Global Glacier Changes: facts and figures

Contents

Foreword by UNEP Foreword by WGMS Summary 1 Introduction 2 Glaciers and climate 3 Global distribution of glaciers and ice caps 4 Glacier fluctuation series 5 Global glacier changes 6 Regional glacier changes
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 New Guinea Africa New Zealand Scandinavia Central Europe South America Northern Asia Antarctica Central Asia North America Arctic Islands

7 8 9 10 12 14 18 24 31
34 35 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52

7 Conclusions References Appendix 1 - National Correspondents of the WGMS Appendix 2 - Meta-data on available fluctuation data

54 56 64 66

6

Global glacier changes: facts and figures

Foreword

7

Foreword by UNEP Executive Director
Climate change is now clearly at the top of the world’s agenda. This momentum was generated in large part by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which made clear that climate change is already happening and accelerating. As a result of the remarkable efforts of last year, the international community is armed with a powerful combination of authoritative and compelling science, a far-reaching and rising tide of public concern, and powerful declarations of political will voiced at the Bali Climate Change Conference held in December 2007. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2007/2008 Human Development Report highlighted the devastating effects climate change is already having on the poorest and most vulnerable, making the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals more challenging. UNEP’s flagship Global Environment Outlook report (GEO-4), published in October 2007, concludes that: “Tackling climate change globally will demand political will and leadership, and strong stakeholder engagement. Adaptation to the changes expected is now a global priority. Improved monitoring is needed, and it is urgent to enhance our scientific understanding of the potential tipping points beyond which reversibility is not assured.” Glaciers are a critical component of the earth’ system and the current accelerated melting and retreat of glaciers have severe impacts on the environment and human well-being, including vegetation patterns, economic livelihoods, natural disasters, and the water and energy supply. Monitoring glacier changes and providing scientifically-sound, consistent and illustrative facts and figures on glaciers are therefore critical functions in today’s world. Glaciers and ice caps are now also one of the Essential Climate Variables, a set of core variables in support of the work of organizations such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the IPCC. Under the auspices of the International Council for Science (FAGS/ICSU), the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IACS/IUGG), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), and the UNEP, the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) collects and compiles the basic glacier data from all parts of the world and provides information on the state and trends of glaciers in almost all mountain regions. The current publication follows the Global Outlook for Ice and Snow that was published by UNEP at the occasion of World Environment Day 2007 and complements regular reports by WGMS on Fluctuations of Glaciers and Glacier Mass Balances. It presents basic information on a range of glaciers and ice caps throughout the world in a concise and illustrative format, serving as a miniature atlas on global glacier changes for a wide range of audiences. UNEP commends the work of WGMS and partners on this very important global issue and is grateful to all those who contributed to this current comprehensive and illustrative publication on the dramatic changes affecting so many glaciers in so many parts of the world.

Excerpt from the introductory discourse of “Les Variations périodiques des Glaciers” by Forel (1895).

Achim Steiner
United Nations Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme

8

Global glacier changes: facts and figures

Summary

9

Foreword by WGMS Director
In 2006, a new record annual mass loss was measured on the reference glaciers under observation, whose mass balance has been recorded since the late 1940s as part of internationally coordinated glacier observation programmes. The average annual melting rate of mountain glaciers appears to have doubled after the turn of the millennium in comparison with the already accelerated melting rates observed in the two decades before. The previous record loss in the year 1998 has already been exceeded three times, i.e., in the years 2003, 2004 and 2006, with the losses in 2004 and 2006 being almost twice as high as the previous 1998 record loss. Glaciers and ice caps are indeed key indicators and unique demonstration objects of ongoing climate change. Their shrinkage and, in many cases, even complete disappearance leaves no doubt about the fact that the climate is changing at a global scale and at a fast if not accelerating rate. Anyone can see the changes in glacier extent and understand the basic physical principle of snow and ice melting as temperatures continue to rise: as the glaciers and ice caps on earth grow smaller, the energy content in the climate system and in the environment on which we depend becomes greater. The task of scientific glacier monitoring networks is to coordinate the worldwide collection of standardised data in order to quantify the rate of change, to compare its magnitude with the range of variability during the pre-industrial times of the Holocene period, to validate projections of possible future climate change based on general circulation and regional climate models, and to anticipate and assess impacts on the environment, the economy and on society. By looking at glaciers or what is left of them, future generations will be able to discern clearly which climate scenario is being played out at the present time. The consequences of snow and ice disappearance for landscape characteristics and natural hazards in high mountain areas will be felt at local to regional scales, while the changes in the water cycle will also affect continental-scale water supply and globalscale sea levels. The degree of glacier vanishing indeed reflects the increasing distance from dynamic equilibrium conditions of the climate system. Glaciers and ice caps constitute Essential Climate Variables (ECV) within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and its terrestrial component, the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), as related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The corresponding Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) is run by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, in cooperation with the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at Boulder, Colorado, and the Global Land Ice Measurement from Space (GLIMS) initiative. The collected data form the basis for international assessments such as IPCC, or UNEP’s recent Global Outlook for Ice and Snow. They are frequently analysed and discussed at scientific conferences and in related publications. It is the task and responsibility of the WGMS to collect and disseminate standardised data on glacier changes worldwide. The standards are documented in the periodical WGMS publications (Fluctuations of Glaciers at 5-yearly intervals and the biennial Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin) as well as by the corresponding forms and requests for data submission through the national correspondents and principal investigators. The present publication aims at providing a commented and illustrated overview of the distribution and development of glaciers and ice caps based on the currently available database and selected satellite imagery. It was compiled in collaboration with the WGMS network of national correspondents and principal investigators and reviewed by regional glacier experts. Our sincere thanks go to all the colleagues and friends who generously provided materials, ideas and expertise. It is with their help and with the support of the sponsoring agencies at national and international levels that the glacier community has been able to build up, for more than a century now, a unique treasury of information on the fluctuations in space and time of glaciers and ice caps on earth.

Summary
Changes in glaciers and ice caps provide some of the clearest evidence of climate change, and as such they constitute key variables for early detection strategies in global climate-related observations. These changes have impacts on global sea level fluctuations, the regional to local natural hazard situation, as well as on societies dependent on glacier meltwater. Internationally coordinated collection and publication of standardised information about ongoing glacier changes was initiated back in 1894. The compiled data sets on the global distribution and changes in glaciers and ice caps provide the backbone of the numerous scientific publications on the latest findings about surface ice on land. Since the very beginning, the compiled data has been published by the World Glacier Monitoring Service and its predecessor organisations. However, the corresponding data tables, formats and meta-data are mainly of use to specialists. It is in order to fill the gaps in access to glacier data and related background information that this publication aims to provide an illustrated global view of the available data sets related to glaciers and ice caps, their distribution around the globe, and the changes that have occurred since the maximum extents of the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA). International glacier monitoring has produced a range of unprecedented data compilations including some 36 000 length change observations and roughly 3 400 mass balance measurements for approximately 1 800 and 230 glaciers, respectively. The observation series are drawn from around the globe; however, there is a strong bias towards the Northern Hemisphere and Europe. A first attempt to compile a world glacier inventory was made in the 1970s based mainly on aerial photographs and maps. It has resulted to date in a detailed inventory of more than 100 000 glaciers covering an area of about 240 000 km2 and in preliminary estimates, for the remaining ice cover of some 445 000 km2 for the second half of the 20th century. This inventory task continues through the present day, based mainly on satellite images. The moraines formed towards the end of the Little Ice Age, between the 17th and the second half of the 19th century, are prominent features of the landscape, and mark Holocene glacier maximum extents in many mountain ranges around the globe. From these positions, glaciers worldwide have been shrinking significantly, with strong glacier retreats in the 1940s, stable or growing conditions around the 1920s and 1970s, and again increasing rates of ice loss since the mid 1980s. However, on a time scale of decades, glaciers in various mountain ranges have shown intermittent re-advances. When looking at individual fluctuation series, one finds a high rate of variability and sometimes widely contrasting behaviour of neighbouring ice bodies. In the current scenarios of climate change, the ongoing trend of worldwide and rapid, if not accelerating, glacier shrinkage on the century time scale is most likely of a non-periodic nature, and may lead to the deglaciation of large parts of many mountain ranges in the coming decades. Such rapid environmental changes require that the international glacier monitoring efforts make use of the swiftly developing new technologies, such as remote sensing and geo-informatics, and relate them to the more traditional field observations, in order to better face the challenges of the 21st century.

Fig. 0.1a Morteratsch Glacier, 1985

Fig. 0.1b Morteratsch Glacier, 2007 Fig. 0.1a—b Recession of Morteratsch Glacier, Switzerland, between 1985 and 2007. Source: J. Alean, SwissEduc (www.swisseduc.ch) / Glaciers online (www.glaciers-online.net).

Wilfried Haeberli
Director, World Glacier Monitoring Service

These data derived from field measurements and remote sensing provide a fundamental basis for the scientific studies which constitute the present state of knowledge on glacier changes in time and space. with updates on the present state in the biennial GTOS reports (GTOS 2006. consists of snow. and thick enough to cover the underlying bedrock topography. ICSU) and maintains a network of local investigators and national correspondents in all the countries involved in glacier monitoring. usually covering the underlying topography. whereas during the ice ages.icsu-fags. Today. and earlier volumes). (2000) and Haeberli (2004). Source: Fig. derived from the Greek word kryo for cold.fao.ch/pages/prog/gcos/ Global Terrestrial Observing System: www. Glacier: a mass of surface-ice on land which flows downhill under gravity and is constrained by internal stress and friction at the base and sides. IPCC (2007) and UNEP (2007). Because they are close to the melting point they react strongly to climate change.1). which is one of the World Data Centers for Glaciology. GTN-G aims to combine (a) field observations with remotely sensed data. Ice shelf: a thick.b. these products present the data in tabular form with related meta-data. nourished by land ice. The raw data and meta-data are compiled. respectively. on Greenland and Antarctica. IUGG) and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services of the International Council for Science (FAGS.glims. and environment in high mountain and polar regions. The GTN-G monitoring strategy is discussed in detail in Haeberli et al. river and lake ice. They represent a unique source of freshwater for agricultural. When referring to perennial surface ice on land. Ice cap: dome-shaped ice mass with radial flow. There are fundamental differences in time-scales and processes involved between the different components of the perennial surface-ice on land.ch Fig.org Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers: www.wgms. a glacier is formed and maintained by accumulation of snow at high altitudes. Glaciers are an inherent component of the culture. and glaciers and ice caps on the other.2). landscape. the WGMS is in charge of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) within the Global Climate/Terrestrial Observing System (GCOS/ GTOS). In general. More information on the history of international glacier monitoring is found in Haeberli (2007). the sea level would rise by almost 65 m. b) surface and subsurface ice c) ice in the sea. The aim of this publication is to provide an illustrated global view of (a) the available data basis related to the monitoring of glaciers and ice caps. Benn and Evans 1998). ice shelves and ice sheets. Box 1. during glacial periods there were others. glaciers and ice caps (Box 1. GTOS 2008). and earlier volumes) and on glacier mass balance every other year (WGMS 2007.wmo.cryosphericsciences. mountain glaciers and glacierets. ice caps and continental ice sheets cover some ten per cent of the earth’s land surface at the present time. So far.ch World Meteorological Organization: www. a status report on the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) was published in 1989 (WGMS 1989) whereas detailed information on glacier fluctuations has been compiled every five years (WGMS 2008. To the present day. and (c) traditional measurements with new technologies by using an integrated and multi-level monitoring strategy. (b) process understanding with global coverage. scientific articles report on the methods and main results of glacier investigations.org United Nations Educational.fao. and thereby provide some of the clearest evidence of climate change and are essential variables within global climate-related monitoring programmes (GCOS 2004). In cooperation with the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. There are only two continental ice sheets in the modern world.1 Perennial surface ice on land Ice sheet: a mass of land ice of continental size. Good overviews on the state of knowledge concerning all cryospheric components can be found in IGOS (2007). in lakes and on land. and frozen ground (Fig. The term ‘glacier’ is used in this context as a synonym for different types of surface land ice masses including outlet glaciers. The focus of the present publication is on glaciers and ice caps. rivers. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring was initiated already as early as 1894 (Box 1. sea ice.wmo. the active international compilation and publication of standardised glacier data has resulted in unprecedented data sets on the distribution and changes of glaciers and ice caps. the two continental ice sheets actively influence the global climate over time scales of months to millennia.unesco.unep. an important economic component of tourism and hydro-electric power production. UNEP 2007. and illustrated using the example of the European Alps in Haeberli et al. These are the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). in Box 1. Note that drawing a distinction between ice sheets on one hand. Due to the large volumes and areas. Nearly all ice shelves are located in Antarctica. and all other glaciers and ice caps roughly half a metre to this rise (IPCC 2007). yet they can also constitute a serious natural hazard.org/gtos/gt-netGLA.org/gtos/ International Association of Cryospheric Sciences: www. industrial and domestic use. The different cryospheric components can be categorised in a) seasonal and perennial ice. with the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland contributing about 57 and 7 metres.org World Glacier Monitoring Service: www. they covered about three times this amount (Paterson 1994. published in standardised formats and made readily available in printed and digital form by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) and its cooperation partners. Usually. and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. valley glaciers. The WGMS is a service of the International Association of the Cryospheric Sciences of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IACS. one usually differentiates between ice sheets.1). With the exception of the latter. . with their smaller volumes and areas.html Global Climate Observing System: www. Its shape is mainly determined by the dynamics of its outward flow. WGMS 2005a. The cryosphere. Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services: www. 1. floating slab of freshwater ice extending from the coast. usually comprehensible to specialists. Sources: WGMS 1989. react to climatic forcing at typical time scales from years to centuries. IPCC 2007. (2007).1 Components of the cryosphere and their typical time scales.nsidc. is in accordance with the definition of the Essential Climate Variables as put forth by GCOS (2004). glaciers and ice caps.2 International glacier monitoring Worldwide collection of information about ongoing glacier changes was initiated in 1894 with the foundation of the Commission Internationale des Glaciers at the 6th International Geological Congress in Zurich. Scientific and Cultural Organization: www.10 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Introduction 11 1 Introduction Glaciers. (b) their worldwide distribution. Glaciers and ice caps. 4. If all land ice melted away. 1. balanced by melting at low altitudes or discharge into lakes or the sea.1 of IPCC (2007). and (c) their changes since the maximum extents of the Little Ice Age (LIA). ice shelves.org United Nations Environment Programme: www.org Global Land Ice Measurements from Space: www.org US National Snow and Ice Data Center: www. the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) continues the collection and publication of standardised information on distribution and ongoing changes in glaciers and ice caps. The present ice cover corresponds to about three-quarter of the world’s total freshwater resources (Reinwarth and Stäblein 1972). Switzerland.

