childhood was Edenic.Instead of rising action -.my parents and grandmother and brother would always be there. The rule in Mindoro was we must always be within the easy hailing distance of my mother and grandmother. We lived veritably the life of nomads. The games children play have their seasons. the generic term for the indigenous ethno-linguistic groups of the island. I could run out because I was secure -. As we emerged out of the thickly forested mountains. We lived at the edge of the town.)" I had mistaken the stone-and-gravel road for the dried up bottom of a river. Victoria in the province of Tarlac (Central Luzon). joined the guerillas of Mindoro (Southern Tagalog Region in southern Luzon) as soon as World War II broke out.
It was so swift. That translates to three babies every minute. For the past five years our number has been increasing by 1. It is surely more permanent than my childhood in the jungle of Mindoro and those innocent years in Sta. and. I became an only child at 13. I have been a witness and participant in the breaking up of families. The first symptoms. all these years I have been looking for a modicum of permanence. From 1990 to 1995 our population grew by an annual rate of 2. too. my mother.property. In my generation remaining whole became problematic. finally. Sadness never left me.040 at PhP49. Something broke inside me and I would never be whole again. The daily wage was less than 2 Philippine pesos (US$0.Tarlac. Mine has not been an exemplary life. Eden will never be again. That is why I keep going back to examine and re-examine the turns it took. which were akin to severe anemia.36%.000. an article of faith. I know because I'd sometimes have meals with them in their houses. An impossibility really. Because once lost. My only sibling died suddenly of leukemia. Change is inevitable. Let me just cite recent statistics. We are now 77. the paths I chose. because its context has been changing.724=$1). frogs from pools of water and chicken and pigs for special occasions. After his death my life would never be the same again. without my consciousness of it. insects from the field and the trees. The family of my childhood remained whole. my father. Suddenly. On March 24. And after we die it would still be there. Even the poor ate three times a day.000 every year. None of my father's brothers' and sisters' broke up. But the breaking down of institutions is not. That must be why I am in culture studies. I was a child no more. we are born into it. The Eden of my childhood was suddenly rent by Death's visit. The terms of my life changed. They just died one by one -.32%. The poorest of my playmates ate off the land: fish in the river. Our parents' generation could boast of families that remained whole.Kuyang. since then I have been trying to recover Eden. became apparent in late December 1951. . Perhaps. That was 50 years ago. then Itay. then Mamang. Their tables were never wanting for food. My weekly baon (allowance) was 10 centavos per week. Inay. I think.700. THE CHANGING FAMILY Why has the family as an institution been breaking down? Mainly.000. Death took them and I am the only one left to remember. He was only 15. and farms only five minutes from our house. my grandmother. And the disbelief in permanence became. When I was growing up in Victoria we were not even 20M. 1952 he died. Perhaps. Lucia in Victoria. a hectare of land behind the Catholic church where there were two tamarind trees. from 1995-2000 by 2. my elder brother. Culture precedes us. I accept that.
Theirs is the ordinary tale of a Filipino overseas contract worker (OCW). The bigger and lasting calamity though is our membership with the World Trade Organization (WTO). Fish prices have been increasing relentlessly. a post-war phenomenon." That number would be scandalous for any nation. The wife and children are left behind. Our arable land area is not increasing. is impelled by poverty at home and the promise of a little alleviation in other places.which used to be called the poor man's fish during Cory's term. If this need cannot be met then health. as in the case of the OCWs.the one where the wife and mother is the OCW. In our case its 20% of our national population. below that requirement one is malnourished. Millions! The sociology of our family system has been changing. We do not catch enough fish to feed our people.000 or 40% of the Filipinos were below that line. For those who are married that means severe loneliness for the one who leaves and loneliness coupled with severe responsibility for the one left behind. We are just beginning to feel that impolitic decision of our government. it's termed. housing suffer.galunggong -. There are many men too who stay abroad to work. What is the situation? There is mounting pressure on the land and water food resources. education. The following generations are tied to penury. That too is single parenthood and has as many problems as the other case -. Cebu in the Visayas and Iligan in Mindanao are only two such places.600. Our waters are polluted. As usual the government improvised as their aftermath kept embarrassing the concerned official agencies. which diminish continuously due to that pressure on it. The result has been the increase of slums and slum dwellers. And it's increasing. . Millions of families must now have only one or a single parent. The poor cannot even afford round scad -.3M Filipinos wake up every morning without food on the table. Without reading all the provisions involved our government ratified our membership. Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration). of course. Nor Delia Maga's. Not the wife-mother portrayed by Vilma Santos in that film where her daughter was played by Claudine Barreto.Last year our Commission on Population (Popcom) reported that "15. Population growth eats into whatever economic gains some families are able to achieve. Millions of them. Manila must still attract a sizable number. To avert poverty many educated Filipinos seek employment abroad. These are only OCWs. Food threshold. the nation was prepared for neither Pinatubo nor El Niño.e. One out of every five Filipinos do not eat breakfast because they do not have the money to buy it. The methods of harnessing it for food production are not improving. Inside the country there is massive migration too which. Despite Phivolcs (Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology) and Pag-asa (Philippine Atmospheric. Flor Contemplacion's was not an extraordinary story. i. The Popcom estimates the poverty line by making a cash valuation of the basic food required by the Bureau of Nutrition and Food. We have been importing rice for decades. Food is the first priority. Last year 30.
