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i\.

Egberrs: \Xienamul1 93
? \5 125 (1998)
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',-".l _.". :_. -" --" ,.
Bard Times: The Chronology of "The Report of Wenamun" Revised'
"Obemilliegen fertiggepragte, aber sellen genall :i(fltriffende
Begriffi Cttl! der Lmlcr, Z!I1Jleilen durch Klang ulid lUodegeltung
vnjii/mrisch, bereit einzuspringetl, sobalci den Schreibenden die
Energie des Gegenslandlichen ver/aJt"
Elich A uerbarh, Phil%gie der Weltliteratu/
\Vriting history is like reading literature: all it takes are texts, common sense, and a touch of
imagination, A well-balanced mix of these ingredients lies at the heart of Karl Jansen-Winkeln's
reappraisal of the evidence relating to the end of the New Kingdom
3
• His main conclusion con­
cerns the sequence of the Theban high priests of Amun. Whereas the textbooks have it that
[·ferinor was succeeded by Piankh, J ansen-Winkeln pleads for the reverse order. This new inter­
pretation has been welcomed by some
4
and rejected by others'. My present contribution to the
(kbate surrounding the date of Herihor's pontificate focuses on one of the most important
sources mentioning this dignitary, namely "The Report of Wenamun" (cited hereafter as "\'(/ena­
mun") , In the course of my argument, I will substantially revise some of the premises and con­
clllSio!1s contained in my previous study of the chronology of "Wenamun,,6. It should be noted,
though, that this reassessment does not affect my translations of the relevant passages, which
have already found their way into a recent anthology of ancient Egyptian literature
7

Before plunging into detail, I must briefly address the issue of the use of literary texts as his­
torical samce material. I fed compelled to do so, because it has been malntained that the date
l 1 thank the following colleagues for giving me access to their papers presented at the symposium on ancient
Egyptian literature to the memory of Georges Posener, held at Leipzig, 1996: john Baines (On Wenamun as a
Literary Text); Christopher Eyre (Irony in the Story of Wenamun: The Politics or Religion in the 21st Dynasty);
Gerald Moers (Fiktionalitat und Intertextualitat als Parameter agyptologischer Literaturwissenschaft: Perspektiven
und Grenzen der Anwendung zeitgenossischer Literaturtheorie). These papers will be published in the proceedL.'1gs
,,!"the syrnposiurl1, Moreover, I am much indebted to Rob Demaree, Karl Jansen-W'inkdn, and Gerald Moers for
comments 011 a draft of this article; and to Brian Muhs for improving my English prose.
. Originally published in 1952 and reprinted in: Gesammelte Aufsatze zur romanischen Philologie (Bern, 1967),
}lll-IO (the quotation is found on p. 309), .
K, J ansen- Winkeln, Das Ende des Neuen Reiches, zAs 119 (1992),22-37.
, ',R, Gundlach, Das Konigtum des Herihor: Zum Gmbruch in der itgyptischen Konigsideologie am Beginn
J. Zwischenzeit, in: M. Minas and J Zeidler (eds.), Aspekte spatagyptischer Kultur: Festschrift fUr Erich
'':!nter Zllm 65, Geburtstag (Aegyptiaca Treverensia 7; Mainz am Rhein, 1994), 133-8; J H, Taylor, Nodjmet,
Parankh and Herihor: The Early Twenty-first Dynast\< Reconsidered, in: C. Eyre (ed.), Seventh International Con­
of Egyptologists, Cambridge, 3-9 September 1995: Abstracts of Papers (Oxford, 1995), 184-5; A. Egb erts,
Herihor, Dhutmose and Butehamun: .t\ Fresh Look at 0, Cairo CG 25744 and 25745, GM 160 (1997),
• .l-J.
5 S
/ ,ee the rderences comained in jansen-'\i:inkdn's repiy ro his critics: Die tbeballlschen Grunder der
GM 157 (1997), 49-74. See for yet another defence of the traditional view O. Goelet, A New
O,bbery Papyrus: Rochester ivlAG 51.346.1, JEA 82 (1996), t07 -27, esp. 124-7,
.' i\. Egberts, The Chronology of The Report ofW'enamun,jEA 77 (1991),57-67 . In the footnotes to this
,nick (:ne may find the basic bibliographic references relating to "\\;enamun",
'-, G. Moers, Die Reiseerzahlung des \Xienamun, in: O. Kaiser (ed.), Texte aus del' L'nw,'e!t des Alten Testa­
!fIlS (Gutersloh, 1995),912-21.
:. It B, P 3 r kill SO l\, (If 1,itcriiturt in the l\liddh: I'illgdull"l, Ancient l-',gyptian J.it<..:ratun.:, .)j I,
.. . '1 he fundamentalist ,-aricty of histOridsnl exemplified by K .. \. Ki tc h C11, Sinuhc:: Scholarly l\1cthvd Vt:rSll<;
I Bullctin ()f the j\ustralian Cell I 1"" for 7 (1 C)<)()) , 5,=)-(),ll (l\ve thi!' r<..:fen..'l1cc to G, ;\I()('rs,
.. ;\1-/\. Bonhcmc, I.e lint.: des rois df..: la Troisicmt:: Pc:riodc Intermcdiairc. 1 (BdE 99; Cairo, 1987). Sec for all
of the sources IvL-A. Bon heme, I'cdhor fur-il effcCli\'cJllf..:nt I'oi?, BIFAO 79 (1979), 26"1-H3. '\l1othCf
SOurcl.;S is gin::11 in 1\1. Ri) 111 cr. Gottes· und Pricsu.:rhcrrsc.:hnrr ill AgY1>l<..:1l ;Jill Ende des NCUt.'1l R<..:ichL:s: EDt
Phanomen uno s<..:inc (i\t\T 21; \\:'iesb<l.dcll, 19l..J4), 33-6,
A, Eggebrecht and M. Seidel , JlI\vclc:n dcr Pharaoncn: Einc Pras<..:ntauon dCf Ni<..:Jcfsachsi:,chl:l1 Sp;lrkas­
illl Rocmer- LInd Pclizaew,·j\luseum I (Hildcshcim, t<)87); Pc1iz;\eus-.\luseum Hildeshcim: Die
i\g\P'i<;chc Sammlung (Zabcrns zur :\rchaoluhric 12; Ilildcshcil1l. I993), 76.
:. Y, Rondot, Un documl'l1t inedil au nom de Ilcrihor, in: Cahicrs de "-arnak, VUI (Paris, 11)87). 2-=-1-7.
J{()IlI<.'r, und Prit.:stcrhClTl'if..:haft, '
r(':\litl' bl' casting the honourable Brutus for the murderer of Julius Caesar. The third and final
Ine:hod is baldly worth)' of thaI' name; il applies when we ha\'e no reliahle doeUmenf>II'\' sources
:'1 ,)ur ,iispos;;i to check tbe literary text against, and consists of using what some would call
(Ollln)"n scnse and others the hermeneLltic approach. I'roeeeding from this principle, se\'e!'al
hi>torians hal'e taken the violenl death of a distant prl;decessor of Julius Caesar describ"d in the
'''['(';tching ofi,menemhat" as a fact of lif". JI has been objected thai "Iheir \'aL'ious strategies do
I1CJt fully incorporate the possibilit\, that the leXtma\' well have rC\\Tiltell l1i'lOr) fl)t artistic ends
or for reasons of decorum""'. This though salutal'\' in itself, remains mlher non,
colllmittal as long as the of such a distortion of history within the literan' contexi is nOl
dllciJ"ted, nor the tl'pe of uecorum demanding a regicide specified,
From the preceding considerations it follows that there arc two different attitudes I",,,,mls
and the historic:ll inforl11atioll it nlay cont:lin. \'fc 111:1:- these h:· l1l<::ln:, 01
the terms "historicist" and "fictionalist". The latter approach prescribes thaI' a literan' tex/ can
unit- be elllploved as a historical source if its SlOtI' is confirmed by texts of a dOClIntClllan'
The historicist has less strong principles and more leanings towards bricobge, Perhaps
rhi, is the !'eason wh\' i lik" the hiswr;e;st Slance e\'en though I rcadik subscribe to Ihe
IlCliun;IJist agenda ot' litcratlln.: ill its own ':, i\ 1Y{)lain concern in these p'lg<.::->, h( n\'­
(\'l'I',:s to find out what historicill inforolatio!1 we can s(lueezc out of
Since. J want nlY conclusions to COI1\'tIlCC hisl(lricists and alike, i \Vill SLI.I-\
:lr,sllI1IUll :11 a k\l..:I, 1,(,'! W' >:1I\'j1\;'(· ('(ll':1 l1H)l!1("lll 1I1al ,hl.. p;1p}i"l1<-: 1,:11"\\111 ....
1', Pushkin 120 had been lost in anticlu;t\· and thar would therd<>re lead their li\T,
Ifl pitiful ignorance of "\\'ellamun". \\'h"t thell wuuld tilC)' makt: ,J[ lbe temaining l'\idl'IlCL (ull
ceming ['\crihor) I'ote that this hypothetical situation is not reall\· different from the position of
" fundamentalist fictionalist who, by consigning history to the dunghill of liter;tture, has no usc
li.. r "\Venamun" in reconstructing the faU of the Nc\\' Kingdom.
The sources mentioning Herihor have been compiled by Marie"\llge l\ullhcl11e", The appe­
alance uf tile Ilrst fascicle of her bvuk coincided with the ac,\uisition uy the Pelizaeus-,\l useunl
in I-lildesheim of three pieces of je\\'clry which once belonged to the burial goods of l!crihm",
a"d the publication of a fragmentary block inscribed with rhe name of Ilerihm originaling from
lhe Amun temple at Karnak", The documentation relating to l'Ienllm, which In tile presen/
slJ,l!,e of nl\' reasoning docs not includt: "\X:cnamun", can be di\'ided into three gt:Ou[1s. The first
group comprises the sources in which Herihor ligures as high priesl of .\mun in associatio"
"'ith Ramses XI. These arc confined to the represenl;tlillns and inscriptions of the h\'I)ostylc hall
uf the KhCJnsu temple in Karnak, and 10 rhc badh- d:lI1'l:/,l!,ed oracular slela set up in the pllrticl)
of the same munument';. The second group is formed I", Ihe sources in \\'hich Ikrihor is pro·
\'ided with [O\'al titles, namely thc oceuHences in th" court of the Khul1Su temple and the funer­
ar\, papyrus of I-1erihur's wife l"odjmet. The third group encompasses the remaining documents,
"'hich feature I 'Jeri hor as high priest without a11\' hint whalsoever to the existence of Ramses XL
Tn the last category bdong the hieratic texts wrinen on the coffin lids of Seti [ and Ramses lJ,
')5 I.A':" IZ5 {I9W3} .. \, Lgl)l."l'Ls: \\ ell<lIllUIl
,.---­ ----­
t)4 ,\, \\enamUl1
with which "\\'enantun" opens is irrelevant to any hisl.Orical investigation of Uerihur and tht
times in which he Dourished'. This \ ito,,· is based on the >lssumption that "\,'enamun" should
classified as a piece of literature, and nol as a document ()n a par with judicial reports, necropo)u
ioumals, leLLers alld the like", Indeed, there can he no doubt that "\Venamun" deserves a place 0.1
h, )nour in the literary cabinet of the anciel1l The il1lricacy of its plot''', the irony of its;'f.
and the occasional expressi\-cness of narrativc.;ll are ever so 111any signs of
ture. On thc other hand, it cannot be denied that "\,:enamun" presents documentary charaCter':.;;
istics as well", Stdislic features snch as lists and summations", the mention of prominel1l
lemporaries like l!crihor and Smendes, and rhe Jay-out of the manuscript on which "\\'enamun"i
has heen preserved'; tll'(; more suggestive of an administrative report rhan of an artistic master,'::,
piece. In nw opinioll, "\,'enamun" is best regarded as a literal'l' text dressed up like a
liS aurhor must have had good reasons for choosing this disguise, but 1 prefer nor to dwell
the subject, lest I take my speculations for his intentions"', :,;:"
I I' "\\'enal1lun" is a work of literature, it should be relegated to the realm of fiCtion like all other/
in\'cnlecl stories'-, Fiction is not the opposite of realitv. No matter what tlight the imagination mal''';'
take, a writer always has to dra\\- upon elements from the world as we know it in order to create and;:
communicate". Some literar)' gcnres require a high percentage of reality: these are dominaled by""
the r\rislOtelian principle of mimesis or \'erisimilitude". Examples of such genres are the historical"'.
"m'c1 and 19th·century realism, Ob\'iously, "\\'enamun" belongs to the Stlme category, since it'·
leems \\'itb rclere"ce, III re;t! pJaecs and peuple, while lhere is butliulc scope fur. Ii ,e sUpt:1'Il,'tural., :
,\ good mcthod in tn'ing to sifl. the chaff of fantas)' from the grain of truth contained in each,::
work of realist literature is to inter\'iew the writer and hope that he or shc has the decency nOl toN:
tell lies. For reasolls which 1 need not explain, this docs not wurk in Egyptology. The
best meth',I(,1 !'o isohte from a li,,;ran' text those happenings which we believe to be bistorieatJ'
and 10 compare tbem with illformation gatbered from SOUl'ces of a documentary nature.
we know from Suetonius, Plutarch and other reliable authorities that Shakespeare respected:',"
,\. utIli l,ilJ lk:illag /,ur di...:'i l"l;UL.11 Rt:ldu.. (Sll.ldll·1l
,\rt:h;io!og:i<: und Gc.:schichtt.: i\11':ig-ypt<:ns 17; 11ciudbcrg, lY<J6),200-1; rll<' SillllC opinion is implicit in raperlit'
(;, ,\ Ioc r s mcntioned in n. 1 abm-c,
,\waiting till..: l>uiJlic<ltion of Ihe papers mc.:ntioncd in 11,1 alH.,\C, ol1t: COIlSull }\. Lc rCc&
d'OUIl:lmoll: Lin tCxlt.: ou «llOIl-liucmirc»)?, in: C, ObSOnlcr 1\.-1.. Oosthuck Amosia(1tt
'\lclal1).!.c'"' offerls all Proft.::,!'cur Cl;lUdc YandcrsleYl:ll par ::;e!\ 311ck:ns ctudianlS (LOlI\'ain-la-r"t:U\'C, 1992), ,'\5,;-65.
r" See the paper J. Baines mcntion<,.:d ill n, 1
II Sec the paper by c:. re 111l:l1tium.:d inll, 1 abun:.
\' Thc !I)I1U dns.ri(lfJ is ·t. 48-50: "I found him scatcd in his upper chamber wuh hi!' back turned h)WarJs S
window, wllilt: the wa\'cs of rhe great sea uf Kh()r bn)k<:: against the bnck of his hcaJ"j 1\, j j, G arJ in (:: r,
J Swrie:- (BAc I j Hrussds, 1932),66,3-----6 (hcn:aftcr
, <;"ekl,jL\ 82,126. ,:*
" 1, C)-H) (J.I:.S, 61,12-3); 1, 10-2 (Ix'S, 62, 1-3); 2, 38 (J.hS, 70,1(,); 2, 40-2 (J.LiS, 71, 2-(,); 2,68;;'
\1.I·.S,74-5), ,;,;
" .I. Papef anJ Boub in :\1H:il:lll (l.tUlduJ1, 1952j, 22. Set: abu lill': appendix of th..: paper ..
J. mcnriolH:d in 11. I abmT.
1', Cr. P. Dt.:rcilain, Auteurci in: A. J.oprit.:llo (cd.), ,\nciellt J':gyptian Lit<.:r;:uure: Hisroryand
(1' i 1". Le/L1'n, !l)()(,), H3-l)4
, 'J he concept of ticuoIl.lht\ 1S dlSCUSSCU b\ A Lopncno. DcfU1lrlg Eh''1)llml I lll:ratuic i\nC1t::11l 'J exts and
,\Iot\<.:m '1'hf..·,urks. Anciellt E,I-r:-'ptian Lilt.:l'aturc. 39-58; Sl:e aJso tilt.: p"p<'rs by J. Baines and G. t\·locrs mentioned
in n, 'I "bm'c,
i' The :-choul of thought known a:-; postmorkrnisl1l ha::; cclcbrarcd th.., of n.:ality", hut being an J..
gi:-I J prefer to remaill prcmodcrn, See for a readable introdllcdon to the sl1bjt:Cl oflitenuy theory P. Barry, Bcg
lIt
•.
ning 'j'h(,'ory: /\11 Introduction to and (i\lanchest<::r, 19<)5). 'Ill(: necesshy of kecping nbre
willi die I';.\pidly ch,lI)ging in lhis field has bC1,,;11 refrcshingly Ylicstiol)l:d by II. LJ. G umLrccht. Dod
need a "'I11cory of Literature'?, j\ncicl1t Egyptian J.iterature, ,1-1 H. .,
.-\. I.uprit:n 0, Topus und ZUIll l\usHimlcr in dcr l.i!t.:rmur (/\t\ 4H; It)HS).
'f·
\. ... 1..\:' l25 fllJlJX
------
If Jansell- \\·inkdn is tight in the seLluellce Ijeri.hor,Piankh rhat has so long been
,,,rt of our EgI'j1toh>gieal upbringing, then thc rll'o date, associated lI·itll Ikrihor cannot belong
:" I"elf (, of the Whl1l-/lIslI'l. It follows rhal this yeHt' must refer to the "roYal" pha,e of l!crih"r's
or":cr, whicr. ,,·as lriggered by Ihe death of XI. The hall-he,"Ted natm... of I krih",.'s
has (,(ten been remarked on, It is exemplified by his datelines lI·hich conlai" 110 indica­
l,f dIe current reign, \vhile the Iitlc:-: they ass!gn to I kriho[ betray not·hing of the royal Sfatus
he clljo.\·nJ ..:()rding 10 the scenes and inscripliolts of fhe court of the I,hon:--u
It'll/pic.. \nd yet the sixrh regnal ycar can be no other than that o( J krihor, if 1I"l' cho( lSe 10 ,ielt'
with 1,"1sen-Winkeln, This ye,lI' must lhen /1>11'(': coincided lI'itb the Sixlh regnal ITar of Slllcnde"
the r;J!cr of Lower Lgypt lI·hom i\Janerho considered Ihe f"utlder of the TIITntl'-llrst Dynastl',
,chieh suggests that like I·lerihflf he callle to power after rhe death of Ramses :\ I had oeellrred".
In other \,",mls, the I'car in 'Iucstion w;,s th(; sixth after the end 01 the New I"':in!!dolll. " is
lInkllOIl·n for how long Ilerih"r beld ,way of Upper LgI·pt. J lis wife "'odjmet seems Il> halT
sun in::d hinl but for she W3S buried in the first yc;,r of Ilcrihor's :'llCU.::-SUI PillOll­
il'llll
i
.'.
, F<lc,d \\·irh the two reeonstruelions ill the prel'ious paragraphs, j do not he,itale 10
;1\'(111' rill" belief in rhe one pmpo,ed I,,· Jallsen-\Vinkeln. In the present situarion, the burden of
pn,lot" rests wirh C:lnl101 cOlltellt Ihc1l1seh-cs with rroducing ad hoc
"<tch link in tile ellaitl of .Ial1Sen-\\'inke1n 's reawning. '1 he real rest is wbether all lhese
argulllcnls taken together yield a mure solid chain, and tbis is where thc critics fail.
Alil1<lugit 1111' article i:; supposu! to deal lI·ilh "\\'en;II1Iun", 1 hal'e delibcratc'" tdnllned fro111
in the pre-ceding disClll:"iIlTl I\r wh.u 1n::,:,. luI. t' h'flL·....-d Ji],l
the transilion of the 'l'wcmielh to the Twentl,-tirsr D,'nastl'. This parados has 'prung frnl11 III I'
wish not to alienate the fictilJnalists anlUtlg Ill) rcadcr,ltip, '[l,ey arc adl'i,eJ to ,kip the selillel,
,inre ml' true historicist disposition is about to rel'eal itself. Lei us therefure SlOp pretending
that we live in a world \,-ithuut and sec how li.leratUl'e firs in with hiswn·.
In my imroduction I bave suggcsted that wc should start our search [or the rcalit\· behind a
lile,ary \I'O,k such as "\VenamUtl" by isolating those ekmcnts lI'hich lVe suspCCI 10 cont,>rtll \I)
the hisluriGll truth. Alrhollgh cumaius Illueh thal mighl Lc considued relel 'lilt t(l
all undetstanding of the political conditions in the I,el';lnl and CI'['>fU> in the e1el·emh eeoiliry
Be I will concentrate on what i, sa)'s abullt EgI'pt, rhe homeland of it, proragoni>r as lI'ell as ils
author. hr5t I will discllss the EgYl'uan SL:lleSmen 111entiotled ill "\\'enal11un": Ilerihor
and J(ha<'111wase, Next 1 will procced to scrutill\- of il,e dales the SlOn' contains ill order ro
d"lcnnine whcther lbel' rcally all"w the historical conclusions mall\· Lglptolugists, including
myself, have drawn from them in the past,
Smcndes is repenred!" referred 10 in "\\-'enaillun". J-lis occurrence is found in the 'econd
sentcnce of the "port (1, .1-4): "()n the day of 111Y arri\'al at Tanis in (the arca) wllere Smende,
and Tentamun are, I gal'e IhellJ the decree, of ,\mun-Re, King of Gods"". Tcnramun is pre­
S'.Hllabh ider:tical with rhe 'lueen <If Ihm m'111e known lU ha\'e born Llucen Hcnttawi, the wife of
I'inodjem I and the 'notlter u[ lh" Tanite king Psusennes I. II has been suggesled by '\Ildrzej
\iwinski that Tel1lamun was the wife of Ramses XI, whieb would account for the compoutld
name "Ramses-Psusennes" anesred for her grandson, since its lirst c!el11elll could then be iden­
\\ .. G. (Londoll alld C;mlhl'idgl,:, 1\1<-1" )tJ.lO), 1;).. TIK n.:li,:hilily or 1\lam:lIw btl:- hL'CI1
qUt<;tioJled 1)\ 1\ CI'll.il:itl lh:\'ll,.;\\/.,I D"';ld-n.:t.:klHllllg trlltll ,h... IJrna,'I!\', I,\RCI·:.\;
153-63, \..-ho rh:u '!'",..'nt\,-tirst J)\'l);l:-ll\, Will' fOllnded h\' Sm"'llClcs' SllcCl',.. se;r /\n;t:I1'('ll1ni."ll. I consider
\lan"'lho":-. ;ICCOUJll llIore rh:lI·of 11·;lg(,l1!'i, WllO S('('I1;S III h..· igll11nllll nf.l;llls... important
on rhi:-: :C:Uhjl'C':1.
'I. Set,' Ihe n.:fcrcllccs in K.ii III Cr, (;ellteS- llnd Pricsll'l'hctrsc!l:lfr. S:).
I.I':S G). 4.-(1: IIrw II ,'p" I.I,.=./ r (;rllt fIJI IIty N.r·,\'w-IJI-I//}-f)d 1'1-m-lmll Jill ;11·=; t/if 1/=11" 11: 1\·{l1.11· Jl 711111-1(( I/.n\"1
I/!III·.
,"
.J
>
/ \;:-. \\CI .. II. 1 "HI
The handiest rd(.TclH:c is Kl{1 V1, SJH.
E.g. Bonhcmc, Lc lint' des rois, 132; K. :\. Kitchen, The Third Jlllc:nllt;di:.lll: Pc..:ril)d in EgypC {
(1100-650 BC) (\\"arlllinmr, 1 § .
Ii- KRI VI, 702-3. A somewhat later daLe from the same.: ,'C:tf is rUl1l1d in P. l'rt\klll)Y; :-cc: U. Bl:r!t.:,·, The
vI' 1'- l',al<ll"", GIll (,(I (1 5-15.'
1" 1:,. F. W·clltt.:,ill:'l'IH:'fclllph.:ofKhoHSU, I (OIl' • .'\-:-..i.
.... .I. "·oJl Ih:ckcr;Hh, (:hrono!ogic pharaollischcn Agyptcll: Die 'l.c.:irhc::.stllllllHlIlg ..kr Gc:- ./,
sdlldw.: yon der Vorzcit his 332 ,-. Chr. (1\1.\S 46; f\l:linz, 19')7), 107 \vilh n. 458.
:1 Set.: Il. 3 ami 5 abo\'t.:.
\' J. (:c J .a.tc J.ctll:rs (BAc 9; Brus!icls. 193Y), 17, II.
l' VUIl Ih:..:k<.:r:lth, Chrot1ulogiedes Agyptcll, ((17 •.
wbich pro\ ide us witll the UlIl es attested fen I kri!lor, vi,.. year (>, lJ 0)" III tbl 7, and year 6
,
..
III prt 15 (tlw date, contained in "\\'enal11un" ,rill do not coulllf· l\llhpugh ir has c,ften been
,tated rhal lhe,e datelines refer ro the "Renaissance" o( Ramses XI'-, this is 1)\· no mcans evident"
(rom I heir phra,ing which lacks the charaCicristic term WI1I11-I11.Hrl.
The time-honoured view of l!crihm is that he entered upon hi, pOl1lif,cate in the Gcginning
of the WillI/-m.,WI and that he died prior to l"toar 7, III IIIIlI' 2H of that era, which is the eadiest'
,:ale associaled with hi, purported successor Piankh". The family reiatioJls between these men
are unclear, for it has been shown Ihat tlw first prince in the procession of Herihor's family c
depicted in the "honsu lemplc docs not represel1l' Piankh"', This false identification, which was}
the original reason for postulating the seljuence Herihor-Piankh, can therefore no .longer bel:
used to support IIerihor's precedence. Since the administratil'e year starred on 11.1 20·'
throughout the n.:ign of Ramses Xl ", the rraditional \'iew implies thal there is bUI a small gap of
some four al1d a half months belween the latest date of Herihur (.1.11 prt '15) and the earliest date"':
of Piankh (III SII/II' 2H). In rhe latter part of hi, career Herihor had the audacit)' to arwi'ate wl'a!'.
prerogatives to himself as witnessed b" the decoratiun uf the Khonsu lemple, Piankh, on the :,'
other hand, mu,1 hal'e been less ambitious, for in the oracle text dated to III SI11W 28 he full)'.j"
acknowledge, the authoritl' of Ramses Xl, while there is no e\'idence suggesting that he evet\;:
to kingship, If J'lerihor preceded Piankh in uftice, lhcn rhe latter's in:;tallation signalled a'l"
pni"d "I res!"llralion afler l!crihor's provocative innovations in the decotaLi,'n of 1he court of the,';:·.
khon,u temple, which arc likcly to hal-e displeased the real Pharaoh residing in the north,
,ccotld pha,e of the WllfIHlIslrl has left no traces in the l(]lUnsu temple, for .it lVaS only..
Pi:l111:h": <:llil Pinodjcrn I '.dl0 ordered to nc('oratc jts r}·!on and IhU<:i pur-·
stlcd the programme begun b,' Herihor. Like the lattcr and unlike his father Piankh, whose
and naille arc conspicuousJv abscnt ftom the Khonsu templc, I'inodjem I poses as the one and:
onll' king on ilS waUs. So much for the tradioonaJ I'iew of l!crihor and the conselluenees it entails,
J;lnsen-\Xiinkeln's alternative to all this is based on various type, of evidence: civil lilies, roynl
titularies, the building historv of the Kh"nsu temple, genealogies, and date:;", His central thesis
is that Herihor succeeded Piankh inslead of the other way round, J lerihor's pontificate must·
then po,td"te I·ear 10, I ,{IIIII' 25 of the W!/IIl-IIlSI.'I, which is the lalest datc \I'e ran associale lI'ith .
Pianklr". The same date happens to be the highesl one lor the WIII/HIlS"'1 - and
for Ram,e, XJ - as well, Yet the decoration of the hvpostde hall of the Khonsu temple shows·
rhat .xl \\"S slil.1 eonsic!cred Phataoh when llerihor ,tarted to aCI as I,igh ptiest. Th,'re·
t')l'e we l11ust ;"SUl11e that after year 10 of the Wb.nHlIs\\'r, which corresponds to I'ear 28 of the':,.
enlire reign of Ramses XI, this monarch lived long enough to necessitate his presence in the ':
company of.1 !crihor on the walls of the hrpostyle hall. This is not verI' daring, since
!t ha, heen argued on chrnnologlcal grounds that the reign of Ramscs XI lasted 29 I' ears at least ,..
and 34 I'ears at mosr···. It was only after thc demise of the last Rall1esside king that Herihor ven'
rured upon the usurpation of royal pri\'ileges that can be obsen'cd in the decoralion of the court ,.
of the KhollSU lemple.