which are not influenced by thick debris covers. the western mountains of New Zealand (Fig. New Zealand. the change in thickness/volume) is the direct and un-delayed response to the annual atmospheric conditions (Haeberli and Hoelzle 1995).g. New Zealand. Kuhn et al. 2. Kaser and Osmaston 2002). The ice from such accumulation areas then flows under the influence of its own weight and the local slopes down to lower altitudes. the amount of incoming net radiation or the accumulation pattern. into ice (Paterson 1994). Arctic Canada. cloudiness).. and glaciers periodically undergoing mechanical instability and rapid advance (‘surge’) after extended periods of stagnation and recovery. glaciers ending in deep water bodies causing enhanced melting and calving. Kuhn 1981. calving or surge instabilities. Over time periods of years to several decades. the advance or retreat) is the indirect. As a consequence. This dynamic reaction finally leads to glacier length changes. 2. the advance or retreat of glacier tongues (i. wind.12 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Glaciers and Climate 13 2 Glaciers and climate Glaciers generally form where snow deposited during the cold/humid season does not entirely melt during warm/dry times..ch).. because of the large amount of ablation required to eliminate thick snow layers (Shumskii 1964. Fujita and Ageta 2000). subarctic Russia. is a cold glacier in a continental climate (10 January 2007). 1985). In such regions. . Haeberli and Holzhauser 2003).. influenced by the monsoon. 1999). longer than it takes a glacier to complete its adjustment to a climatic change (Jóhannesson et al. In contrast.e.. Changes in atmospheric conditions (solar radiation. delayed. Source: D. under dry-continental condiFig. the glacier length change (i. exhibit a high mass turnover and react strongly to atmospheric warming by enhanced melt and runoff. Air temperature thereby plays a predominant role as it is related to the radiation balance. the glacier mass balance change provides an integrative climatic signal and the quantitative attribution of the forcing to individual meteorological parameters is not straight forward. i. the glacier sensitivity to a climatic change is much related to the climate regime in which the ice is located. calving or surge instabilities are recognised as being among the best climate indicators as their reaction or change provide a signal that is easily understandable to a wider public. The reaction of a glacier to a climatic change involves a complex chain of processes (Nye 1960. is a temperate valley glacier in a maritime climate descending into rain forest.) influence the mass and energy balance at the glacier surface (see Kuhn 1981. parts of the Andes near the Atacama desert. This seasonal snow gradually densifies and transforms into perennial firn and finally. are a reaction to climatic forcing. Fluctuations of a glacier. Modelling is further needed in combination with measured and reconstructed glacier front variations. Hambrey. Air temperature thereby plays a predominant role as it is related to the long-wave radiation balance. which can result in two adjacent glaciers featuring different specific mass balance responses (Kuhn et al.1) and Norway. the advance or retreat of glacier tongues. delayed and filtered but also enhanced and easily observed signal of climatic change. Haeberli and Burn 2002). Box 2. turbulent heat exchange and solid/liquid precipitation.e.swisseduc. Source: M.. ‘Temperate’ glaciers with firn and ice at melting temperature dominate these landscapes. Oerlemans 2001). also a low mass turnover. for example. 2. Taylor Valley. as well as the glaciers of the western Cordillera of North America. etc. Glaciers form where snow is deposited during the cold/ humid season and does not entirely melt during warm/ dry periods. are strongly influenced by variations in atmospheric moisture content which affects incoming solar radiation. precipitation. tions. with relatively rapid flow. atmospheric longwave emission. They gradually convert a small change in climate. the equilibrium line may be at (relatively) high elevation with cold temperatures and short melting seasons. which in turn affect the flow of ice via altered internal deformation and basal sliding.1). such as in parts of Antarctica (Fig. summer temperature and summer snow falls (temporally reducing the melt due to the increased albedo.1 Glaciers as climate indicator Glacier changes are recognised as high-confident climate indicator and as a valuable element in early detection strategies within the international climate monitoring programmes (GCOS 2004. SwissEduc (www. the ‘horizontal’ length change) constitutes an indirect. As described in the text. where ablation occurs throughout the year and multiple accumulation seasons exist. into a pronounced length change of several hundred metres or even kilometres. Fig.. The described complication involved with the dynamic response disappears if the time interval analysed is sufficiently long.2). the equilibrium line is at (relatively) low altitude with warm temperatures and long melting seasons. In the Himalaya. Glacier distribution is thus primarily a function of mean annual air temperature and annual precipitation sums modified by the terrain which influences.e. air temperature. The mass balance variability of glaciers is well correlated over distances of several hundred kilometres and with air temperature (Lliboutry 1974. northern Alaska. In humid-maritime regions. Cumulative length and mass change can be directly compared over such extended time periods of decades (Hoelzle et al. The mass balance of temperate glaciers in the mid-latitudes is mainly dependent on winter precipitation.1 Franz-Josef Glacier. However. In the background Canada Glacier and frozen Lake Fryxell are shown.e. analytical or numerical modelling is needed to quantify the above mentioned topographic effects as well as to attribute the glacier mass changes to individual meteorological or climate parameters (e. GTOS 2008). 2. Antarctica. where summer warmth and winter snow accumulation prevent development of permafrost. whereas the glacier mass balance (i.. to compare the present mass changes with the (pre-) industrial variability (e. whereas the glacier mass balance (i. and sublimation (Wagnon et al. Greene 2005). 2003). and in many Central Asian mountain chains. strongly diverse mass balance characteristics also exist between glaciers under dry-continental conditions and in maritime regions. Accumulation and ablation areas are separated by the equilibrium line. cloudiness. Stumm. wind. cumulative changes in mass Fig.2 Commonwealth Glacier. University of Otago.g. where the balance between gain and loss of mass is exactly zero. where it melts again (ablation areas). Cold glaciers in high altitude and the polar regions can receive accumulation in any season (Chinn 1985).1°C per decade over a longer time period. 1989. after the interconnecting air passages between the grains are closed off. 2001. 2. 2007 Fig. 2007 balance cause volume and thickness changes. the glaciers in the low-latitudes. filtered but also enhanced signal to a change in climate. The climatic sensitivity of a glacier not only depends on regional climate variability but also on local topographic effects and the distribution of the glacier area with elevation. the ‘vertical’ thickness change) is a more direct and undelayed signal of annual atmospheric conditions (Haeberli 1998). air temperature. In contrast. and are often surrounded by permafrost (Shumskii 1964). Different behaviours are encountered at heavily debris-covered glaciers with reduced melting and strongly limited ‘retreat’. glaciers lying far above the tree line can have polythermal as well as cold firn/ice well below melting temperature. Thereby.1 Franz-Josef Glacier.e. Ohmura 2001). precipitation and albedo. The lower parts of such maritime-temperate glaciers may extend into forested valleys.2 Commonwealth Glacier. The energy and mass balance at the glacier surface is influenced by changes in atmospheric conditions (e. In short. Haeberli and Hoelzle 1995). solar radiation. most of the accumulation and ablation occurs during the summer (Ageta and Fujita 1996. Oerlemans 2001). Meier 1984). Features of this type are the Patagonian Icefields and the ice caps of Iceland. precipitation. Schöner et al. turbulent heat exchange and solid/liquid precipitation ratio (Kuhn 1981. such as a temperature change of 0. Temperate glaciers not influenced by thick debris cover. Glaciers (those not affected by these special conditions) are recognised to be among the best indicators within global climate related monitoring (Box 2. 2000. Such ice bodies. As a consequence. 2.g.

2). 2005). The ASTER sensor includes two spectral bands in the visible range (green and red). an instrument that is required on board of Terra satellite (Box 3. by Dyurgerov and Meier (2005) based mainly on the WGI (WGMS 1989) and additional estimates from the literature. maps. 2004. and independent of monitoring obstacles on the ground such as access problems and financial limitations on institutional levels. On the other hand. At present the database contains information for over 100 000 glaciers throughout the world with an overall area of about 240 000 km2 (NSIDC 2008). They enable the observation of land ice masses over large spatial scales using a globally uniform set of data and methods. and enables the fast compilation of a large number of glacier outlines and their changes over time. length and elevation. it resulted in a detailed inventory of more than 100 000 glaciers covering an area of about 240 000 km2. Up to now. Fig. b) shortwave-infrared. 3. after 1986. 3.2 ASTER satellite images Satellite data are an important resource for global-scale glacier monitoring. and five bands in the thermal infrared. 2002. both based on aerial photographs. orientation. subsequent data corrections and updates of the inventory have been carried out. red and near-infrared bands.and short-wave infrared spectrum. and satellite images (WGMS 1989). glacier topography and glacier thickness changes.org/data/glacier_inventory/index. near. and in preliminary estimates for the remaining ice cover of some 445 000 km2. length. Kargel et al. 3. This corresponds to about half of the total number and roughly one-third of the global ice cover of glaciers and ice caps. 3. area. such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer (ASTER). allows for the photogrammetric computation of glacier topography and its changes over time (Kääb 2005). respectively. near. The detailed inventory includes tabular information about geographic location. A geographic infor- Box 3.html WGI at WGMS: http://www. The data sets thus selected or the entire database can be downloaded via the websites of the NSIDC. a status report on the WGI was published including detailed information on about 67 000 glaciers covering some 180 000 km2 and preliminary estimates for the other glacierised regions. Glacier outlines with the related information can be downloaded from the GLIMS website in several formats used by geographic information system software products.1a Fig.wgms. Today the task of inventorying glaciers worldwide is continued for the most part based on satellite images. Bishop et al. UNESCO 1970). Due to the different data sources. pooled their data sources and made the inventory available online in 1999 via the NSIDC website (Box 3. The database can be queried using a text or mapping search interface. Since then. They allow for automatic mapping of ice and snow areas. near-infrared and short-wave infrared bands. together with the corresponding nadir image. The satellite images in this publication were taken by the US/Japan Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra spacecraft.ch/wgi. as well as classifications of morphological type and moraines. 3. In 1998.1 a—d Glaciers in Bhutan. space-aided glacier monitoring relies on a small number of space agencies.1 and the NSIDC agreed to work together. and glacier flow and its changes over time (Kääb 2005). the GLIMS initiative was launched. In addition to the above-mentioned nadir bands. 3. the WGMS. c) colour composite of the green. Typical glaciological parameters that can be observed from space are glacier areas and their changes over time. the WGMS. In 1989.1b Fig. The most important bands for glaciological applications are the visible. together with tabular information about geographic location. The GLIMS Glacier Database stores some 62 000 digital glacier outlines together with tabular information such as glacier area. several plausibility checks.edu/glacierdata/ Fig. orientation and elevation. snow lines. which are estimated at 160 000 and 685 000 km2.colorado. In 1995. in close collaboration with the NSIDC and the WGMS. the entries of the WGI do not refer to one specific year but can be viewed as a snapshot of the glacier distribution around the 1960s.14 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Global distribution of glaciers and ice caps 15 3 Global distribution of glaciers and ice caps A first attempt to compile a world glacier inventory started in the 1970s based mainly on aerial photographs and maps.1).html GLIMS Glacier Database: http://glims. ASTER has also a back-looking stereo sensor that. or of the GLIMS glacier database. This technique exploits the large difference in ice and snow reflectivity between the visible.1d Online data access to the WGI and GLIMS databases The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) currently has detailed information on over 100 000 glaciers throughout the world. Himalayas (57x42 km): a) green ASTER band. including updates and new data sets from the former Soviet Union and China. to continue the inventorying task with space-borne sensors as a logical extension of the WGI and storing the full complement of the WGMS-defined glacier characteristics (see Kääb et al. These tasks were continued by its successor organisation.1c Fig. The average map year is 1964 with a standard deviation of eleven years. The need for a worldwide inventory of existing perennial ice and snow masses was first considered during the International Hydrological Decade declared by UNESCO for the period of 1965–1974 (Hoelzle and Trindler 1998.2–3. The Temporal Technical Secretariat for the World Glacier Inventory (TTS/WGI) was established in 1975 to prepare guidelines for the compilation of such an inventory and to collect available data sets from different countries (WGMS 1989). elevation and classification of morphological type (a selection of different types is shown in Figures 3. They were acquired within the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative and obtained through the US Geological Survey/NASA EOS data gateway. six bands in the short-wave infrared. one band in the near-infrared. and a time range from 1901 to 1993. the WGMS Box 3. and more in the other chapters) and moraines. The entire database can be searched by entering attributes and geographical location.5. length. and d) colour composite of red. which are related to the geographical coordinates of glacier label points.1 a–d). .and short-wave infrared bands (Fig. GLIMS is designed to monitor the world’s glaciers primarily using data from optical satellite instruments. area. WGI at NSIDC: http://nsidc. Parameters within the inventory include coordinates (latitude and longitude) per glacier. the financial resources and political willingness of which are thus crucial for the maintenance of the monitoring system.

Hence the values indicated in the table (Table 3. Source: I. Source: IPCC (2007). Source: Photo of unknown photographer provided by the archive of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). Source: Dyurgerov and Meier (2005). However. and another five minutes per glacier for the delineation of individual glacier catchments. 3. Switzerland. Austria (July 2002). [e] Assuming an oceanic area of 3.org) and the GlobGlacier project.3 56. fully automated inventorying of individual glaciers is hampered by challenges encountered with topographic shadowing effects.7 Regional overview of the distribution of glaciers and ice caps. The latest assessment report of IPCC (2007) quotes the total area of land ice and corresponding potential sea level rise at 510 000–540 000 km2 and at 150–370 mm. Source: J. 3. debris-covered and calving glaciers.5 Debris-covered tongue of Balfour Glacier. 3.37 ~0 7. e. A high quality inventory of glaciers and ice caps from both aerial photographs and satellite images still needs to be operated by a well-trained glaciologist.3 0.7 12. glaciers and ice caps Cryospheric Component Glaciers and ice caps . has been designed and implemented at the NSIDC in order to host and distribute the information from the WGI and the new GLIMS databases (Raup et al. 3.50 1.Greenland [d] . Canadian Arctic.6 Worldwide distribution of perennial surface ice on land. glaciers and ice caps surrounding Greenland and Antarctica are excluded. Fig. 2007).. is a typical ice cap with several outlet glaciers.net). These estimates – as noted in IPCC (2007) – do not include ice bodies around the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica.g. Table 4.1) of the IPCC report (2007). are 70 000 km2 in Greenland based on Weidick and Morris (1998) and ranges between 70 000 km2 (Weidick and Morris 1998) and 169 000 km2 (Shumsky 1969) for Antarctica.3 Piedmont glaciers estimates of the ice cover of glaciers and ice caps. New Zealand.7 Regional overview of the distribution of glaciers and ice caps Fig. an ice density of 917 kg/m3. respectively (Table 3. [c] Lythe et al. Roer. volume and sea level equivalent of glaciers and ice caps. and seawater replacing grounded ice below sea level.05 0. overlaid by the point layer of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) and the polygons of the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) databases (status June 2008).ipy.Antarctica [c] Notes: [a] Ohmura (2004). ice caps and the two ice sheets from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World (DCW). Norway. . a seawater density of 1 028 kg/m3. Table 3.ch) / Glaciers online (www.2 Gaisbergferner (left) and Rotmoosferner (right). aim at making a major contribution to the current WGMS and GLIMS databases. Source: M. Table 4.swisseduc. glaciers and ice caps surrounding Greenland and Antarctica are excluded. 3.5 Balfour Glacier Fig.62 × 100 mio km2. surrounding the continental ice sheets. University of Zurich. such as the International Polar Year (IPY. Nigardsbreen in the centre of the aerial photography of 1982. 3.1 Ice sheets..13 0.and Rotmoosferner mation system. 3. indicate average operation times of five minutes per glacier for the semi-automatic detection of ice outlines as well as manual correction of errors due to shading and debris cover. Preliminary rough Fig.4 Jostedalsbreen.3 Piedmont glaciers in southern Axel Heiberg Island. Empirical values of completed glacier inventories based on satellite images (e. represent minimum values of the global area of glaciers and ice caps as well as their potential contribution to sea level rise. 2002). Glacier mapping techniques from threshold ratio satellite images have been developed and automated to a high degree (Paul et al.glaciers-online. 2008). Aerial photograph (1977).2 Gaisberg. The map shows the approximate distribution of glaciers. (2001). [d] Bamber et al. including database and web interfaces. clouds and snow separation as well as with the location of ice divides.largest estimate [b] Ice shelves [c] Ice sheets WGI GLIMS DCW Ice volume Potential sea Area (mio km2) (mio km3) level rise (m) [e] 0. Fig.70 2.g. the GLIMS database now contains digital outlines on over 62 000 glaciers (status as of May. Hoelzle. A global overview of the distribution of glaciers and ice caps as well as available datasets is given in Figure 3. 3.1 Area.7 0. These typical valley glaciers were connected during the last ice age (transfluence zone in the centre of the photograph).1 Fig.16 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Global distribution of glaciers and ice caps 17 Fig. Paul and Kääb 2005). Source: IPCC (2007).51 0. a data user element activity within the European Space Agency (Volden 2007).9 24. New Guinea (3) Africa (6) New Zealand (1 160) Scandinavia (2 940) Central Europe (3 785) South America North Asia Antarctica Central Asia North America Arctic 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 300 000 km2 Fig. 3. 3. ice shelves and the two continental ice sheets as given in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Alean. excluding the ice bodies surrounding the ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. University of Zurich.6 .6.4 Jostedalsbreen (ice cap) with outlet glaciers Fig. 3.1). In addition to the point information of the WGI.smallest estimate [a] . At first glance it might be surprising to find that after more than three decades of cryosphere observation from space (see IGOS 2007) there is still no complete detailed inventory of the world’s glaciers and ice caps. Fig.54 1. SwissEduc (www. The values for glaciers and ice caps denote the smallest and largest estimates. Switzerland. neither including the compilation of useful satellite images nor the rectification and restoration of the scenes (see Lillesand and Kiefer 1994). Table 3. (2001).6 Global glacier inventories Fig. [b] Dyurgerov and Meier (2005). 3. New projects. ice shelves.1 Fig. www.15 0.

1) data worldwide were published in French. which later developed into the International Commission on Snow and Ice. 1961). Up to 1961. after the merger of the PSFG with the Temporal Technical Secretariat (TTS)/WGI in 1986. all publications appear in English (Haeberli 1998). Ideally the cumulative annual length change measurements of a glacier are compared with decadal length changes as derived from aerial photographs or satellite images. Brückner and Muret 1908. The first reports contain mainly qualitative observations. 4. Source: S. 1954. Rabot and Mercanton 1913. 4. Hoelzle. Box 4. 2005 and references therein). preliminary values on the specific annual mass balance as well as on the equilibrium line altitude and the accumulation area ratio have been published in the bi-annual Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin (WGMS 1991. Source: M. University of Zurich. Fig.1 Front position measurement (Forel 1895) The distance and direction from fixed positions in the glacier forefield (such as landmarks. by the WGMS (1988. respectively.2 Measurement of glacier mass balance The WGMS collects and publishes mass balance data of glaciers and ice caps from direct glaciological and geodetic methods. 1993a. 1905. and in 2007 into the International Association of Cryospheric Sciences (see Radok 1997.2 Length change measurement at Steinlimmi Glacier. 1994. Østrem and Brugman 1991). Mercanton edited the publications which appeared less frequently (Mercanton 1930. Rabot and Muret 1911. 2008). Division of the total mass change by the glacier area yields the specific glacier mass balance which corresponds to the mean glacier thickness change in m w. i.18 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Glacier fluctuation series 19 4 Glacier fluctuation series The internationally coordinated collection of information on glacier changes has resulted in unprecedented compilations of data including some 36 000 length change observations and roughly 3 400 mass balance measurements for about 1 800 and 230 glaciers. 1985) and. Fig. 1977. cairns and boulders) to the ice front are measured in metres and compared to the values of the previous year(s). together with detailed meta-data in tabular form. 1999. 1993b.e. 4. Hamberg and Mercanton 1914). This requires checking against the independent geodetic methods which derive decadal volume changes from repeated mapping of the glacier topography. were initiated on Storglaciären. Fig. University of Zurich. Richter 1898. and Kaser et al.2 Length change measurement at Steinlimmi Glacier Box 4. 1911. Finsterwalder and Muret 1901. Jones 2008). 1909. 1996. of the measurement period. Sweden (Holmlund and Jansson 2005). 1913. 2005b.) and then interpolated over the entire glacier by a set of methods. Reid and Muret 1904. 1958. Østrem and Brugman (1991). and English. based on an extensive net of ablation stakes. Switzerland. in the Fluctuations of Glaciers series since the very first volume (PSFG 1967). Source: D. The direct glaciological method is based on field measurements of the change in glacier surface elevation between two dates at a network of ablation stakes. Fig. firn or ice to units in metre water equivalent (m w. 1899. The differences in elevation. Since the very beginning of the internationally coordinated glacier monitoring activities in 1894.4 Accumulation measurements in a snow pit . This new type of data has been included. 1900. The observation series are located around the globe. 1902. the data compilations constituting the main source of glacier length change (Box 4. with the exception of the glaciers in the Alps and Scandinavia. (2003). In 1945.1 Sketch explaining the measurement of the glacier front position as published by Forel (1895). Vonder Mühll. gain or loss. Historically the measurements have been carried out using tape and compass. The mass change calculated in this way corresponds to the total meltwater runoff in cubic m w. Switzerland. The measurement and calculation of glacier mass balance contains various sources of systematic and random errors and uncertainties (see Gerbaux et al. first by the Permanent Service on the Fluctuations of Glaciers (PSFG 1967. and can be compared directly between different glaciers. snow pits and snow probing. German. 1906. 4. 4. 1912. 2005a. and over the past years increasingly by means of universal surveying instruments and global positioning systems. 1936. An investigator determines the direction from a marked boulder in the forefield to the glacier terminus. As a consequence of the rising interest in and in order to accelerate the access to the glacier mass balance information. 4. Starting with 1967.3 Drilling of an ablation stake mass balance measurements (Box 4. Switzerland. Italian. The Swiss limnologist François-Alphonse Forel started the periodical publishing of the Rapports sur les variations périodiques des glaciers (Forel 1895) on behalf of the then established Commission Internationale des Glaciers. 4.e. since 1967. 2001.e. 1973.4 Accumulation measurements in a snow pit. Fig. 2003. are multiplied by (measured or estimated) density of snow. which have been well documented by quantitative measurements right from the start (Forel and Du Pasquier 1896. 1934. 1897. After the First World War.e. Switzerland. with a bias towards the Northern Hemisphere and in particular Europe. the data have been published in five-yearly intervals under the Fluctuations of Glaciers series. Kappeler. 1952. Fig. 1948. the collected data on glacier fluctuations has been published in written reports. 4. snow pits and snow probings.1 Measurement of glacier length changes The basic principle behind the measurement of horizontal changes in the position of the glacier terminus is very simple and was already illustrated in the Instruction pour l’observation des variations des glaciers by Forel (1895). 1998. Detailed explanations on how to measure glacier mass balance are found in the manuals of Østrem and Stanley (1969). annual Fig.2) over an entire glacier with the direct glaciological method (cf.3 Drilling of an ablation stake. 1903. Fig. 1910.