The years of her absence from her family will never come back. When their mother finally returned her hair had become gray. when a man abandons his wife and children for another woman that's the end of his family. She appears forlorn and defeated. raped. She left her family to give them security. we agree to our lovely young daughters becoming their maids. a married couple. One is married and has one child. even if they grow up with one of their parents." Need we add more to this lament? BROKEN MARRIAGES An aging Manila Court of First Instance judge and a law professor in many schools used to admonish his daughters: "When a wife-mother gives in to lust for another man except her husband. had no regular job. too. So. While her own children were growing she was taking care of other children. "But they are abused. Carmen. Sebuanos and Ilonggos. Abandoned children are maimed for life." This was some 40 years ago and he was himself not aware that he was sexist. And the absence of voices. Of course. He receives a meager salary. that's the end of her family. Now both daughters are college graduates. which drives even the young female teenagers of our indigenous groups to because domestic helpers in the houses of middle class Visayans. a Manubu barangay leaders in Aroman. on the welfare of the children. Bitterness marks their adulthood. It's a lonely place. "There's no employment here. The children grow up without a father or with an absentee father at the most. They earn a little and that's a big help for us.As an example let us look at our neighbors in Victoria. Tinunda. They come back shamed. made pregnant. They have a new house in another part of our town. And we have neither skills nor connections. . The wife. She became a domestic helper in Hong Kong. When she left both their daughters were not yet in Grade 1. Their father continues to teach in our local government high school. The husband teaches in our local government high school. Both daughters do not live in Victoria. There is an obvious lack of closeness between the daughters and their mother. A lot of bric-a-brac and family pictures on the walls. We had to leave for they came with police and army guards. She hardly talks of her experiences in HK. Our laws and even traditions do not take up. But what a sacrifice! It is unabating poverty. One works in Manila and the other in another town in Tarlac. North Cotabato (Northern Mindanao) put it harrowingly: "The Visayan migrants. secured land titles to land which we have been tilling and living in for generations. much less focus. a high school graduate.
and all these. It's about time that our laws caught up with social realities.for the sake of the children. It's time the law became compassionate to those who had no experience of Eden. there is no legal remedy for broken marriages.e. A professional psychologist or. With the breaking down of families there must be legal amelioration for all concerned -. The marriage is a charade." because the law makes it difficult to legalize the break-up of the marriage. It is our church which is mired in old paradigms which demand that a marriage succeed. i. Harper. So. better yet. to enact ones fitting and appropriate to the situation.again. That's a reality. for the sake of the children. Philippine Daily Inquirer. And now is the opportuned time for charging the laws or. to be more precise. The spouses of virtually broken marriages stay together -. There's neither sex nor warmth between the spouses but they have meals together at home. Neither do we have one that outlines and stipulates clearly support for spouse and children. We still do not have a divorce law. in this case. How could their parents put up a show for so long? It's the insincerity which gnaws at their hearts. It is our law which is backward. And if a marriage fails there can only be social adjustments since the legal statutes refuse to admit such a failure. a psychiatrist should certify the incapacity.Perhaps we should take a more sober and realistic view of broken marriages. The spouses may be civil to each other -. Back to Top Back to Tagalog Homepage 'Costumbres Chinas de la muerte' by Bambi L. besides the psychological incapacity law mentioned earlier. 5/14/02 . Those I know are psychologically battered in adulthood. At present we have only one law which allows legal dissolution of a marriage and it stipulates that there can only be one cause -. go out as a family. When institutions are breaking down there must be a safety net to assure that those involved are not punished twice. of course. The psychological aspect is difficult to prove. The causes for the breakdown of families continue to exist. attend family functions together -. Yet. when a marriage breaks up either or both spouses simply have "affairs. many families break up due to poverty and then are punished again for allowing poverty to break up the basic social unit.the spouses and the children. The children do wise up to the situation. Some marriages fail. But there is an even more insidious pattern.psychological incapacity of one or both parties at the time of their marriage. The law has not deterred the affairs. are for the sake of the children.