9H .\. \\'\,"IJaIIll111 I.,\S 12.'; (19<)8):.

titied as a reference l<> his grall<Hather Ramses X"'-. This genealogy has been <luesti'"1eu bY:)1
I-':'enncth A. Ki tc he n on two grounds. First, the association of Tentamun witb Smendes (as
e\'ldeneed hI' "\X'enamun") during the lifetime of her husband Ramses Xl "is sureh' totally
paralldeJ in aJl thm we kllow of the roles of even the most prominent queens-consort in the1
l\Ie\' KingdoJT1 (or any other period)". Second, the family tree proposed by N i wi Ii ski "leaves+.
)mende, I, founder of the 2'1 st Dmastl', l<>talll' isulated and having no idemifmble link with7
either the 20tb Dynasty or the Theban commanders anti high priests"". N i wi I; ski" attempt;'
to bral'e Kitchen's criticism by presenting a historical reconstruction in which TentanlUn plays".
a pil'otal part bas failed signally;', since the latter scholat tightly qualifies it as "unsupported',
speculatioll" and N i\l·iliski 's case ItlT a marriage between Ramses Xl and Tent.'
amun would hal'e been much stronger, if he hatl chosen to adopt
views abmlt Herihm and the consequent redating of the events described in "\X"enamun" to the'
III sr yCalS of the Twcntl -llrsl 1)1 nast' On thIS assurnptH>n, w(' may regard Smendes as the sec-'
ond husband of Tenta1l1un, whom she married after the death of Ramses XI. This would effec-.
til'eh' counter the objections Kitchen has raised against the genealogy designed by N i'.vil\ski,.':.
while keeping its obvious advantages. It would also explain the prominent role assigned to Tent-.·
amull ill "\,'enamun": in her person the Twentieth and Twenty-first Dyn>lsties were linked.
,\ccording to thc passage from "\'\'enamun" cited abovc, Sm<:ndes and Tental11ull resided in:,
Tanis. This is conllnned by Manetho, who states that the Twenty-first Dynasty consisted of ..
sel'ell kings of Tanis, whereas tile preceding Dynasty is said to have counted twdve kings oL.
I);o<p"!;s (i.I·'. Thebes)".'\fter naming Tanis rhe Cllntinues with rhe phrose ,. pi Illy N.I-.Ill'..
B :'I/.h-{)d '1':-11/-1/1111 illl". In the existing translations of "\'(Ienamun" tbis phrase is variously_,;
regarded as an adl-crbial adjunct of Spl', despite the fact that this verb is already construed with ­
thc preceding adjunct I' Qrlll"; as an apposition of grill, thus leaving the preposition I' unac·
counted for'''; and as a relati"e clause, ignoring the true grammatical status of the adjunct, which
is adl'erbial and n"t odjecti\'al"'. In itself, the noun-phrase "where Smendes and Tentamun are"
allows of different interpretations, depending upon our identification of the implicit antecedent
as a \'()um, a palace, the city of Tanis, the land of Egvpt, and so on. It is worthwhile to have a
brief look at the occurrences of similar phtases within "\'(.'enamun". lIn instructive example to
start with is (2, 75): "I forced my way tluough them 10 where Hatiba, the princess of the town,
\I ;".". Ti,e lHOSl plausibie explanauon of this passage is that II illt "where Hatiba was" hcr resi.;,
..

.>'t
\- 1\. Ni\', ilhki, 1'J"f)hk"111S in rill: ChrllllllJog: :II14.! G<.:nt.'al!Jgy of thl:' Nl,,:\\, Propllsi1ls for •.
l'lH·rpn.:t;lti/)l1, 16 (tt.J79), 49-Mt gcnc:dogic:-!.! Ilf Ihe Jbm!'c.o.: hc<:n ..
K,.I,;.I1l SCI1-\" in kcln, Dcr J\I/{jordOl11us des Amun l\nchetenl11ul", JH (1997), 2Y-3G, esp. 32-3.
, kilt.:hl'll, Third IlllcrmcJiarc Perioo, 537.
loj A. N i wi ki, Illilitarischcr Sraalsstrcich und Ausnahmczustand in ;\gypte::11 unrt::T Ramses Xl:
Lill \'t:rsllch ncucr Interpretation der altcn Qudlcn, in: l. Gamcr-\'('allcn ami \X.. , HcJck (cds.),
h:stsehrifr fur Ellllll:1 Brunncr.'fraut (fubingcn, 19(2), 235·-62; id" Lc passage dc la XX' :l In XXlr
Chrollologie ct histoirc po!itklllC, BJF.AO 95 (J 9(5),329-60; id., pcriorlc:s Wlllli 111.\wt d,U1S cit'
Ull ""ai wmparntif, USI'E 136 (19%), ;-26. '
'" t-.':il·chcl1, Third Inlcrrnc.::diatc Pt:riod, xix, ,.,.
\\'a<l<kll, 152-7.
.:,;<.-
Sec 11. )6 abe Wt:.
".,",
' ""' ...
Lg. 11. G ot:dit:k<.:, The Itq){}rt IIf \\·LIl';.lU1UJl (B,dlimon•• 1')75), 17: "·11\\.; dit: I al'li.LJ ill at Ill..::
wht:rc SnH.:ndcs ;tIld \vc.;rc".
I':,g, i\L Lichthe.;im, l\nciclll Literature; 1\ Book of JJ (Bcrkdl.:}" etc., 1976).224: "On the
d'l\' of 111\' tlrrival :1t Tanis, the plotcc where Smcndcs and Tcntamun an.-",
n'H' Moers, Te.;xtc au::;. der Umwdt des l\hCI1 'J'eSfamems 111/5, 9l4: "Am 'I',lg mdncr Ankunft jn T,mis.-..
\\'(1 Slllcndcs 1.lllJ 'J'anct:ullUI1 leocn." As C" Moc rs has inforll1(,.·d mc, this rran!i!arion should not be..- considcre.;d tQ
reflecl his grammatical tlnah-si::;. of lhe sentence.;.
1/. J.I 75, 2: IW:; W.f/=1 iwd=.,. r 1'1 my Utl1 ,: ",.,.t II p: dm; illl,
/..\";;:> 12..1 i \\ .. -,.tI:I,H
!)fI
-------_--..: ------­
dc
nee
IS IIlcanf' ) since according to the 11ext sentence of his report \\'ellillllllll rouJld her \\·hl.:11
,he mO"cd from her one palac.e to thc other. In his suhsc<luenl 'lppeal to Hmiba, hO\\'(;\'(;r,
IX'"n:"lIUll speaks of "rhe land where I'OU arc" (2, HO)". ,\Ithough this case manifesrs all cxplicil
:lllrec"d, .It, rhere is no cogent reason to aSSU111e rhat the samc could not h,l\'(; been
((ltl\l.:<,·cd hy nlLlllS of the noun-phrase p: Illy fll' ;m, "where you arc". This is confin11cd by !\\'O
nca rk identical passages in which /.ekerbaal, the prillce of I:h'1>\"s, stales that crafTsmanship and
"lsd;>11l hal'e come from Egypt "in order to get to where I all'" (2,21-2)"'. The mentioll of j':i--"'P'
thc land where th,,>e accompJishments origillated makes it \'('1'1' likdl' Ihal rh" noun,phr",,, ill
<llI,,"tioll denotes the of Ihblos, alld nut just the room where /.ck"rba;d h'll'l'clled I"
uller Ihese words. illy poil't is further illustrated b)' the locutioll!': Illy 111111 1111, "II'here .\lllUll is".
,rhich is used twice ill "\\'en,lt1lun" to Jesignme the land of EgI pt. III the tlrst passage Zekcrbaal
,Isks \X'enamun (1, 50-I): "How long is it until today' since you came frlllll where ,\nllln ;s,.. ·... i\S I
h;1,'(; shown in ntl' prel-ious studl' of the chronoJogr of "\'\'enat1llln", the answer ro thi, qlleslion
onk makes sense whcn the phrase "where I\mun refers to Egypt". This imerprelali"ll is COil·
01' a lorer spcech of Zehrh'lal, in which he puts "where nlU came from" ill appositillll 10
"11)(: land of Egypt" (2, 20)"'. In the second occurrellce of the I"cutioll "where ,\mUlI is" the 11.1lI'd
is "'irh Wellam'Jn, who ,al'S ro Hatil>a (2, 7fl): "I h,ll'(' hcard as a"'al' "' Thehes in (rhc '1I'C:l)
w!l'.:re 1\1l1tl1l is""", TI,e farl \1lt41 Id lI'.v 1,,/11 ill I is l'n.'( l·(k·d 1.1y lhl..' j1rcpo,jlilll1 i' fflrhicl, III r('g'll'd
lidS phrase as an opposition of "Tllebes", as most Iranslators would hOlT it.. Thercflll'c, I inlerprel,.
pi firy 1111/1 jnJ as it. hKrlt;vc in which the rrCr(l"jrinrt,. the or "in""
The la:-:t cxarnple. with its sequence of:l rnpOII\"l11 and thl: ,. p: Illy, .. 1111. is n.:nlillisCCl)\
IIf the passage mentionIng :'mcndes and 'J'emamun whIch gal'e rise 10 the preceding granlln:n'
cai digression. This COI1SpiCUUllS is the reaSOll I prefer the tl'HIlSlarioll "ill (til<..: ;(n.:tlJ
"here Smendes and Tentamun arc" to the alteruati\'es listed abm·e. In ml' opinion, ""'hcrc
Smendes and Tentamun arc" is a designation of the area under their control, i.e. Lower I :.gl'l'l.
,lluldlir fl/II/Judis, tlle sa111<.: applies to Upper Egypt as shol\-n b\ the follCl\l'illg e:-;Irael from a
'l'eeeh of\X'enamun (2, GO-I): "When I will get to whel:e the high priesI' of ,\mu)) (i ..:. IlcrilHlr)
is''''. Since the partition of their countrv is notlikc1v to have flied the Lgl'J>tiallS \1'llh pride. il is
casy to understand whl' the)' had recourse to such a circull1locutioll of political realities. J halT
:l1i'cady noted that in addition to the customarv gcographical term Klfll the author 01 "\X enanlun"
t.he '\.,.b:.:r:: ;\!llUn i:" wIlen l't'!errinh ;'<- ,,-}.;,0I, ''11''> ..'t
rhat national sentiments were nor entirely lacking: ill his dal·s. This expressio)) seems to hOI'e
been fashiollcd after the locution i1! Illy IIl'lw illl, "where one (i.e. Phar"oh) is", lI'h;ch is attested
ill the Ramesside period as a means of distinguishing I ':1'1'1'1' from its nei1'hi>"ur Uluntries
i\ sillllJ:.r inlnpn:l<llioll 10 \'1. tL·t.lllircd in J, 12 .>: "I \\l'lllt<J \\'Ih.r...- d ....: princc (i.e, t)( Dor) W;\O:" (I.LS,
62.3---1: ill'=;,fm,. Illy pl .....r illl).
'. U':S, It: p: J:",y '\I' ;111=;:
,., I I·.S, 69, .1-4: r pb r p: flty I:d ;m. Cf, Po sc.:lIc.;r, ,\ prol)Wi d·Oullfll1lon. 2, 21 22. ill: b; netl il-(; rull.
ill ttl :\Jiri<.llll l.ichtllcim, II (Jerusalcm, 1990),7';"3-.5.
I.ES, 7: UT r p: IInl' m-rjr III'=k III pI Illy 1,,/11 1m
Lf\bens.Jl:;\ /7 (1991). (>tI.
LES, (l9, 2: p; II Kml p; I\I'=/.: in:.
" J.ES, 75, 6-7: 11'11=1 Nlwr,. pI lit)' 1111/1 ;11/.
\\"b IJ) cr. K. Jansen .\\' ink e In, Spatmirrcliigrptisdu: (inlll1l1l;llik dcl' Texte de.;r .3. /,\\'i::;chenzeil
{A,,\ r 34; \X'it"h;uktl, 19<)(,)1 176, for c.::.x:nnplt's (If ('qrnhin;tti, HI /. + toponym h:l\'ing loc:ui\·l.: mC'1.ning-, \':hidl
sho,uld be: contrasled with lht.: more common dircctionnl of Ihis
, "LES, 73, 6-7: ir ;",=-1 ,,11 r pi my pI (IIIHl!r Ipy II 1mn;1It O;IC lJIay comparc tht: following statt.:lllellr by Pl,lnkh
Clltd in (lYle of the Raml.:ssi(k "I \vill up to mcet Pflllcl1l'i in (the where hc is" (l' eo 1"11 l.all:
J..ettcrs, 7, 16: Iw=1 !.\)' r pb Pl-l1l(u)' I' f,t my'\"lI' Im=!). Tilt: laS( Ildjuncr unly :;cnsc. \\·Ill':ll il
w region of Nubia controllcd by rhe rebel :lntl fOI'01er dccroy Panchsi.
. In rhe: journal of a border official (I'. JlI, \'5.6,1 ff.) rhe Icut'rs ff.lr the roy,",1 ..H.llnin;Hr:nitlll
art' calkd pi lIty III-di=:.f r pJ "'y I)1'IW 1m. "whal lie': (i.e. lilt: Illesscliger) had \\'illl him fur \\·hc.;rt Ullt

',"f
Ilill ,\ Eghcr!:-: \\c-ll:1l11l'l'
/ .. 125 :..'.
-------------­
;\fter \\·cnamun's arrival at Tanis hc is said ro have hanued "the uecrees of Amun-Re, King ;'
of to SlllClldcs and Tcntanlun. wortl H'ld, lCtk.crcc", refers to a
issued ill the Ilame of a king or a god". In a later episode of the report, 7.ekcrbaal requests such a (
dueument fl'llm Wcnamun (I, 51-4): "'\\i'here is the decree (w(li) of I\mlln that is in YOllr hand1''';'
\'\:here is the letter WI) of the high priest of Amun that is in yuur hand)' 1 said to him: 'I havc ','.
g;\"en them to Smendes and Tentamun'. Then he became very angry and saiJ to me: 'So therc
al e no decree and letter in your hand' ";'. 7.ekerbaal's rcar.tion shows that \V'cnamun's failure to
pr(;sent am' official relating to his mission was a serious breach of diplomatic deco,·
rum. Accoruingh', the hanuing of the decrees of I\mull to Smendes and Tentall1un should bc
regar.ded as an act within the sphere of foreign affairs. I Jere wc havc anothcr hint at the division '"
of Egypt into two political entities.
Aftcr a stay of eight months in Tanis, WenamuI1 was finally able ro leave for J:3yblos (1,6-8): ..,
"Smendes anu Tentamun sent me uff with captain J\-Icngcbet, and 1 went clown to the great sea '..
of I<.hor in the first mOllth uf .\1/1"" Jay I""'. The namc is definitely not Egyptian"·' and:·
the same applies to its bc'n-cr, since later in the text Zekerbaal calls him "that foreign c:!ptain',.··..
(1, 55)"'. His ship must haye been included among the twentl' ships in tbe harbour of
"that are with Smendes" (I, 59)"'. The first di\'ergcnce of opinion betwcen Wenamun"':'
and c'J1,cerned the natiunalit\' of the vcssels by Smencles, the prince 0[""
Ild>!os suessinl4 the J .naminc ethnicity of thcir crews, while thc messenger of I\mun empha,·.;'
sised their to an Egyptian ruler. The latter argument failed to impress Zekerb,lal: in.:':
his rhe rwenty ships associated with Smencles were nothing compareu to the Efty ships
\,,'illl \\;"\ rLCll']) ,\"Ilo 1l111St accurdiJl.u;l:," ha\'c heell (1 radiant SI',lf on the international
sl:'gc "I" ,h"sl' ,1:Irk while heing of I,c\-antine, /\nawlian or Acgean stock (1, 54-2,2)"..
This, with Dlany indicatiolls in the report, t11<lt Egypt W>lS 1I0 IOllger tllc."'"
glorious trade partller il used LU he. In this the authur of "\\'cnamun" has ruthlessly expose<).
the economic decline of the empirc, which ma\' have becn the cause or the result, 0/­
both at the same tinle, of the political split occurring at the end of the New Kingdom.
On his way to Byhlos \'\'cnamun called at the port of Dur, where his gold alld silver were·
stolen by a runaway of Mengehet's cre\\'. In \Vcnamun's appeal (or help to Bcder, the·
[nince of Dol', it is ,t"ted with respcct to \'aluables (1, 14-6): "It belongs to I\mun-Re,
King of C;ods, the lord of the lands. It bdongs to Smencles. It belongs tu HerihUJ', mI' J.urd, and
the other great ones of Egrpt (11{ kil' rr,,' 11 Kill!)""·'. \\.'hilc preccdence of Amun need not.
surprisc us, it is interesting LU note that \,'enamun names Smendes before his own superiot·
J!(;fihor. Pcrhaps we may take this as an indication that "'jthin ti,e internatiomtJ context
was felt to bc more impllrt<ltlt ruler. This would be consisrent with fact that the:,;,
.
y

:',-­
the !cltcrs scm tWill I-.gypl an.: as p: my III-cfi=) ,. "\film Ill' Ilad him fur "bor";
A, H, G a rtlinc r, J,ale i\JisceUanies (BAc 7; Brussc:ls, 1(37), 31, 7-.\2,7, III a decree ()t J{:lI11SC!\ XI
to the Panchsi (P. Turin IBY() the same "where ooe IS" willi Nubia, the n:hriol1 admi- !::
ni,teml br tbe saill official (KRI "J, 735, 2 a11l14). ,
\. \\'b ". 354
1
;""", It is for instance fuund as a dt::'ign:uioll or I'hl..: dtl:rcc of RmllM':s XI Illclllionnl ill lhe pn;\'ious .,::
IlOle (KRI "J, 7)4, 14). ',..:.
LJ':S, 66,9-11 ;
"') I.ES,61,R-II.Ct.Fgbert:"JEt\77,SlJ-6il, :;:
'I' T, S<.:hnciJer, Asiatis<.:hc PCrSOlll..:l1nal11Cll ill Qud1cll des NcuCt1 Rc:icbes (OBO 114;
lllld l...;(Jllingcll, 1992)) 127-H,
(.t J,1"':5,66, 15: IJly bry-mlls
t,: 1.I':S, 67) 5; h,'=h' 111 {IIJr/nll Ns-sH'-I3J-lJh-l)d, Set: fo!' bIJrj. ,,:, 110<:11, Scmilic \'\/ords in 1':gypli:lIl T(;XlS ofrhc