whereas the corresponding numbers from Table 4.1 2333.0 0.0 4. Mass balance observations from South America have been available since 1976 with recent data reported from nine glaciers.2 2.. online meta-data browsers on the WGMS website provide updated overviews of the available information.1 6. 2008). and in Scandinavia with 53 years and 30 observations.3 35. The length change data from the Arctic amount also to a mean of over 30 observations per series.1 gives an overview of the number of length change and mass balance series carried out in 11 macro-regions (see Fig.3 1893 1899 2004 71.1 0. North America has the most reported series (45) overall. Global maps of available length change and mass balance data series are given in Figures 4.2 1882 1883 2004 30.4 14 3 5 1962 2005 13. and there are only 30 ‘reference’ glaciers with continuous measurements since 1976. SE) in 1946.1 Global and regional overview of the available length change and mass balance observations Macroregion New Guinea Africa New Zealand Scandinavia Central Europe South America Northern Asia Antarctica Central Asia North America Arctic Worldwide Area 3 6 1160 2940 3785 25500 59600 77000 114800 124000 275500 684294 NoSer NoSer 21th 3 0 14 11 99 70 67 45 764 417 160 49 24 11 48 7 310 16 221 15 93 49 1803 690 FRONT VARIATION First First Last AvTR RY SY SY 1936 1941 1990 46. including a total 36 240 observations.8. However.8 45 4 24 1953 2005 15.1 2.3 11 1 9 1976 2005 8.4 30.1 Global and regional overview of the distribution of glaciers and ice caps as well as of reported length change and mass balance observation series. Fig. there are between two and three glaciers with available length change data per 1 000 km2 of glacierised area. the WGMS welcomes any information on glacier changes that is submitted according to the standards described in the submission guidelines on the WGMS website.6 and 4.0.1 20. and South America (three series per 1 000 km2). All data hosted by the WGMS is available on request in digital form and at no charge. Nowadays.4 1833 1895 2005 55. thickness and volume for publication in the Fluctuations of Glaciers and the Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin series. A temporal overview of the reported fluctuation data is shown in Figure 4.5 0.3 1 0 0 1979 1996 18. 85 per cent are located on the northern hemisphere and 42 per cent in Central Europe. on Rhone (1885). Earliest field observations of glacier length changes started in the late 19th century and often extended with measured distances from the glacier termini to the LIA moraines. Highest observation densities are found in Central Europe with over 200 series per 1 000 km2. The best temporal observation coverage is again found Fig. with 39 glaciers having more than 30 years of measurements. Source: Macroregions and ice cover areas (in sq km) after Dyurgerov and Meier (2005). Kesselwand (AT) and Lemon Creek (US) in 1953. as of one year after the end of the measurement period.2 22.1 0. mass balance programmes were carried out on 36 and 35 glaciers. 118 provide information from the 21st century.3 201. In 1989. Additional information related to mass balance data. Globally.7 MASS BALANCE AvNo SerDens NoSer NoRef NoSer First Last AvNo Ser Obs Ser 21st SY SY Obs Dens 4. The temporal observation density is rather limited in other macro-regions with an average of six or fewer observations per series. Apart from the official calls-for-data.4 1850 1893 2005 21. information on glacier fluctuations from WGMS. either directly from the website or on email request (Box 4. Meta-data file with information about available glacier fluctuation data displayed in Google Earth application. The 24 series from Northern Asia on average comprise 14 measurements.6 11.g. 4. The highest observation density is once more found in Scandinavia and Central Europe with 13 and 11 observation series per 1 000 km2.6 30.3 34 2 20 1960 2005 12. retirement of dedicated investigators and maybe in the belief that remote sensing can replace the field measurements. Plattalva (CH) and Limmern (CH) in 1948. there is an average of 15 observation years per data series.3 13.0 0 0 0 0. Table 4. the dissolution of the former Soviet Union might at least partly explain the situation in Asia. the average measurement series covers a time range of 47 years with 20 observations. At the global level. FirstSY: first survey year. the Canadian Arctic and Greenland are much lower. e.2 85. In addition to the review of collected data sets presented here. with the exception of the continuous measurement series at two stakes in the accumulation area of Claridenfirn (Müller and Kappenberger 1991.2 1730 1815 2005 65. respectively. A general cause for this interruption is not easy to provide. Corresponding calls-for-data are sent out through the national correspondents of WGMS who organise the collection and submission of the glacier data in line with the WGMS standards. area.5 2. SerDens: number of series per 1 000 square kilometre. respectively. Hintereis (AT).7 35 2 6 1957 2005 13.2 1. Box 4.1 1830 1888 2005 36. South Cascade (US). Based on an agreement with the Terrestrial Observation Panel for Climate of GCOS/GTOS.0 6.7 1000.3 Submission Table 4. .0 0. 6. Storbreen (NO) and Sarennes (FR) in 1949.5 1720 1885 2005 36. all data is available digitally. such as seasonal balances. In Central Asia and the Arctic.5 Screenshot of meta-data file in GoogleEarth in Central Europe with an average time range of 65 years and a mean of 35 observations per data series.6 1 0 1 2002 2005 4.5 0.20 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Glacier fluctuation series 21 2007). Clariden (1912). and request for glacier fluctuation data The WGMS regularly collects data on changes in glacier length.4 1879 1892 2005 14. The virtual high observation densities in Africa and New Guinea are due to the minimal ice area in these regions. LastSY: last survey year. Ohmura et al.8 0. Silvretta (1915) and Aletsch (1921) in Switzerland (Huss et al. Most of these series have some lengthy data gaps. equilibrium line altitudes and accumulation area ratio are also available for many of these. Of all the glacier tongues observed. and a total of 39 and 43 glaciers under observation.3 Notes: NoSer: number of series. The other macro-regions do have less dense observation networks with fewer than three series per 1 000 km2. AvNoObs: average number of observations per series. Length change measurements have been reported to WGMS from 1 803 glaciers worldwide. an initial attempt was made to set up a glaciological database with the data collected and published in the WGI and in the Fluctuations of Glaciers series as well as those compiled from the literature (Hoelzle and Trindler 1998.9 1840 1886 2005 52.8 43 10 29 1948 2005 19. FirstRY: first reference year.0 166. From the 226 available data series. NoRefSer: number of ‘reference’ mass balance series with continuous measurements since 1976.5 Screenshot of meta-data file in GoogleEarth. Scandinavia (23 series per 1 000 km2).8 0.8 39 8 23 1946 2005 16. A striking feature is the breakdown of the field monitoring network towards the end of the 20th century in North America as well as in Central Asia. which is mainly thanks to the long-term programmes reported from Iceland.6 226 30 118 1946 2005 15. Mass balance measurements on entire glaciers have been carried out since after the Second World War.6 0.3).4 4. Online meta-data browsers provide an overview of the location of glaciers with available data and corresponding attributes.1). AvTR: average time range per series.7. 2007). On the global average.1 0. respectively. as each glacier observation series has its own history and is often strongly linked to the activity and situation of its investigators.4 1720 1815 2005 46. NoSer21th: number of series with last survey after 1999.7 2.4 14. Hoelzle et al.3 3 0 1 1959 2005 2. In North America the reasons are rather to be found in budget cuts. with first data available from Scandinavia (Storglaciären. and others following later.7 6.3 5. followed by New Zealand (85 series per 1 000 km2). For the period 1946– 2005 there are 3 383 annual mass balance results from 226 glaciers available through the WGMS. 2003). preliminary glacier mass balance results have been made available annually on the WGMS website since 1999. Initial surface mass balance measurements at individual stakes were already carried out on a few glaciers around the beginning of the 20th century. 4.4 1896 1899 2005 53.

4. recent series with < 30 obs.6 Worldwide length change observations South America 40 0 FV series: 160 MB series: 11 40 0 Northern Asia 10 0 FV series: 24 MB series: 14 10 0 Antarctica 11 0 FV series: 48 MB series: 1 11 0 Central Asia 120 0 FV series: 310 MB series: 35 120 0 North America FV series: 221 MB series: 45 Mass balance measurements recent series with ≥ 30 obs. recent series with < 30 obs. .22 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Glacier fluctuation series 23 1845 1865 1885 1905 1925 1945 1965 1985 2005 New Guinea 2 0 FV series: 3 MB series: 0 2 0 Africa 7 0 FV series: 14 MB series: 1 7 0 New Zealand 40 0 FV series: 99 MB series: 3 40 0 Scandinavia Front variation observations recent series with ≥ 30 obs. 4. 400 0 FV series: 1 803 MB series: 226 400 0 1865 1885 1905 1925 1945 1965 1985 2005 1845 Fig. Data source: glacier information from WGMS. Data series with surveys after 1999 are plotted as red and orange circles when having more or equal and less than 30 observations. The total number of length change (FV) and mass balance (MB) series are listed below the name of the region. The map shows the location of glaciers with reported information on length changes. The locations of observation series discontinued before 2000 are shown as black crosses. The locations of observation series which were discontinued before 2000 are shown as black crosses. Data source: glacier information from WGMS. Data series with surveys after 1999 are plotted as red and orange squares when having more or equal and less than 30 observation years. ice caps and ice sheets 30 0 FV series: 67 MB series: 39 30 0 Central Europe 230 0 FV series: 764 MB series: 43 230 0 Fig.6 Worldwide length change observations. 4. ice caps and ice sheets 50 0 50 0 Arctic 35 0 FV series: 93 MB series: 34 35 0 Fig. discontinued series glaciers.Temporal overview on the number of reported length change (light brown bars) and mass balance surveys (dark blue bars). Note that the scaling of the number of observations on the y-axis changes between the regions. 4. Source: Data from WGMS. respectively. country outlines and surface ice on land cover from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World. respectively. The map shows the location of ice bodies with reported measurements of the glacier mass balance. country outlines and surface ice on land cover from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World.8 Length change and mass balance surveys .7 Worldwide mass balance measurements Worldwide Fig.7 Worldwide mass balance measurements. 4. Fig. discontinued series glaciers.

2008). A detailed review of LIA glacier maximum extents around the globe is provided by Grove (2004). and hundreds of metres for smaller glaciers (Hoelzle et al. one finds a high variability in glacier fluctuations. such glaciers have to retreat into shallow waters or onto land before being able to advance again on a new frontal moraine. Glacier mass New Guinea LIA max extents: mid 19th century 2 0 2 0 Africa LIA max extents: late 19th century 2 0 2 0 New Zealand LIA max extents: end 18th century 25 0 25 0 Scandinavia 20 0 LIA max extents: mid 18th century 20 0 Central Europe LIA max extents: mid19th century 200 0 200 0 South America LIA max extents: late17th to early 19th century 12 0 12 0 Northern Asia 6 0 LIA max extents: 17th to late 19th century 6 0 Antarctica LIA max extents: uncertain 6 0 6 0 Central Asia 25 0 LIA max extents: 17th to mid19th century 25 0 North America LIA max extents: early 18th to late 19th century 15 0 15 0 Arctic 30 0 LIA max extents: mid 18th to end 19th century 30 0 Worldwide 275 0 1845 1865 1885 1905 1925 1945 1965 1985 2005 LIA max extents: 17th to late 19th century 275 0 Fig. becomes decoupled from climatic changes (Box 5. the pronounced warming reduced the glaciers in most mountain ranges to extents comparable with conditions at the end of the 20th century (Grove 2004). Once they lose contact with their end moraines. 2007). Glaciers in contact with lakes (Box 5. Climate related analysis will have to select the data series of glaciers not influenced by thick debris cover. The length change of glaciers calving into a lake or into the sea (Box 5. 2007). followed by a rapid decay of the glacier tongue after the event (Kamb et al. The number of advancing (blue) and retreating (red) glaciers are plotted as stacked columns in the corresponding survey year. glaciers in various regions have shown intermittent re-advances. followed by stable or advancing conditions around the 1970s. but exhibit a continuous retreat from their LIA moraines. On a decadal time scale. 2008). calving or surge instabilities. Heavy debris cover acts as an insulator of the glacier ice which. Their length changes exhibit a high interannual variability. while medium-sized steeper glaciers reacted with re-advances to intermittent wetter and cooler periods. Prinz. . The overall retreat of the glacier termini is commonly measured in kilometres for larger glaciers. At the peak of the last ice age about 21 000 years ago. Solomina et al. strong glacier retreat was observed in the 1920s and 1940s. about one-third of the land on earth was covered by ice (Paterson 1994. Small cirque glaciers are able to react in a much more direct manner to annual mass changes. University of Innsbruck. Benn and Evans 1998). 1985. hence. From these positions. Glacier fluctuations can be reconstructed back to that time using a variety of scientific methods. 2003). Austria. 5. but extends from the 17th to the second half of the 19th century. 2003).3).1) have extreme advances on the short term. data from WGMS. Length change measurements have been available since the late 19th century (Fig.6). glaciers around the world show a centennial trend of ice wastage which has been accelerating since the mid 1980s.1 Glacier length changes . decadal and annual developments and its causes (Box 5.Temporal overview on short-term glacier length changes. 2008). Furthermore such studies have to consider the whole spectrum of glacier response characteristics in order to obtain optimal information on secular. This figure shows 30 420 length change observations with a time range of less than 4 years (between survey and reference year). Source: figure based on data analysis by R. From the large variety of glacier types and their different sensitivities and reactions to climatic changes it becomes evident that the signal derived from a set of length change series depends strongly on the chosen observation sites. Also in Scandinavia. Northern Europe and western North America were still influenced by the remnants of the great ice sheets and the major retreat was delayed until about 6 000 to 4 000 years ago (Solomina et al. On shorter timescales. The time period of glacier LIA maximum extents is given according to the regional information in Chapter 6. These observations show a general glacier recession from the positions of the LIA moraines worldwide. General warming during the transition from the Late Glacial period (between the Late Glacial Maximum and about 10 000 years ago) to the early Holocene (about 10 000 to 6 000 years ago) led to a drastic general ice retreat with intermittent periods of re-advances (Maisch et al. and be hazardous in populated areas. During the Holocene (the past 10 000 years) there were periods of glacier advances on a centennial time scale. as influenced primarily by water depth (Benn et al. Looking at the individual data series.1). flat valley glaciers with centennial response times are too long to react dynamically to decadal mass variations. Kamb 1987). Solomina et al. glaciers seem to have largely disappeared during that time (Nesje et al. Within this general trend. the timing of these last maximum states is not really synchronous around the globe. deviations from these global trends are found in many regions. Mass balance measurements on entire glaciers have been available for the past six decades. Note that the scaling of the number of glaciers on the y-axis changes between the regions. Large. 2000.4) or volcanoes (Box 5.24 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Global glacier changes 25 1845 1865 1885 1905 1925 1945 1965 1985 2005 5 Global glacier changes The moraines from the Little Ice Age mark maximum Holocene glacier extents in many mountain ranges.5) can feature peculiar behaviours.2) is strongly controlled by the relation between ice velocity and calving rates. and again drastic glacier retreats after the mid 1980s. However. Surge-type glaciers (Box 5. 5. peaking in the late Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere and in the early Holocene in the Southern Hemisphere (Koch and Clague 2006). The moraines that were formed during the LIA (early 14th to mid 19th century) mark a Holocene maximum extent of glaciers in many regions of the world (Grove 2004. This corresponds to almost 85 per cent of the reported data which in addition include observations covering a longer time scale and/or stationary conditions. About 11 000 to 10 000 years ago. Glaciers in the tropics were rather small or even absent in the early to mid Holocene and gradually re-advanced from about 4 000 years ago (Abbott et al.