The first thing that is done is to cover all mirrors in the house with white cloth and the front door with a black cloth. including the men and the children.THE LAST instalment of Paz Yuchengco's observations of Chinese customs deals naturally with death. Married daughters cannot wear black after the funeral because this may bring bad luck to her in-laws. The widow and her mother-in-law wail in high voices and their laments are like poetry reciting the life and deeds of the dead man. they are either in laws or far relations. The Chinese seldom send flowers instead they send silk banners with consoling messages or pasted greetings. dimension and location of the terrain. On the actual funeral day there is much confusion and lamentation especially among the women. During bereavement female members are not allowed to wear make-up while the younger members such as children and grandchildren cannot shave nor have a haircut. a nephew or a godson. The ceremonies commence on the deathbed. the eldest son goes in search of a good burial spot if the family has none. If they are in black but with a red sash. This custom is still practiced by women who spent their childhood in China and who have learned these lamentations. he and the important older members of the family decide the date and the hour of the burial. Not even visit their parents before 40 days are up. If dressed totally in black. Once the son has found the ideal spot. it may be that she is a married daughter or a married niece or goddaughter. white or blue. The corpse is then placed in a casket and brought to the funeral home. Preparations for the moment begin long before (when they begin to grow old) and people prepare the clothes they will wear for their wake. in China the color of mourning is white or grey. The son has to take into account the form. The fortune and prominence of the dead man are demonstrated in the funeral cortege since this is his final opportunity to do so. he may be a son-in-law. The women cannot go visiting or beautify themselves for a hundred days or amuse themselves out of the house. The entire family dons black immediately. If they wish to continue in mourning they can wear grey. These banners are placed en route and form part of the cortege. If a man. . They all have to wait 40 or a hundred days. This is because the Chinese believe it is better to die clothed. The Chinese do not like having the wake in their homes. If a woman. The number of relatives he had is also evident in the funeral. When the hour comes for the funeral the laments cease and all the family members gather around the coffin to pose for a photographer. (Oddly enough this is only pertinent in the Philippines. A good location in a cemetery is important for the family due to the belief that if a good spot cannot be found bad luck will befall the entire family. When the corpse of a father is in the funeral home. Children wearing a red sash are children of daughters. they are blood relatives.) An interesting aspect of this custom is that a stranger can immediately recognize the proximity of the relationship of those in mourning to the deceased. The majority prefer to bury their dead after many days because the preparations and ceremonies are very difficult and complicated and need much time. green.
schools and associations who have been his beneficiaries in the past send many delegations to join the cortege. the next of the hundred days. If the deceased is prominent in the community. The eldest son takes the photo of his father and returns home in the company of his mother. Little by little the mourners return to their normal lives. Behind the funeral car is an employee bearing a red flag. There are four important dates during the mourning period. A band of musicians separate the first section from the second that is composed of the funeral car and the immediate family. After a hundred days the mourners can now amuse themselves and attend parties. friends. use some makeup and visit their family and friends.The order followed in the cortege is almost always the same. may shave and have a haircut and wear white shirts even if their trousers must still be black. The two-year mourning period has begun. The women can wear silk dresses instead of Indian head. the Chinese have first a period of nine days when special ceremonies for the dead person are observed. the widow. ill will on the part of his family may result. The photograph of the dead man on an open car leads the way. Immediately behind the flag is a car occupied by a prominent and respected man who is or has been a government official. During this time the women have to prepare a lot of food both for the deceased and his relatives. The men. Neither the distance nor the weather is considered. . These are generally observed in the same manner. place of birth. Cars with flags follow and if there are many these can delay the cortege. Those who walk are composed of the relatives. There are still many things to do and for a week or two the family cannot rest. The mother seldom attends the funeral especially if she is old. At the start of the ceremony each son takes a handful of earth and places it inside the coffin. Aside from his photo there is a paper car representing the one he had when alive. The banners are distributed among his female relations for them to make dresses. completing a year and finally the two years that end the mourning. good employees and godchildren. (In the Philippines usually this would be the Chinese ambassador or another high official of the embassy. The first is the completion of the 49 days. The women may ride if they are tired but they have to at least walk half way. Once they reach the gates of the cemetery all the women with the exception of the widow and the children have to get down from the cars and walk with the rest to the site. If not. If they go to weddings or birthday parties they must wear white. The ceremonies of the four periods depend largely on the religion of the family of the dead person. After it is closed they kneel and bow before the guests to thank them for their help and presence. (The family of the deceased always has to send many expensive presents to this official after the funeral including a red envelope containing not less than a thousand pesos).) It carries characters in gold denoting his name. blue or gray. after 49 days. (If the dead man is not prominent or poor this is not done. age and the number of generations that precede him.) It is a great honor both for the official and the dead man. Like the novenas of Filipinos. The relatives of the dead have to remember the four important dates because the widow and her family are expected to bring food and fruits to the cemetery. The children have to walk to the cemetery.