.
New Kingdom and Third Jntermc:diatt: Period (PrincclOll, 140-J, Comrary Lo Hoch,! the tWu occUJ.!
ft.;Ill:cS of this ' .... orL! ill <l\\\:lJamlln" to be abstracr n\.thcr thaLl nouns,
101 I.I':S, ()(I, 13-{)7, X, See for the na11le Wrkl( Sch neider, Asialischc Pr::rsoJlCnn;lI11Cn, HI-3,
,., LES, 62, 7
,\. I I 1"; \\ ... 1l .. IIII

high of ,-\nlun arc ignored III l\l;lllc..:tho
l
s account o( th:..· .1Ild witll
c\·idence gi\'ing the irnpression that the \\'lTC kss reticent in c1ainling
prerugatives than the Thcbans_ The Illcntion uf Htht: (llhcr great of is inrrigu­
\\ ilL' cOi.;ld these 111agnatt:s be? Perhaps Ihe t::lSieSI solutiDIl is It I n.:g;lrd lhelll as rcullily
uf and Ilerihor, since this would release froIn the ohlig;ltion of ClJnteI11,
pLnin,!'" tl,e pu,:sibility that Eg\'pt h;ld fallen into Illore thall the t\\"o alrenel:-' knoll·
"r··. The use or kl(I, "other", as a yualifier suggests that S111endes and Ilcrihor were
(ol1sidcl"ed ones", rather than "kings" Of' "Pl-hlraohs", In f:H.:t, the true king has been
1I1Uliioned at the beginning of \\-cn:l1nun's L'J1U111l'ration: ,'\ 111\1n·I{(', "iog of the lord
"f'the !:tllds.
The thCn1C of AnlLltl\ kingship is also tOLlched UP(>l1 ill <..:t alH>thcl'
anu his consort Temamun, in which W·,,"a111un exhorts !'"kcr[,aaJ as (ollo"s (2, }1-5):
"I your bn,ughl to that 1m",· send hin] to Smendcs nnd Tenw111un, the 'pl,mners'
;\Il1L111 (lpp()inted in the north of his hUll1 (lIJ ,\111.",.,." I,di 111111111 p: mill." II The crux
of this ,'cI1lence is the word .ml.", \V;'ith customary brilliance, .lean YOH>ile has explaincd tr a:; a
precursor of the title .1'1111', which denoted the highest ecunomic ufllce ad111inistrati\T
reforms introuueed hy i\masis and corresponded to thc Greck rliliikeif/-. Despi!c the curio
ous spelljng 01· the snibc which has been intluenccd bl· .1"1111, "to
tllc Ctu,th", the \\ort! snty nlUSI. be;l dcri\'3.ti\'c of the n.:rb SJl!, "til fnl,lfld, ill pL!,,". lilt'!",!!
1lll':IIling wuuld then be something "planner". In all probability, the word oeCllrs in the
Litle ,\"I1(y fir, which is only known fron: rhe titubr:,' of prince th': ,-:nn nf
11
r
,,,. "PlanTler f,f I lotus (i,c'. Philt-:1rlh)" i" till;nv epithel fIll" 111rtn who cninn'd such a
I'l"i\·ilegcd staws as l<haell1wnsc. Lt is thut the same "·oru 0"1111" ill .. \\ (,Il:tlllun"
an ::.ppcJlation of Snlcndcs and 'l'entamuo, theIr (t'lrtticll1 to t\nHII1, is sugl!CS­
tire of an ideological eonstcllatiul.l in Amun as king, ,,'hile Smendes '1IId
fUllCiioncc! as his highest officials in tbc north. [3" implication, I Jeriho!. was the S!1l\' of thc
south. This partition foreshadows the practice of a hlt<:r period, when ii was nol unCllmmon to
l'l1lplol" two or three such officiafs at the same time, each administering his own region"".
'J.11e dispatched bl· \X;cnamutl had desired effect, for Sllleilcies and re­
SIXltlUed !J\. sending a variet\' of Egyptian prodUCts to Zc:kerbaal (2, 39-41)"'. ;\ nice detail is the
I;Kt that Tentamun did not forget to provide \\.'enamun himself with a supph- of
garnll'IHS, aud dlit.J (2) ,Il i.:> tl di ... .. ':.':l!' ,.'.-I l :,·!,
f(wallady - perhaps the last eJucen of the Ne\\' Kingdom a, pointed out - w:ts clothed,
In the preccding paragraphs all occurrences of the hisll>rical pcrsonIl:tgcs :!nd Ilt:ri­
hur in "\\lcnamun" have been revie\\'ed, foUowing passage nnllling the high priest o(
Amun (2, 25-(;): "Thus l,ing of Cods, to Ikrihor, t1l1·10rd: 'Scnd me!' 1\nd he
111(' Cl)OlC with this great j this tu (111 OfJc!e legicitnating Heriilor's de­
cisioll t" build a new bark for ,\nlun·'. kilO\\' this decision to be a historical fact, since rhe con·
structioll of a bark for Amun is also in two inscriptions localed ill tbe court of
"hOIlSU temple-'. There it is stated that I'lerih')l" "bas hcwn llis (i.e. AI1llln) bark out of pine uf the
cr. Hdmcr, unci
. LES, "'U, 9-11.
'., J, tlyn ltC, I.e nom (\,:,''YPtiCll dl1 «mini:;trc dc l)e..: S,,'(,s a 1\lCroc, C1L\1 BI. IYBY, -.1-9tl. csp. 7<,;.
F Gom:d, Suh)l ll. "1I1l (\" 27 ; \\ i<:,:,badn). 19":'3). tH.
YU\·ott<, CR,llllL 76-7; H2.
I.ES.71.t_5.
I.I'S, 71,5-6
1.1'.5. 9-1 L
Ril1llcr, <";Otlcs· und PriCSICl'hcrJ'sc.:hafl, 5114,
Temple of KhollSU I, pI. 21 (Oil right :,uppnr! of !'<hrilH.'); II, pI. 143. <:2, .
..;5
1113
--. ------­
.\. L,l;h,.: J'l y \'\'I;I1;IlIIUIl

r .I ..s. -'0. q ·-5.
Cr..\- Di...: AgYPIl':llS Zli \'orJcl'a:-:iell \'UI' und n;\l:h (km Ncu<.:n Rt:ich, in: P. O. Scholz
;'llld H.Slo,,:IlI!ICI \\:lIhia ci ()rl<;n:" rtlr (:. Ot::rJcf G. "\Itlllt:r 611. Gcburtst:l,!.!
I; KC:ll 11 , 1l)MM), 33 I), esp. 3tJ: uSClIlC dc( J\lachl c.1er l'.VlIige unu
wird 'lIs This is unly true as far as thc P"Xypcian kings arc conccrncu, fur there is no mockery
'If /\1111111 fO he t'ounJ in /.ek<..'rbaal's For tile same I cannot suoscriht'" lO the opinion
J..\ !<'ll:lllll, .\gyptcll: Eine Sinngc.:schichtc 19(6), .128: "Ocr BcrichL des madH deutlich, daB
till; die theokmtische H..q.,tierunhrsform del' 21. Dyna1'tie als t:inc '\lerkwi.irdigkcil c:mpfan
Jta, die zur Tratlition in \X:idc[spruch stand lind /\uf3cllsteht:ndcn, \\.Iie dcm Fi.irstcl1 nm Byblos, Ilut untet allcl'­
'wenn libcrha!Jpt, Zll n.:rmindn \Vat
ll
• In the by C. Eyre nlcl1l,joned in n. 1 abovc it is
thal the plol of "\'I\'cn,lmun" i:-; sulJ\'C\-:->i\'c of thl' theocratic ideology preached hy its prot<lgot1isr. 'fhis is
lhe right place to this malH;r ill dt.:plhi :\u[fiCl: it ltJ S;IY tllm \rcllalTIlill'S is nut tllle·
',-,' b:: his and th:1t it ic:. diffir.ult In th(' t1hilll;ltc 11ll':l1ling of the pInt :md its conspicuous iro·
O1c:: a$ long: as we un nol know how u\'('cnamun" ended.
'", ':ES, 71, 12-3.
. SCC" for a rcct:Jlt intcrprl:latioll II. 1\1..1 ;It:ksul1, "The Shadow of Ph,traoh, Your J .ord, Falls upon You": Once
'\l!,alll \\'cnamun 2.46,JNr':S 54 (1995), 27J-H6. I intl:nd to deal with this passage ami its implications in a sepanue

(; 'I' I.I':S. 68, H.-9; cr.. \ViO<llld, (;1\1 119, 9K. Tilt' inll,:rtl'xtuality 1)( this is abo in d... c p<tpcr by
. IlICl1tlotled III II. I aho\'c.
1.I;.S,72,12-73,2.
,llI
J
Pill""· ot Zekcrbaal and \\'enamun reaches its climax. Faced with I',ekerbaal's effective de­
bunking of a political ideolugy that had been coined during rhe he)'dav f)f the I'gl'ptian empire,
\X'cnaI11Vl chose tu expound the current theulogical doctrine, accurding to \I'hich ;\111110 was a
unil'crsal god, '.1 hose mastery did1v,(' stop al the horders of 1':1'y\,t, bur extended to l3yblos and
bero
nd
. ;\nuth"r passage from this speech is worth citing (2, 32): "You lOO arc scn'allt of
\1;IUnl"". The message is clear; Zekcrbaal may have IJeen right in affirming his I'is,
thc humar. rulers of Egypt, but even the prince of Byblos was subjcct to the power \\'iclded
;\n,un-Re, King of Gods, WelJamun's point was duly taken hI' ti>r in their
the cll\"()Y of i\ml'.n had the
There is a second occurrence of Ihc tCl'm "Pharaoh" in "W'enamun", which lacks the rel!'O­
sI'ecUIT character of f)lle just discussed. It relates to an incident that gave rise to second
dialog
uc
between WenalIJun and I.ekerbaal, in the course of which the subject of l,lwemwase
lI'i" introduced, as we hal'e seen above. \\ hile approaching l.ekcrJ.,aal in ordcr to illSPCCl I,is
J.:\iI'en· of pine stacked on the shore, \Venamu!l trod the shadow cast b" the sunshade of the
plincc of Byblos, Thereupon a butler of I.ekerbaal by the Egyptian name of Penamlln sropped
\\'cnamun and said (2, 46); "The shadow uf l'baraoh, I'uur lord, bas fallen upon you""'. This
has caused great trouhlcs, ther could not bring themsekes ro
:lC(ept the obl'ious; the Pharaoh in question is Zekerbaal"". This reluctance derilTs panh' frl)m
the yuestionable premise of considering Wenamun a contemporarv of Ramses XL Things
become a lot easicr, if wc assume that Penamun's wurds were uttered whell tbe mort<I1 rClllaillS
IJf r.his king had UCCIl cUllsigllt:d tu the gr'IYc. '1 uudL:.1' PUldllWfl ltaJ gUile .dJltl,iLI ,1I1J
fllUlIJ a new Phar<Ioh in Zckerbaal; the homesick ell':oy \\'c;nan1L1\l, '.)11 the other hand, h"d
gil'en hi, heart to Almln. 'TIlesc two Egyptians symbolise the options one has when lil'ing in a
hnJ un the decline; outward and inward emigration.
Hcsides the Penamun episode, the author of "\X!enamun" has adopted other ironic; strat"gcllls to
portray Zekerbaal as a would-be Pharaoh, such as his borrowings from the rhetoric of Ramesside
royal hmllls (2, 13--4)"', and the text dictated by and destined for a rol',11 stcla tl) be
erected by Zekerbaa\ (2, 55-S)"", Thcse t.ravcsties of thc tradiciuns assuciated with 1',gypLian king­
ship testify to the failure of a political ideolugy in which a bum,,,, Pharaoh ""'s Irc<Id of state. JI
I",,,dd .. e hard ro uphold such !lorilln when IiI(' W\I ion of I:,!!I'\,I was Ktlialll' Yet
the F,gl'Ptians of tbe Twentl'-first Dynasty (CJllld nor dispC11se with ideo\ogl' altogether. They pw­
:\. I.gln. t 1:-. \\"l'llalllllJ' 102
" I FS ; -"
'(, GM 157,63,11.75.
.. I.ES, 72, 9-10.
" Ego Kite he n, Thud Intermediate Period, XVIi by.l a n:-; e n-\\ ill kd 11, () 1\1 157. 6J.
'" LES, 67, 14-16.
., I.\;S, 68, 3-6; ,ee for a different Iranslation J. Winand, Derechef ()un.lllon 2, 13-14, (1994).
95-108.
" 1.I'.s, r.A, 7-8.
'" 1.1\5,69, 14-5.
_________/_.. 125
I.cballoll W'e may cooclude from thesc texts that a rcal c\'cm, the renewal of
bark of Amun ordcred by Herihur, induccd the aumor of "\'('enamun" to compose his prose. :'
I\part from Smendes, Tentamun and Ht:rihor, "\Vcnamun" mentions a fourth historical figure 1:
albeit in retrospect. l30th Zckcrbaal \'Vcnamun call this person Khaemwase without fllrthe;"
tlualifications, which suggests that they knew whom rhey were talking abuut. Zekerbaal was the
first to introduce this topic (2, 51-2); "j hal'e nut donc for I'Oll what was dune for the envOI'S of
Khaemwase, after thel' had spent se\'entcen ycars in this land. They died on their post"';,
The fact that Khaemwase was able w send envoys to l3yblos shows that he must have becn an
Egyptian Icing. In the given COl1lext, the only likely candidate is Ramses Xf'". In his reply to
Zekerbaal, \'\'enamun contrasted Ramses X1'5 mission with the one ordered by Amun-Re, King.
of Gods, and performed by i\mun-of-the-Road, of whieh he was no more than the humble in,
strument (2, 53--4); "I\S for Khaenllvasc, he sent men as envoys and he was a man
The phrasing implies that at the time the dialogue wok place Ramses XI already belonged to the
past. In \Venamun's days, there was no empluyment fur a human Icing anymure, since the role 0'(
Pharaoh had been assigned to Amun. This may explain the absence uf cartouches and roval
titles in combination with the names of SmClldes and Herihor, which has becn adduced as
cOI1\'incillg c"idclIct' ror dating the evellts narrated ill H\Vcnamun" 10 the l)ll the j
other hand, the fact that Khaemwase alias Ramses XI is nut characterised as a Pharaoh
"It hough he had definitely been one, shows that we should for some t1cxibility in the
tllc I':.l!"!,tialls tksignated kings. name of is dro!J)JCd in the course of2
ll1"loguc between an Egyptian diplomat and the munarch of a friendly nation, whu might ha\'t
perSllll,,1I1' aCLluainted with his deceased colleague Xl. Jf we project intu'
this situation, there is nu real reason to be shucked at the fact that thc prince uf Byblos called
former Pharaob "Khaemwase" without more adu, Being a Dutchman, J am wOIlt to refer to
our prcsent <.jucen by means uf her first name "13eatrix" (or "Trix" in my jolly This us'
"ge is characteristic for my as well, and yet must Dutchmen, including myscl(,j{
respect their head of state and whar she stands for. Although such a modern analogy can
sel'l'e as proof, the absence of royal titles in association with Smendes, Herihur and
may be less significant than has generally been assumed. ..;
titles arc nor in "\"\:c.:nan1un". Tbe LCl:Il1 "Pharaoh" i:: OtiCC
by Zekerbaal (2, 6-8); "J\] y relatives carried out this assignment, after Pharaub had se'lt six
I"den with Egyptian products that were emptied into their Sumewhat later in theX
text, I.ekerbaal uses the wurd "ruler" in a similar sensc (2, 10-1); "If the ruler (btl) of
were the lurd of whaL is mine and J too were his serl'ant, would he hal'e sent sih'er and gold,.;·
s"ying; 'earn' uut the assignment of l'oJlowillg this of his supposed depend",::­
ence on the Pharaohs of old, the prince of l3yblos went on to assert by means of rw() rhetorical"!
that he was neither Wenamun's nOl' Ikrihor's scrvant (2, 12-3)". Clcarh', the desigc·.. _
nations "Pharaoh" and "ruler" are used in retrospect. This is nut only from the grammar.::.
of the text, but also from \'(fenamun's eountersLrokC', \I'hieh contains the following phrase intro- ;;.
ducing yet another royal title (2,28-9); "As to \'Our saying, the furmer kings (11.1\1'1,11' (iIIJ.»'l{
uscd to send sih'er and gold"". This passage been t"ken from a speech in which the
__o \ I 111.:"
ll'1l1llllliltjOtl nut affcl.:r IllY o( the l'daLi\'(.: chronolugy (If .,\\
tor the FIlsilion of the incidents related in the )'eXl "'ithin thc nalural \\'cn'"llull still left I,,,.
;lrbl", in the beginning o{lanual,\, and ani"ed therc ahout four l1lonths later, I.ekcrb'lal's 111<.'S'
"ill "etunJcd from Lgyp[ in September, the felled trces still rcmaincd in thc l,eb'l\lI)11
.he ""Iller, and the l11igraton' birds still passed Byb!os in March on th"ir "'m' 1.0 the
north. '('he latn:r l\\."u cn.::nts rdaLe Lo tin,; natural 3nd ir is (,\'ielenl that tht: ,11I1hllf of
·'\\·"na"'u"" rcspected this aspect of realitl' in composing [he plot of his masterpiece. Sel'en IT'll"
I that the other chmnological aspects of the text as well were mcant II> be reaJis­
ti'/'. This !clime to the conclusion Ihat \\'cnamun's pbce llf ,kp'lrLUrc "':oS cI-llib" ralher Lil;lll
Th"hes·". I also belie,'cd that his long star in Tanis mighl bc relc"'"11 for historians and Ihat
"\X'enanlul," provided el'lClcncc for wimcr ,'ol'agcs the Levantinc seafarers of thai epoch, a
phenomenon vinually unknown ill antilluit,.'..... i\(ter mI' anicle had appearcd, it gradu­
illr dawned UpOll l11e that the chronolog" t>f "Wen;lmun" is simp,," to" good tll he Irue. This is
dC;'H)l1strated by the time of figure I, which r<'I'''''<<''1'< th" I"nt. I'.'''TI')' r,",
:,ni,·,,1 Cl'prus, all the cvcnts indicated in the tjl11e scale are datcd direciJl' or iLldireC1i1' in the
it,df (for the details one should LlIllSLLIr my pre,'ious stuck of thc ch ronologl' of "\\·cll<1l1111n·').
1 shows that \Venamun's arri\Cills at Tanis 'Ind Ihhlos 1110re or less ClliLlCided with thc
cpagolllenal thys and !'\ew Year's Dal'. III tile fir" Olse, thi, is pn)\'C1I bv thc follllwing passage
fmm the beginning of the report (I, 6): '" 'laILe! IrlJlIl tI,c I"unl, "IIJIlLi, oi .;'illt ill Talli,""".
Sincc \\'enamull departed on dar I(, of the said nWI1lh, preposition .(!C(_IlI), "rn'L11", pre­
$umably nlcaning, ,,"hich i'nplics Lhal hb SLJjulIlll ill T,t"i:" ,'1i,tliul ,,·jt]. ill\.' I.:p"l­
£:oJnt'l1t11 .
The datin!! of \X·.'enal11un's advent in B"blos is less slraightforward. During his til''' audience
Il'ith 7.ekerbaal, which wok place on the thirtieth daj' of his stay in 13yblos, \\'cllan)LLIl slatee! II,,"
nuoutli, c months had elapsed since h.is departure from Egypt on the tirst dal' of the tirst l110nth
of 511711'''''. Thc phrase 5 Jhd iliw, "about five months", is usually read 5 :hd hI'''', "fi"e whole
Lllonths". TIJis reading should be rejected for two rcasons. First, tile 1':gl'Plian expreSSion ,.,.".
'''''lOlc 1110nth" always exhibits [hc indirect genitive (ihd /I 111'11/"', "'hich is srill prC';clH ill Ihe Cop­
tic c'lui"aJeI1l ellOT N2.00y'''-. Second, the spelling is sont<.:ril11cs altested ", a writ­
ing uf IIrH·, Coday", but \\:(luki be cxceptiuntd in Lhis fUIlction in wbereag it' i:-­ nor­
mJJ fOl'Il1 for It ;\1', ':tlI11e": in thi<: nl"'!I1l1<:rrir;. Thio.: 1....-1': .... 1,0(,:"1":. I,..-",!" -;I""'..-q I·I.!: :'. ( :"::.!: '..:1: ...
with regard 10 the three other oceurrcnces of lhis spclling (2. H; 2, 51>; 2, 82)''''. The S;1I11C scholar
has the possibility that thc csample should he read II lit· as \I'ell ami Inlllslatcd
lS I'resumably, 1>:1\' is the shoncncu form of the cumpllund prepmition
/II-Ii:,,·. ",hich fUlIctiollS here as an advcrb. No other of the alh-erbial usc of (1lI-)illl\'
:trt klt"",,-" 1'1 Ille. If lhis illleq))'ctalioll is acccpted, it mal' be surmiscd thal the adjullu "about"
!·.gIJer".I1'.,\ 77,07-8.
Ihltl..
Ihid.. (Ill.
1.1;.5,61, i-8.
, p. 5Y.
. Ihid.. W..
, I:..g. T. Peel, Thl' )\layer Pappi i\ & B (I.ondoll. ItJ20)." (I, 7;,1. Cal;Llohut.: hil:rati­
l'-.;....l{UcSn.JIl littrnlin..:" t'k Dcir d i\t(·dillt.'h, II (DI:/F.\l).'I; Cal'll, 1').)'7), pl. 1(, «). 1)1.:(\' 1·13.
. Ga rd i Ile r, Iliemlic I (( IYS7), 1'1. .,11 (0. (; ud i 11 ';r '\ 7); 1'1. 42. 3 Petr;l' 9, '·S.
I· " .., (0. 1.l\upool \3(,2:1, 'S. 2); (nil". Late R'"lles<IIc' L\,lIl.,.S, 3(" 13; (crill', /1'.1\ to (In'!), 1'1,.44-0
rI. 2, 211.lld "S. I, III); 1.1'$, 4, l'RIII, .\58, 3. . .
'N \\'. 5picl!,c1herg, :/.'\S 5H (191.,).158.
,'" (; "eu ick e, Report of \\'cnOl1\UI1, 76-7 (hI); II 1(dc); 12Y (ek).
Ibid., (,II-I (_q).