Calving glaciers typically terminate into a lake or the ocean. Mt. Source: J. as in the case of Columbia Glacier in the Chugach Mountains of Alaska (Molnia 2007). It also partially controls the ablation rate and the discharge of melt water (Nakawo et al. Helens’ crater.2 Variegated Glacier change is a direct. The lake formation process can occur permanently. alternatively. numerous glacier lakes have been forming at a rapid rate – especially on the surface of debris-covered glaciers (e. either due to retreat of the calving front. leading to floods and lahars which claimed at least 25 000 lives (Naranjo et al. during a surge (photograph taken in 1983). even in tropical climates. As a consequence Fig.5 Glaciers and Volcanoes Glacier surges are short-term. the surge starts in the upper part and propagates in a wave down the glacier. Calving occurs when pieces of glacier ice break off and fall into the water. The meltwater can trigger catastrophic floods or lahars when incorporating ice and debris from the volcano’s flanks. The accumulation area of Hubbard Glacier is 95 per cent of the entire glacier area and.3 Debris-covered glaciers Box 5. More intense processes like volcanic eruptions or pyroclastic flows directly influence the glacier by melting of the ice. where outburst floods endangers human life and resources. Such an event occurred on Nevado del Ruiz Volcano in Colombia in 1985. on the Arctic. Bhutan Himalayas (17 x 13 km). Parallel to the worldwide glacier retreat. Fig. The mechanisms of glacier surges are widely discussed and still not understood completely. Alaska. when it blocked the entrance to Russell Fiord. Argentina. is one of these advancing glaciers and is the largest calving glacier on the North American continent. Thus.g. In Patagonia or New Zealand many glaciers calve into lakes. Fig.4a Bhutan Himalaya. Source: J. For the world’s oceans. lake drainage occurs slowly or in a catastrophic manner when a certain threshold is crossed. In general.and Antarctic Islands. the behaviour of calving glaciers is often dominated by the calving processes where water depth plays an important role. Hubbard Glacier.g.g. 5. Therefore. Box 5. Kääb. the limited number of longterm observations – only 30 ‘reference’ glaciers have continuous data series since 1976 – renders global analysis much more complicated. or by rock falls from the surrounding slopes. When crossing a certain threshold. 2001). Source: J. Fig. 5. Ageta et al. but some have also been reported from Patagonia and Central Asia. St. During and after the surge.1 Surging glaciers Box 5. in strong contrast to the majority of glaciers in that region (Molnia 2007). J. Calving glaciers Box 5. The basal motion seems to be restricted to a thin layer at the ice/bed interface. 2007).swisseduc. Therefore. where pyroclastic flows caused surface melting of 10 per cent of the ice cap.26 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Global glacier changes 27 Box 5. is far from being in equilibrium with climate on the positive mass balance side. Hofsjøkull). in Alaska. US Geological Survey. 5. Fig 5. When melting. Ewert. or from growing and connecting supraand pro-glacial ponds. widespread and rapid basal sliding – and thus initiates the surge (Lingle and Fatland 2003). the debris appears on the glacier surface below the equilibrium line by medial moraines converging downglacier and forming a continuous debris cover. for example.. in Mexico (e. the lake to the right of the images. Details from a Landsat image of 1990 (left) and an ASTER image of 2001 (right).4b Bhutan Himalaya. However. The concurrence of glaciers and volcanoes occurs noticeably in South America (e. 5. Other processes such as earthquakes.. 2006). burst out and caused a major flood (see deposits in the valley (circle)). with new dome and glacier (photograph taken on September 21. is a prime example of a calving glacier (photograph taken in December 2005). 1986). On October 7.net). the drainage system collapses and forces failure of the subglacial till – or. Geothermal activity beneath a glacier can strongly enhance the glacier motion. undelayed reaction to atmospheric conditions. Lugge Tsho. Popocatépetl). is rising. The specific mass balance can be compared directly between different glaciers. Lingle and Fatland (2003) investigated temperate glacier surges and suggest that the fundamental driving force is englacial storage of water. 2005). Vallance. as compared to length changes. as investigated on Vatnajøkull ice cap in Iceland (Björnsson et al. SwissEduc (www.g. A general increase in debris cover over time was observed in Central Asia by several studies (e. Helens) and in Iceland (e. within (englacial-). the gain of water by melting of icebergs plays an important role (Van der Veen 1996). Debris-covered glaciers occur in every mountain chain with ice-free steep slopes. Typically. while changes in the debris-covered part are significantly smaller. subglacial volcanic eruptions and rock avalanches or debris flows reaching the lake may cause breaching of ice or moraine dams and lead to sudden glacier lake outburst floods (Kääb et al.4 Lake formation and glacier lake outburst floods Lakes can form underneath (subglacial-). creating a 60 km long glacier-dammed lake.4 a—b Luana. 1994. often periodic. Most of the tidewater glaciers are found in high latitudes such as on Svalbard. the behaviour of heavily debris-covered glaciers – such as Imja Glacier in the Himalaya or Tasman Glacier in New Zealand – are limited in terms of their use as climatic indicators. USA.2. Switzerland.3 Perito Moreno. In Alaska a few large calving glaciers are currently in the process of increasing in volume and advance.5 High angle view of Mount St. Nötzli. Calving is the most efficient way for these glaciers to lose ice. events where a glacier suddenly begins to flow with velocities up to 100 times faster than normal and substantially advances expressed in kilometres per month (Benn and Evans 1998). In any case. the number of hazardous glaciers.ch) / Glaciers online (www. glacier-covered volcanoes pose a very serious potential hazard in populated areas (Huggel et al. While fluctuations of land-based glaciers are generally driven by climate forcing. 1998).. Its advance began shortly before 1895 and has periodically been newsworthy. Most Fig. 2001 . combined with gravity-driven movement of stored water to the bed. Alean. the glacier surface is characterised by deep crevasses and jagged pinnacles. Source: A. but are particularly common in the Himalaya. University of Oslo. For this reason. like the other advancing glaciers. Norway. Arctic Islands and Alaska. on top of (supraglacial-) or in front of (proglacial) a glacier.2 Variegated Glacier. 5. 2000. the glaciers waste down or back where they have clean ice. Fig. Their formation and also their draining are in most cases controlled by changes in the glacial drainage system (Benn and Evans. Shroder et al. The debris cover partially or completely masks the ablation zone of a glacier and therefore significantly influences the energy balance. The sometimes catastrophic retreat of calving glaciers after losing contact with their frontal moraine and the related production of huge icebergs can threaten nearby ship passages. 2000). once in 1986 and again in 2002 (Trabant et al. 5. in Fig. 2002). Most of the glaciers indicating surge behaviour are found in Svalbard. University of Zurich. This makes it easier to establish a link to climate data.g. periodicly or infrequently. 2006). 5.glaciers-online. Active volcanoes are typically associated with the boundaries of tectonic plates and often reach sufficient heights to sustain the occurrence of glaciers. and in the latter case are also known as tidewater glaciers. 1990 Fig.5 Mount Saint Helens the Himalaya) (Reynolds 2000). the drainage system underneath and within the glacier seems to play a key role in surge cycles.g.. at the head of Disenchantment Bay near Yakutat. in North America (e. Alaska and New Zealand.3 Perito Moreno of the lakes have increased in area between 1990 and 2001. Nevado del Ruiz). 5.

altered atmospheric circulation patterns can have a great impact on the glacier behaviour of entire mountain ranges. Norway. as well as the glacier maximum extents towards the end of the LIA are attributed to changes in solar irradiance. The major glacier readvances around 8 200 years ago were related possibly to a change in the thermohaline circulation of the ocean in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Winkler. Greene 2005). the chemical composition of the atmosphere.28 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Global glacier changes 29 Box 5. McCabe et al. personal comm. 5. As such.N. between 1966 and 2001. This is consistent with the observed increase in the mass turnover rate which is derived from field measurements in the Northen Hemisphere (Dyurgerov and Dwyer 2000) and remote sensing studies in Alaska (Arendt et al. 5.g. 2001 and 2007. at least in part by diminished incoming solar radiation due to the increase of atmospheric pollution after the mid 20th century (Wild et al. Canada. Nesje et al. The average ice loss over that period of about 0. These are by (i) using the (arithmetic) mean value of the few continuous measurement series. 2005). when cumulated over the past six decades. The global averages (i. Based on the mass balance measurements..35 m w. in the early to mid Holocene was probably a result of increasing humidity (Abbott et al. 2007b). 5.) for the decade 1996–2005. Increased precipitation is also seen as the main reason for the glacier advances in the early 18th century and the 1990s in Norway (Andreassen et al. Recent studies have shown that the atmosphere cleared up again in the mid 1980s. The overall shrinking of glaciers and ice caps since their LIA maximum extents is well correlated with the increase in global mean air temperature of about 0. On decadal or regional scales. followed by a moderate mass loss between 1966 and 1985. internal dynamics of the climate system (Grove 2004. Further influences include the variability of solar activity. the ongoing trend of global and rapid.6 Causes of global glacier changes The reasons for the cyclical nature of the ice ages. Fig. 2007).7. In addition to climate changes on the global level. The vast ice loss over the past decades has already led to the splitting or disintegration of many glaciers within the observation network. Source: S.58 m water equivalent (m w. Fig. The periods of simultaneous glacier advances around the world. Lewis (KE). 1995. By contrast. Analyses of mass balance data have shown a moderate increase in mean winter accumulation and a substantially increased low-altitude summer melting (Ohmura 2004. which is a Fig. slowing down in the second decade (1956–65). Overall. 2004. 5. the cumulative average ice loss over the past six decades exceeds 20 m w. might be explained. 5. 2008). Zemp et al. which occurred worldwide around the 1970s. 2002). 2004.). However. the annual contribution of glaciers and ice caps to the sea level rise is to be estimated at one-third of a millimetre between 1961 and 1990. so that glacier length or area change has definitely become a diminished climate indicator of non-linear behaviour. Under the present climate change scenarios (IPCC 2007). Francou et al. Kaser et al.e. 5.a Peyto Glacier. University of Würzburg.). Source: W. (ii) averaging the moving sample of all available data series. if not accelerating. 2005). Padma Kumari et al. The massive downwasting of many glaciers over the past two decades. 5.25 m w. are mainly to be found in the variation of the earth rotational parameters. and presents one of the major challenges for glacier monitoring in the 21st century (Paul et al. 2001. 2007). and passing the one millimetre per year limit for the period 2000 to 2006.7 and 7. 2005). 2003). Wagnon et al. Such glacier changes are striking features in photo comparisons as shown in Figures 0. ii. 2000).6a 1989 b 1995 c 2001 d 2007 .S. in dependence on the sun’s activity and the earth’s orbit. The overall glacier retreat after the Last Glacial Maximum and extending to the early Holocene is very much in line with the global warming (Solomina et al. 2000). the internal dynamics of the climate system. length. probably as a result of the implementation of industrial filters and the breakdown of industry in the former Soviet Union.1. 5. Solanki et al. 2005. in the 1990s in New Zealand (Chinn et al. rather than dynamic retreat.g.e.1. area) from current climate. Examples are the accelerated glacier retreat in continental USA and southwest Canada which are attributed to a shift in atmospheric circulation in approximately 1976/77 (Bitz et al.7. 2006). 2004) and Patagonia (Rignot et al.75 °C since the mid 19th century. 41 000. Demuth.14 m w. due to the outburst of the Lake Agassiz on the North American continent (Solomina et al.e. or even absence. peaking in the late Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere and in the early Holocene in the Southern Hemisphere. 2006.e. 2003) and is of the same order of magnitude as characteristic longterm mass changes during the past 2 000 years in the Alps (Haeberli and Holzhauser 2003).6 a—d Advance and retreat of Briksdalsbreen. However. Koch and Clague 2006) and possible initial large-scale anthropogenic changes in land use (Ruddiman 2003). and for the 20th century advances and/or thickening of some glaciers in central Karakoram (Hewitt 2005). For a temperate glacier.E. the gradual re-advance of tropical glaciers from their small extents. and also to the effects of volcanic eruption. Lower Curtis and Columbia 2057 (US). per year exceeds the loss rates reconstructed from worldwide cumulative length changes for the time since the LIA (see Hoelzle et al. which is more than twice the loss rate of the previous decade (1986–95: 0. and the North Atlantic Oscillation that has an effect on glaciers in the European Alps and Scandinavia (Schöner et al. 2007).. Urumqihe (CN). so-called Milankovitch cycles.e. e. 100 000 and 400 000 years (Milankovitch 1930). has decoupled the glaciers horizontal extent (i. the results of these approaches are consistent.6. the onset of the post LIA retreat and the later periods of intermittent readvances in the European Alps are attributed to changes in winter precipitation rather than temperature (Vincent et al. Zemp et al. Nesje et al. as such. 5. 2008). the latitudinal position of the earth’s continents. of glacier melting (Ohmura 2006.). which increased the amount of incoming solar radiation and. with a doubling of this rate in the period from 1991 to 2004 (Kaser et al.b Peyto Glacier. in a photo series of the years 1989. an outlet glacier of Jostedalsbreen. 2008). a step-change in climatic conditions would cause an initial mass balance change followed by a return to zero values. Chacaltaya (BO).7 a—b Retreat of Peyto Glacier. Ruddiman 2000). Carèser (IT).e. 2001 there are three main approaches to calculating global average mass balances which are independent of climate. as well as volcanic eruptions and impacts of meteorites of extreme dimensions (Imbrie and Imbrie 1979. (Fig. hydrology or climate indicator data. 2000. which is most likely man-induced since the second half of the 20th century (IPCC 2007). The mean of the 30 continuous ‘reference’ series yields an annual mass loss of 0. and (iii) using regionally weighted samples (cf. 2003). Sicart et al. the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Abdalati et al. these values are to be considered first order estimates due to the rather small number of mass balance observations and their probably limited representativeness for the entire surface ice on land. glacier shrinkage on the century time scale is of non-periodic nature and may lead to the deglaciation of large parts of many mountain ranges in the coming decades (e. and a subsequent cooling. due to the glacier’s adaptation of its size (surface area) to the new climate Fig. Germany.8 a—f). 2006). 1999. Henoch and M. 1966 Fig.9). the mass balance variations of glaciers in the tropical Andes which are strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO. The period in which glaciers were close to steady state or even advancing. which is estimated (by dividing estimated volume by area) to be between 100 m (IPCC 2007) and about 180 m (Ohmura. and over four times the rate for the period 1976– 85 (0. and a subsequent acceleration of ice loss until present (Fig. iii) reveal strong ice losses in the first decade after the start of the measurements in 1946. changes in snow accumulation may have dominated glacier response in maritime climates (IPCC 2007). with dominant periods of 23 000. Dyurgerov and Meier 2005. dramatic ice wasting when compared to the global average ice thickness. Canadian Rockies. outside the continental ice sheets.

8 Spatio-temporal overview on glacier mass changes 0 Cumulative global mean specific mass balance (m w. (2007) for New Zealand. and (f) 1996–2005. The data series provide a combined hydrological and climatic signal.65 -0.31 no: 894 -0. Fig. with positive balances in blue. The specific mass balance data can be directly compared between different glaciers of any size and elevation range. ice losses up to 0. sectors without data in grey. Many regions with large ice cover are strongly underrepresented in the data set or are even lacking in observations. In order to derive a real climate signal. the about 230 glacier mass balance series are less representative for the changes in the global ice cover.25 gm: -0.e. 1989). in orange and above that in red.20 -0. Examples for such integrative analysis for entire mountain ranges are given by Molnia (2007) for Alaska.28 -0. altered turbulent and longwave radiation fluxes due to the size and existence of rock outcrops or changes in the surface albedo (Paul et al.43 -0. it is required to relate the mass changes to a reference extent of the glacier (Elsberg et al. by Andreassen et al.02 -0. (2005) for Norway. However. Average decadal mass balance values based on less than 100 observations (marked in italics) are less representative for the entire sector.06 -0. . by Kotlyakov et al.43 no: 51 (b) 1956-1965 -0.14 60°E-180°E -0. For each decade.e.91 -0.20 no: 210 -0. Grove (2004).12 0.14 -0.07 (f) 1996-2005 -0. (2007) on the Andean glaciers. Source: Data from WGMS.30 Global glacier changes: facts and figures (a) 1946-1955 90°N-30°N 30°N-30°S 30°S-90°S 180°W-60°W gm: -0.65 1. and by Chinn (2001) and Hoelzle et al. The numerous length change series together with the positions of moraines from the LIA provide a good qualitative overview on the global and regional glacier changes. the field measurements with a high temporal resolution but limited in spatial coverage should be complemented by remotely-sensed decadal area and volume change assessment in order to obtain a representative view of the climate change impact on the glacierisation. (2006) for Russia.26 gm: -0.25 m w. (c) 1966–75.9 The cumulative specific mass balance curves are shown for the mean of all glaciers and 30 ‘reference’ glaciers with (almost) continuous series since 1976. by Zemp et al. The observed trend of increasingly negative mass balance over reducing glacier Fig.12 gm: -0.38 -0.60 -0.90 -0. whereas a climatic interpretation needs to consider the geometric changes. The average annual mass balance for nine sectors of the globe are shown for the decades (a) 1946–55. 2007). Zemp et al. Data from south of 30° N has only been reported since 1976.49 -0.72 -0.9 Cumulative specific mass balance (Jóhannesson et al.38 -0.) -5 -10 -15 mean of all glaciers -20 mean of 'reference' glaciers -25 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Fig.21 -0. (2007b) for the European Alps. (2003).8 a—f Spatio-temporal overview on glacier mass changes.77 60°W-60°E 60°E-180°E 180°W-60°W 60°W-60°E 60°E-180°E (c) 1966-1975 90°N-30°N 30°N-30°S 30°S-90°S 180°W-60°W gm: -0. 5.25 60°W-60°E no: 940 -0.25 1. while the mass balance series provide quantitative measures of the ice loss since the late 1940s. 60°W-60°E 60°E-180°E 180°W-60°W Fig. by Casassa et al.67 -0.e. (2007a) and USGS (in prep. WGMS 2007 and earlier issues).03 180°W-60°W 60°W-60°E 60°E-180°E (e) 1986-1995 90°N-30°N 30°N-30°S 30°S-90°S gm: -0.31 180°W-60°W surface areas thus leaves no doubt about the ongoing climatic forcing resulting from the change in climate and possible enhancement mechanisms such as mass balance / altitude feedback. by Kaser and Osmaston (2002) for tropical glaciers. 2001. Runoff can be calculated by multiplying the specific mass balance with the corresponding glacier area. 5. and the number of observations (no) are indicated.64 -0. As a consequence.85 no: 795 -0. the global mean (gm) annual mass balance in m w.38 60°W-60°E 60°E-180°E -0.10 -2.15 no: 494 -0. as well as by Hoelzle et al. Source: Data from WGMS.30 -0. 5. (d) 1976–85.22 (d) 1976-1985 -0. Sectors with measurements are coloured according to the mean annual specific mass balance in metre w.) for a global overview. (b) 1956–65.12 -0. (e) 1986–95. 5.e.