When a member of the family of the deceased whether male or female. he or she will have to wait two years. shoes. The first anniversary of the death is celebrated en grande (in grand manner). On succeeding anniversaries they will take turns taking care of the expenses. Upon the interment. the fiestas. The second anniversary marks the conclusion of the mourning period. Otherwise. The customs and ceremonies of her wedding remain the same even if naturally these are more muted. white or green dresses. The rest of the ceremonies are the same as the previous ones. the salary of the caretaker. his mattress and slippers are burned. his favorite chair. Some siblings use part of their inheritance to honor their departed relatives. This signifies that happiness comes after the period of mourning. . cars. gifts. This anniversary has aspects similar to those of a wedding or a birthday. All the women wear blue or grey instead of black and the men wear white. An interesting aspect of this custom is that the objects that entertained him in life such as his pipe. The children of the deceased have to put in their share for all the expenses in the two years of mourning. the same as the bedroom of newlyweds. She however. Parents and friends are gifted with the same type of foods and sweets previously given them but with the novelty of a red material to make a dress. The Chinese believe the dead don't have enough to eat in heaven which is the reason why the living have to continue sending offerings even after many years. the relatives must offer gold or silver paper money to the dead. The same lamps used as those in a wedding are given to each married son or daughter. This "money" is burned when the food is offered. The family of the deceased tenders a big feast and sends food and sweets to his relatives and friends. mahjongg tiles and his books are believed to accompany him on his journey by being burned. he or she must do so between the 49 and hundredth days of mourning. As is the custom. money. is not obliged to don black. The ceremony of burning these objects ends with the mourning period. pink. They pay for the pantheon (that sometimes cost a hundred or two hundred million pesos). a large amount of personal things of the dead person such as his clothes. wishes to marry. It may take place in his house or in the cemetery if the place is sufficiently large. Other belongings that cannot be burned such as his house. red is the color of the day: The house of the deceased is decorated with red curtains. and suitcases are instead burned in effigy. eggs and noodles are omnipresent. The women and female children wear red and the men don vivid colors. and many other things. In ensuing anniversaries only paper money is burned. On the other hand. playing cards. the anniversary celebrations. yellow or burgundy. a bride who marries into a family in mourning cannot wear bright colours such as red. For example. A bride who is in mourning has to remove her mourning when she marries.Aside from food. she may wear blue.
it's not that they don't care. In fact. Do you know what kind of music your teenager likes? Is it rock music? In case you don't know rock music has Ten Elements:* 1. violence soaked. They have learned enough from their parents to regard these customs as habits." KORN is the name of a band whose lead singer fantasizes about brutally torturing and murdering his stepmother. One of the boys wore a T-shirt emblazoned with the word "KORN. inspires thoughts. It is a subtle way of expressing a feeling that goes beyond the spoken word. many listeners do not realize the fact that music is a powerful communicator of philosophy. TV. entitlement-demanding society. We have unconsciously learned it through repeated listenings. statistics show that violent crime has risen sharply among teenagers in the past few years. There is no more effective way to teach anything than with the aid of music. the Chinese customs herein described are transmitted from generation to generation. To start with.And thus. Violence 3. Undoubtedly this mother is not aware of that. discourage them but they comply with tradition to avoid unpleasantness. they also want to develop critical thinking and discernment that will help them turn down the wrong choices their friends may make.either with or without the tape or CD playing it to us. Like this mother. Rebellion 2.] Teens may be more media savvy than their parents. The Music Scene Music is a language that speaks directly to the soul. Most of us have probably caught ourselves casually singing a song . Many parents are in the same boat. Here's what parents can do to help. Contact with their elders. A young person may think that these lack feeling but are wary of discarding them for many reasons. We live in a sex-obsessed. No matter how much we try to escape the popular culture. the trends of the day hit us right in the face. and influences deeply the sensitive and emotional side of a person. Nihilism or Despair . It transmits an experience. intriguers and the gossipy. they've simply lost track of what's happening in their children's entertainment and biggest concerns. seated was a mother and her teenage boys. They are not only asking for different entertainment choices. and the starkest reflection of those traits are being exhibited by teenagers today. movies. Safeguarding your Children against Today's Popular Culture At a famous fast food chain. namely: music. but they often lack the tools to think "Christianly" about the culture. video games and clothes.