II'i \\"",'"1<'" / ,', Il5(I9<J3)
---­
llauolI"list illtn the god ,\mulI, a nc\\ thaL Is >llcClnctl:
pressed in parado.sictl ml11e of tht: king Amencmnisu: Amlin tS ktng'" .;
I.et u> now scrutinise the in "\,'enamun" in order to find out how they relate
l!crihor and and what historical relevance mal' ha,·e. Our point of is
date with which the starts (1, 1-2): "Year 5, fuurth month of ,(I1IW, day 16: the day
depanure of W'cnamun, the cider of the portal of the of ,\mull, lord of the thrones of the:,:
two lands""". i\ly l'reviuus study of the chwfJologv of "W'enamun" was based on the
that the fifth year in 4uestion belonged to the W!III/-III,nd". /\fter what has been said abtl\'e, it
will be clear that now I wnsidcr this premise to he false. The dating of "\X'enamun" w the reign:
of Ramses XI has alwavs been based on the supposition that Herihor's pontiticate and that 0[',
this purported successor Piankh did not extend beyond the W!III/-I1ISWI. Now that Jansen_-::
\X'inkcln has exposed the improbabililY of the traditional "iew concerning these high
there is no reason to stick to tn,· original opinion about the opening date of "\\'enamun". The date.:
as such all",':s of "arious interpretations, for it lacks the shibboleth W!7111-IIWI't. The same holds:.!'
true for the two other dates associated with Herihor, namely the hieratic texts written on •.
coHin lids ofScti I and Ramses II. Their incipit is remarkably similar to that of "\lC:enanlun": "ycJ:
6, month x, day y: the da" of departure of the vizier, general and high priest of ;\mun-Re, J<jng
of (;olb, Ilc.:riltor"·'·. In it,e1f, the absencc of the term WiJ11I-11IsWt in a dateline doc:; not neces­
sari" Illcan Iltal il cannot belong to this er,', for lhcre arc tluite a few examples to the eOl1trary. II
sltould be noted, though, that such datelines without W!IIII-IIIsWt are almost never found at the ­
beginni!\g of a document'''. t\ cursory examination of the texts written the W!lIl/-ms",t!us
Ie" 111(' '" Ih" ('o)nellls;"n ,,'hcnc\'Cr the': start "'ilh :1 datc thc is ueualk f"lIo\\'l'll
t"itl"'r I,,· (m) W!lIl1-mSWI, "(in) the Renaissance"", or by bfi !lshl x, "corresponding to n;;u' x" (UI
,',I,iell illdicates tllC ,'car counung fWlll the accession uf Xl)". IfI lerihor i,; suppused to
h'\\'e excrciscd his functions during rhc iirst vears of the IV/I/7I-lIlswt, his datelines would be
10 this rulc. Even without the circumstantial e"idence accumulated in the preceding
pages, Ihis should makc us suspicious of the traditional attriburion of Ilerihor's dales to years S
,nlll 6 of the WIIIII-IIISWI. It is lherefore a serious misrepresentation of the facts to maintain tll1l
these dales fcll "ecrtainil' in thc Renaissance", as has been done in a recent publication''''. W(
come much nearer to the truth hI' claiming the opposite: the dales do not belong to the Wlrm-mSWI.
but 10 llcrihor's independcnt reign which he established in Upper Egypr after the dealh of Ram51'S
:\1. 'j bi, i, wlt,II.1an,cn-\\·inkclll proposed in l\in and j lhink he IS absolutely right. It follmtS '
that 111" conversions of thc dates in "\\'cnamun", "'hich wcrc pL,blishcd the I'ear befure, are dead
wrong'''. On :he a"umption that the Twcnty-Ilrst Dynasty started in 1U70/W He:, thc opcning',
date of thc report l11usl corrcspond to 17 April 1065 13<: in the Cregorian calendar"". This new·..·
St.:(,; for a gt.:lll:ral of llll: CI )l\Cl'PI of klll,c-ship ill ria.: -(irsl Dyllast'- lUi lilt.: r, und Pric­
"':H-IJI.
'" 1.105, 61,1 -2.
Egberts,JL,\ 70, 5li.
"1\1 VI, 838, 5..(, ""d Y-IU. . .
The op<.:ning uate of 1'. I:\1\J Jtl31:D (h:ttJ \ i, HJ.'), I I) IS the::: oniy CXCL'ptioll, perhaps because it dio 11m t.:onsn..
lllle a separatC' documl:nt; cf. T. t·:. Peer, Tlil': Creal Tomb·Rohbencs uf the Twcnlicth i',gyptl:U\
( h:f<lnl, 19.)(1), 126 C' Auuvt: the Ct:lltre of linc;: ,] sWllds the nUll1c::r:tl 13. Is this the born\:- this
t1m:llllH..'111 in SOIlH: (;ollcClion of rulls in the ttl"chiVl':S?'').
.. t(HI 11;7(,7,6;80\ 12;828, 11;836,";865,4;S67,2;\'1I,3Y5,3;Goclcl,J!::\S2, 110.
1,1\1 VI, 764, J; 865, 4.
(; "c1et, IE,\ 82, 126.
.Iallsel1-\\·il1kell1, :/.t\5 ! IY (IYY2), 25-6.
I :g(,erts •.IJ':/\ 77 (IYYI), 67.
'J" \'1111 Beckel'nlh, C:luOJ1ologic tlc:- phtlraoniscb<::n Agyplcll, 102, J\ly conversion is on tables B and.Ct
011 pp, 195-9 of lhi:l book,
.
;?J' .
Illl) \\Ul;,nnlill ,:- 125 (\99gj-l
---;..
IV Smw 16: departure
cpagomenal days; anil·a] at Tanis
I smw 1: depatture
epagol11enal days; anivaJ at Byblos
first night followed by fJrst dialogue
J prt: return messenger
second dialogue followcd hy second night
cl>agoillenal days; arrival at Cyprus
FigLlre 1
\\ n,,11lLl: i i(1
1.:-\) j.!.5 :
'1"1' ben1 cH.ideJ to ,cfi\"C nHJllths" in on_iLl" to accoullt for the cpagolllcnal IIJ thal case the
':.:{ !llim· daIs of \\·cnamun's SWI in Bd,lus wuuld CUITr the first momh of ill!, s<> thaL his arri­
tot, . . , , "
':"1 there ,,",,uld fall on Ne,,· Year's Dal',
C'c,'dkss !r' say, the cpagol11enai days and l'e,,· Year's I)"" are rhe liminal period of rhe
cakwl,u,_in which thc transition from olle l-ear to the next is effected. This transiti"n
,h;,ukl n(:I· be C')I,fused wnh the change of the admlt1rstra"I·c l-ear, wlllch was dcrernllned hI· rhe
day of the king, at least during the New Kingdom and its aft·cnllath"". Since we do not
kno,,' "hen Raalses Xl dicd, we also ignore the accession dai· of his successors in Upper and
EgypL 'CU[)SelJuently, there is no way of Idling at what 111()!llCTl" '\car ,-1", with \\'hieb
upens, becanlc ''year 6" and the latter in ilS rurn bccan1c "year T',
lkr"u'll aniva! at Tanis and that at Byhlos lies a period or one lear. ,\ecording
tt. II", report, the second dialogue between \'ienamun and Zekerbaal t(l(lk place ahn the trces
d",t had becn !ling in thc Leban(ln were transported to the sh(lrc, el·ellt dated to rhe third
n)(ll1lh or JI11\-1'! II. The next \Vcnarnutl WtlS PUI' on ;l ship Ih:H driflt:d II) I hI.' shore or
It is ITIT tempting to supl'"se that hc was stranded lln this island during the cpag()lllel1al,L(\'s or
rht.'n.:aoouts, for in that W(; would ha\7C yel anolher UIlC year rcriod in betwcen two arri\'ab
I eann"t I'rovc this, hllwelTr, since the possible indirect elues for dating thc beginnil1).!; of the
(\l'rus ,pismk hayc disappeared logL'lher with the elld of the oilly manusclipt I" "'hieh
"\\"CH;UllUI1" h3s been transmitted,
It "·c takc a duratron of one ye,H for the Byblos epi:;ode to he a likel< extrapolati"11 (ro!11 thc
idl'l1ljcal length of the Tanis episode, thL.1l it :0 hard tu n.::·.ist !hc 1!1:1t dE' q .. j
nne ,-ear a5 well. r\.ft<:>r rh8.1. \\'(,Il;lJ11111l I1W1' tlllidh. In ITflll'll hi .. If:
homeland, aftcr the example set bl' various other heroes or E!!,Vtian literature. nu(,(bh Sinuhc'"
TIll' chroJ1o!pt-,Jy of "\\!"cnan1un" from the chi!raetl"r nf qnry, Inn ('"I1:I1HT"':
rts P"!"tlu<!.! for meaning bl' linking the advent of a tlCW year with the arrival at a ncw dc,t;n;(,
tion, III this wal·, timc and space are interlocked.
I" the II)"purhetical triptych uutlilled abuI'e, the UdAus cpisl'de u.JI"titulc' tl1,' cull rl [)inT.
lhi, cpisode itself cxhibits a similar symmetn'. Thc first cncountcr bet\\Te" \\!enamUll allLl "l.e­
kerbaal, "ne m"nth after the f"rmer's arrival at Bybl"s, was preecded h,· " night dllring which"
Phuenici"n adolescent was cntranced by ,\mun (I, 1H_4())rt'. Thcir secund meeting, abollt onc
",,,11th bcforc \\!cnamun's ach-ent in CI·pruS, was f"lluwed hI' a night thar Illa,' halT hlen
t'cst,llie in uthcr \vay:.>, fvr \\-Lil'U1H.J.ll it iIi lL..... l;111i;,'Il., "f .,1' : iJ:;.dl .. ,>.\ (2,
Anuther symmctn· that be gleancd from fi!!lIre I in\'olvcs \'\:enamun's
f{{)nl in the rnonth of Jmw, his ,1rri\'al al OIl YC,lr's 1);'IY, alld lhe rCturll
.>1 7.ekerba:1J's messenger frum Fgypt in thc first munth uf "rI, Thcre is surc,," something to be
g.lincd 1l1eanS of such strucluraJisl ' ..... ltcll appruaching (I text like "\X'"c.nanlun", as
J<mg as wc avoid overdoing jr. in contraSt" to literature, whicb S\VanllS with J'il1n­
his[ory has no Struclurc and 1l1akes nu Fur chat reason, J han:: forsaken 111y u<.:­
lief in the historical rdc\;mce of the chrono!ogl· of "\Venamun". As far as this aspect of the text
"concerned, I am now co(wertcd to finionalism. Of course, it is bl· no means impossil.>le and
C"UI plausible [0 surmrsc on the basis of "\\'cnamun" that Hcrihor SCllt an cxpcdition to Byhlos
III th,' lifth I'cat of the Twentl'-fir't !JI·nasty, In our search for realitl', though, wc callnot go
lrcronrlthar point, without loosing our W31' in the wilderness of riction, The plot of "\\ienamun"
prescribe' that thc wanderinh'S of its protagonist lasted for more than two ycars. Contrary .to
I., Dl: PII Regn,d Y:::ars ilod Ci,-i1 C;llendar in Achat.'llltniJ Lgypl, JI HI 151--73, 1:14.
Egberts, Ib\ 77,61-2,
Cf. the by j, Ba inc s tllt.:ntiOIKJ in 11, 1 abtJ\"t.',
1.1;$, 65, 2-6.
I.I-s, 74,5-9.

,
,




!
l

'..IT'·":'
lU:) .. \.I.l.!.lllrl:;: \\en<1Il1Ull
-----.!
wh", ho> "h"" h"" ,1",,,,,,,1 In "m,,,I,,g,,,,", ,hi, ,,,", " "",hi"l ",",", II" "","'",.:
Ikrihor's expedition or the d'Jration of hiS pOl1lil,catl,
Despite my depreciation of t'1e historical ,'alue to attributed to the chtunu\'Jgl' of "\'Veaa:';'
mun", thi, piece of Iiter,HurL eonulins <Iuite a bit of information abour contemporatT
polirics that should not he despised I", historians, i\cconJing to "\\'-cnamun", Herihor's reign
the south coincided with that of Smendes in thc north. Moreover, the swry rells us that".­
Smendes resided in Tanis. From other e"idence (Manetho) we know that the
Dynasty of Tanis was founded b,' Smendes, There is no indication whatsoeyer in "\\'enamun" ot'
anI' other source that Smendes had ousted Ramses Xl as ruler of Lower Egypt during the Whm."
I1ISII'I. The lalrer was dead hut not forgonen at the time in which W'enamun's travels arc situated"
accessioll l1l:ly ha\"c been the conscllucncc or cause of his 111arriage to Tcntamull, the:'
presumed widow of Ramses XI. It follows from the preceding considerations that the career of
Smel1lles' contemporan' J-krihor extended to the first years of the Twenty-first Dynast\'. This'
conclusion is supported lJ,' the other evidence relating to I-Ierihor, which ,\Iso confinJls Ihe his­
toricity of the construction of a ncw bark for Amun at the behest of this high priest, an eVent
that occasioned the composition of "\Venamun". In various ways, this literary work rdlcets the
lhision of I that collstitutes the distinguishing mark of the Twenty-first I)vnasty. The
illllTntlll""'ojitic<J1 situation t1111St have nlade .Egypt int.o a minor actor un the international Stage,
alll! there is no reaSOIl to supposc that the picture uf departed glory prcseilted in "W'enanllln" is'
inaccurate. AI the same time, "\\'enamun" showed its audience a way of coping with the bnrsh
rc;ditics of their age, which included the collapse of the traditional monarchv and irs outdated
dLLi.JrUlll. ]3:\ LLlw;furnlJlIg .\lflLill inlo the infallible king ur the 1..11li\'crsc the <lUl-il"t I! 1)liatb
LouId in religion wllat they lost in p<.llitjcs. j\lodern Egyptologists too an: Inllch
debtcd to the anOI1\'mous author of "\Venamun": by writing literature he has permitlcd us to
rcad the historY of his time and to imagine its hardships and hupes.
Sic MM,\I, Y
l'rr H.:cnl1ng ftom l'\..arl J.111 t: 11- \\' i It kd II \ n:u.:lIt n:daling of llerihvr 11)1 11992J, 22--Y:) ill<.' (;"Cl115
narral<..'d in "The Report uf\'\\nalTlull" arc shown lO he in tllt: c::arly YCilrs of the Twcmy-fir!'f Uynasly, 'J1Je
!,(.)r;l-;l.,·S ;1S Ph::WH,I, ?nd i:- I.h,:,c(or<:. of the ,·henn:\lir:- in that pt'nlll!, 'nlC
Illghly uf tilL: rr.:porL confirm!' character. Nevertheless, «Tile Re..:pol"l ot \\ enamun'"
ClIII:"1 illllL'S a maior hi!'torical SOlIl:Cl:,
11,\ E,g, l<.itchen, Third Inu.::nn(;:di:Ht: Pcrion, 24lJ-5U; \\'t:nt"l:, 'J'(;:nJplt: uf Khollsu 1, xiv;.lansen-\\'inkeI
d
I.As 25.
J r,!rJ<'ltrUll 1(P)
--.. _---_..- --.. _-_..
/.[ ,\:'\. ,'i () 1:,1) II. k [
Comments Concerning the "Story of the Eloquent Peasant"
'fhc nllinber of fWI1l allcient Lg'pt dcsen'in,l', the predicate "literan'" i, lim­
itcd indeed, This would all the more reason t<> tn' to unc1c,'stand Ihe text ill order to "a'T a
b,15IS for possible loftier considerations. Iking w"ted in an attitude to belles,lettres ",hi'eh i, Ilot
IIlllssari'" that of present-dar literature, the text might for some lack the appeal of mhcr ancient
Egypliau \u"itil1gs, as) [()r t1Jal tile of SillUlic, Silll.c illL'
Cl,llll11Cntal'l' lJr Friedrich Vogelsan).; (referenced as V)' tbe text has rccci"ed rdlli\'Ch lillie
pellctrating research', The fccellt discussion of the Second Pelition I", Cerhard I; ec h t ; pnll'ides
.lllllppurtuniry to focus on 'ume of the del ail, rhat Gill be further clarified.
Ilen>i is ;n the Second Petil'ion as:
imy-I· fJr-HT Ilb.i \.vr 11 H'rw !111'd 11 llVt.'(hl'
IIty 11'11 liT 11 lrnrfLnrd n [zl1'dlrJ
1111111' II pl.\':W 11 r: b:yft H:l!nw
II/WI' J1I shl/ 5tH' m gsJ [11.)' 111 Ir nwdl·1/
Tht' innKation is obviou:-ly COll1posed of two pairs cof Statenlents, each contrasting the
'IU'.I, Thi, juxtaposirion is, however, not parallel, as i, generallv assumed', but has ditkrrillg
"'ptl'lS, In the first it is the past, in rhcotber.. the future, The rel<lrill!! nf a 10 a l1lull ;lillk
i" the 1101"1011 of a supcrlativ-c'; this rnakes the "c!<':sscn (;ro[j..... CillCIl (;l"olk11
inbtll" as illu).;ical as the l'omparati"e "greater than his great ones." The rclati'T liliallf,calloll is
""ttad a past une (H'Il) and illdicates the Pl'C\CIOliS holder of this rallk', To render [111'£1 as "'rich
h:OI1HllL'IlIM /:u dL:ll "JagL'11 ttL:!' BauL:m, llC; ,\:\ \' I, I<)1:); I.. \ (i,lK -(151; CCllrgcs PO:-L' 11(: r. Ih.Il'; 6, 1<)31, 34;
f1dlniLIl II "UI11l(,' r, (;rul1dl.iigc cillL'r del' all iig,\'plisd1Cll I ,irl'nuur, ., CJBO, :;5-37,
:d· t·nurse, lhL'S lUll di:-leh:ard the lr;l1l:d:niflll c. indlldcJ in on anciclI! Fh'ypti,tn literature: '\dnlf
hnl,1 11 , Dil' l.i ' cr:1tllr del" ,\<.'gYr1tr, 192.\ 157-175: I.efl'lnrc, RnlTI;ll15 et COIHl'''' 1949,
H,{).hwlkllL:r (I'), ill: \\'.I'.Sil1lp!'ol1, cd., TIlL: Litcratun:: of Ancient EgYPl, )972,31-49; Miriam
I.lc,hlhcilll (i\II.).,\ncicnL Eg\·ptianl.ircr:uun.:, 1,1973. 16Y-i84.
lkr bcrcdtt: tbucr: dic 1'la.1!:c. Studies in HUrHlr of \,'illiam Si 111 PS(I n, 1<)9(1, 227-26<> (tTl :),
\': "I)u (;riiBler del' GruBen, elu Reichstcr Jcr Reichen. dcsscll Grufx; l:illell (wirklich) GroBen lind dessen Rd­
rhc linen lwi •.-klich) Hcichcll habl..'ll! Du Slcuerrudcr des du Dalkt:n <kr Erde, Dll 1\ldhchnur ,.,! SteUCrIll­
dtr, f:tlll: nidn, Ihlken, slurzc nicht! .\lcBsdlllUf. n:rwirrt: dich nicht" F: uo gl't::lH.'st uf th<: g-tl'at, richest of the rich,
,\2.re..:at ow::- ha\·e one gn:atcr, whose lich Ol1eS hm·c one richerl Steering oaf of heaven, beam of <.:arrh, plumb­
.lnt which o.rrie5 the \\'c..:ight! () Steering oar, do not cli\'crgc; () Hearn, do nol- t.ilt; () Pillmhlinf, de) nnt
"Greatest of lhe great, rich<"-5t of lhe rich, truly greall:r than hi\<i great onl:S, rich<.:r th,UI his rich one",!
of hca\'cn, beam of earth, plumb-line thm carries the \veighr! Rudder, Jrift not, ueam. tilt llot, plulllb-I.iIll:,
not ;cm;ry!" GF; "Grufkr Ju· (;ruD<..:Il, RL:idH.:r J(:r Rr.:icllC:ll, dC!'SCll (jrllik- cillLJI Grolkn hflbl.:l1, ul1d se..:inc
cin('ll Rcichcn! SrcuerruJcr des I Limfi1c!s, del' I':r<lc. ScnkhHschnur, die das Gewicht
gkiH': nicht \'001 Kurs. Tragbalkcll, neige dic!l !licbt, Sl:nklol"schnLlr, l11ache kcinc
Cf. Alan H, (Jardiner, IZgyplian Gffll11mar', 1957, § 97.
"do' th_e construcrion, ,scc.Gardin(,:[, or',dr" § 201. B I. JU3 II: JI Illy U'/I1J,Ild
r
/ m:r-t,!
l
u
stlce..: tor the Lord-of-IUStlCC, the om: the Justice of IllS justice always eXists IS sUlllJar. except rhm Il IS to u('
• d111111 permanence..:,