Sections 6. Note that the two-digit country code assigned to the glaciers in the following sections and the appendix table is given according to the information submitted to the WGMS and as such might not correspond to present political territories. Figure 6.0.1).11. Details on the mountain ranges.2 a—f details the available fluctuation series (WGMS glacier data) and those presented in the following regional sections 6. Detailed information on the Principal Investigators and Sponsoring Agencies of the reported data is published in the Fluctuations of Glaciers series (WGMS 2008. is somewhat arbitrary.0. hence. and available from. The regional attributions.11.1-6. false-colour satellite images from ASTER.0. The sections summarise the characteristics of the mountain ranges and its ice covers. ice caps and ice sheets SOUTH AMERICA AFRICA NEW GUINEA NEW ZEALAND ANTARCTICA Fig. and earlier volumes).11 are ordered according to the extent of the glacier cover in the macroregions (see Table 4. followed by a brief discussion of the available fluctuation series. names and ice cover information used in this publication are based on Dyurgerov and Meier (2005). its glacier covers and changes are presented in detail in the sections 6.1 The selected eleven glacierised macroregions. 6. the timing of the LIA maximum extents and the subsequent regional glacier changes based on the available field series and some key publications. Each section includes a brief statistic of the glacier fluctuation data as reported to the WGMS.1 to 6.1). Figure 6. Selected long-term length change and mass balance series are plotted as cumulative graphs.0. including close-up to interesting glaciological features. 6.Regional glacier changes 31 6 Regional glacier changes The following sections provide an overview on the glacier changes after the Little Ice Age (LIA) in eleven glacierised macroregions (Fig. as well as terrestrial. Source: glacier outlines from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World (DCW).1 gives an overview of the distribution of the global ice cover and indicates the location of the eleven macroregions.1 – 6. In order to provide an impression of the glacier characteristics. ARCTIC ISLANDS SCANDINAVIA NORTHERN ASIA NORTH AMERICA CENTRAL EUROPE CENTRAL ASIA glaciers. the WGMS as well as a list of the National Correspondents are given in the Appendix. oblique aerial photographs are shown for each region. . A complete overview of the data series reported to. A classification of the world’s glaciers and ice caps into geographical macroregions is based on the purpose of the particular investigation as well as on the spatial resolution of the data set and.

0.4d—f Selected front variation and mass balance series .1-11. ice caps and ice sheets are shown with (a) the available fluctuations data and (b-f) selected mass balance and front variation series shown in sections 6. 6. 6. 6.32 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regional glacier changes 33 WGMS glacier data glaciers. ice caps and ice sheets Fig.0. 6. ice caps and ice sheets Fig. WGMS glacier data all glaciers Glacier data selected for chapter 6 front variation mass balance front variation & mass balance glaciers. Sources: glacier outlines from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World (DCW). fluctuation series from WGMS.0.2 Global distribution of glaciers. ice caps and ice sheets Fig.2b—c Selected front variation and mass balance data Fig.2a WGMS glacier data Glacier data selected for chapter 6 front variation mass balance front variation & mass balance glaciers.

1.34 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions . situated on three mountains: Ruwenzori (5. Tanzania.5 km2 in 2003 (Cullen et al. Indonesia. Meren Glacier and Carstensz Glacier (left to right) on Puncak Jaya.7 km3 in 1978 to about 0. Several front variation series document the glacier changes on Mount Kenya where also the only African mass balance measurements were carried out on Lewis Glacier between 1978 and 1996 (Hastenrath 2005). The ice cover on Ruwenzori has retreated continuously since the late 19th century.9 Meren (ID) -1.Africa 35 6.3 Kilimanjaro Fig. dated cairns erected during several expeditions. Jafferji. 1950 Fig. Source: Upper photograph taken in the early 1950s by J. 2006). Front variation measurements and repeated mapping provide documentation of the century-long history of glacier recession on Mount Kenya. 6.7 1805 2005 African glaciers are found near the equator in East Africa. Their recession since the late 19th century has been well documented.J. Fig.4 Darwin (KE) -0. Kaser and Osmaston (2002). northern icefield. Direct observations are sparse.109 m asl). with highest retreat rates available. traced from information on glacier extents derived from historical records.5 -0. The processes governing accumulation and ablation are thus different from mid-latitude or polar climates. The glaciers are situated in the tropical climate zone. of which the latter are volcanoes (Grove 2004). 6. 6. West.1 New Guinea The few glaciers of Papua (formerly Irian Jaya.2 Lewis Glacier 1805 2005 20th century. Fig. 6. Ngga Pilimsit (Idenburg 4 717 m asl) and Puncak Jaya (Carstenz 5 030 m asl). 19 August 2004. 2006). 1999 Fig. three peaks in Papua. provided by the United States Geological Survey (Allison and Peterson 1989).1 a—b Mount Kilimanjaro. from Ngga Pilimsit between 1983 and 2003 (Klein and Kincaid. Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): Mass balance number of series: average number of observations: 3 3 5 46 0 0 Fig. 6. and the Southwall Hanging Glacier. All ice masses except some on Puncak Jaya have now disappeared.3 Gregory (KE) -0.2.2. 2005). 6. The isolated ice caps vanished from Puncak Trikora between 1939 and 1962. Ardito. aerial photographs and satellite images offer insight into the historical glacier changes.a Mount Kilimanjaro.b Mount Kilimanjaro. Mount Kenya. but historical documents.1 Punca Jaya Fig. Dozy. The ice bodies on Kilimanjaro have shrunk continuously from about 20 km2 just before 1880 to about 2. whereas the glaciers on the slopes of the mountain had higher loss rates in the first half of the Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): Mass balance number of series: average number of observations: 6 14 6 71 1 18 FRONT VARIATION Lewis (KE) (km) 0 -0. two valley glaciers. 6. namely the North Wall Firn. Meren and Carstenz.e. Tanzania. aerial photographs. Glaciological studies on Ruwenzori. with eight (out of 18) glaciers vanishing in the 20th century (Hastenrath 2005). 6. Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro.1.2.2 Africa The few tropical ice bodies in East Africa are located on Ruwenzori. and Cullen et al. 2008). The plateau glaciers thereby showed a linear retreat. lower photograph taken in 1999 by J.1. and from Puncak Mandala between 1989 and 2003 (Klein and Kincaid. (2006).2.1 Oblique aerial photograph looking east at Northwall Firn.5 -0. The glaciers reached their LIA maximum extents towards the late 19th century (Hastenrath 2001). satellite images as well as from some in-situ measurements carried out during Australian expeditions in the 1970s (Allison and Peterson.3 km3 in 2004 (Hastenrath and Polzin 2004) with an average thickness loss of almost one metre ice per year. . 2006). The LIA maximum extent was reached in the mid 19th century (Allison and Peterson 1976). located in the western part of the great Cordillera of New Guinea (Grove 2004).1. The glacier changes have been around 1940 and in the early 1970s (Klein and Kincaid 2006). Mount Kenya (5 199 m asl) and Kilimanjaro (5 895 m asl). 1973) reducing the entire Puncak Jaya ice cover Regular series of direct measurements from almost 20 km2 around 1850 to less of front variation or mass balance are not than 3 km2 in 2002. In the 20th century glaciers were found on Puncak Mandala (Juliana 4 640 m asl). 6.2. The ice volume of Lewis Glacier decreased from about 7. became strongly fragmented and on some peaks has completely vanished (Kaser and Osmaston 2002).2 Fig. FRONT VARIATION Carstensz (ID) (km) 0 -0.2. A small ice cap existed on Puncak Trikora (Wilhelmina 4 730 m asl) in Papua New Guinea (Grove 2004).6 1945 1965 1985 2005 Fig. Source: S.) 0 -10 -15. Most observations focused on the glaciers on Puncak Jaya. Indonesia) and Papua New Guinea are located on the peaks of the great Cordillera of the island of New Guinea.3 Mount Kilimanjaro. MASS BALANCE Lewis (KE) (m w. 1989). The only tropical glaciers of Asia are located on the mountains of New Guinea. Source: Photograph of 1936 by J. Source: ASTER satellite image (50 x 45 km). Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro have a long history and are summarised in Hastenrath (1984. in the mid 1990s.8 Tyndall (KE) -0.2 Lewis Glacier. The larger Meren Glacier on Puncak Jaya melted away between 1992 and 2000 (Klein and Kincaid. All have undergone extensive retreat since the LIA maximum extent (Peterson et al. 6. Space view of the glaciers around the crater (center) and typical surrounding clouds.2.

University of Zurich. Hoelzle. Apart from a few glaciers on Mount Ruapehu Volcano on the North Island. the majority of glaciers are located along the Southern Alps spanning the length of the South Island between 42° and 46° south. the Tasman and Ivory. This mass loss was attributed mainly to the downwasting of the 12 largest glaciers and the minor contributions from their calving into lakes.3. New Zealand has a long tradition of glacier observation going as far back as the 19th century and focusing on glacier front variations. 6.36 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions .3c . as well as from negative mass balances of smaller glaciers.3 Tasman and Murchison Glaciers Fig. Fig. Willsman (NIWA). The most comprehensive series is a detailed history of frontal positions of the Franz-Josef Glacier with the first survey made in 1893 (Harper 1894. Griffiths and McSaveney 1983.3. 6.4 Gunn (NZ) Ivory (NZ) Marmaduke (NZ) Murchison (NZ) Park Pass (NZ) Tasman (NZ) Thurneyson (NZ) White (NZ) The topography of New Zealand is characterised by evidence of the collision of the Indio-Australian Plate with the Pacific Plate and the resulting tectonic uplift. A net ice volume loss between 1977 and 2005 Whymper (NZ) 1805 2005 Fig. 29 April 2000. the majority of the available data series are of qualitative type and start in the 1980s.2 Brewster Glacier (on left) with almost no accumulation area. Most recently a new mass balance monitoring program has been started with on-site support by the WGMS on Brewster Glacier.3. which accounts for over two-thirds of the nation’s total generating outputs. However. New Zealand’s glaciers lost between one-quarter (Chinn 1996) and almost half of their area (Hoelzle et al.3. however.New Zealand 37 6.3b Fig. Winkler 2004). the inventory of 1978 reported 3 144 glaciers covering an area of about 1 160 km2 with an estimated total ice volume of about 53 km3 at that time (Chinn 2001). In total. Science and Technology contract C01X0701. 1988. Glacier runoff is used for irrigation east of the main divide of the Southern Island and for hydro-electric power production. The oblique aerial photograph was taken during the end-of-summer snowline survey on 14 March.3. Since 1977 annual end-of-summer snowline surveys have been carried out by taking aerial photographs of 50 glaciers (Chinn et al. Mount Cook is the highest peak at 3 754 m asl. of about 11 per cent has been reported in a recent study (Chinn pers. the number of retreating glaciers has increased again. Source: A.3. the Tasman Glacier – the largest glacier in New Zealand – is located.e. 6. Limited mass balance data are available from two glaciers only. with a few more on Mount Ruapehu Volcano on the Northern Island.3. seismic activity and volcanism. 6. 6. Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 1 160 99 6 14 Mass balance number of series: average number of observations: 3 3 FRONT VARIATION Franz-Josef (NZ) (km) 0 Qualitative measurements -1 advance retreat stationary -2.3. Tomlinson and Sansom 1994). The LIA maximum extent of New Zealand’s glaciers occurred towards the end of the 18th century. Fig. Glacier extents have been mapped for an inventory Fig. 6. revealing an overall retreat from the moraines of the LIA extents. Overall. The country has a long tradition of glacier observation. Annual average values amount to 4500 mm on the west side (Whataroa) of the Alps and maximum values of up to 15 000 mm (Chinn 1979. Since the beginning of the 21st century. in 1978 (Chinn 1996). 6. 2005).3 Tasman (left) and Murchison (right) Glaciers region. Their climatic regime is characterised by high precipitation with extreme gradients.3 New Zealand Most glaciers are situated along the Southern Alps.3. retreat. 6. After the mid 1980s many glaciers on the west coast have gained mass and advanced noticeably.1 Franz-Josef Glacier Anderson 2003. Switzerland. MASS BALANCE Ivory (NZ) (m w.3a Fig.1 1945 1965 1985 2005 Fig. 2007) between the timing of their LIA maximum extents and the 1970s.0 Dart (NZ) Butler (NZ) -0. Below its flank.1 Oblique aerial photograph showing the west coast of the South Island with Franz-Josef Glacier and Mount Cook (photograph taken on March 27.). comm.) 0 -10 -30. with only minor retreats until the end of the 19th century (Gellatly et al. Anderson and Mackintosh 2006). Source: ASTER satellite image (23 x 31 km) and close-ups. Source: M. 2008. 2006). the majority of the data series start in the 1980s and provide qualitative data only (advance. stationary). as part of New Zealand Foundation of Research. 6.2 Brewster Glacier Fig.

9 -0.4.3 After having probably disappeared in the early/mid Holocene (Nesje et al.3b Fig. Breeheimen. MASS BALANCE Storbreen (NO) (m w. Storglaciären in Sweden provides the longest existing mass balance record for an entire glacier with continuous seasonal measurements since 1946.7 Boeyabreen (NO) Hellstugubreen (NO) -0. Hardangerjøkulen.e.5 Engabreen (NO) -1. mainly in Norway.4 Scandinavia The majority of the ice on the Scandinavian Peninsula is located in southern Norway. 1973).2 2005 Fig. which is the largest ice cap of mainland Europe (Østrem et al.g.7 their maximum extent in the mid-18th century (Grove 2004).3 Svartisen Ice Caps. Fig.4 -0.4. Local precipitation variances superimposed on these generally coherent patterns.1 View toward the proglacial lake and the tongue of Nigardsbreen. Storbreen) continued their ice loss. The maritime glaciers (e.3a Fig. in the second half of the 1970s.8 Fig. Jostedalsbreen Ice Cap in the background (photograph taken in July 2005).4. 6. Several glaciers have been observed on a regular basis for more than a century.5 Austerdalsbreen (NO) -0. the southern outlet glacier of Folgefonna.3 Supphellebreen (NO) Storbreen (NO) -1. Due to the combination of high latitude and the moisture from the North Atlantic.2 Storglaciåren (SE) -15. Ålfotbreen.1 Nigardsbreen Styggedalsbreen (NO) Bondhusbreen (NO) -1. 6.7 Rabots (SE) Boeverbreen (NO) Storglaciäeren (SE) -0. 2005).6 Hellstugubreen (NO) -14. 2008).4.38 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions .4. Overall mass balance measurements have been reported from 39 glaciers. as well as in the adjacent Kebnekaise region in Sweden (Holmlund and Jansson 2005).4.9 Ålfotbreen (NO) +10. A total of over 60 Scandinavian front variation series are available. University of Zurich. Storglaciären.6 Fig.4.7 Nigardsbreen (NO) +18. Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 2 940 Mass balance 65 30 53 number of series: average number of observations: 39 16 FRONT VARIATION Briksdalsbreen (NO) -0.0 1945 1965 1985 2005 Isfallglaciäeren (SE) Karsojietna (SE) Mikkajekna (SE) Suottasjekna (SE) 1805 -0.Scandinavia 39 6. is one of the exceptions. resettlements and reduced taxes due to the Little Ice Age glacier advances are reported in historical documents (Grove 2004).5 -0.2 Kebnekaise region Faabergstoelsbreen (NO) (km) 0 -1 Stegholtbreen (NO) -2. with Isfallsglaciären in the background (photograph taken in August 2007). 6. University of Stockholm. Annual front variation measurements began in Norway and Sweden at the turn to the 19th century. The relevance of glaciers and their changes to the lives of the Scandinavian people is reflected in the extensive observation record.0 Engabreen (NO) +23. Hardangerjøkulen.4.4 Nigardsbreen (NO) -1. and around 1990. with 8 continuous series since 1970. with Engabreen outlet glacier to the middle left. Jotunheimen. Source: I. Engabreen) with large annual mass turnover started to gain mass after the early 1960s. all within 180 km of the west coast (Grove 2004). In northern Norway there are the Okstindan and Svartisen ice caps. Norway. Fig.4 -0. 6.8 -0. whereas the more continental glaciers (e. Blomsterskardsbreen. Some glaciers and ice caps are also found in northern Norway and the Swedish Kebnekaise mountains. Farms and farmland buried by ice. Source: ASTER satellite image (35x21 km) and close-ups. Source: P. tal oscillations up until the late 19th century. Since 2001 all monitored glaciers have experienced a distinct mass deficit (Andreassen et al. Nigardsbreen. Fig. Roer.4. Scandinavian glaciers experienced a general recession during the 20th century with intermittent periods of re-advances around 1910 and 1930. Gråsubreen. Jansson. and Kebnekaise (2104 m asl) is the highest summit in northern Sweden.6 -0. the last advance stopped at the beginning of the 21st century (Grove 2004.5 -0. Scandinavia is one of the regions with the most and longest reported observation series. glaciers in Lyngen and Skjomen (Østrem et al. In today’s Norway. many glaciers and ice caps developed.3c . 2005). Switzerland. 2005). Norway. 1988. 6.2 -13. cause variations to occur on individual glaciers. 1993).2 Tarfala research station in the Kebnekaise region (Sweden). reaching its maximum extent at the beginning of the 20th century (Grove 2004). 6. Mass balance measurements in Norway started at Storbreen (Jotunheimen) in 1949. The Scandinavian Peninsula is located between 60° and 71° north.3 Svartisen Ice Caps -8. Hellstugubreen. 15 per cent of the used runoff comes from glacierised basins and 98 per cent of the electricity is generated by hydropower production (Andreassen et al. 6.2 -0. 11 August 2006. namely in Folgefonna.) 0 -10 Gråsubreen (NO) -15. 6. most of After their enlarged state in the 18th century the Scandinavian glaciers and ice caps reached and the minor retreat trend with small fronFig.2 Hardangerjøkulen (NO) +6. Andreassen et al.g. and Jostedalsbreen. Galdehøpiggen (2469 m asl) in southern Norway is the highest peak on the Peninsula. The greater part of the ice cover is concentrated in southern Norway. 6. Sweden.