Psychiatrist Foster Cline.4. Dr.The Music of Darkness Exposed by Eric Barger) In order to help your teenagers sort out positive music from the negative. is watching movie videos at home. Escapism 5. Checking Out Movies Be wary of ratings. This is better than dropping them off at the cinema with their friends where they could easily slip into an R-rated flick. if possible. Drugs or Alcohol 6. Suicide or Murder 8. Of course. Your best bet. or do task oriented activities. To be on the safe side. Think about it. talk about album lyrics and by discussing the following questions: y y y y y y Do the words of the song emphasize harmful consequences or actions? Do the artist's words or actions promote immediate gratification? Do the words promote courage. the videotape has become an all-purpose baby sitter and pacifier in many situations. engage in creative play. preview the m before letting your youngsters watch. Anti-God or Anti-Christian Blasphemy (Source: From Rock to Rock . self-control and good judgment? Do they emphasize secrecy? Are the words or actions based primarily on feelings?] Finally. is a . good or bad. This is particularly true of children between the ages of 1 and 5 who are exposed to many hours of television. PG and PG-13 films may be deemed acceptable by mainstream audiences but discerning parents will bristle at much of what's supposedly "age appropriate" material.just someone willing to sit and stare. Cline believes that any video. Arrange a date night with your teens. How do some day-care centers occupy children in order to have peace and quiet? Play a video. Viewing films together gives parents the chance to talk about the content . Numerous studies show that children who sit passively in front of the TV screen don't learn to concentrate. however. say that he would rather put televisions and videos away and have children string buttons or wrap tape around a chair anything that makes them focus on a task. author of Parenting With Love and Logic. Occult or Paranormal activities 9. "Would Jesus listen to this?" This question should also be applied to movies and TV shows.and what the family standard is. Open satanic affirmations 10. Sexual promiscuity 7. What's on TV? Watching television requires no interaction .
While fads come and go. etc.detriment to getting toddlers to concentrate or think creatively. Many boys are crazy about video games that train players to main. torture and kill. What should parents do about TV? Set either daily or weekly viewing limits for the family. Watch TV programs with your kids. Others allow one hour daily as an "incentive" to children after homework. but "fad" wardrobes are a waste of money. Zap List !!! * Bands with Lurid Lyrics . parents don't have to go broke footing the bill." what example are you setting for your family? There are many dangers posed by video games as well. The only humans seen are female strippers who can be brutalized and killed by the player. Many teens would rather die than look baduy or different from their peers. Teach your teens that modesty and good taste last forever! Ask your daughters to consider w hat they are really saying about themselves when they are tempted to buy provocative and sexually suggestive clothing. For instance.500 is your limit on a pair of durable sneakers. Chances are they might end up watching the wrong stuff over their friends' houses. Set a basic allowance on clothes. What do hours of playing these types of games produce in a child\rquote s behavior? Child psychologists find nothing of benefit." places the player in a Hollywood red-light district inhabited by alien mobsters posing as Los Angeles police officers. Teach your teens to build their wardrobes around the basics like jeans. discuss it immediately with your child rather than waiting until the topic comes up naturally. Even if you\rquote re turning on the TV as a "background noise. blazers. Some families watch TV only on weekends. "Duke Nukem 3D. Another issue of contention between parents and teens is clothing. This is better than prohibiting them to watch TV. if P1. pastel colored plain shirts. Arrange your furniture so the TV isn't the focal point of the room. Nothing is a substitute for previewing your child's favorite show and finding out what messages he or she is exposed to. If you see something objectionable on TV. your teen will have to pay the difference if he wants Nike's latest Air Jordans. A video game. white T-shirts. Take an honest look at your own viewing habits. All teens want to wear what\rquote s in style.
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y KORN Slayer Nine Inch Nails Salt-N-Pepa Bone Thugs and Harmony Dr. Dre Silverchair 2Pac Offspring Warren G The Dogg Pound Nirvana Naughty by Nature Pearl Jam Too Short Violent Video Games y y y y y y y y y y y y Killing Time (3DO) Mortal Combat III (Midway Arcade Version) Phantasmagoria (Sierra) Rise of the Triad (Apogee) Doom II (id) Ecstatica (Sony/Psygnosis) Night Trap (Digital Pictures) Corpse Killer (Digital Pictures) Killer Instinct (Nintendo) Savage Warriors (Mindscape) Daryl F. Gates Police Quest (Sierra) Resident Evil (Capcom) Prime Patrol (American Laser Games) .