di.d:lI1'l:/. Rondot.1. colllmittal as long as the f~nction of such a distortion of history within the literan' contexi is nOl dllciJ"ted.~Sl.·. Ii . From the preceding considerations it follows that there arc two different attitudes I"..200-1. . 39-58. 2-=-1-7.e. . 1'. . is the !'eason wh\' i lik" the hiswr. 1'.66.g1J<::n~: \\enamUl1 . I\liljl~ll utIli (".g~Vli. the mention of prominel1l con. 1952j.11 refrcshingly Ylicstiol)l:d by II. Bon heme. tll'(.· is based on the >lssumption that "\. 48-50: "I found him scatcd in his upper chamber wuh hi!' back turned h)WarJs S window..\. J·.be elllploved as a historical source if its SlOtI' is confirmed by texts of a dOClIntClllan' n. rll<' SillllC opinion is implicit in th~ raperlit' (..lUdc YandcrsleYl:ll par ::.ed oracular slela set up in the pllrticl) of the same munument'. i' The :-choul of thought known a:-. The il1lricacy of its plot'''. G umLrccht. 19l. This cav~at. 2-(.i!t. C)-H) (J.uprit:n 0. Perhaps rhi... nor the tl'pe of uecorum demanding a regicide specified. 1992). t\·locrs mentioned in n.1 alH. Barry. 33-6.. The appe­ alance uf tile Ilrst fascicle of her bvuk coincided with the ac. LJ..:uure: Hisroryand Fu(~!. Sinuhc:: Scholarly l\1cthvd Vt:rSll<.dcll. lest I take my speculations for his intentions"'. Ihe sources in \\'hich Ikrihor is pro· \'ided with [O\'al titles.UL.Jzi<l.:" I I' "\\'enal1lun" is a work of literature.. necropo)u ioumals. \X-·i<. TllU(~ we know from Suetonius.. I rt:~~d~· F<:~hjon.'r. Un documl'l1t inedil au nom de Ilcrihor.:ratun.:inc :-().---­ I... ."ekl. j\ncicl1t Egyptian J. 1.:1l .gyptian J. BIFAO 79 (1979). The first group comprises the sources in which Herihor ligures as high priesl of .126..I·. and the occasional expressi\-cness of it~ narrativc. '\l1othCf Ri) 111 cr.-65.l!. i\ 1Y{)lain concern in these p'lg<. 'J he concept of ticuoIl. 1 (BdE 99.:haft.\ good mcthod in tn'ing to sifl. "\\'enamun" belongs to the Stlme category. .(. The sources mentioning Herihor have been compiled by Marie"\llge l\ullhcl11e". but 1 prefer nor to dwell ori'~.upon elements from the world as we know it in order to create and..:~l>alkll.:schichtt.:* :.: i\11':ig-ypt<:ns 17.'enamun" is best regarded as a literal'l' text dressed up like a document.io!og:i<: und Gc. Sl:e aJso tilt. 76. 2.dist"ingtli~h these h:· l1l<::ln:.\Iot\<..). 10-2 (Ix'S.I(.' take. . \.:'i l"l.J4). 22.1 i~ !'o isohte from a li.iterature.decessor of Julius Caesar describ"d in the '''['('.. se\'e!'al hi>torians hal'e taken the violenl death of a distant prl. the irony of its.lht\ 1S dlSCUSSCU b\ A Lopncno.\pidly ch. Stdislic features snch as lists and summations".). Indeed. Eggebrecht and M.S is gin::11 in 1\1. JI has been objected thai "Iheir \'aL'ious strategies do I1CJt fully incorporate the possibilit\. These arc confined to the represenl. DcfU1lrlg Eh''1)llml I lll:ratuic i\nC1t::11l 'J exts and .gypLO~O'" gi:-I J prefer to remaill prcmodcrn. .\I()('rs.(. I.'·:~ lemporaries like l!crihor and Smendes. 61. "los~ of n..1p}i"l1<-: 1.. La(~:~ J :.\ I oc r s mcntioned in n. Pc1iz...rcas()l1.(BAc I j Hrussds. .·j\luseum I Jildc~htill1 (Hildcshcim.' \1. \\:'iesb<l.tture. 2. 40-2 (J." r(':\litl' bl' casting the honourable Brutus for the murderer of Julius Caesar. Since. Couc~.!.I-\ 1I1~ :11 a ·''-T~· h::..:fen. I'cdhor fur-il effcCli\'cJllf. ~ (Sll. Dt. .S.:d ill n. Ob\'iously. P 3 r kill SO l\.: p"p<'rs by J..:m '1'hf. 'J·~'PI:S (If 1. ObSOnlcr ~l1n 1\..1 h. postmorkrnisl1l ha::.~.t\· and thar l~gi'j)llJlo!!ists would therd<>re lead their li\T.'ory: /\11 Introduction to Litcrar~' and Cultural'l'hcur~' (i\lanchest<::r. cclcbrarcd th. wllilt: the wa\'cs of rhe great sea uf Kh()r bn)k<:: against the bnck of his hcaJ"j ~l. 1 ~b()\'c. .:I. !l)()(.\I.:enamun" presents documentary charaCter':. Schct:pcr~. 'I "bm'c.g. 01 the terms "historicist" and "fictionalist". hut being an J. in: C.e lint.74-5).l:ai-l: l.'\5. I'roeeeding from this principle.: la Troisicmt:: Pc:riodc Intermcdiairc..LInd Pclizaew. Push kin 120 had been lost in anticlu. Baint:~ mcnriolH:d in 11..ri(lfJ is ·t. il applies when we ha\'e no reliahle doeUmenf>II'\' sources :'1 .tlillns and inscriptions of the h\'I)ostylc hall uf the KhCJnsu temple in Karnak. Oosthuck (~ds. j j. The third and final Ine:hod is baldly worth)' of thaI' name.'(· ('(ll':1 l1H)l!1("lll 1I1al . ning 'j'h(.: 1\.. and rhe Jay-out of the manuscript on which "\\'enamun"i has heen preserved'. piece. p. "'hich feature I 'Jeri hor as high priest without a 11\' hint whalsoever to the existence of Ramses XL Tn the last category bdong the hieratic texts wrinen on the coffin lids of Seti [ and Ramses lJ.hl. .: l>uiJlic<ltion of Ihe papers mc.e of nl\' reasoning docs not includt: "\X:cnamun". . ol1t: ll1a~ COIlSull }\.. Ki tc h C11. in: Cahicrs de "-arnak. 38 (J. "m'c1 and 19th·century realism.~ liS aurhor must have had good reasons for choosing this disguise.:d inll. a"d the publication of a fragmentary block inscribed with rhe name of Ilerihm originaling from lhe Amun temple at Karnak".-aricty of histOridsnl i~ exemplified by K ..I.t! pJaecs and peuple. CCl'll~'.: <djnt~raire)l ou «llOIl-liucmirc»)?. Lc rCc& d'OUIl:lmoll: Lin tCxlt. Ende des NCUt..lbl~· s(lueezc out of "\VCll~fllUIl". Ancient l-'.J[ lbe temaining l'\idl'IlCL (ull ceming ['\crihor) I'ote that this hypothetical situation is not reall\· different from the position of " fundamentalist fictionalist who.urks... <.68. .::.Orical investigation of Uerihur and tht times in which he Dourished'.'! W' >:1I\'j1\. lY<J6).. P.IJist agenda ot' stlld~'il1g litcratlln. 62. the subject. namely thc oceuHences in th" court of the Khul1Su temple and the funer­ ar\. 1 abun:.:ntauon dCf Ni<. No matter what tlight the imagination mal'''. 1-3).:: work of realist literature is to inter\'iew the writer and hope that he or shc has the decency nOl toN: tell lies. has no usc li. Anciellt E. : .. )nour in the literary cabinet of the anciel1l I~gyptians.... " . I abmT.'rtoh)~~' 7 (1 C)<)()) .\mun in associatio" "'ith Ramses XI. \\'h"t thell wuuld tilC)' makt: .. 26"1-H3. papyrus of I-1erihur's wife l"odjmet. On thc other hand. .llil~.. Ilildcshcil1l. c:. more suggestive of an administrative report rhan of an artistic master.:s to find out what historicill inforolatio!1 we can .:ichL:s: EDt rclr~ll()n::.mls ~lcrHturC and the historic:ll inforl11atioll it nlay cont:lin.. Bonhcmc.. since it'· leems \\'itb rclere"ce. It)HS).(.menemhat" as a fact of lif".i~lcn (. The documentation relating to l'Ienllm.S..I-r:-'ptian Lilt. BcglIt•. di:lloglIC~Ji. Dod F.\uisition the Pelizaeus-.'1l R<.:l'aturc.. 19<)5). . See for a readable introdllcdon to the sl1bjt:Cl oflitenuy theory P.. r "\Venamun" in reconstructing the faU of the Nc\\' Kingdom. 71.:11"\\111 . it should be relegated to the realm of fiCtion like all other/ in\'cnlecl stories'-. .:..'tural.:rmur (/\t\ 4H.11 Rt:ldu.:nt I'oi?.\eus-.. J want nlY conclusions to COI1\'tIlCC hisl(lricists and ficti()tlaiisl~ alike..e~c.\nciellt J':gyptian Lit<..m Swrie:. 1. 2..A':" IZ5 {I9W3} ----­ . Ifl pitiful ignorance of "\\'ellamun". the chaff of fantas)' from the grain of truth contained in each.. 70. Topus und i\lim~sis: ZUIll l\usHimlcr in dcr i:igYrri~cben l..:rcilain.. 5.chl:l1 Sp.).tUlduJ1.. In nw opinioll.12-3). III re.c'"' offerls all Proft.'f. in: A.'enamun" should ~ classified as a piece of literature.lI~JI'l" The historicist has less strong principles and more leanings towards bricobge.ran' text those happenings which we believe to be bistorieatJ' and 10 compare tbem with illformation gatbered from SOUl'ces of a documentary nature.:r. Papef anJ Boub in :\1H:il:lll I·:g~p[ (l.itcriiturt in the l\liddh: I'illgdull"l.. VUI (Paris. J.. "\. Bullctin ()f the j\ustralian Cell I 1"" for I·:.1-1 H.e!\ 311ck:ns ctudianlS (LOlI\'ain-la-r"t:U\'C.\luseum Hildeshcim: Die i\g\P'i<..ll (l\ve thi!' r<.: communicate".::->..\.lrkas­ ~~IlSliftullg illl Rocmer. (1' i 1". G arJ in (:: r.und Prit.. Sec for all ~'''~lluatioJl of the sources IvL-A..)ur ..tching ofi. Baines and G. :.\C. .. Gottes· und Pricsu. Cr.. that the leXtma\' well have rC\\Tiltell l1i'lOr) fl)t artistic ends or for reasons of decorum""'."l'Ls: \\ ell<lIllUIl ')5 with which "\\'enantun" opens is irrelevant to any hisl.l!. h( n\'­ (\'l'I'. and consists of using what some would call (Ollln)"n scnse and others the hermeneLltic approach.:Jcfsachsi:.st Slance b. 1987). Cairo. can be di\'ided into three gt:Ou[1s.gt:~chichtlichcs Phanomen uno s<. and 10 rhc badh.e sUpt:1'Il.)j I. 1932).t)4 .ur ~l. Le/L1'n. which In tile presen/ slJ.3-----6 (hcn:aftcr LL:~~).iispos.oprit.=)-(). :.:stcrhClTl'if. though salutal'\' in itself. a writer always has to dra\\. For reasolls which 1 need not explain.\waiting till. JlI\vclc:n dcr Pharaoncn: Einc Pras<. H3-l)4 . ~~:.:llo (cd.hS. 11)87).!'cur Cl..\l useunl in I-lildesheim of three pieces of je\\'clry which once belonged to the burial goods of l!crihm".: des rois df.' l1cc to G.rulldla~en (i\t\T 21.).). Some literar)' gcnres require a high percentage of reality: these are dominaled by"" the r\rislOtelian principle of mimesis or \'erisimilitude". this docs not wurk in Egyptology. istics as well". I993).:hnrr ill AgY1>l<.: ill its own ri~ht ':. while lhere is butliulc scope fur.-\. Plutarch and other reliable authorities that Shakespeare respected:'.'::... it cannot be denied that "\.\rt:h.ic k\l. I. 'Ill(: necesshy of kecping nbre willi die I'. It B.g~:plology need a "'I11cory of Literature'?. there can he no doubt that "\Venamun" deserves a place 0.: paper ~~!£a . ~-34. :lr. \' Thc !I)I1U dns.sllI1IUll uy . Lgl)l. and nol as a document ()n a par with judicial reports.lI)ging fashj():l~ in lhis field has bC1.LiS. '1 he fundamentalist .. J{()IlI<. ' . Baines mcntion<. Fiction is not the opposite of realitv.\1-/\.Jill Ils~ ~f SOurcl. Examples of such genres are the historical"'... Amosia(1tt '\lclal1).:]l~(. The third group encompasses the remaining documents.~. Set: abu lill': appendix of th.i to check tbe literary text against. The second group is formed I".:rhcrrsc. 11ciudbcrg. leLLers alld the like".:ality".I:.. " 1. remains mlher non.\..ilJ lk:illag /. A.chc Sammlung (Zabcrns Bildb~indc zur :\rchaoluhric 12. The latter approach prescribes thaI' a literan' tex/ can unit. e\'en though I rcadik subscribe to Ihe IlCliun.-1. \'fc 111:1:.lgt"~d):clll. Seidel .it<.. . This \ ito. Auteurci S()CiCl~. .1(. by consigning history to the dunghill of liter. r" See the paper h~· J.ldll·1l zuf~:.ll are ever so 111any signs of litera>~~ ture.:ntioncd in 11. II Sec the paper by I:~~ re 111l:l1tium. t<)87). J.jL\ 82. The second~I' best meth'.. 1 abm-c.. i \Vill SLI. Y.

King of Gods"".:k<. 'f· wbich pro\ ide us witll the onl~.-.JllJill.eJ to .\mun-Re. This suppositiul~is not verI' daring.l.-ithuut "\~Ienamun" and sec how li. The hall-he. pOl1lif."1sen-Winkeln. In my imroduction I bave suggcsted that wc should start our search [or the rcalit\· behind a lile.longer bel: used to support IIerihor's precedence. :()rding 10 the contemrorar~' scenes and inscripliolts of fhe court of the I.:ofKhoHSU.tc R~I1H. III prt 15 (tlw date. F<lc. Lc lint' des rois. 2.::-SUI PillOll­ il'llll i . for it has been shown Ihat tlw first prince in the procession of Herihor's family c depicted in the "honsu lemplc docs not represel1l' Piankh"'.ing which lacks the charaCicristic term WI1I11-I11. 1\1<-1" )tJ.. TIK n.~IIlW 20·' throughout the n.1 .rllt fIJI IIty N. J . F...:klHllllg trlltll . associated lI·itll Ikrihor cannot belong :" I"elf (. since its lirst c!el11elll could then be iden­ The handiest rd(. rhe homeland of it.'.lI' must lhen /1>11'(': coincided lI'itb the Sixlh regnal ITar of Slllcnde" the r. this is 1)\· no mcans evident" (rom I heir phra..~~.:ale associaled with hi. which is the lalest datc \I'e ran associale lI'ith .:.1.~. 1\ CI'll.cate in the Gcginning of the WillI/-m. '1 he real rest is wbether all lhese argulllcnls taken together yield a mure solid chain. rured upon the usurpation of royal pri\'ileges that can be obsen'cd in the decoralion of the court .:r:lth. I. and 34 I'ears at mosr···.k such as "\VenamUtl" by isolating those ekmcnts lI'hich lVe suspCCI 10 cont.Hllabh ider:tical with rhe 'lueen <If Ihm m'111e known lU ha\'e born Llucen Hcnttawi. then thc rll'o date...way of Upper LgI·pt. the authoritl' of Ramses Xl.~b.11 prt '15) and the earliest date"': of Piankh (III SII/II' 2H). ~. Like the lattcr and unlike his father Piankh.td"te I·ear 10..·as lriggered by Ihe death of Ibmse~ XI.. sixth after the end 01 the New I"':in!!dolll... Bonhcmc. Kitchen.a.llls.llil~ 1n::.r·. A somewhat later daLe from the same. Alil1<lugit 1111' article i:. 107 \vilh n. . II has been suggesled by '\Ildrzej \iwinski that Tel1lamun was the wife of Ramses XI. It follows rhal this yeHt' must refer to the "roYal" pha.\\/.\.se. of evidence: civil lilies.u temple. .. the burden of pn.:ign of Ramses Xl ".-d Ji]. (:c 1"11~'..tarted to aCI as I.~ !"t1pp()~cd ".di:.'I!\'. .J "HI \. VUIl Ih:.l'.: yon der Vorzcit his 332 .lnl and CI'['>fU> in the e1el·emh eeoiliry Be I will concentrate on what i. (1\1. luI.:.\:' l25 fllJlJX .tioJled 1)\ C.-ho ·~ugges!s rh:u th~ '!'". the building historv of the Kh"nsu temple.{IIIII' 25 of the W!/IIl-IIlSI. J lis wife "'odjmet seems Il> halT sun in::d hinl but shortl~".--'-_.. In rhe latter part of hi. enlire reign of Ramses XI.·r: ~. while there is no e\'idence suggesting that he evet\.1 eonsic!cred Phataoh when llerihor .f dIe current reign.mls.:-. Yet the decoration of the hvpostde hall of the Khonsu temple shows· rhat R.197~) .. 132.:ril)d in EgypC { (1100-650 BC) (\\"arlllinmr.'ll Agyptcll. This parados has 'prung frnl11 III I' wish not to alienate the fictilJnalists anlUtlg Ill) rcadcr.inre ml' true historicist disposition is about to rel'eal itself.-~.'s kin~..tated rhal lhe. including myself.I D"'.· igll11nllll nf. • . lnlsl\\'orrh~· .: \\CI . 5 .e datelines refer ro the "Renaissance" o( Ramses XI'-. J-lis lir~t occurrence is found in the 'econd sentcnce of the "port (1. Tcnramun is pre­ S'.\S 46. If J'lerihor preceded Piankh in uftice.Piankh rhat has so long been .e..:·. § 37~. Ii. His central thesis is that Herihor succeeded Piankh inslead of the other way round.d \\·irh the two reeonstruelions de~eribed ill the prel'ious paragraphs..'\-:-.llnd Pricsll'l'hctrsc!l:lfr.\RCI·:. t/if 1/=11" 11: 1\·{l1.!~ i1')~'~~~.r /\n.~.-(1: IIrw II I. proragoni>r as lI'ell as ils author. \.~. heen argued on chrnnologlcal grounds that the reign of Ramscs X I lasted 29 I'ears at least . 1 hal'e delibcratc'" tdnllned fro111 !1ll::nti()nin~_: I·hj~ ~ourcc in the pre-ceding disClll:"iIlTl I\r wh.:ssidc l' Set. The D~tr-~ vI' 1'.-.hii' has (.1 !crihor on the walls of the hrpostyle hall. which corresponds to I'ear 28 of the':.1~1 IJrna. Th.\·nJ ~!u.of il.!lCC('~Sf)r Pinodjcrn I '.ill:'l'IH:'fclllph.TclH:c is Kl{1 V1. It is exemplified by his datelines lI·hich conlai" 110 indica­ ti()'~ l.lnsen-\Xiinkeln's alternative to all this is based on various type. Pianklr". the rraditional \'iew implies thal there is bUI a small gap of ~ some four al1d a half months belween the latest date of Herihur (. Brus!icls. Next 1 will procced to ~ scrutill\. Ilerihor and J(ha<'111wase. . 'I.r of Ilcrihor's :'llCU. "·oJl Ih:ckcr. 153-63. \vhile the Iitlc:-: they ass!gn to I kriho[ betray not·hing of the royal Sfatus he clljo. SJH.tallation signalled pni"d "I res!"llralion afler l!crihor's provocative innovations in the decotaLi...UlIl es attested fen I kri!lor.. ' ~ 1" 1:.. for she W3S buried in the first yc.itale 10 .1-4): "()n the day of 111Y arri\'al at Tanis in (the arca) wllere Smende.it lVaS only. 3 ami 5 abo\'t.ey arc adl'i.1 hal'e been less ambitious. I'inodjem I poses as the one and: onll' king on ilS waUs. :1 \\ . l'rt\klll)Y.'nastl'... 1~%).-tirsr D. Will' fOllnded h\' Sm"'llClcs' SllcCl'..11·=.el'.=.~·-7..s th(. which is the eadiest' . \nd yet the sixrh regnal ycar can be no other than that o( J krihor.as well. whose portrait·~' and naille arc conspicuousJv abscnt ftom the Khonsu templc.rill do not coulllf· l\llhpugh ir has c. which was} the original reason for postulating the seljuence Herihor-Piankh.:. of the Whl1l-/lIslI'l.: Il...ltip../."ll. W·clltt. .~-- -_.1 5 . career Herihor had the audacit)' to arwi'ate wl'a!'.\\·inkdn is tight in inl'<~rting the seLluellce Ijeri..u rl'. on the :. Since the administratil'e year starred on 11.KRI VI.ielt' with 1...' Herihor.\'w-IJI-I//}-f)d 1'1-m-lmll Jill .: .II1Iun". 1.chieh suggests that like I·lerihflf he callle to power after rhe death of Ramses :\ I had oeellrred".lll: Pc. mu..al<ll"".j" acknowledge. a'l" .ICCOUJll llIore C()ntrihutif)n~ on rhi:-: :C:Uhjl'C':1. t' h'flL·. \.11· .lg(.). I consider \lan"'lho":-..igh ptiest.'re· t')l'e we l11ust . III IIIIlI' 2H of that era.S III h. . for . 193Y).:... 702-3.ii III Cr. I t was only after thc demise of the last Rall1esside king that Herihor ven' .I':S G). J lerihor's pontificate must· then po..".· Jallsen-\Vinkeln.glt1l1~l1t~ a~ain'l "<tch link in tile ellaitl of . Smcndes is repenred!" referred 10 in "\\-'enaillun".' other hand.".hL'CI1 qUt<. (."Ted natm..ary \I'O. since ~I. Chrot1ulogiedes ph~IraOllischl."SUl11e that after year 10 of the Wb. khon. ~1l)~G).WI and that he died prior to l"toar 7. Alrhollgh "\~'enalllun" cumaius Illueh thal mighl Lc considued relel 'lilt t(l all undetstanding of the political conditions in the I.~blli~'. G._-.:rho (Londoll alld C.stllllllHlIlg .n\"1 I/!III·.c... sdlldw. this monarch lived long enough to necessitate his presence in the ': company of. vi. which arc likcly to hal-e displeased the real Pharaoh residing in the north. and tbis is where thc critics fail. I . . the I'car in 'Iucstion w.Ial1Sen-\\'inke1n 's reawning.I.g. 1 7 .and c"nse'l"l'ntl~~ for Ram. roynl titularies. of the KhollSU lemple. I. \' J.e of l!crih"r's or":cr. sa)'s abullt EgI'pt. if 1I"l' cho( lSe 10 . If Jansell. J. have drawn from them in the past.mlhl'idgl. !. Lei us therefure SlOp pretending that we live in a world \.J!cr of Lower Lgypt lI·hom i\Janerho considered Ihe f"utlder of the TIITntl'-llrst Dynastl'. the wife of I'inodjem I and the 'notlter u[ lh" Tanite king Psusennes I. S:). whicr. 4.\ "'l!'lnl_l~~I . genealogies.Hrl.~ the transilion of the 'l'wcmielh to the Twentl.:li.lot" rests wirh hi~ (:ritic~. n-\'(inkdn~~ important Jl Set.: a~plred to kingship. :\. 458.>rtll \I) the hisluriGll truth. \\·add~IJ.1\'(111' rill" belief in rhe one pmpo.:fcrcllccs in K.il:itl lh:\'ll. This·~ .:.. Pi:l111:h": <:llil ~n(.l:-ll\. f\l:linz.'p" 711111-1(( I/. J\t~r\(.' !t ha.ccotld pha.:t.IJag~II:l.'I.. Chr. Bl:r!t. > ------ 1.. 19')7)./ r (.ctll:rs (BAc 9. XJ .l1!'i.e of the WllfIHlIslrl has left no traces in the l(]lUnsu temple.xl \\"S slil. and Tentamun are.plischcn Gc:.h~1l rh:lI·of 11·. '[l. So much for the tradioonaJ I'iew of l!crihor and the conselluenees it entails.kr ~g:.'n of 1he court of the.'nt\. II.' Ihe n. contained in "\\'enal11un" .. E. Piankh.t:I1'('ll1ni.nHlIs\\'r. :-cc: U." 1 / \. ((17 •. of . . The same date happens to be the highesl one lor the WIII/HIlS"'1 ..kip the selillel.(ten been remarked on. supposu! to deal lI·ilh "\\'en..lO). GIll (. j do not he.ld-n. II.h. I gal'e IhellJ the decree.. can therefore no . WllO S('('I1.I.e dales the SlOn' contains ill order ro d"lcnnine whcther lbel' rcally all"w the historical conclusions mall\· Lglptolugists.(I (1 ~9~). of I krih". The Third Jlllc:nllt. J. lJ 0)" III tbl 7. prerogatives to himself as witnessed b" the decoratiun uf the Khonsu lemple. lhcn rhe latter's in:.hor.Hh..:hilily or 1\lam:lIw btl:. (:hrono!ogic dc~ pharaollischcn Agyptcll: Die 'l.dl0 ordered to nc('oratc jts r}·!on and IhU<:i pur-· stlcd the programme begun b..~. .i.Chicagu.lIn~es . .ellteS. K. year (>.:irhc::..-tirst J)\'l).. I.l .leratUl'e firs in with hiswn·. This ye.'C:tf is rUl1l1d in P.. I (OIl' tOO. Tllc~· C:lnl101 cOlltellt Ihc1l1seh-cs with rroducing ad hoc ar. This false identification.hon:--u It'll/pic.·.I. purported successor Piankh". The time-honoured view of l!crihm is that he entered upon hi..ften been .'. hr5t I will discllss the EgYl'uan SL:lleSmen 111entiotled ill "\\'enal11un": ~111endes. whieb would account for the compoutld name "Ramses-Psusennes" anesred for her grandson. " is lInkllOIl·n for how long Ilerih"r beld . In other \. The family reiatioJls between these men are unclear.. and year 6.ed I. In the present situarion. and date:.rt of our EgI'j1toh>gieal upbringing.. for in the oracle text dated to III SI11W 28 he full)'.