Huss et al. Spain. the North Sea/ North Atlantic Ocean.5.0 2005 Fig. mostly starting in the 2nd half of the 20th century and a few going back to the 1930s. 2000. The glaciers are situated in the Maladeta massif in Spain with the highest peak of the Pyrenees.) 0 -20 Kesselwand (AT) Sonnblick (AT) -26.1 Gr. 6. though with a few observation points. 2005).1 Aerial view toward the Maladeta Massif. 6. agricultural. Mass balance measurements started in 1949 in the Alps.8 -7.8 In Central Europe. Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 3 785 Mass balance 764 35 65 number of series: average number of observations: 43 20 FRONT VARIATION Gr. Fig.0 -4.4 -5. Zemp et al. A few more perennial ice fields are found e. Switzerland. 2007). Spain.2 Mount Elbrus. with a certain amount of mass gain in the late 1980s and the early years of the 21st century. 6. and industrial use. Norway. at 4 808 m asl.9 Vernagt (AT) -12. an important economic component of tourism and hydro-electric power production.40 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions .3 Bernese Alps Tseya (SU) -1. in the Caucasus. causing the death of about 140 people (Huggel et al. Pelfini and Smiraglia 1988. Some smaller glaciers are found in the Pyrenees – a mountain range in southwest Europe.2 Allalin (CH) -0. seen from the north (photograph taken in September 2007). 2007b). but also a source of natural hazards. France and Italy resulting in more than 680 data series. Central Europe has the greatest number available of length change and mass balance measurements. Aneto Glacier (center) as well as Maladeta Glacier (right) from September 2002. Source: M.6 Basodino (CH) Gries (CH) -4. The Alps represent the ‘water tower’ of Europe and form the watershed of the Mediterranean Sea. Annual observations of glacier front variations started in the second half of the 19th century in Austria. 6.5. about two-thirds of the ice cover was lost in the Pyrenees with a marked glacier shrinking after 1980 (Chueca et al. Aletsch (CH) Blanc (FR) -2. 2005).5 Central Europe Glaciers are found in the European Alps. 2005). Kääb.7 -2. with many long-term data series. Maisch et al.8 Fontana Bianca (IT) -15.3 Fig.3 Bernese Alps with Grosser Aletsch Glacier in the center.5. Ingeniería 75. There are over 40 front variation series available for the Caucasus. Since the first half of the 19th century.1 -1. with 10 continuous series since 1968.1 Maladeta Massif Kazbek region resulting from a slope failure sheared off almost the entire Kolka Glacier and devastated the Genaldon valley.5. 2008) culminating in an annual loss of 5 to 10 per cent of the remaining ice volume in the extraordinarily warm year of 2003 (Zemp et al.5. Mass balance measurements show an accelerated ice loss after 1980 (Vincent 2002.5. An ice-rock avalanche in the Fig.3 -12.5 -46. and in 1992 on Maladeta Glacier in the Pyrenees. Source: A. glacier retreat since the end of the LIA is also widespread. Italy. Source: ASTER satellite image (32 x 44 km) and close-ups. 2004. Zemp et al. and the Black Sea. About onethird of the region’s ice cover is represented by glaciers in the Caucasus Mountains which are situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. in the Appennin.5. The Alpine glacier cover is estimated to have diminished by about 35 per cent from 1850 to the 1970s and another 22 per cent by 2000 (Paul et al. It extends from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea. Grove 2004). 6. near the Italian-French border. In the Caucasus. The front variations show a general trend of glacier retreat over the past 150 years with intermittent Alpine glacier re-advances in the 1890s.1 Pasterzen (AT) -1. The highest peak is Mont Blanc. distributed over the entire Alpine mountain range.6 -0.5.3 -0. Overall mass balance data is available for 43 glaciers.3c . as well as in Slovenia and Poland.6 Djankuat (SU) -1. 21 July 2006. In the Alps as well as in the Pyrenees and in the Caucasus most glaciers reached their LIA maximum towards mid 19th century (Gross 1987.g.3b Fig. in 1968 in the Caucasus.2 Mount Elbrus Fig. 6. Arenillas. and the Caucasus Mountains. glaciers are a unique resource of freshwater for domestic.8 -1. MASS BALANCE Hintereis (AT) (m w.3a Fig.2 -2.9 Bossons (FR) Argentière (FR) -1. with Pico d’Aneto (left). The recent retreat was associated with an increase in debris cover and glacier lake development (Stokes et al.5 Sarennes (FR) -26. one starting in the 1980s and a second one covering the 20th century. and around the peak Vignemale (3 298 m asl) in France. almost two-thirds of the perennial surface ice cover is located in the Alps with Aletsch Glacier as their greatest valley glacier.9 Djankuat (SU) Garabashi (SU) Maladeta (ES) 1945 1965 1985 -3. Most glaciers are located in the northern part known as the Ciscaucasus with Mount Elbrus (5 642 m asl) considered as the highest peak in Europe. There are two glaciers in the Pyrenees with length change data. Swiss Alps. 1920s.5 Plattalva (CH) Limmern (CH) Saint Sorlin (FR) -23.1 -0.1 1805 2005 Fig.5. Goldberg (AT) (km) 0 -1 Kl.1 -0.2 Lys (IT) La Mare (IT) -1.3 Vernagt (AT) -0. Maladeta (ES) Clot de Hount (ES) -1.Central Europe 41 6.6 Morteratsch (CH) Trient (CH) -2. Pico d’Aneto (3 404 m asl). the Pyrenees. In the densely populated Alps. and 1970–1980s (Patzelt 1985. 6. 6. 2007b). 6. Fleiss (AT) -1. One of the largest historical glacier disasters occurred in 2002 in North Ossetia.0 Caresèr (IT) -34.e. University of Oslo.

with earliest observations starting at the end of the 1960s. 2007). Colombia. and Antizana 15 Alpha in Ecuador (11 years).8 Fig. right) as well as the the inactive Santa Isabel (background. 2003). The view to the north shows the active volcanos Nevado del Tolima (foreground) and Nevado del Ruiz (background. Photograph taken in July 2006. Bolivia.9 Peñón (AR) -2.c .3. Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 25 500 Mass balance 160 4 36 number of series: average number of observations: 11 8 FRONT VARIATION Güssfeldt (AR) (km) 0 -2 Vacas (AR) -4. with a relevant contribution to sea level rise (Rignot et al. and northern Peru. 6. In the southern Andes. Except for a few cases in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. Ramírez Cadena.4 Gajap-Yanacarco (PE) -0. 6.6. with two major surge events starting in 1984 and in 2004 (Milana 2007). 2007). Fig.2 Tupungato 01 (AR) Tupungato 02 (AR) -0. Northern Patagonian Icefield. 2 000 m asl at 40° S. most glaciers reached their LIA maximum between the late 17th and early 19th centuries (Villalba 1994).5 Azufre (AR) -1.2 Antizana 15 Alpha (EC) -2. 2007).9 -1.2 Zongo Glacier and downstream hydroelectric power station located north-east of La Paz city. Bolivia.9 -4.3 1805 2005 Fig. INGEOMINAS.2 Tupungato 03 (AR) -2.3. 650–1 000 m asl at 50° S. 1 780 km2 for Peru and 534 km2 for Bolivia (Kaser and Osmaston 2002).b Fig. forming a continuous chain of mountains in a north-south direction along the entire west coast.a Fig. for example.9 1945 1965 1985 2005 Fig. Venezuela. 6.1 Glacierised volcanoes in Colombia. in Tierra del Fuego (Naruse 2006). There have been a few cases of surging glaciers. which is at 4 500 – 4 800 m asl in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. tropical and subtropical latitudes (Casassa et al.6. 6. 87 km2 for Colombia. climatic processes and ice dynamics (Casassa et al. 90 km2 for Ecuador.6 South America Glaciers are widespread along the Andes from the tropical ice bodies in the north to the Patagonian Icefields and the Tierra del Fuego in the south. Source: ASTER satellite image in artificial natural colors (35 x 28 km) and close-ups.3 Broggi (PE) -0. followed by a rapid retreat (Grove 2004).7 Antizana 15 Alpha (EC) -6. 6.6. debris flows and glacier floods related to gravity. The highest peak is the Aconcagua (6 962 m asl).e. 6. rises to 5 000–6 500 m asl in the Atacama desert (northern Chile). Source: B. IRD. Thinning rates of up to 30 m/y have been observed recently in the Southern Patagonian Icefield.South America 43 6. with more than 85 per cent located in the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields and in the Cordillera Darwin Icefield Fig. rock/ice avalanches. Source: J. By far the largest ice cover at about 23 000 km2 is found in Chile and Argentina.5 Uruashraju (PE) -0. 6. situated in Argentina close to the border with Chile.) 0 -10 Zongo (BO) -18. Approximate glacier areas for tropical South America are: 1. whereas to the south the Andes form a narrower and more concentrated chain. This is found for example in the snowline altitude.1 -0. agricultural and industrial uses. as well as from Zongo and Chacaltaya in Bolivia (14 years).3.3 San Quintín Glacier Yanamarey (PE) -0. 6.0 The Andes. whereby the frontal tongues of calving glaciers were observed to be an important source of recession and area change (Rivera et al. Colombia. 2007).8 km2 for Venezuela. glaciers in South America have shown a general retreat and wasting since the LIA maximum extent with an enhanced retreat trend in recent decades (Casassa et al.3 San Quintín Glacier. then descends to 4 500 m asl on Aconcagua at 32° S.6. 2 May 2000. stretching over 7 000 km. particularly in equatorial.42 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions . Pastoruri (PE) -0. The Peruvian glaciers were in advanced positions in the 1870s. Andean glaciers also pose a natural hazard. altitude and proximity to the sea.2 Zongo Glacier The Northern Patagonian Icefield lost about 3. The photograph was taken in 2002.6 Fig. Glaciers in South America are critically important as a water resource for domestic. MASS BALANCE Chacaltaya (BO) (m w.9 Echaurren Norte (CL) -0.6. The small number of available data series indicates the problems encountered when conducting such measurements under difficult logistical conditions and with unreliable financial support (Casassa et al.1 Glaciarised volcanoes in Colombia measured on 28 glaciers from which eleven series have been reported.4 -0. in the form of lahars related to volcanic eruptions. Francou.6. 2007).6. The available fluctuation series cover the time period since the 1960s. The observations thus include the glacier shrinkage of the past decades.4 per cent (140 km2) of its area between 1942 and 2001. Long-term series comes from Echaurren Norte in central Chile with more than 30 years of continuous mass balance measurements.6. and only 300 m asl at 55° S (Troll 1973). The climate of the Andes varies greatly depending on latitude. In the north-central portion of South America the Andes are divided into several ridges which span some hundred km in width.8 Horcones Inferior (AR) Chacaltaya (BO) Zongo (BO) Nereidas (CO) +6.1 -0. the most recent being Horcones Inferior in Argentina.2 Tupungato 04 (AR) +0. 6. Of the available in-situ mass balance measurements from the Andes only a dozen cover more than a decade. is the world’s longest continental mountain range and a distinct feature of South America. Mass balance is currently being Fig. -6.6. center).

2008).5 -0. and the late 19th century for others on Novaya Zemlya (Zeeberg and Forman 2001). 6. Russian Academy of Sciences.3a Fig. The Altay extends over about 2 100 km from Kazakhstan.4 Leviy Karagemsk (SU) Fig.6 Hamaguri Yuki (JP) +0. as well as in parts of Central Asia. the maximum stage of the LIA was reached in the mid to late 19th century (Grove 2004).9 Kozelskiy (SU) -4. and Kamchatka with a total area of about 3 500 km2 (Dyurgerov and Meier 2005). 6.7. Fig. The topography of Kamchatka is characterised by numerous volcanoes with heights up to 5 000 m asl. A particular challenge in this region. Some information is available from Kamchatka with front variation and mass balance measurements from 1948–2000 and 1973–1997.2 Kozelskiy Glacier -0. In addition. respectively. Suntar-Khayata. Most of the glacier ice in Northern Asia is concentrated on the East Arctic Islands (total ice cover of about 56 000 km2) such as Novaya Zemlya (23 645 km2). Until recently. Russia to Mongolia.7. They are very much influenced by the extent of sea ice and the North Atlantic oscillations.7. glaciers occur in the mountain ranges from the Ural to the Altay. On Kamchatka both retreats and advances have occurred on glaciers influenced by volcanoes.3c . a perennial snow patch at 2 750 m asl in the Tateyama Mountain. glaciers have been shrinking contin- Fig.Northern Asia 45 6. The LIA maximum extents have also been delineated and have been dated to 1550–1850 AD (Gurney et al. 6. while in the Altay. On average.7. Dated moraines suggest LIA maxima around or after 1300 for some glaciers. Most of the observation series were discontinued at the end of the 20th century. Hagg. 125 (SU) of the Soviet system in 1989 and the related loss in expertise in and capacities for glacier monitoring.4 No. The east Siberian Mountains. MASS BALANCE Maliy Aktru (SU) (m w.4 Leviy Aktru (SU) -0. and a few short-term series from the Northern Ural and Severnaya Zemlya.3 Ice caps on Severnaya Zemlya. Germany. 125 (SU) -2. show only small amounts of glacier ice and the knowledge on these glaciers is limited.1 Maliy Aktru Glacier uously since the mid 19th century (Kotlyakov et al. a region with a total glacierised area of about 70 km2. Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 59 600 Mass balance 24 14 55 number of series: average number of observations: 14 14 FRONT VARIATION Maliy Aktru (SU) (km) 0 -0. 1991). and Kodar Mountains.2 Kozelskiy Glacier on Kamchatka in September 2007. half of them being stable during 1952 to 1964. Source: W. as well as distributed in the mountain ranges from the Ural to the Altay. 6. investigations in the Altay failed to disclose evidence of early LIA advances (Kotlyakov et al. China. Fig. 6.1 Praviy Karagemskiy (SU) -0. Manevich. Severnaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land. with advances of similar magnitudes in the 17th. Russian Arctic.1 1945 1965 1985 2005 -0.7.e. with a more moderate retreat occurring up to 1993 (Zeeberg and Forman 2001). 36 retreated and only four advanced between 1990 and 2000 (Kouraev et al. Russian studies show that in the Urals. ASTER satellite image (63 x 47 km) and close-ups. the scale of glacier shrinkage was much smaller in continental Siberia than in central Asia and along the Pacific margins (Solomina 2000).5 Korumdu (SU) -0.7.9 -4. 125 (Vodopadniy). 2006) accelerating from seven per cent ice loss between 1952 and 1998 to four per cent between 1998 and 2006 (Shahgedanova et al.7.8 Bolshoy Maashey (SU) -0. some of the glaciers are strongly influenced by volcanic activities. Severnaya Zemlya (18 325 km2) and Franz Josef Land (13 735 km2). such as Cherskiy Range.7. 6. and to 1962 from Maliy Aktru. A study based on satellite images shows that from 40 outlet glaciers on north Novaya Zemlya. (2008) mapped more than 80 glaciers in the Buordakh Massif. Here. in the Cherskiy Range (northeast Siberia). 2006). whereas a general retreat was found on glaciers located in the coastal area (Kotlyakov et al.0 No. Therefore. The available data series are sparse and most of the few measurements were discontinued in latter decades of the 20th century. Source: A. in the east Siberian mountains and Kamchatka. 6. and some of them are tidewater glaciers. New studies based on lichenometry indicate extended glacier states in the late 14th and mid 19th century (Solomina 2000).G. 2006). Fig. 1980).6 -0.7 Northern Asia The majority of land surface ice in Northern Asia is located on the East Arctic Islands such as Novaya Zemlya. 6.3 Kozelskiy (SU) Praviy Aktru (SU) +0. Comparisons with Landsat satellite images of 2003 have shown that the glacier extent of Suntar-Khayata has diminished by 19 per cent since 1945. 19 August 2003. In the Arctic islands a slight reduction in the glacierised area by little more than one per cent over the past 50 years has been found (Kotlyakov et al. Central Japan (Higuchi et al. 6.6 Rodzevicha (SU) -1.1 Maliy Aktru Glacier located in the Russian Altay (photograph taken in July 2007). 2008). Gurney et al. with half a dozen front variation series covering the entire 20th century and three continuous mass balance series extending back to 1977. has been the breakdown Fig.3 Severnaya Zemlya -1. 2008). LMU Munich.44 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions . mass balance measurements have been carried out since 1981 on Hamaguri Yuki. some glaciers have disappeared completely.7.8 Dzhelo (SU) -0. In Japan.3b Fig. 18th century (Solomina 2000). Tidewater calving glaciers in north Novaya Zemlya underwent a rapid retreat in the first half of the 20th century.2 Geblera (SU) The few available fluctuation series mainly come from the Russian Altay. The glaciers on the East Arctic Islands are not well investigated due to their remote location in the Barents and Kara Sea.) 0 -2 Leviy Aktru (SU) -3. from Leviy Aktru and No. and in the Cherskiy Range by 28 per cent since 1970 (Ananicheva 2006). reaching its highest elevation of 4 506 m asl on Belukha Mountain in the Russian Altay.9 1805 2005 Fig.