..g~ ptol()~. Illilitarischcr Sraalsstrcich und Ausnahmczustand in .1 i ~I'. ~5. . stales that crafTsmanship and "lsd. l.. ~lall"d\O. Po sc.r. lI'h..~ ('qrnhin. is n....·. i·. ill <llI...v 1.. 6-7: ir .)1 176.329-60. in which he puts "where nlU came from" ill appositillll 10 "11)(: land of Egypt" (2. I I·. .llik dcl' Texte de. K. the plotcc where Smcndcs and Tcntamun an. I~ II Kml p. if he hatl chosen to adopt Jansen-\X"inkeln's~ views abmlt Herihm and the consequent redating of the events described in "\X"enamun" to the' III sr yCalS of the Twcntl -llrsl 1)1 nast' On thIS assurnptH>n. N i\l·iliski 's case ItlT a marriage between Ramses Xl and Tent....\\' ink e In. rull. III the tlrst passage Zekcrbaal .~ dc nee IS IIlcanf' ) since according to the 11ext sentence of his report \\'ellillllllll rouJld her \\·hl..1' .. ·. despite the fact that this verb is already construed with ­ thc preceding adjunct I' Qrlll"..ck"rba.lllircd in J.::. t\na~ta~i JlI. p~ Illy pl .vil\ski...\ /7 (1991).:ll:-· \\'\. ''11''> ~Il~~.'t rhat national sentiments were nor entirely lacking: ill his dal·s..\mUlI is" the 11. The Itq){}rt IIf \\·LIl'.\gypte::11 unrt::T Ramses Xl: ~.:> 12.3. l\nciclll J'~gyptiall Literature.cnsc.he phn-l$~ '\. Phar"oh) is".r inlnpn:l<llioll ~l.-}. h(\~ the l)H~~lnin~~ "~t" or "in"" The la:-:t cxarnple. with its sequence of:l rnpOII\"l11 and thl: ~l(..uktl.Sec 11. 17: "·11\\.. 1'J"f)hk"111S in rill: ChrllllllJog: :II14. 7fl): "I h. I. (>tI.}o: -------_--..(n. (l9..ES. the princess of the town.S.. Ni\'. J:\HCI~ 16 n'H' i\ sillllJ:.ning-.:re 1\1l1tl1l is""".. JJ (Bcrkdl.5. .lr the roy.m..'<.. Te.'(. 152-7.\lllUll is".I·'. "LES.. This is conllnned by Manetho...o<p"!. hKrlt.~~. 6-7: 11'11=1 S(JII1.. qlleslion onk makes sense whcn the phrase "where I\mun i~" refers to Egypt".1y lhl. since the latter scholat tightly qualifies it as "unsupported'. In the existing translations of "\'(Ienamun" tbis phrase is variously_./11 1m Lf\bens.. tlle sa111<.>'t .I1l SCI1-\" in k cln.m. TI.\ prol)Wi d·Oullfll1lon.\mu)) (i .:.:lIc.. thus leaving the preposition I' unac· counted for'''. and as a relati"e clause..d h'll'l'clled I" uller Ihese words. 75): "I forced my way tluough them 10 where Hatiba. "where one (i.l~ thc land where th. 62. regarded as an adl-crbial adjunct of Spl'.r.. .. I)... 2Y-3G.llll l. .d .s (i. + toponym h:l\'ing loc:ui\·l..'.m'~l~: Nl. Lg.lU1UJl (B.ch is attested ill the Ramesside period as a means of distinguishing I ':1'1'1'1' from its nei1'hi>"ur Uluntries \.·d mc. 20)"'.\ll" pb Pl-l1l(u)' I' f. 21 22.{jllllct .. Lill \'t:rsllch ncucr Interpretation der altcn Qudlcn..'enamun".:.·cd hy nlLlllS of the noun-phrase p: Illy fll' . USI'E 136 (19%). in: l. \X'it"h.: mC'1.\\'i::. i. 73.: princc (i.:r:: . N i wi ri~ k i. \\'a<l<kll. B :'I/.l\'(.ettcrs.. N i wi I. This COI1SpiCUUllS analog~' is the reaSOll \VJt~1 I prefer the tl'HIlSlarioll "ill (til<... In ml' opinion. the answer ro thi. ". pi firy 1111/1 jnJ as it.'al!Jgy of thl:' ~Xlsi J):.:nlillisCCl)\ IIf the passage mentionIng :'mcndes and 'J'emamun whIch gal'e rise 10 the preceding granlln:n' cai digression.'( l·(k·d 1. Tilt: laS( Ildjuncr unly make~ :. .ES.1\.. ""'hcrc Smendes and Tentamun arc" is a designation of the area under their control.ll'(' hcard as I~lr a"'al' "' Thehes in (rhc '1I'C:l) w!l'. '. who .:d ttl :\Jiri<.=-1 .~tate of Ihblos.. 1111.LS.rt Ullt i~". \':hidl sho. . Thercflll'c.e. LES.."tioll denotes the city.H !)fI titied as a reference l<> his grall<Hather Ramses X"'-. 537.:lllellr by Pl. ~ \\"b I J) 38!~~.r .:l(t:rs: "I \vill . .<.'­ 9H .Isks \X'enamun (1. SH.: ". K.:ssi(k J~t.21-2)"'.~() up to mcet Pflllcl1l'i in (the are~) where hc is" (l' eo 1"11 ~-.. til'eh' counter the objections Kitchen has raised against the genealogy designed by N i'.". whom she married after the death of Ramses XI. 19<)(."..ekerbaal. I.:. Uurgcrkrie~. This would effec-.::.: in:.lluldlir fl/II/Judis. This expressio)) seems to hOI'e been fashiollcd after the locution i1! Illy IIl'lw illl.phr"..chenzeil {A..) rhe Icut'rs de~tined ff.\S 12. lIn instructive example to start with is (2." As C" Moc rs has inforll1(. rhere is no cogent reason to aSSU111e rhat the samc l11eanin~ could not h..I-. 2: IW:. 7.:ndcs . In rhe: journal of a border official (I'.\I1il1~ of Ihis c{)mhin~tj()n. il is casy to understand whl' the)' had recourse to such a circull1locutioll of political realities. hO\\'(. 9l4: "Am 'I'.. J. BJF. ilhki.. Cf.. dit: I al'li.\ccording to thc passage from "\'\'enamun" cited abovc. . a pil'otal part bas failed signally.lllJ 'J'anct:ullUI1 leocn. III r('g'll'd lidS phrase as an opposition of "Tllebes"..t II p: dm.~. G ot:dit:k<.lll:' 10 \'1. " J. Lower I :.\Ithough this case manifesrs all cxplicil :lllrec"d. II (Jerusalcm... . '~: . tL·t....mis.1 ff... been ((ltl\l.."IJaIIll111 I..1lI'd is "'irh Wellam'Jn. Propllsi1ls for thcir~~ •. illy poil't is further illustrated b)' the locutioll!': Illy 111111 1111..-26. sel'ell kings of Tanis. der Umwdt des l\hCI1 'J'eSfamems 111/5.xtc au::.\)' r ~I"..IC lJIay comparc tht: following statt. the prillce of I:h'1>\"s.~~ ~. 235·-62..lti/)l1. .11 r pi my pI (IIIHl!r Ipy II 1mn.\!llUn i:" wIlen l't'!errinh l~' l'~:'T"".:e. .e farl \1lt41 Id lI'. ---------·. -. cr. I inlerprel.."3-. the association of Tentamun witb Smendes (as e\'ldeneed hI' "\X'enamun") during the lifetime of her husband Ramses Xl "is sureh' totally un-. id" Lc passage dc la XX' :l In XXlr d~'nasti~-~­ Chrollologie ct histoirc po!itklllC. xix.It. Second.. Gamcr-\'('allcn ami \X.'\fter naming Tanis rhe le~r Cllntinues with rhe phrose ..'fraut (fubingcn.0I. shown in ntl' prel-ious studl' of the chronoJogr of "\'\'enat1llln". 6()~ 7: UT r p: IInl' m-rjr III'=k III pI Illy 1..he mO"cd from her one palac. \'5. This genealogy has been <luesti'"1eu bY:)1 I-':'enncth A.e to thc other..::diatc Pt:riod.11/. esp.x:nnplt's (If t1lC.rhich is used twice ill "\\'en..3---1: ill'=.lg mdncr Ankunft jn T.':..lnkh Clltd in (lYle of the I~alc Raml.: h~!' hc<:n do~h[cd by..considcre.U1S l'bi~toirc cit' l'l~gYr(e::'T Ull ""ai wmparntif.lInc Jbm!'c. 1/.:}" etc. the city of Tanis..~:.:tlJ "here Smendes and Tentamun arc" to the alteruati\'es listed abm·e. lilt: Illesscliger) had \\'illl him fur \\·hc. this rran!i!arion should not be.. \I .:hl'll. loj A.\nllln ./11 ill I is l'n.. a palace.dlimon•• 1')75).:11 . /. Spatmirrcliigrptisdu: (inlll1l1l.1It O..7'.!' Pl'c~enl<.6.~. Ti. ill: ~.\ r 34.' j1rcpo.all: Rall1~sidc J.:a~ .>: "I \\l'lllt<J \\'Ih.. i\L Lichthe.\O:" (I.c~ pcriorlc:s Wlllli 111.~hl. id..h-{)d '1':-11/-1/1111 illl".. l.al'S ro Hatil>a (2. l'lH·rpn. Third IlllcrmcJiarc Perioo..e.. 2: p.tti.llnin.'enamun": in her person the Twentieth and Twenty-first Dyn>lsties were linked.\wt d. \dlt:n. pi Illy N.g. \\'(1 Slllcndcs 1. (19<)8):. 12 .LJ ill 'l'. alld nut just the room where /. ski" attempt. 50-I): "How long is it until today' since you came frlllll where .b:. netl il-(.: more common dircctionnl mc. .. . 16: Iw=1 !. It would also explain the prominent role assigned to Tent-. This is confin11cd by !\\'O nca rk identical passages in which /.:nt. "II'here . 75.e.--------.r illl). illl.tI:I. Sm<:ndes and Tental11ull resided in:.".im. p: Illy.vc L"xpr<'~~i()n) in which the rrCr(l"jrinrt. 1990).\.' to bral'e Kitchen's criticism by presenting a historical reconstruction in which TentanlUn plays".l~.Irael from a 'l'eeeh of\X'enamun (2.f r pJ "'y I)1'IW 1m. In itself.. and so on..:<.lt1lun" to Jesignme the land of EgI pt.:t. Ol~ JH (1997).111=. IX'"n:"lIUll speaks of "rhe land where I'OU arc" (2. 1976). IlcrilHlr) is''''. 75.I ~S. GO-I): "When I will get to whel:e the high priesI' of .. HcJck (cds.:~ ill I·. )6 abe Wt:. 49-Mt Th~ gcnc:dogic:-!. The mentioll of j':i--"'P' . Tanis.­ ~~ \\ .1.. the noun-phrase "where Smendes and Tentamun are" allows of different interpretations.. for c.. W..".. i\S I h. ignoring the true grammatical status of the adjunct.: applies to Upper Egypt as shol\-n b\ the follCl\l'illg e:-. while keeping its obvious advantages. I\I'=/. U':S. Thebes)".1 .e lHOSl plausibie explanauon of this passage is that II illt "where Hatiba was" hcr resi. t)( Dor) W. H. the land of Egvpt. .tlli~.". 2. . This imerprelali"ll is COil· lil'l~lCl\ 01' a lorer spcech of Zehrh'lal. First. 1\ Book of Hc:\(ljng~. paralldeJ in aJl thm we kllow of the roles of even the most prominent queens-consort in the1 l\Ie\' KingdoJT1 (or any other period)". "where you arc".AO 95 (J 9(5). HI /. 19(2). b.>11l hal'e come from Egypt "in order to get to where I all'" (2.lil. HO)"..~. In his suhsc<luenl 'lppeal to Hmiba.fm. "whal lie': (i. whereas tile preceding Dynasty is said to have counted twdve kings oL. J halT :l1i'cady noted that in addition to the customarv gcographical term Klfll the author 01 "\X enanlun" ~'mploys t. kilt.Jl:. as an apposition of grill.1-4: r pb r p: flty I:d .Ill'. 32-3. 69. I. (tt.'.. )mende.f/=1 iwd=. Since the partition of their countrv is notlikc1v to have flied the Lgl'J>tiallS \1'llh pride..r.t my'\"lI' Im=!).J 7 9). ' '" t-..:: plac~-' wht:rc SnH. Jansen . founder of the 2'1 st Dmastl'. the family tree proposed by N i wi Ii ski "leaves+. 11.".Hr:nitlll art' calkd pi lIty III-di=:..I~ /.: .:\\.ichtllcim. ' ""'.".rc". ~J I':. l<>talll' isulated and having no idemifmble link with7 either the 20tb Dynasty or the Theban commanders anti high priests"".d tQ reflecl his grammatical tlnah-si::.-.~~ Moers.. who states that the Twenty-first Dynasty consisted of .I.· amull ill "\.uld be: contrasled with lht. speculatioll" and "f~lntasies"·. It: p: J:".>e accompJishments origillated makes it \'('1'1' likdl' Ihal rh" noun.: -----. \\·Ill':ll il r(:f~~~ w th~ region of Nubia controllcd by rhe rebel :lntl fOI'01er dccroy Panchsi. depending upon our identification of the implicit antecedent as a \'()um. Third Inlcrrnc. Dcr J\I/{jordOl11us des Amun l\nchetenl11ul"....tIld T~nct<lmUIl \vc.':il·chcl1.-". It is worthwhile to have a brief look at the occurrences of similar phtases within "\'(.:. pI lit)' 1111/1 . of lhe sentence.\'(.224: "On the d'l\' of 111\' tlrrival :1t Tanis.jlilll1 i' fflrhicl. w(' may regard Smendes as the sec-' ond husband of Tenta1l1un.! G<. r 1'1 my Utl1 . which is adl'erbial and n"t odjecti\'al"'.). as most Iranslators would hOlT it. Gcgcng:'bc~~' h:stsehrifr fur Ellllll:1 Brunncr.gl'l'l. at Ill.s.. . In the second occurrellce of the I"cutioll "where ..o.e.' amun would hal'e been much stronger.! rele\'~nc(' Ilf Ihe ~lIrn... Ki tc he n on two grounds.y '\I' .\".: .~~(' Nlwr.

:tho s account o( th:.. describin~'!.2)". each administering his own region"".1:Irk ~gc" while heing of I. 7..:t alH>thcl' t>a~sagl' fGllLJrin~ SIl.:sibility that Eg\'pt h.! ft.61. sending a variet\' of Egyptian prodUCts to Zc:kerbaal (2. C1L\1 BI. I Jeriho!. Accoruingh'. 9-1 L Ril1llcr. Pcrhaps we may take this as an indication that "'jthin ti.I':S.:> . the lord of the lands. }I)~4).l dcri\'3. the prince 0["" Ild>!os suessinl4 the J . to the \'iccro~' Panchsi "i~ :'. 354 . 101 I.1. \\ . LES. 5114. 1992)) 127 -H...\"I1(y fir. LES.6-8): .". where his gold alld silver were· stolen by a runaway n"'lllb~r of Mengehet's cre\\'. when ii was nol unCllmmon to l'l1lplol" two or three such officiafs at the same time. 67) 5.!'" tl.ES. '.\ Eghcr!:-: -_.'ith customary brilliance.SlJ-6il.llt~-tirsl I)Ylla~r~' . i l l pL!.ltion of ClJnteI11.e. I. "') I. the· [nince of Dol'. Turin I BY() the same cxrrcs~ion "where ooe IS" (~olltrasts willi Nubia. 71."a111un exhorts !'"kcr[.~l"" I 1".f I lotus (i. "iog of (.. Brussc:ls. lCtk.hor in the first mOllth uf .c\-antine.cha(I.Otlcs· und PriCSICl'hcrJ'sc.:: IlOle (KRI "J. Philt-:1rlh)" i" ~ till.'=h' 111 {IIJr/nll Ns-sH'-I3J-lJh-l)d. }1-5): "I .. In \Vcnamun's appeal (or help to Bcder.l~llUL:S and Ilerihor.. I .lllc.lean YOH>ile has explaincd tr a:.lal: in.')..lfld. f(wallady .badn).: 1.1Ild witll accurdiJl. \\ (. In f:H.66.e internatiomtJ context Sm~nues was felt to bc th~ more impllrt<ltlt ruler. "PlanTler f."f Ilill . 7 -..l in whi~h Amun "cte~l as king.:hc PCrSOlll. This. See for the na11le Wrkl( Sch neider.~.ing of Cods. kllti1~ aud dlit.~~.':11 Qud1cll des NcuCt1 Rc:icbes (OBO 114. pI.!! 1lll':IIling wuuld then be something lik~ "planner".R-II. In the preccding paragraphs all occurrences of the hisll>rical pcrsonIl:tgcs SIl1~Illks :!nd Ilt:ri­ hur in "\\lcnamun" have been revie\\'ed.-­ ~ce.lrd lhelll as rcullily or cr. The crux of this .71. I. Scmilic \'\/ords in 1':gypli:lIl T(. J.Ct.'.ld fallen into Illore !'i~~es thall the t\\"o \'.w:ts clothed.~.. -. .. 110<:11. 735. 7<.'illl \\.crcc".ded as an act within the sphere of foreign affairs.:l1nal11Cll ill ii. [3" implication. {. 76-7. King . t.cnamutl had th~ desired effect.:. 2 a11l14).naminc ethnicity of thcir crews.. X.:g. was the S!1l\' of thc south.perhaps the last eJucen of the Ne\\' Kingdom a.· send hin] to Smendcs nnd Tenw111un. 1 \. 31.h"sl' .ld these 111agnatt:s be? Perhaps Ihe t::lSieSI solutiDIl is It I n.. Asialischc Pr::rsoJlCnn. 0/­ both at the same tinle. Then he became very angry and saiJ to me: 'So therc al e no decree and letter in your hand' "....e nom (\.:.". in\'ariabl~' refers to a dI)CLllnent~.tion shows that \V'cnamun's failure to pr(.:rb SJl!.u.:': his e\·~s rhe rwenty ships associated with Smencles were nothing compareu to the Efty ships . 140-J.5..9-11 .1"1111.. \V.' of C()d~~' to SlllClldcs and Tcntanlun.. the lord "f'the !:tllds. it is interesting LU note that \. Despi!c the curio ous spelljng 01· the snibc ol'''\\'~mlmul1''. <:2. .-":"ue~-' '. .~·· "that are associat~d with Smendes" (I. while thc messenger of I\mun empha. lllld l. \~Ith~)ri:: ':.1'. 13-{)7. This partition foreshadows the practice of a hlt<:r period. \\.:. /\nawlian or Acgean stock (1.1'1111'.\'ious .ughl to n.! tak~ the tWu occUJ.~ (1. 15: IJly bry-mlls ~l..11e lell~r dispatched bl· \X.lf on the international sl:'gc "I" . pLnin. It belongs tu HerihUJ'.\"Ilo 1l111St high pricsL~ of .Ill:cS of this '.nv epithel fIll" ~l 111rtn who cninn'd such a I'l"i\·ilegcd staws as l<haell1wnsc.7.ekerbaal's rcar.'.\2. the ~nnle word oeCllrs in the Litle .\.1lUlh~1 iIJu"LLUi~HI tl di.\111. of the political split occurring at the end of the New Kingdom. sugge~ts t11<lt Egypt W>lS 1I0 IOllger tllc. In a later episode of the report. :.urd.ods. . since rhe con· structioll of a bark for Amun is also I1lcntion~d in two inscriptions localed ill tbe court of th~ "hOIlSU temple-'."ull re­ SIXltlUed !J\. (P.~~~. (.C~ 11 .~ alrenel:-' knoll· "r··.ale J~gYrtian i\JisceUanies (BAc 7.. g.~ 111~111!Jer:.t J..teml br tbe saill official (KRI "J.:_ issued ill the Ilame of a king or a god".ekcrbaal requests such a ( dueument fl'llm Wcnamun (I.cnd~s anu his consort Temamun. 1(37)..of garnll'IHS. orL! ill <l\\\:lJamlln" to be abstracr n\.. . . Set: fo!' bIJrj. C~.:.'... 55)"'. which ma\' have becn the cause or the result.()d~.di 111111111 p: mill.""". On his way to Byhlos \'\'cnamun called at the port of Dur. pI. The namc ~1cngcbct is definitely not Egyptian"·' and:· the same applies to its bc'n-cr.1"':5...Fgbert:"JEt\77. spok~ to Ikrihor. exc~pt th~ foUowing passage nnllling the high priest o( Amun (2. \. There it is stated that I'lerih')l" "bas hcwn llis (i. . If~ lilt'!".··." I.·r"1I1l . This would be consisrent with th~ fact that the:.". In all probability.:rpril'~r(. HI-3.:t.'. The latter argument failed to impress Zekerb. The first di\'ergcnce of opinion betwcen Wenamun"':' and /. unci 1'[j~st~r.'cI1lence is the word . "'U."'" glorious trade partller il used LU he. (.~ F Gom:d. ._------------~----- -------------­ \\c-ll:1l11l'l' / .\nlun·'. t1l1·10rd: 'Scnd me!' 1\nd he m~dc 111(' Cl)OlC with this great g()d"-'~. a precursor of the title . ..lnilc':~ \\'lTC kss reticent in c1ainling w\"~ll prerugatives than the Thcbans_ The Illcntion uf Htht: (llhcr great ()nc~ of I':g~'re' is inrrigu­ il1~' \\ ilL' cOi.!:: ni. AI1llln) bark out of pine uf the c\·idence gi\'ing the irnpression that the ·r. It is for instance fuund as a dt::'ign:uioll I'hl.. ~ LJ':S.. A.. II. uf St. for Sllleilcies and T~nt". th': l(''''nll''~ .XlS ofrhc New Kingdom and Third Jntermc:diatt: Period (PrincclOll.t"ted with respcct to th~se \'aluables (1.olL~!. 39-41)"'.c'.ll~rr:. . theIr (t'lrtticll1 to t\nHII1. csp. H. 62. Asiatis<...{1..5-6 1. III a decree ( ) t J{:lI11SC!\ XI ad(ln:s5ed:'~.. I Jere wc havc anothcr hint at the division '" of Egypt into two political entities.. since this would release ll~ froIn the ohlig. ~. "\film Ill' Ilad will~ him fur "bor".\ nice detail is the I. the hanuing of the decrees of I\mull to Smendes and Tentall1un should bc regar.g~ptische.~kerbaal c'J1. which denoted the highest ecunomic ufllce afl~r lh~ ad111inistrati\T reforms introuueed hy i\masis and corresponded to thc Greck t:itl~ rliliikeif/-. The use or kl(I.trc dc l'l:cl)l\OIlli~): l)e..Kt that Tentamun did not forget to provide \\.1-9t l. tlyn ltC.: 'I' T. since later in the text Zekerbaal calls him "that foreign c:!ptain'..\Il1L111 h'l~ (lpp()inted in the north of his hUll1 (lIJ .th". ~ y the !cltcrs scm tWill I-.-:nn nf r It11l'. 'J. e01l1bill~d with Dlany uth~r indicatiolls in the report.~. the \\ort! snty nlUSI.I'S.Il i.sent am' official docu111~nt relating to his mission was a serious breach of diplomatic deco. 1l . ~..(Jllingcll. Frdburg.LICd \.uppnr! of !'<hrilH. '. Aftcr a stay of eight months in Tanis.·.~ that 1m". of I<. It bdongs to Smencles... 19":'3). the n:hriol1 admi.'...ml. .: S. CR.llllL 19H~. Comrary Lo Hoch.:hnciJer.. \\'b ". \\ i<:. l~bt.ti\'c of the n. the true king has been 1I1Uliioned at the \T[~' beginning of \\-cn:l1nun's L'J1U111l'ration: .· rum. In this wa~· the authur of "\\'cnamun" has ruthlessly expose<). h. S<. 25-(.ltCnlporary .~.n. 51-4): "'\\i'here is the decree (w(li) of I\mlln that is in YOllr hand1'''.lJli.. ~U-I. Temple of KhollSU I... J. the economic decline of the fonn~r empirc... \~ 125 (1"~8) :.e pu. be.: wortl H'ld..' 11 Kill!)""·'.'\ 111\1n·I{('.\I<-Illphi~ (\" 27 ...l:. 54-2. "to ki~~ tllc Ctu. . and the other great ones of Egrpt (11{ kil' rr. rather than "kings" Of' "Pl-hlraohs". in which W·. 66.: dtl:rcc of RmllM':s XI Illclllionnl ill lhe pn. and 1 went clown to the great sea '.:: Suh)l R:lm!'t~' ll.''YPtiCll dl1 «mini:. l!l\tlllolll.: rtgi~h. 14-6): "It belongs to I\mun-Re.'enamun names Smendes before his own superiot· J!(. YU\·ott<.s a 1\lCroc.thcr thaLl ~genlin: nouns.fihor.): "Thus AIllUII·R~. King of C.. Thi~ is sugl!CS­ tire of an ideological eonstcllatiul. l. "Smendes anu Tentamun sent me uff with captain J\-Icngcbet.J fi~lJ (2) ~1_2Y'.~ your ~cribc bn..t_5. His ship must haye been included among the twentl' ships in tbe harbour of B\'blos.Il:tlllun" a~ an ::. <". j '~\'identIYI this r~fers tu (111 OfJc!e legicitnating Heriilor's de­ cisioll t" build a new bark for .. The thCn1C of AnlLltl\ kingship is also tOLlched UP(>l1 ill ~ <."\ rLCll']) ..lI11Cn. Hdmcr. 21 (Oil right :. 1h!~ .cerned the natiunalit\' of the vcssels ~mployecl by Smencles.':l!' . .'(. "til fnl. pointed out ahuI·~ .aaJ as (ollo"s (2. I YBY. mI' J. 59)"'. . G a rtlinc r.ppcJlation of Snlcndcs and 'l'entamuo.'hile Smendes '1IId T~nramull fUllCiioncc! as his highest officials in tbc north..\fter \\·cnamun's arrival at Tanis hc is said ro have hanued "the uecrees of Amun-Re. 7)4.~:.. the 'pl. which has been intluenccd bl· th~ ~xpr~ssilJt." ha\'c heell (1 radiant SI'. Chaelll\"c~.\1/1"" Jay I""'. I." II fJJy=/If)"'~'.' of prince Kh~{(:nl\":"l':('. 14). 7.·!. H2.'enamun himself with a weU-d~sen-cd supph.· 'h\"{.' \'\:here is the letter WI) of the high priest of Amun that is in yuur hand)' 1 said to him: 'I havc '.\\. Lt is int~resting thut the same "·oru 0"1111" surtac~s ill . 1:1~:1' l IIII . as a yualifier suggests that S111endes and Ilcrihor were likewis~ (ol1sidcl"ed "gr~at ones". "other".\"en them to Smendes and Tentamun'..xl as p: my III-cfi=) .I':S. WenamuI1 was finally able ro leave for J:3yblos (1. 143. tH. 7 -~. ~lJn.:hafl.' sised their subser\'ienc~ to an Egyptian ruler.. which is only known fron: rhe titubr:. 9-11.gypl an.-I l :. .". it is .-\nlun arc ignored III l\l..'hilc th~ preccdence of Amun need not.~ kilO\\' this decision to be a historical fact. ()(I.mners' .ES. (. surprisc us.

Iie dcm Fi.\111110 was a unil'c rsal god. strat"gcllls to portray Zekerbaal as a would-be Pharaoh.-9. It relates to an incident that gave rise to th~ second dialog uc between WenalIJun and I.. 14-16.»'l{ uscd to send sih'er and gold"".1\1 119. KC:ll 11 . the absence of royal titles in association with Smendes.::­ ence on the Pharaohs of old.12-73. For tile same rca~OIl. " 1.j{ respect their head of state and whar she stands for. Your J ... Herihur and J(baemwase~'! may be less significant than has generally been assumed.. cr. O. JI I". 12-3)". .lmun" i:-.28-9). which has becn adduced as ~ri. Tbe LCl:Il1 "Pharaoh" i:: OtiCC cn'rlnyrd·'~:. Being a Dutchman. J~~. 6-8). Jta. Di.iehllll~ell AgYPIl':llS Zli \'orJcl'a:-:iell \'UI' und n. \\"l'llalllllJ' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _/__\~ 125 ~.IUnl"".I was Ktlialll' dil·id~d. l)ll the j other hand.. J~()~. daB . 13-14. l'oJlowillg this delli~1 of his supposed depend". -" '... 27J-H6.S. '.11' (iIIJ. I. This reluctance derilTs panh' frl)m the yuestionable premise of considering Wenamun a contemporarv of Ramses XL Things become a lot easicr. but even the prince of Byblos was subjcct to the power \\'iclded ~I' . Eyre nlcl1l. 51-2). 67. un . .nan1L1\l. GM 157.l a n:-. Yet the F. 68.h. Thcse t. O1c:: a$ long: as we nol know how u\'('cnamun" ended.S th(' t1hilll. Thereupon a butler of I. '\l!. 72. '. .11. bas fallen upon you""'. This us' "ge is characteristic for my compatriot~ as well. Tilt' inll. Cr.l b~ J ~ !<'ll:lllll. 10-1). In \Venamun's days.:rtl'xtuality 1)( this pa~sagc is abo discu~scd in d. r. h"d gil'en hi. ------­ 1113 I.. esp.. Sumewhat later in theX text. The message is clear.e he~n hard ro uphold such ~ !lorilln when IiI(' W\I ion of I:.~!.'llld H.n had the la~t \VurdM~. the homesick ell':oy \\'c.. the author of "\X!enamun" has adopted other ironic.!. as we hal'e seen above.. including myscl(.: Bei'. '" 1..IlIIUIl ~ --. fur there is no mockery 'If /\1111111 fO he t'ounJ in /.I'. cOI1\'incillg c"idclIct' ror dating the evellts narrated ill H\Vcnamun" 10 the ~V(l1n-msH'{~.'rbaal's spccchc~..' ~~f)ncd b:: his aJltag()ni~t.s.. there is nu real reason to be shucked at the fact that thc prince uf Byblos called th~ former Pharaob "Khaemwase" without more adu.lwemwase lI'i" introduced.. outward and inward emigration.n:" (.l. and th:1t it ic:.ekerbaal by the Egyptian name of Penamlln sropped \\'cnamun and said (2. 'TIlesc two Egyptians symbolise the options one has when lil'ing in a hnJ un the decline. '". "\Itlllt:r ~um 611. I aho\'c.I':S.cballoll (~"I1-.l. rulers of Egypt. ~(utlr.dJltl.1' PUldllWfl ltaJ gUile ..~i J Pill""· ot Zekcrbaal and \\'enamun reaches its climax. 19(6).ek<. ti>r in their oialu~ue the cll\"()Y of i\ml'. the furmer kings (11.t'~tt:d thal the plol of "\'I\'cn.11 stcla tl) be erected by Zekerbaa\ (2. "j hal'e nut donc for I'Oll what was dune for the envOI'S of Khaemwase. 3-6.gypLian king­ ship testify to the failure of a political ideolugy in which a bum..l. and yet must Dutchmen.()". \I'hieh contains the following phrase intro.\n. G~I138 (1994).. I intl:nd to deal with this passage ami its implications in a sepanue '" LES.46.)11 the other hand..joned in n.IY tllm \rcllalTIlill'S "fllllcJamentnli~l'n" is nut tllle· " I FS ~? .un-Re. (. 14-5..irdigkcil c:mpfan . Faced with I'.ekerbaal's effective de­ bunking of a political ideolugy that had been coined during rhe he)'dav f)f the I'gl'ptian empire. XV Ii critici~etl by. "If the ruler (btl) of I~gypt:r were the lurd of whaL is mine and J too were his serl'ant. 9K. since the role 0'( Pharaoh had been assigned to Amun.is J. \\:lIhia ci ()rl<. W'e may cooclude from thesc texts that a rcal c\'cm. 53--4). . Winand. '1 ~Il.!~. there was no empluyment fur a human Icing anymure. 68.~ I"den with Egyptian products that were emptied into their storeholls~s"'9. the Pharaoh in question is Zekerbaal"". I.75." tlualifications.(' stop al the horders of 1':1'y\. "J\] y relatives carried out this assignment. the only likely candidate is Ramses Xf'". lhd.ekerbaal uses the wurd "ruler" in a similar sensc (2.tialls tksignated th~ir kings. strument (2..ravcsties of thc tradiciuns assuciated with 1'. l30th Zckcrbaal ~nd \'Vcnamun call this person Khaemwase without fllrthe.. WelJamun's point was duly taken hI' I.\.. accurding to \I'hich .s.~kerb"al.\. 32): "You lOO arc ~ scn'allt of \1.t. I'uur lord. Clcarh'.-. sulJ\'C\-:->i\'c of thl' theocratic ideology preached hy its prot<lgot1isr. .. () 1\1 157. \ViO<llld. J am wOIlt to refer to our prcsent <..gl'Ptians of tbe Twentl'-first Dynasty (CJllld nor dispC11se with ideo\ogl' altogether. King. Pharaoh ""'s tb~ Irc<Id of state.:a I.lllon 2.! lillilliolhcc~ ~ld)l(.. ~-I'is thc humar.r ill dt. of Gods. This is nut only ~vident from the grammar.\ till.ekcrJ. ~tllcr~ IlICl1tlotled III II.. They pw­ r . diffir.aal in ordcr to illSPCCl I.S.1er agypli~chcn l'.:lJ titles arc nor cOlnplctd~'lackil1gin "\"\:c.102 :\.e has caused sel-~ral Egl-ptolu~ists great trouhlcs. sel'l'e as proof. and performed by i\mun-of-the-Road.VlIige unu (~illl<T wird 'lIs Phr. the prince of l3yblos went on to assert by means of rw() rhetorical"! question~ that he was neither Wenamun's nOl' Ikrihor's scrvant (2. \\. Zll n.:IlI!ICI (cd~.. . q ·-5. die zur Tratlition in \X:idc[spruch stand lind /\uf3cllsteht:ndcn. nations "Pharaoh" and "ruler" are used in retrospect. . 3tJ: uSClIlC Bc~ch\\"()rung dc( J\lachl c.69. 'wenn libcrha!Jpt.JNr':S 54 (1995). in: P.ord. 33 I). Thud Intermediate Period. "\Vcnamun" mentions a fourth historical figure 1: albeit in retrospect.1\5. ~0~~. Tentamun and Ht:rihor. This may explain the absence uf cartouches and roval titles in combination with the names of SmClldes and Herihor. Hcsides the Penamun episode. ~i"ct' ther could not bring themsekes ro :lC(ept the obl'ious. n~mely the renewal of the'~' bark of Amun ordcred by Herihur.traoh.). 9-10. .llri:-:li~IlUS: l.:rmindn \Vat l l • In the rap~r by C. such as his borrowings from the rhetoric of Ramesside royal hmllls (2. \'\'enamun contrasted Ramses X 1'5 mission with the one ordered by Amun-Re. but also from \'(fenamun's eountersLrokC'. Zekcrbaal may have IJeen right in affirming his sOI'er~igntl' I'is. e n -\\ ill k d 11.. 12-3. H. bur extended to l3yblos and bero nd . This passage ha~ been t"ken from a speech in which the thruS[. he sent men as envoys and he was a man himself"~.!!I'\. 1 abovc it is . Ilut untet allcl'­ ~fo')lhcl1 ~ch\\'ierigkeiten. "The shadow uf l'baraoh.alll \\'cnamun 2. and the text dictated by \~'enamun and destined for a rol'. ':ES.ltc 11ll':l1ling of the pInt :md its conspicuous iro· '(.· s"ying.tierunhrsform del' 21. 1\1. of the text. 6J. King of Gods.his king had alr~ady UCCIl cUllsigllt:d tu the gr'IYc.A. \X'cnaI11Vl chose tu expound the current theulogical doctrine. "I\S for Khaenllvasc. Derechef ()un. 71. The phrasing implies that at the time the dialogue wok place Ramses XI already belonged to the past. 1l)MM).\gyptcll: Eine Sinngc. "As to \'Our saying.\l:h (km Ncu<.I1. This is unly true as far as thc P"Xypcian kings arc conccrncu. \Venamu!l trod the shadow cast b" the sunshade of the plincc of Byblos.. Gcburtst:l. by Zekerbaal (2.jucen by means uf her first name "13eatrix" (or "Trix" in my jolly mood~)..It:ksul1.cl~~\Xlinkdll. 'earn' uut the assignment of l\mun'~"·"'.1I1J fllUlIJ a new Phar<Ioh in Zckerbaal. c p<tpcr by 95-108. There is a second occurrence of Ihc tCl'm "Pharaoh" in "W'enamun". Zekerbaal was the first to introduce this topic (2.2.1\1'1.. after thel' had spent se\'entcen ycars in this land. In his reply to Zekerbaal.::..:n Rt:ich..1 . in the course of which the subject of l.ult In :1~se.63. the fact that Khaemwase alias Ramses XI is nut characterised as a Pharaoh either~ "It hough he had definitely been one. Scholz . 46). heart to Almln.gln.:schichtc (~lullich. I. . 7 -8.l!"!.irstcl1 nm Byblos. Falls upon You": Once " Ego Kite he n.:\iI'en· of pine stacked on the shore.I . t 1:-.. :' I\part from Smendes. ducing yet another royal title (2. shows that we should ~lIow for some t1cxibility in the wa~~ tllc I':.5 'u!!. L. "The Shadow of Ph. Jf we project oursd"e~ intu' this situation. 'I' I.ee for a different Iranslation J. (. In the given COl1lext. induccd the aumor of "\'('enamun" to compose his prose.dd h~·. 13--4)"'.. of whieh he was no more than the humble in. uudL:. whu might ha\'t h(:~11 perSllll.Slo. . would he hal'e sent sih'er and gold.()~illg. 1.I.: . 'fhis is n1~t lhe right place to discus~ this malH.llI -­ .\'li~chcn Zellgcn(}s~cn die theokmtische Hq.. SCC" for a rcct:Jlt intcrprl:latioll II.cst~(hrjtr rtlr (:.128: "Ocr BcrichL des \\'cn~mun madH deutlich. Th~ name of Kha~mwase is dro!J)JCd in the course of2 ll1"loguc between an Egyptian diplomat and the munarch of a friendly nation.ekerbaal. I cannot suoscriht'" lO the opinion cxprc~~c<.:plhi :\u[fiCl: it ltJ S.\nuth"r passage from this speech is worth citing (2.\. the desigc· _ .). Ot::rJcf G.:.:nan1un". I.1I1' aCLluainted with his deceased colleague Rallls~s Xl. -'0.72.iLI . \\ hile approaching l. after Pharaub had se'lt six sbifJS_.~c (\bgct~n". They died on their post"'. Although such a modern analogy can neve. Dyna1'tie als t:inc '\lerkwi. This p.ES. which lacks the rel!'O­ sI'ecUIT character of th~ f)lle just discussed.1 hose mastery did1v. if wc assume that Penamun's wurds were uttered whell tbe mort<I1 rClllaillS IJf r. 55-S)"". which suggests that they knew whom rhey were talking abuut.: J'l y \'\'I. The fact that Khaemwase was able w send envoys to l3yblos shows that he must have becn an Egyptian Icing.

~..' •.07-8. Our point of d~l'at:lurc is th~'. i. 126. pl.:ril11cs altested "." nuoutli.!" -. general and high priest of . .158.'111 in SOIlH: (. 67. .. The op<..~. Now that J ansen_-:: \X'inkcln has exposed the improbabililY of the traditional "iew concerning these high priests::~ there is no reason to stick to tn..1I11C scholar has "'l\'is~gcd the possibility that thc p.1 ~t Cl'prus. No other ex~t11ples of the alh-erbial usc of (1lI-)illl\' :trt klt""..\ 82.l{UcSn. 'J" \'1111 Beckel'nlh..'48. 1'1. Ilc. HJ. which wok place on the thirtieth daj' of his stay in 13yblos. 110.·.\58.: dc~ Ij~traca hil:rati­ .'hcnc\'Cr the': start "'ilh :1 datc thc regn~1 ~Tar is ueualk f"lIo\\'l'll t"itl"'r I. Report of \\'cnOl1\UI1.\mull.'ious stuck of thc ch ronologl' of "\\·cll<1l1111n·').u' x" (UI . "rn'L11". ( :"::. This is dC. lord of the thrones of the:.erts •.: 'l\\'l:lll~ -(irsl Dyllast'. H. .II. /1'. :/. 1)1.'illt ill Talli.l\upool \3(.g. as has been done in a recent publication''''. J\ly conversion is pp.0(. I :g(. this purported successor Piankh did not extend beyond the W!III/-I1ISWI..: of .. J.~..I""'.:ning uate of 1'.1\1 VI.t!us Ie" 111(' '" Ih" ('o)nellls.I.." to" good tll he Irue. . ". day 16: the day of~ depanure of W'cnamun.: 1. Ihis should makc us suspicious of the traditional attriburion of Ilerihor's dales to years S . Is this the llUJllIJ~r born\:.. III).'. 3(" 13.~illll of llll: CI )l\Cl'PI of klll.."hich i'nplics Lhal hb SLJjulIlll ill T. t·:.rord. 11. Cal. The same holds:..il~ nor­ mJJ fOl'Il1 for It .· original opinion about the opening date of "\\'enamun"..0 the north. is pn)\'C1I bv thc follllwing passage fmm the beginning of the report (I..·jt].".: r. for a gt..'cd that his long star in Tanis mighl bc relc"'"11 for historians and Ihat "\X'enanlul.: as such all". (nil".iell ~ illdicates tllC .:r I.2. 838.Cl. T. "'hich wcrc pL. ~'I St. (l'I'1\~. day y: the da" of departure of the vizier.44-0 tP. ill\. ':tlI11e": in thi<: nl"'!I1l1<:rrir. I. 865.7(.. in the beginning o{lanual." provided el'lClcncc for wimcr . it will be clear that now I wnsidcr this premise to he false.1\ to (In'!).80\ 12.". I. 211.'.lUi lilt. it gradu­ illr dawned UpOll l11e that the chronolog" t>f "Wen.O~..L'Il~· ~I1J perhaps because it dio 11m t.:::aS('·lS) 3nd ir is (.\ 77.3.J. 25-6.1an. 'j bi. III tile fir" Olse.'ol'agcs b~' the Levantinc seafarers of thai epoch.J!::\S2. "eu ick e.00y'''-.'" (. that such datelines without W!IIII-IIIsWt are almost never found at the ­ beginni!\g of a document'''.. tile 1':gl'Plian expreSSion ..3Y5. i\ly l'reviuus study of the chwfJologv of "W'enamun" was based on the assutnption~" that the fifth year in 4uestion belonged to the W!III/-III.. oi .(.. Even without the circumstantial e"idence accumulated in the preceding pages. 1'). 82)''''.'I. ." (I. 1'1.\'ielenl that tht: . II sltould be noted.7. but 10 llcrihor's independcnt reign which he established in Upper Egypr after the dealh of Ram51'S :\1.' I.df (for the details one should LlIllSLLIr my pre.~sent csample should he read II lit· as \I'ell ami Inlllslatcd lS "approsilll~tdy'''''''. ~I~ Ga rd i Ile r...·I. 11. Cal'll.. "about five months". I E.c1herg. 12Y (ek).~csled that the other chmnological aspects of the text as well were mcant II> be reaJis­ ti'/'. Coday". 19..I·.nd". It follmtS ' that 111" conversions of thc dates in "\\'cnamun". Thc phrase 5 Jhd iliw.'1i. "corresponding to n. 5Y. .. This !clime to the conclusion Ihat \\'cnamun's pbce llf . the felled trces still rcmaincd in thc l. coHin lids ofScti I and Ramses II. 2.11 (0. .1 -2.'.!: '. During his til''' audience Il'ith 7.cn-\\·inkclll proposed in l\in and j lhink he IS absolutely right. Sel'en IT'll" :l~~'.. 764. "fi"e whole Lllonths". pre­ $umably ha~ ~~d1l5j\·C nlcaning.. The S.~n~n "ill "etunJcd from Lgyp[ in September. I· " .. "(in) the Renaissance"". 011 1..ni.". date with which the r~port starts (1. l'-. which r<'I'''''<<''1'< th" I"nt. 6): '" 'laILe! IrlJlIl tI. thc opcning'. (.lll Th"hes·".ekerbaal. Tlil': Creal Tomb·Rohbencs uf the Twcnlicth i'. (.kp'lrLUrc "':oS cI-llib" ralher Lil.is departure from Egypt on the tirst dal' of the tirst l110nth of 511711'''''. i-8. II (DI:/F. J<jng of (. If lhis illleq))'ctalioll is acccpted.. Sincc \\'enamull departed on dar I(.11I1hllf of ·'\\·"na"'u"" rcspected this aspect of realitl' in composing [he plot of his masterpiece.-".'. 'N \\'.~. 4. i\(ter mI' anicle had appearcd. I also belie. (0. '('he latn:r l\\.'enal11un's advent in B"blos is less slraightforward. \\'cllan)LLIl slatee! II.\mun-Re. "IIJIlLi...836.1. Peer.. f~. I:.865. T.'). . '" 1. Second.. th~ preposition .L~' this p:lrLicu~r. . 2..ll. . . . his datelines would be glari~ exe~ptions 10 this rulc.2:1.)(1).. date of thc report l11usl corrcspond to 17 April 1065 13<: in the Cregorian calendar"". 111.· (m) W!lIl1-mSWI. with regard 10 the three other oceurrcnces of lhis spclling (2. Ihid.(!C(_IlI). I.lrbl". is usually read 5 :hd hI''''.'enamun" in order to find out how they relate tO~" l!crihor and Sm~nd~s and what historical relevance th~y mal' ha. 102...-" 1'1 Ille."""..::' t1m:llllH. (.::nts rdaLe Lo tin.5. thi. suppused to h'\\'e excrciscd his functions during rhc iirst vears of the IV/I/7I-lIlswt.!: :'. .\mulI. "c1et.. .1.i' p. I I) !·..: chronolugy (If .tliul . The dating of "\X'enamun" w the reign: of Ramses XI has alwavs been based on the supposition that Herihor's pontiticate and that 0['. 5li. F~bcn'. «).\'1I. ItJ20). 1.~). First. :/. I'resumably. of the said nWI1lh. the absencc of the term WiJ11I-11IsWt in a dateline doc:. though.lmun" is simp. W( come much nearer to the truth hI' claiming the opposite: the dales do not belong to the Wlrm-mSWI. "I~.olb.:p"l­ £:oJnt'l1t11 da:'~ .:riltor"·'·.'''TI')' r. Ibid. ( h:f<lnl. 3.\ 70. t(HI \'I.~. .4. I (( ~.:lll:ral dbcw.\1'.ollcClion of rulls in the ttl"chiVl':S?''). In it.r ' \ r~. '·S.lJrt(. a writ­ ing uf IIrH·.lIl.828. W.!' true for the two other dates associated with Herihor. the cider of the portal of the t~mplc.!~i"".:onsn.·."u cn. natural ~c. 61. 1. cf. I.l' 9.6. Ihltl.'\S 5H (191... I'..·e.t"i:" . ""d Y-IU. (crill'.\\ (.:"1":. TIJis reading should be rejected for two rca sons.gIJer". are dead wrong'''. \\'l'n~nlllll':' :.). month x. 51)~-(.c-ship ill ria. 11..e1f.clH ill Ihe Cop­ tic c'lui"aJeI1l ellOT N2. 3 ~().· I~~lt:d th~lt llauolI"list fe~lillgs illtn the god . ud i 11 '.'H)l1strated by the time ~r:a'" of figure I. .'"1<'" '~'-' / .~dI124.105.1'$.nlll 6 of the WIIIII-IIISWI.'.II-I (_q)..I1'.. b~lscd on tables B and. This new·. C:luOJ1ologic tlc:. rI.: two lands"""..c I"unl. 51>.. or by bfi !lshl x.Goclcl.he ""Iller. IfI lerihor i. it mal' be surmiscd thal the adjullu "about" sl~rhl:fr~cha(l.und Pric­ "':H-IJI. but \\:(luki be cxceptiuntd in Lhis fUIlction in "\X'ena[Tllll1~l.~ .phtlraoniscb<::n Agyplcll.. 1>:1\' is the shoncncu form of the cumpllund prepmition /II-Ii:. I su!.S.(I1IW.II'i \.blishcd the I'ear befure.II". Petr.. 5picl!.61. .'car counung fWlll the accession uf R~I11Ses Xl)". 'S. l'RIII. Thio. \\"". "1\1 VI. 1-2): "Year 5. for lhcre arc tluite a few examples to the eOl1trary. not neces­ sari" Illcan Iltal il cannot belong to this er. 126 C' Auuvt: the Ct:lltre of linc.. IYS7). fuurth month of .:1: .Ct Iliemlic ()~trac". ~reating a nc\\ Id~olog: thaL pressed in th~ parado.'S' .. "'hich is srill prC'.:" t'k Dcir d i\t(·dillt.ekcrb'lal's 111<. the::: oniy CXCL'ptioll.:(\' 1·13. namely the hieratic texts written on the~. Peel. 76-7 (hI).:" rec(JIl~Lructi(JI1 o( the l'daLi\'(. for it lacks the shibboleth W!7111-IIWI't.gyptl:U\ D~'Ilt\St}'J. (.Llohut.JIl littrnlin.ondoll. 42. 1.JL.eb'l\lI)11 dl1r·jn.':s of "arious interpretations. (Ill.:~ ll'1l1llllliltjOtl __ o \ I gll~~~~"-~I~J~.~ar: \\'cn'"llull still left IllY Juc~ nut r~ally affcl. 1'1. /\fter what has been said abtl\'e. The date. t\ cursory examination of the texts written durin~ the W!lIl/-ms".lld "S.Iallsel1-\\·il1kell1. . 4.... 7.\. wlt. all the cvcnts indicated in the tjl11e scale are datcd direciJl' or iLldireC1i1' in the t~\t it.:(. The datin!! of \X·.)'7). I:\1\J J tl31:D (h:ttJ \ i... the spelling fLI~~0! is sont<. Late R'"lles<IIc' L\. 1(. 7).sictl ml11e of tht: Tanjt~ king Amencmnisu: Amlin tS ktng'" ---­ ~ ?~~-.] sWllds the nUll1c::r:tl 13. 1. 5. 195-9 of lhi:l book. wbereag it' i:-­ l.-q L~: I·I. IS lllle a separatC' documl:nt. On :he a"umption that the Twcnty-Ilrst Dynasty started in 1U70/W He:."n th~t . 2). .\l). Thl' )\layer Pappi i\ & B (I. II 1 (dc). 6. .S67.t\5 ! IY (IYY2)...'h.W1l111l11~' tor the FIlsilion of the incidents related in the )'eXl "'ithin thc nalural r... a phenomenon vinually unknown ill classi~al antilluit. and the l11igraton' birds still passed Byb!os in March on th"ir "'m' 1. Egberts. and ani"ed therc ahout four l1lonths later. Ihid. It is lherefore a serious misrepresentation of the facts to maintain tll1l these dales fcll "ecrtainil' in thc Renaissance".: . '''''lOlc 1110nth" always exhibits [hc indirect genitive (ihd /I 111'11/"'.. 2. Fi~urc 1 shows that \Venamun's arri\Cills at Tanis 'Ind Ihhlos 1110re or less ClliLlCided with thc cpagolll enal thys and !'\ew Year's Dal'..IJ':/\ 77 (IYYI). Il5(I9<J3) Is >llcClnctl: ~. c months had elapsed since h.et u> now scrutinise the dat~s ~ontained in "\.-1': .hich fUlIctiollS here as an advcrb. Their incipit is remarkably similar to that of "\lC:enanlun": "ycJ: 6.