8. Berkner Island.3b Fig. In addition to Antarctica. and terminate in ice cliffs (Grove. Glaciers on South Georgia receded overall by varying amounts from their more advanced positions in the 19th century. Both glaciers nourished formerly the Larsen B ice shelf.9 Hodges (GS) -0. at the northeastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (Skvarca and De Angelis 2003.2 Wright Lower Glacier -0. 6. South Georgia.1 Oblique aerial photograph with Antarctic Peninsula plateau in the background (March 11. South Georgia is located about 1 400 km east-southeast of the Falkland / Malvinas Islands. From north to south (right-left) the Mapple and Melville Glaciers. Weidick and Morris (1998) describe three categories of local glaciers outside the ice sheet: coastal glaciers. the larger and still active one. (2005) mapped 244 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent islands. A general glacier recession trend of different spatial pattern on the Fig.0 -0. 6. The island is characterised by two volcanoes. Examples of the third type are the ice rises on the Larsen and Filchner-Ronne ice shelves. This large uncertainty results from the difficulty to differentiate clearly between the various glaciers and ice caps. Fig.8. Clapperton et al.0 1945 1965 1985 2005 Fig. during the warmest summer ever recorded in the region.) 0 -0. at the northeastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula.8.0 Hart (AQ) -0. and isolated ice caps. On the South Shetland Islands. 27 January 2006. Hall 2007). The Onyx River dewaters from Lake Brownworth into the drainless Lake Vanda. Skvarca. the most southern active volcano.0 Wright Lower (AQ) Fig.8. 2007).g.e. 6.g. however. most glaciers have receded.2 Heaney (GS) -0. 6. in the second half. little is known about the distribution and changes in the large number of glaciers and ice caps around the continental ice sheet in Antarctica and on the Subantarctic Islands. Fig. at least ten glacial events were found to have occurred between 1240 and 1991 (Birkenmajer 1998. relatively narrow and thin ice field nourishing valley glaciers. Large retreat and thinning rates over the past two decades have been reported from glaciers terminating on land on Vega and James Ross Islands. 6. Additional reconstructions and measurements are reported in the literature.0 Antarctic Peninsula was previously reported by Rau et al. According to expedition records. 2002. Source: D. 6. with a total estimated ice cover of roughly 7 000 km2 (Dyurgerov and Meier 2005). who investigated the icefront changes north of 70° S over the period 1986–2002. Their analyses of aerial photographs and satellite images showed that 87 per cent of the glaciers have retreated over the last six decades.g. New Zealand. as well as from South Georgia. aerial photographs and satellite images are available from the Dry Valleys in Antarctica extending back to the 1960s. The nunatak is called King Pin (820 m) and at the far back Mt Erebus (3794 m). 1989a. 2004). Cook et al.2 Wright Lower Glacier with Lake Brownworth. Big Ben. little or no change occurred on glaciers at Heard Island during the first decades of the 20th century (Grove 2004).46 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions . (2004). Coastal local glaciers are most obvious in the McMurdo Dry Valleys within Victoria Land and on the Antarctic Peninsula.0 1805 2005 Fig. most of them terminating in the sea. is visible.3c Meserve MPII (AQ) -0. 1993) and South Shetland Islands (e. A recent study yields a reduction in the overall ice extent of about 29 per cent from 1947 to 2003 (Thost and Truffer 2008). 6. Source: P. recession of glaciers has been widespread. a glacier on Vega Island. which are calving at present into the Larsen B embayment. Frenot et al.5 Cook (GS) -0. which cut through the coastal mountains and terminate in ice cliffs at sea level. A total of 70 per cent of the island is ice covered (Ruddell 2006. The latter is covered by a long. ice streams which are discrete dynamic units attached to the ice sheet.8. Stumm. with an overall estimated area ranging from 70 000 km2 (Dyurgerov and Meier 2005) to 169 000 km2 (Shumsky 1969). b) described LIA advances beginning after the late 13th century and culminating in the 18th. University of Otago. typically.5 -1. Source: ASTER satellite image (37 x 20 km) and close-ups.7 Brown (HM) Stephenson 1 (HM) -1. and the ice bodies closely linked to the continental ice sheet. Instituto Antártico Argentino. b).3a Fig.Antarctica 47 6.0 A number of front variation series as derived from expedition reports. back to the late 19th century.8. Rott et al. Clark CPI (AQ) +0. a detailed mass balance monitoring program was initiated on Glaciar Bahía del Diablo. with large tidewater glaciers showing a more variable behavior and remaining in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Fig.6 Bartley (AQ) The vast majority of glaciers and ice caps in the Antarctica are located on the Antarctic Peninsula and around the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Ice streams range from smaller ones on the southern part of the Antarctic Peninsula to larger ones flowing from the central Antarctic Plateau down to the Ross or Filchner-Ronne ice shelves. In summer 1999–2000.. Heard Island is situated in the Southern Indian Ocean. is located on the latter (Swithinbank 1988). 6. 2007). interrupted by a re-advance of some glaciers in the 1960s (Radok and Watts 1975). 2008). Evidence of the timing of LIA glacier maxima south of the Antarctic Circle (66° 30’ S) is sparse due to the lack of organic material for dating (Grove 2004). However.8. Thost and Truffer 2008).3 Bahía del Diablo on Vega Island.8 Antarctica Mainly due to the remoteness and the immense size of the ice masses. The Wright Lower Glacier is fed from the WilsonPiedmont Glacier. 1 650 km north of the Antarctic continent. MASS BALANCE Bahia del Diablo (AQ) (m w. Heard Island and Kerguelen.0 Wright Upper B (AQ) -0. Dry Valleys in Antarctica (January 14.7 Ross (GS) -0.3 Vega Island . 2004). they widen and steepen toward the sea.8. Some 21 glaciers are identified on the volcanic cone (Ruddell 2006).1 Mapple and Melville Glaciers +0. Skvarca and De Angelis 2003). reaching 2 750 m asl. (1989a. glaciers and ice caps are situated on Subantarctic Islands such as the South Shetland Islands. from Kerguelen (e. and from Heard Island back to 1947. Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 77 000 Mass balance 48 3 30 number of series: average number of observations: 1 4 FRONT VARIATION Harker (GS) (km) 0 -1 +0. which collapsed within a few weeks in February–March 2002. as well as strong glacier acceleration.. 19th and 20th centuries. More than half of it is ice covered. e. Clapperton 1990). with most of the glaciers extending to the sea (Clapperton et al. 6. some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers are about to disappear (Gordon et al. Since then. surges and retreats subsequent to the collapse of the Larsen Ice Shelf A and B sections (De Angelis and Skvarca 2003. Skvarca et al.8. with no data having been reported to the WGMS. the largest ice rise in the world.

6.1 (Chinese Tien Shan) are still surveyed every year. 6.7 Golubin (SU) -8. 2008). Kutuzov 2005. Kutuzov 2005).0 -0.5 Ayutor-2 (SU) Raigorodskiy (SU) -1.2 Panoramic view with direction NNE to the confluence of the Godwin Austen Glacier. 2004).1 Tsentralniy Tuyuksuyskiy. Eastern Himalaya. Commission for Glaciology of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. where most of the glaciers occur (33 050 km2) and its adjacent mountain ranges (with corresponding ice areas): Karakoram (16 600 km2).e.2 -16.1 (CN) Ts.0 Kirchin (SU) Batyrbai (SU) The LIA is considered to have lasted until the mid or late 19th century in most regions (Grove 2004) with glacier maximum extents occurring between the 17th and mid 19th century (Solomina 1996. The Himalaya is the highest mountain range of the world and extends from the Nanga Parbat (8 126 m asl) in the NW over 2 500 km to the Namcha Barwa (7 782 m asl) in the SE with a north-south extent of 180 km (Burga et al. and most series are comparably short. 6. glacier area is estimated to have decreased by 25–35 per cent in the Tien Shan (Podrezov et al. No. 6. (2007) used remote sensing data to investigate glacier thickness changes in the Himachal Pradesh. About 10 per cent of the series extend back to the first half of the 20th century but only 24 data series. Blagoveshchenskiy. 1 (CN) (m w. 2002). Fig.2 +0. Source: V. 20 January 2001.9.9.0 Shumskiy (SU) Kalesnik (SU) Kokbeles (SU) Tutek (SU) Mazarskiy (SU) -0. The area loss since the 1960s is estimated to about 6 per cent. per year between 1999 and 2004 – about twice the long-term rate of the period 1977–1999.1 -0. flowing south from K2 (8 611 m asl).e. Fig. Berthier et al. Western Himalaya. 2006. the overall glacier area loss is estimated at about 20 per cent since the maximum extent in the 17th century (Su and Shi 2002).2 (km) 0 -0. The available 310 front variation series are distributed over most of the region. the breakdown of the Soviet System in 1989 might partly explain the breakdown of the observation network in the 1990s.4 Igli Tuyuksu (SU) -0.9. Source: ASTER satellite image (56 x 32 km) and close-ups.5 +0. Source: C. 6.9. Tien Shan.3 Himalaya main ridge between Bhutan and Tibet.9. Tuyuksuyskiy (Kazakh Tien Shan) and Urumqihe South No. consist of more than 15 observation series.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0. Central Asia with an estimated total ice cover of 114 800 km2 has as its dominant mountain range the Himalaya.No. Kunlun Shan (12 260 km2) and Pamir (12 260 km2) mountains (Dyurgerov and Meier 2005).Central Asia 49 6.3 Tekeshsai-I (SU) -0. have the potential to threaten downstream areas with outburst floods (Wessels et al.48 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions . MASS BALANCE Urumqihe S. Tuyuksuyskiy (SU) -17. Regional studies based on remote sensing data help to provide a better overview on the recent changes in the Central Asian ice cover. 90 per cent of the observations series were discontinued before 1991 and only about a dozen series have reported information in the 21st century.1 -0. except for a decade or two around 1970. The mountain ranges of Central Asia function as water towers for millions of people.2 Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram 1945 1965 1985 2005 +0. In Central Asia.3b Fig. Such lakes.3 Abramov (SU) -17. The climate. 2003). glacier degradation is accompanied by increasing debris cover on many glacier termini and the formation of glacier lakes (Ageta et al. 2005). Unfortunately.2 -0.2 -9.9. in press). Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 114 800 Mass balance 310 5 22 number of series: average number of observations: 35 13 FRONT VARIATION Urumqihe S.6 Fig.3 -0. the Himalaya is strongly underrepresented in terms of front variation and mass balance observations.9. and the precipitation in particular. Over the 20th century.P.3c . Just six (out of 35) series consist of more than 15 observation years and only al. Su and Shi 2002.9. is characterised by the influence of the South Asian monsoon in summer and the mid-latitude westerlies in winter.9 Central Asia The main mountain range of Central Asia is the Himalaya and its adjacent mountain ranges such as Karakoram. Glacier runoff thereby is an important freshwater resource in arid regions as well as during the dry seasons in monsoonal affected regions (Barnett et al. Tuyuksuyskiy Glacier two of them. -0.2 -0. Kunlun Shan and Pamir. when some glaciers gained mass and even reacted with re-advances of a few hundred metres. and the first observations started early in the 20th century.8 Kara-Batkak (SU) -18. The distribution of mass balance series in space and time shows a similar pattern.0 Ts. As in Northern Asia. Bolch 2007). an eight per cent glacier area loss was observed between 1963 and 1993 (Karma et Fig.9. and by more than 50 per cent in northern Afghanistan (Yablokov 2006). 2000).1 2005 Fig.4 Barkrak Sredniy (SU) Rama (SU) Pakhtakor (SU) Kizilgorum (SU) 1805 -0.0 -0. by 30–35 per cent in the Pamirs (Yablokov 2006).8 m w. with the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram. located in Pamir and Tien Shan. 6. They found an annual ice thickness loss of about 0. in September 2003. Tuyuksuyskiy (SU) -0. The available observations are distributed well over the region but continuous long-term fluctuations series are sparse. but with rather small recessions in the hinterland of the Tibetan plateau (Li et al. Tien Shan (15 417 km2). 2002. The sum of its glacierised area corresponds to about one sixth of the global ice cover of glaciers and ice caps. sometimes also dammed due to glacier surges (Kotlyakov et al. After 1980 ice loss and glacier retreat was dominant again. Within Central Asia. Kazakh Tien Shan. and is more pronounced in the Chinese Himalaya. 6. Ts. In China.3 Himalaya main ridge Akbulakulkun (SU) Kara-Batkak(SU) Kljuev (SU) Shumskiy (SU) Turpakbel Nizhn (SU) Severtsov (SU) Shokalskiy (SU) Mushketov (SU) -0. 6.1 -0.1 -0.1 Ts. Mayer.1 Fig.3a Fig.) 0 -10 -11. In Bhutan. 6. Narama et al. Qilian Mountains and Tien Shan. Glacier retreat was dominant in the 20th century.1 Fig.

Larsen et al.10 North America North American glaciers are located on mountains in the west of the continent from Alaska down to the Canadian and US Rockies. most of the series were discontinued in the 1980s or 1990s. Prominent are the “Rocky Mountains”.11 Arctic Islands) with about 75 000 km2 in Alaska and about 49 000 km2 in the conterminous USA and western Canada. which spread over more than 3 000 km from the Mexican border through the United States and into Canada and eastern Alaska. 2006. and along the coast of the Pacific Ocean.10. Peyto (CA) -34. Therefore. Gulkana and Wolverine Glacier in Alaska. In conterminous USA and Canada glaciers reached their LIA maximum extent in the mid Fig. the glaciers in the south are much smaller and occur at higher elevations than in the higher latitudes. and for the Kenai Mountains. 2004). USA. Demuth et al. for the northeast Brooks Range it was the late 15th century. Luckman 2006).3a Fig.3c 1945 1965 1985 -32.5 Most of the mountain ranges in North America are found on the west of the continent.7 Peyto (CA) -1. the climate of the mountain ranges shows strong variations depending on latitude. In the Western Cordillera of the Rocky Mountains the glacier area loss -6.) 0 -10 Wolverine (US) -18. Distinct exceptions to this overall trend are found in the fluctuations of certain tidewater glaciers such as Muir (Saint Elias Mountains).8 Lower Curtis (US) -11. Half of the mass balance series were not continued into the 21st century. since the LIA is estimated at about 25 per cent (Fountain et al.e. To the north they extend into the Alaska Range and the Brooks Range. 6. Fig. Natural Resources Canada. Luckman 2000. 2008.6 -1.. 6. small glaciers occur on the peaks of three volcanoes.5 Lemon Creek (US) -8. with some extending as far back as the early 1950s.8 Blue Glacier (US) Columbia 2057 (US) -30.4 Foss (US) -13.1 South Cascade (US) -24. 2002.0 Fig.10.5 Saskatchewan (CA) -1. with Wolverine Glacier to the middle bottom.g. but there still are several long-term mass balance series. 2008. USA. which is situated in the Alaska Range. In Alaska.2 2005 .6 Lynch (US) Rainbow (US) -9. 6. Photograph was taken in 2001.10.3 Section of Kenai Mountains.4 Yawning (US) -8. where they are in some regions continuous with Alaskan Glaciers (Williams and Ferrigno 2002). Source: R. Mass balance measurements show strong accelerating ice losses since the mid 1970s (Demuth and Keller 2006.3 Kenai Mountains Place (CA) Athabasca (CA) Sentinel (CA) -1. 2007. the mid 17th century (Grove 2004).3 Ice Worm (US) -11.10. 6.10. North Cascades: Granshaw and Fountain 2006). the LIA maxima were attained at various times.4 -6. 6. or Taku Glacier (Alaskan Panhandle).2 South Cascade Glacier MASS BALANCE Gulkana (US) (m w. Source: ASTER satellite image (37 x 48 km) and close-ups.8 1805 2005 Fig. In Mexico. 6. 6. Demuth.6 Wedgemount (CA) -1. Iztaccíhuatl. Josberg et al. including for example Peyto Glacier in the Canadian Rockies.4 -12. Among these there are seven with 39 or more years of observations.7 Fig.50 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions .1 Gulkana Glacier in the Alaska Range. 8 September 2005. March.3 -0.North America 51 6. Fig.0 Muir (US) Nisqually (US) -29.10. particularly at lower elevations and southern latitudes (Molnia 2007). Place and South Cascade Glacier in the Cascade Mountains. In general. parallel to the coastline. Moore and Demuth 2001) which was confirmed by remote sensing studies in Alaska and Canada (Arendt et al. Photograph was taken October 5. and Popocatépetl (White 2002). United States Geological Survey. which slowed down somewhat between the 1950s and 1970s (La Chapelle 1960) and accelerated again after the 1970s. altitude and proximity to the sea.5 -0. The highest peak of the continent is Mount McKinley / Denali (6 193 m asl). In the latter.10. that topographic controls and glacier dynamics can be the source of significant local and regional variability (e. and on volcanoes in Mexico. However. 2003. namely on Pico de Orizaba. 6. most of the Alaskan glaciers reached the LIA maximum extent between the early 18th and late 19th centuries (Molnia 2007).7 -1. FRONT VARIATION Columbia (627) (US) 0 (km) Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 124 000 Mass balance 221 5 37 number of series: average number of observations: 45 16 -5 McCall (US) Barry (US) -12.0 -13. Columbia 627 (Chugach Mountains). glaciers are situated in the Rocky Mountains and Interior Ranges.10.3 Fig. 6. to late 19th century (Kaufmann et al. It is recognised in both instances however.6 -1. Source: M. 2007). Half of the 45 reported mass balance series cover ten or more measurement years.3b Fig.5 Daniels (US) -11. Small glacier diminution appears to be a distinct feature of the past century and a half of ice observation in some regions (Canadian Rocky Mountain eastern slopes: Demuth et al.10. A lot of the length change observations were discontinued at the end of the 20th century.1 Gulkana Glacier The glacier observations show a general retreat after the LIA maximum.2 South Cascade Glacier in the Canadian Rockies. Glaciers and ice fields in the region presented here cover almost as much area as in the Canadian Archipelago (see section 6.N.6 Kokanee (CA) -0. Alaska. DeBeer and Sharp 2007). as well as Lemon Creek.3 Blue Glacier (US) South Cascade (US) Illecillewaet (CA) -0. Although several dozen front variation observations exist for the 20th century.3 Helm (CA) -21. where some glaciers extend down to the shore.