Regn.' lifth I'cat of the Twentl'-fir't !JI·nasty. .u.'dkss !r' say.'n.Vtian literature. The next d~y.lincd b~..125 (\99gj-l 1.ukl n(:I· be C')I.nanlun".' halT hlen t'cst.h. The plot of "\\ienamun" prescribe' that thc wanderinh'S of its protagonist lasted for more than two ycars.>.' 1l1eanS of such strucluraJisl g~·nlnasLic. his . I" the II)"purhetical triptych uutlilled abuI'e.. . abollt onc ". for in that ca~c W(.1.lus wuuld CUITr the first momh of ill!. \Vcnarnutl WtlS PUI' on .~l. with \\'hieb 'i\\"L'n~llnlln" upens. anil·a] at Tanis I smw 1: depatture epagol11enal days.. As far as this aspect of the text "concerned.:aoouts.. It "·c takc a duratron of one ye.mce of the chrono!ogl· of "\Venamun". In our search for realitl'.-ear a5 well. .1 it iIi lL. ---.dl .ll ~pdJ.d Y:::ars ilod Ci. anivaJ at Byblos first night followed by fJrst dialogue J prt: return messenger second dialogue followcd hy second night cl>agoillenal days.gbL11~:: \\Ul.~_I..t had becn !ling in thc Leban(ln were transported to the sh(lrc.61-2.T EgypL 'CU[)SelJuently. lkr"u'll \\·cn~l11un's aniva! at Tanis and that at Byhlos lies a period or one lear. would ha\7C yel anolher UIlC year rcriod in betwcen two arri\'ab I eann"t I'rovc this.'IY.' cull rl [)inT. ..to '1"1' kno.fused wnh the change of the admlt1rstra"I·c l-ear. B a inc s 1. Thc first cncountcr bet\\Te" \\!enamUll allLl "l. aftcr the example set bl' various other heroes or E!!. .pismk hayc disappeared logL'lher with the elld of the oilly manusclipt I" "'hieh "\\"CH.J.>. h~l\'I' !l):lT1. of the (\l'rus .' shore C~·pri. since the possible indirect elues for dating thc beginnil1). JI ~'\ HI (19~5).11th bcforc \\!cnamun's ach-ent in CI·pruS. 74. whicb S\VanllS with J'il1n­ ~!'J(f.::·. arrival at Cyprus ben1 cH.uld fall on Ne. was preecded h.l ship Ih:H driflt:d II) I hI.i(hlm. . the UdAus cpisl'de u.:t~!r(.:~r.-i1 C.:­ lief in the historical rdc\.. It is ITIT tempting to supl'"se that hc was stranded lln this island during the cpag()lllel1al. Egberts.. nu(._in which thc transition from olle l-ear to the next is effected.$. Fur chat reason.'lli~fic chi!raetl"r nf fhj~ qnry. as J<mg as wc avoid overdoing jr.llendar in Achat.!':('d In ITflll'll If: hi . II".. it is bl· no means impossil... IIJ thal case the ':. was f"lluwed hI' a night thar Illa.H for the Byblos epi:.!.. Cf. .' or or "rI. 1:14. hllwelTr.I-s...~.\ecording tt.'Il...>1 7.'~". 65.Jy of "\\!"cnan1un" detr~ct:s from the r(. " ':"1 there .~.t.ekerba:1J's messenger frum Fgypt in thc first munth uf Thcre is surc. l.cfi\"C nHJllths" in on_iLl" to accoullt for the cpagolllcnal da~-s. ltcll appruaching (I text like "\X'"c.. timc and space are interlocked. (. alld lhe rCturll . r\.ideJ to .(.\mun (I..:" Illl) ..8~'(I)"'. 2-6. Inn ('"I1:I1HT"': rts P"!"tlu<!. wc callnot go lrcronrlthar point.:-\) j. Since we do not "hen Raalses Xl dicd. Contrary .JI"titulc' tl1. we also ignore the accession dai· of his successors in Upper and i~pWI.." something to be g. 1H_4())rt'. wlllch was dcrernllned hI· rhe ~C(C. lhi. \\'(.. cpisode itself cxhibits a similar symmetn'.5-9. "f . III this wal·.nnlill .UllUI1" h3s been transmitted.!.1.:ntiOIKJ in 11.:.11lLl: i i(1 IV Smw 16: departure cpagomenal days..\ (2..ls.\ iJ:. . the cpagol11enai days and l'e.:{ !llim· daIs of \\·cnamun's SWI in Bd.· Year's I)"" are rhe liminal period of rhe Fg~'p!ian cakwl.\iii~"lh..lJ11111l I1W1' tlllidh. fvr \\-Lil'U1H.. Thcir secund meeting.1' : ~h. j ~ndc !£l~tcd nne . J han:: forsaken 111y u<. there is no way of Idling at what 111()!llCTl" '\car .. .1rri\'al al (~yhl(ts OIl ~C\\' YC.. s<> thaL his arri­ tot. D l: P II ~"d ~. tllt.111i. .. I am now co(wertcd to finionalism. the pal~cr by j. 151--73. thL.?J' . ~n el·ellt dated to rhe third n)(ll1lh JI11\-1'! II.n. tion. I.(bh Sinuhc'" TIll' chroJ1o!pt-.e­ kerbaal. 1!1:1t dE' (::\T~rl!:' q .n day of the king.ode to he a likel< extrapolati"11 (ro!11 thc idl'l1ljcal length of the Tanis episode. without loosing our W31' in the wilderness of riction.-1".Il. at least during the New Kingdom and its aft·cnllath"".'llltniJ Lgypl.lr's 1). though.'.L(\'s or rht. 1 abtJ\"t. t.. .>le and C"UI plausible [0 surmrsc on the basis of "\\'cnamun" that Hcrihor SCllt an cxpcdition to Byhlos III th.ft<:>r rh8. Ib\ 77 . C'c. FigLlre 1 I. his[ory has no Struclurc and 1l1akes nu s<. "ne m"nth after the f"rmer's arrival at Bybl"s. Of course.llie in uthcr \vay:.5 : \\ ~ n. Anuther symmctn· that c~n be glean cd from fi!!lIre I in\'olvcs \'\:enamun's d(.ist !hc C:il.! for meaning bl' linking the advent of a tlCW year with the arrival at a ncw dc..partllr~ f{{)nl Eg~1)r in the fir~t rnonth of Jmw.:) ' .. This transiti"n . homeland.· Year's Dal'. report. the second dialogue between \'ienamun and Zekerbaal t(l(lk place ahn the trces d". becanlc ''year 6" and the latter in ilS rurn bccan1c "year T'. in strikln~ contraSt" to literature.· " night dllring which" Phuenici"n adolescent was cntranced by ..1l it :0 hard tu n.". ..:n~l'.

' mun".S 11)1 11992J.. du Dalkt:n <kr Erde.calloll is ""ttad a past une (H'Il) and illdicates the Pl'C\CIOliS holder of this rallk'. JU3 II: m~~/.\<.\\' i It k d II \ n:u.:di:Ht: Pcrion. The lalrer was dead hut not forgonen at the time in which W'enamun's travels arc situated" Snlcndc~' accessioll l1l:ly ha\"c been the conscllucncc or cause of his 111arriage to Tcntamull. In various ways.).I'. Herihor's reign i~.\lflLill inlo the infallible king the 1. "\\'enamun" showed its audience a way of coping with the bnrsh rc. () Hearn.c illL' I\Ja~IL'1·1~ Cl. Dil' l..: /... TIlL: Litcratun:: of Ancient EgYPl.'stand Ihe text ill order to "a'T a b.!h~l1l:r".\Iso confinJls Ihe his­ toricity of the construction of a ncw bark for Amun at the behest of this high priest. lkr bcrcdtt: tbucr: dic /:.' the other evidence relating to I-Ierihor. «Tile Re.ll15 et COIHl'''' c~ypricn~.UI his rich one". this literary work rdlcets the lhision of I ~g''Pt that collstitutes the distinguishing mark of the Twenty-first I)vnasty. () 1:.. lim­ itcd indeed. I <)1:)... Studies in HUrHlr of \.: . The rel<lrill!! nf a sill.1".:l1.t. Alan H.~·ti!c 1'la.'illiam Kcll~' Si 111 PS(I n. RnlTI.scc.llitjcs.·S i\!lill~1 .dr" § 201. .. \.efl'lnrc.:cnl1ng ftom l'\..1!:c.I.I. the predicate "literan'" i. richest of the rich. juxtaposirion is.! .ilt. beam of earth. 192. t~prc~si\"t' of the . 1957. Ihlken.Egypt int.cillLJI Grolkn hflbl. . "Grufkr Ju· (. l<.'ll! Du Slcuerrudcr des Himmcl~. Silll.·henn:\lir:.~ lustlce.1) II." The rclati'T liliallf. .)' Ir nwdl·1/ Tht' innKation is obviou:-ly COll1posed of two pairs cof Statenlents..l_~~~ -.:~ on anciclI! Fh'ypti.:ight! () Steering oar.{). pnll'ides .itchen. ?nd i:.ed .'i <. IZgyplian Gffll11mar'.cm. "do' f(~r th_e construcrion. generallv assumed'. the future. an eVent that occasioned the composition of "\Venamun"..[ . the om: the Justice of IllS justice always eXists IS sUlllJar. . ho> "h"" h"" . t1Jal c~ccrtcJ 1)~ tile Slur~ of SillUlic.lnt which o. CJBO. CillCIl (. except rhm Il IS to u(' • d 111111 e-'\pr~sl'ing: permanence.. 24lJ-5U. gkiH': nicht \'001 Kurs.I. Y l'rr H.. but has ditkrrillg "'ptl'lS..i \.'st uf th<: g-tl'at. Despite my depreciation of t'1e historical . f1dlniLIl II "UI11l(. ul1d se.:. i~·hO"t .ide(l!'.lillk i" the 1'~f.g. ill: \\'.Jt~' pn':\"i1i!in~ in that pt'nlll!. JI .5-37. .o a minor actor un the international Stage.ro[j.l-.-(11): H.i ' cr:1tllr del" . Jrift not. which . 25. 34.l"olk11 Sic MM. To render [111'£1 as "'rich d 11.!rJ<'ltrUll 1'~·.. 'nlC Illghly ~trucwrcd chft)nolog~' uf tilL: rr.. " "".:nJplt: uf Khollsu 1. the south coincided with that of Smendes in thc north.1 In "m.:hiclllL' del' all iig.. historians.: "Greatest of lhe great.\':W 11 II/WI' J1I IIty 11'11 liT 11 lrnrf Lnrd ur r: !111'd 11 llVt.~ ~te~~u·utlu.."115(1998L~' ·":' ~~:~_~.. RL:idH. xiv. T!:i~. 'J'(. Sl:nklol"schnLlr.'d in "The Report uf\'\\nalTlull" arc shown lO he sittl~l\_:d in tllt: c::arly YCilrs of the Twcmy-fir!'f Uynasly.. \': "I)u (.:lIt n:daling of llerihvr (I}~. .". the swry rells us that". rich<.(.ll B I. rhat Gill be further clarified.\lcBsdlllUf.. 1<)31.hwlkllL:r (I').ical as the l'omparati"e "greater than his great ones.re.ircr:uun.~vtia:1 1101"1011 of a supcrlativ-c'. Third Inu. :d· t·nurse. ~1. this rnakes the pusscs~i\-e "c!<':sscn (.U. _---_ .l.. do nol. '.I. 1.' r.riiBler del' GruBen.:dlcl'l. Tr:l~balkcn del' I':r<lc. The fccellt discussion of the Second Pelition I". j\lodern Egyptologists too an: Inllch in~­ debtcd to the anOI1\'mous author of "\Venamun": by writing literature he has permitlcd us to rcad the historY of his time and to imagine its hardships and it~ hupes.. Illy U'/I1J. which included the collapse of the traditional monarchv and irs outdated dLLi. rich<"-5t of lhe rich..:r th.111 ~ t: 11.catl. l11ache kcinc ~\L)\n:ichun!-!en!" ! Cf. each contrasting the ~ratus 'IU'.. dC!'SCll (jrllik. Ilot IIlllssari'" that of present-dar literature.ry!" GF.tJlt 1(P) _----------------~--­ wh".' (. Thi. CCllrgcs PO:-L' 11(: r. . however.. plumb­ .:at ow::. () Pillmhlinf.\. ScnkhHschnur. in rhcotber.1973."'".IT' /.~ Ikrihor's expedition or the d'Jration of hiS pOl1lil.:Il. _-_I.h. plumb-line thm carries the \veighr! Rudder.:pol"l ot \\ enamun'" ClIII:"1 illllL'S a maior hi!'torical SOlIl:Cl:. J r.l. l:illell (wirklich) GroBen lind dessen Rd­ rhc linen lwi •.hlhcilll (i\II..PC~~.furnlJlIg . de) nnt ~\\·ing :.. Ih. piece of Iiter. .lllllppurtuniry to focus on 'ume of the del ail. The illllTntlll""'ojitic<J1 situation t1111St have nlade . thi. cd.\:\ \' I.­ Smendes resided in Tanis.: \\en<1Il1Ull -----.iigc cillL'r (.::nn(. lhL'S lUll di:-leh:ard the lr.-klich) Hcichcll habl. \\'t:nt"l:. Dll 1\ldhchnur . truly greall:r than hi\<i great onl:S. 16Y-i84.:inc ~lIchen cin('ll Rcichcn! SrcuerruJcr des I Limfi1c!s. Moreover. dcsscll Grufx. f:tlll: nidn.!. h:OI1HllL'IlIM /:u dL:ll "JagL'11 ttL:!' BauL:m. plulllb-I.11li\'crsc the <lUl-il"t I! [:.rul1dl.1 11 .l1l:d:niflll c.". beam of <. tilt llot.\'plisd1Cll I . Miriam I.:·~" ~11.rrie5 the \\'c.ruD<.:porL confirm!' it~ Ii(ti\"(~ character.~.hi'eh i.\\.n the Second Petil'ion as: imy-I· fJr-HT Ilb.1S Ph::WH.\I.! SteUCrIll­ dtr.I. die das Gewicht lragt. Ilen>i is ~ddres. \ (i.\2.)r. 6... (Jardiner.'(hl' n [zl1'dlrJ b :yft H:l!nw H'rw 111 shl/ 5tH' m gsJ [11. . lU:) . § 97.tn literature: '\dnlf hnl. ueam.":'. ]3:\ LLlw.Ild r / ~II m:r-t.irl'nuur..llll11Cntal'l' lJr Friedrich Vogelsan)..w..g.". 22--Y:) ill<. 1949.-. indlldcJ in uod. 1<)9(1.:. From other e"idence (Manetho) we know that the Twenty-first~ Dynasty of Tanis was founded b. as) [()r ill~talh':c..:arrh.lK -(151.Sil1lp!'ol1.hi"l "..".! ~u.' Smendes.:. It follows from the preceding considerations that the career of Smel1lles' contemporan' J-krihor extended to the first years of the Twenty-first Dynast\'.:icllC:ll. Cerhard I. Nevertheless. llC. )972. .:[.15IS for possible loftier considerations.\:'\.. as i. do not cli\'crgc.\ncicnL Eg\·ptianl.:r J(:r Rr. This' conclusion is supported lJ. i\cconJing to "\\'-cnamun".lc.lllrl:. elu Reichstcr Jcr Reichen..iIll:.hi. the text might for some lack the appeal of mhcr ancient Egypliau \u"itil1gs. not parallel.ha\·e one gn:atcr. Iking w"ted in an attitude to belles." I1ISII'I.'alue to b~ attributed to the chtunu\'Jgl' of "\'Veaa:'. I.. the:' presumed widow of Ramses XI.c(or<:.Gardin(. Tragbalkcll. 227 -26<> (tTl :). :.ditics of their age.31-49..arl J.'A~j1g not .JrUlll.l.l!lIl~lr 10 a l1lull .. (. This would se~11l all the more reason t<> tn' to unc1c. k [ Comments Concerning the "Story of the Eloquent Peasant" ot' 'fhc nllinber of t~xts pr~servecl fWI1l allcient Lg'pt dcsen'in.1ill in religion wllat they h~d lost in p<. n:rwirrt: dich nicht" F: uo gl't::lH.\ E.!. In the first it is the past.HurL eonulins <Iuite a bit of information abour contemporatT EgYPtian~ polirics that should not he despised I".. 'J1Je '~t'.lansen-\\'inkeI l I.~sc..vr 11 1111111' II pl.! '. ec h t . There is no indication whatsoeyer in "\\'enamun" anI' other source that Smendes had ousted Ramses Xl as ruler of Lower Egypt during the Whm.~~) 1)liatb LouId l'c~. or'. whose lich Ol1eS hm·c one richerl Steering oaf of heaven.- -.As II~.l'...\ 157-175: (jtlstan~ I. alll! there is no rea SOIl to supposc that the picture uf departed glory prcseilted in "W'enanllln" is' inaccurate. (referenced as V)' tbe text has rccci"ed rdlli\'Ch lillie pellctrating research'.. AI the same time.: tor the Lord-of-IUStlCC..rlJ('f of hca\'cn. slurzc nicht! .."Cl115 narral<. II" ""..l~Il~. inbtll" as illu).lettres ".. neige dic!l !licbt..Il'. ..'gYr1tr..

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