Source: ASTER satellite image (62 x 61 km) and close-up. historical documents.11.4 -0. trim lines together with the fragmentary measurement series. 6. 1997. Sobota. Ice covered area (km2): Front variation number of series: average number of observations: average time length (years): 275 500 Mass balance 93 31 52 number of series: average number of observations: 34 13 FRONT VARIATION Barnes Ice Cap (CA) -0. some of the rapid glacier advances might have been related to volcanic activities (in Iceland). 6. It is estimated to the mid 18th century for Iceland and the end of the 19th century for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Grove 2004). Continuous mass balance measurements are available since the end of the 1960s from Svalbard (Austre Brøggerbreen.1 -0. Source: I.7 1805 2005 Fig.8 Austre Brøggerbreen (NO) -18. Glaciers on Cumberland Peninsula. on Disko Island) reached their maximum extents before the 19th century (Weidick 1968). W. 6.11 Arctic Islands Glaciers and ice caps are found on the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and around the Greenland Ice Sheet.52 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Regions . Canadian Arctic. as well as on the West Arctic Islands. W.8 Kviarjokull (IS) -0. The majority of the fluctuation measurements have been reported from the latter two regions. BRMFJ (IS) Kongsvegen (NO) -6.Fig. Jokull (IS) -2. Available fluctuation series from glaciers and ice caps of Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago are sparse and most of them were interrupted in the 20th century. 6. 6. the Canadian Arctic Archipelago to the west. Svalbard and the West Arctic Islands.3 Grinnell Land Icefield Fig. 31 July 2000. Nicolaus Copernicus University. 2007).4 -0. Baffin Island.7 Hansbreen (NO) Fjallsj.11.1 Waldemarbreen in the western part of Svalbard (summer of 2006). The only longterm mass balance series. E (IS) Fig. as well as from the Fig.g.) 0 -5 -6. land (Sigurdsson et al. Its topography is more than half covered by ice. More than half of the area covered by glaciers and ice caps (~ 150 000 km2) is located on the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. with Vatnajökull as the largest.9 The Arctic Islands consist of Greenland. with its ice cover dominated by six large ice caps. 6. Iceland. However. Poland. The climate and as such the fluctuations of glaciers and ice caps of the Arctic Islands are very much influenced by the extent and distribution of sea ice which in turn depends on ocean current and on the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations. The Svalbard Archipelago is situated in the Arctic Ocean north of mainland Europe. Devon.8 Midtre Lovénbreen (NO) -14. In addition. Baffin. there are several regional or glacier specific variations found in this overall trend such as the mass gain of Kongsvegen (Svalbard) in the early 1990s (Hagen et al. Iceland. Grove 2004. Iceland. The large variability in ice thickness of Arctic glaciers and ice caps as well as different ice temperatures is expected to result in different responses to climatic changes.11. starting in the early 1960s.3 Glaciers draining the Grinnell Land Icefield on Ellesmere Island. 6.11.4 -1.2 The Hofsjökull Ice Cap. Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.Arctic Islands 53 6.8 2005 Nordgletscher (GL) Hansbreen (NO) -2. Waldemarbreen (NO) -2.2 Hofsjökull cal findings. Archaeologi. Source: ASTER satellite image (50 x 51 km). Devon Ice Cap (Koerner 2005).5 Hagafellsjok. The timing of the LIA maximum extent of glaciers and ice caps differs between the regions.7 Hofsjøkull N (IS) -9.11. and Axel Heiberg Island). 2003) after 1990) and advance (1970–1985) in Iceand periods of glacier retreat (1930–1960.9 Breidamjok. MASS BALANCE White glacier (CA) (m w. the boundary of the European and the American plates.7 +0.1 Waldemarbreen 1945 1965 1985 -1. Front variation series span most of the 20th century.3a . and is characterized by plateau mountains and fjords.g.3 Breidamjok.1 -0. Ellesmere. Fig.11.6 -1. (IS) Hyrningsjokull (IS) -2. give evidence of a general retreating trend of the Arctic glaciers and ice caps since the time when of their LIA extent which slowed down somewhat during the middle of the 20th century (Dowdeswell et al. In the LIA the glaciers on Svalbard were close to their late Holocene maximum extent and remained there until the onset of the 20th century (Svendsen and Mangerud 1997).8 Leirufj.7 Baby Glacier (CA) Meighen Ice Cap (CA) -4. are available from White and Baby Glacier (Axel Heiberg Island). and Svalbard.11. G-Sel (IS) -3.6 Fig.C (IS) (km) 0 -1 Fjallsj. which is a group of more than 36 000 islands (e.3 Devon Ice Cap (CA) -3. Iceland and the western part of Svalbard are quite well represented in glacier observation series. The few investigations from Greenland indicate that many glaciers and ice caps (e. 13 August 2003. yield an area loss of 10–20 per cent between the LIA maximum extent and 2000 (Paul and Kääb 2005). and another quarter is found around the Greenland ice sheet. glacier surges or calving processes rather than to climatic events. ACIA 2005).e. Midtre Lovénbreen) and since 1988 from Iceland (Hofsjökull North). as well as the East Arctic Islands (see section Northern Asia) to the east.4 Reykjafjardar (IS) Kaldalonsjokull (IS) -4.A.

and • periodically re-evaluates the feasibility and relevance of the monitoring strategy and its implementation. and similar techniques. 7. F. glacier shrinkage on the century time scale is most likely to be of a non-periodic nature. • defines key regions. e. Several generations of glaciologists around the world have contributed with their data to the present state of knowledge. and digital outlines for about 62 000 glaciers. glaciers in various mountain ranges have shown intermittent re-advances. natural hazards and sea level changes.1b was taken on 31 August 2004 by B. From these positions. with respect to the global baseline inventory. Fig.g. glaciers around the globe have been shrinking significantly. with strong glacier retreats in the 1940s. All data is digitally made available by the WGMS and its cooperation partners. 2004 Fig. which is a typical tidewater glacier. 7. • completes a global glacier inventory. and may lead to the deglaciation of large parts of many mountain ranges by the end of the 21st century. Tropics. Asia.. The potentially dramatic climate changes. The photo 7. • re-initiates interrupted long-term series in strategically important regions and strengthens the current monitoring network in the regions wich are currently sparsely covered (e. • makes use of decadal digital elevation model differencing. The database on glacier fluctuations includes 36 240 length change observations from 1803 glaciers as far back as the late 19th century.. where the glacier cover is relevant to climate change. the photo 7. and in which repeated detailed inventories assess glacier changes (e. it is of critical importance that glacier monitoring in the 21st century: • continues long-term fluctuation series (i. sea level rise. including detailed information on about 100 000 glaciers. and the polar regions). if not accelerating. O. and accelerating ice losses until present. because they are the most direct indication of glacier reaction to climate changes. Molnia of the United States Geological Survey. from the trim lines of the LIA) around 2000. The glacier moraines formed during the end of the LIA.1a was taken on 13 August 1941 by W. for the 1970s (cf. and of the coming decades. South America. On a shorter time scale. as sketched for the 21st century by IPCC (2007) refer to glacier changes of historical dimensions with strong impacts on landscape evolution. between the 17th and the second half of the 19th century. the NSIDC and the GLIMS initiative. followed by a moderate ice loss between 1966 and 1985. 1941 Fig. • replaces long-term monitoring series of vanishing glaciers with timely starting parallel observations on larger or higher-reaching glaciers. Alaska. This requires that international glacier monitoring makes use of the rapidly developing new technologies (remote sensing and geoinformatics) and relate them to the more traditional field observations. in order to face the challenges of the 21st century. preliminary estimates of the global distribution of glaciers and ice caps covering some 685 000 km2. stable or growing conditions around the 1970s. a high variability and sometimes contradictory behaviour of neighbouring ice bodies are found which can be explained by the different glacier characteristics. and again increasing rates of ice loss since the mid 1980s.e.g. Prominent periods of regional mass gains are found in the Alps in the late 1970s and early 1980s and in coastal Scandinavia and New Zealand in the 1990s. as well as about 3 400 annual mass balance measurements from 226 glaciers covering the past six decades. . the ongoing trend of worldwide and rapid. 7..54 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Conclusions 55 7 Conclusions The internationally coordinated collection of information about ongoing glacier changes since 1894 and the efforts towards the compilation of a world glacier inventory have resulted in unprecedented data sets.g.1b Muir Glacier. • concentrates the extent of the field observation network mainly on (seasonal) mass balance measurements. Source: US National Snow and Ice Data Center. The early mass balance measurements indicate strong ice losses as early as the 1940s and 1950s. mark Holocene maximum extents of glaciers in most of the world‘s mountain ranges. The global average annual mass loss of more than half a metre water equivalent during the decade of 1996 to 2005 represents twice the ice loss of the previous decade (1986–95) and over four times the rate of the decade from 1976 to 1985. are available. WGMS 1989). to extend and understand the representativeness of the field measurements to/for the regional ice changes. For the second half of the 20th century. Under current IPCC climate scenarios. length change and mass balance) in combination with decadal determinations of volume/thickness and length changes from geodetic methods in order to verify the annual field observations.1a Muir Glacier. fresh water supply. Looking at individual fluctuation series. hydrological issues and natural hazards. In view of the incompleteness of the detailed inventory of glaciers and ice caps and the spatio-temporal bias of the available fluctuation series towards the Northern Hemisphere and Europe. • integrates reconstructed glacier states and variations into the present monitoring system in order to extend the historical set of length change data and to put the measured glacier fluctuations of the last 150 years into context with glacier variations during the Holocene. Field.1a—b Photo comparison of Muir Glacier.

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R. Paris: 296 pp. University of California Press: p. and Hoelzle.S. 152–167. (2007): Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming. Haeberli. W.J. Solomina. U. Osipova. Haeberli. Cook National Park.. Zemp. VI). W. W.. IAHS(ICSI)/UNEP/UNESCO.. WGMS (1991): Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin No. Zemp. M. 115–152. A. Haeberli.. NIWA Science and Technology Series No. In: The proceedings of Meeting of the Work Group on Geospatial Analysis of Glaciated Environments. 9 (2004–2005). WGMS (1996): Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin No. (1994): Tree-ring and glacial evidence for the Medieval Warm Epoch and the Little Ice Age in southern South America. In: Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world – Glaciers of North America. WGMS (2005a): Fluctuations of Glaciers 1995–2000 (Vol.

cn Jair Ramirez Cadenas INGEOMINAS Diagonal 53 No. R.ru begemotina@hotmail.com Per Holmlund Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology Glaciology University of Stockholm SWEDEN – 106 91 Stockholm E-mail: pelle@natgeo. Popovnin Moscow State University Geographical Faculty Leninskiye Gory RUSSIA – 119 992 Moscow E-mail: po@geogr.bo jcmendoza@umsa.ac.de Andreas Peter Ahlstrøm Department of Quaternary Geology The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) Øster Voldgade 10 DENMARK – 1350 København K E-mail: apa@geus.O. Lake Hawea RD 2 Wanaka NEW ZEALAND – Otago 9192 E-mail: t. Aliganj INDIA – Lucknow 226024 E-mail: cvsangewar@rediffmail.ac. Gansu E-mail: lizq@ns.dk Oddur Sigurdsson National Energy Authority Hydrological Service Grensásvegi 9 ICELAND – 108 Reykjavik E-mail: osig@os.cricyt.edu. Nagoya University JAPAN – Nagoya 464 8601 E-mail: cozy@nagoya_u. S.ec Christian Vincent Laboratory of Glaciology and Environmental Geophysics (CNRS) P.kz Hugo Delgado-Granados Instituto de Geofísica Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Circuito Exterior.A.uio. Prat.bo Michael N. K.ru AUSTRALIA/ ANTARCTICA FRANCE MEXICO SPAIN AUSTRIA GERMANY NEPAL BOLIVIA GREENLAND NEW ZEALAND/ Trevor J.ruddell@bigpond.o.com see AUSTRALIA Mirco Meneghel Universita di Padua Dipartimento di Geografia Via del Santo 26 ITALY – 35123 Padova E-mail: mirco.pl SWEDEN SWITZERLAND CANADA ICELAND PAKISTAN USA CHILE INDIA UZBEKISTAN PERU CHINA INDONESIA ITALY POLAND COLOMBIA JAPAN .pe zapataluyomarco@gmail. 167 PERU – Huaraz / Ancash E-mail: glaciologia@inrena.at Javier C.lzb. 34-53 COLOMBIA – Bogota E-mail: jairamir@ingeominas. Sector E.hoelzle@unifr. Velázquez 87–4° derecha SPAIN – 28006 Madrid E-mail: ing75@ing75.co.gc. Bedzinska 60 POLAND – 41 200 Sosnowiec E-mail: jgadek@us.it Koji Fujita Department of Hydrospheric-Atmospheric Sciences (DHAS) Graduate School of Environmental Studies c/o Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center. 04510 E-mail: hugo@geofisica.su. Box 1047.no Ali Ghazanfar Head Water Resources Section Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) 61/A.obs. Bidlake US Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center 934 Broadway .gov. ARGENTINA/ ANTARCTICA Lydia Espizua Instituto Argentino de Nivología y Glaciología CONICET (IANIGLA) Casilla de Correo 330 ARGENTINA – 5500 Mendoza E-mail: lespizua@lab.edu.chinn@xtra. Martin d’Hères Cedex E-mail: vincent@lgge.nz NORWAY Jon Ove Hagen Department of Geosciences Section of Physical Geography University of Oslo P.meneghel@unipd. ON K1A 0E8 E-mail: mdemuth@NRCan.msu. Coyoacán MEXICO – México D. F. U. Box 699 BOLIVIA – La Paz E-mail: jmendoza@senamhi. Demuth Natural Resources Canada Geological Survey of Canada 601 Booth Street CANADA – Ottawa.V. CHINA – 730 000 Lanzhou.ar Andrew Ruddell 4/17 Wellington Square North Adelaide AUSTRALIA – South Australia 5006 E-mail: andrew.O.Kuhn@uibk. Confraternidad Internacional Oeste No.com Bogdan Gadek University of Silesia Department of Geomorphology ul.braun@kfg.gob.ujf-grenoble. Blindern NORWAY – 0316 Oslo E-mail: j.gov.jp KAZAKHSTAN Igor Severskiy Institute of Geography of the Ministry-Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan Pushkinstreet 99 KAZAKHSTAN– 480100 Almaty i_severskiy@mail. 514 CHILE – Valdivia E-mail: gcasassa@cecs.O. Box 96 FRANCE – 38402 St. Muir Rd.se Martin Hoelzle Department of Geosciences University of Fribourg Chemin de musée 4 SWITZERLAND .Hagen@geo. WA 98402 E-mail: wbidlake@usgs. Chinn ANTARCTICA Alpine and Polar Processes Consultancy Rapid 20. Mendoza Rodríguez IHH (Instituto de Hidráulica e Hidrología) and SENAMHI (Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología) P.ch William R. C. A detailed list of the principle investigators of glaciers monitored within GTN-G as well as a list of the supporting agencies are given in the WGMS data publications (WGMS 2005a and earlier volumes).com Michael Kuhn Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics University of Innsbruck Innrain 52 AUSTRIA – 6020 Innsbruck E-mail: Michael.pk Marco Zapata Luyo Unidad de Glaciología y Recursos Hídricos INRENA Av. 11 GERMANY – 80539 München E-mail: ludwig.mx see JAPAN RUSSIA Victor V.cl Li Zhongqin Tianshan Glaciological Station / Cold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Research Institute (CAREERI) Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) 260 West Donggang Road P. UZBEKISTAN – 100 052 Tashkent E-mail: andreyakovlev@mail. Sangewar Glaciology Division Geological Survey of India Vasundara Complex.1700 Fribourg E-mail: martin.gov.unam.64 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 65 Appendix 1 National Correspondents of the WGMS List of the national correspondents of the WGMS.ali@gcisc.Suite 300 USA – Tacoma.gov Andrey Yakovlev The Center of Hydrometeorological Service (UzHydromet) 72.Makhsumov str. 1st Floor Jinnah Avenue PAKISTAN – Islamabad E-mail: ghazanfar.is C.com Eduardo Martinez de Pisón Miguel Arenillas Ingeniería 75.ca Gino Casassa Centro de Estudios Científicos Av.org.m.com map@ing75.badw.fr Ludwig Braun Commission for Glaciology Bavarian Academy of Sciences Alfons-Goppel-Str.co ECUADOR Bolivar Cáceres INAMHI (Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología) and IRD ECUADOR – 16 310 Quito E-mail: bolivarc@inamhi.

40 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT 1988 1983 1972 1973 1972 1973 1985 1985 1984 1966 1965 1972 1965 1988 1973 1973 1972 1972 1973 1972 1975 1970 1944 1894 1969 1944 1995 1944 1984 1896 1963 1898 1945 1896 1944 1963 1963 1963 1963 1945 1896 1982 1975 1848 1892 1924 1891 1968 1969 1924 1996 1964 1892 1988 1891 1871 1896 1891 1961 1897 1890 1898 1928 1891 1989 1984 1979 1978 1979 1979 1986 1986 1987 1967 1971 1978 1981 1989 1978 1979 1979 1978 1978 1978 1985 1979 1953 1963 1970 1953 1996 1953 1986 1929 1976 1943 1970 1963 1953 1975 1975 1975 1975 1968 1929 1982 1975 1848 1892 1915 1892 1969 1970 1924 1997 1969 1898 1988 1891 1848 1891 1892 1955 1920 1891 1899 1929 1860 1990 1995 1979 1995 1979 1979 1989 1995 1992 1970 1973 1978 1992 1990 1978 1979 1979 1978 1990 1992 1995 1992 1975 2005 1975 1983 2003 1986 1986 2005 2005 2003 1986 2005 1975 2005 2005 2005 2005 1990 2005 2004 1994 2004 2005 2005 2005 1978 2005 2002 2005 1990 1994 2005 2005 2005 2003 1994 1989 2005 2004 2005 2005 2005 2 2002 9 1 9 1 1 4 7 4 4 2 1 9 2 1 1 1 1 2 5 8 7 4 6 2 5 4 4 1 10 9 5 2 6 4 6 6 6 6 8 10 23 19 86 65 46 74 10 15 65 9 18 43 18 89 100 67 53 27 19 85 1964 38 54 66 1980 17 2001 2001 2002 2005 2 5 1996 1998 3 2005 4 AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT GRANATSPITZ GR.98 47. DIEM F.10 -63.03 -70.97 47. STUBAIER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR.03 46.08 -77.33 163.PIRCHLKAR ALP.02 47. PRAEGRAT K.90 47.67 -54.77 12.27 12. LATITUDE 47.58 11.63 13.82 11.70 -77.74 -73.(GLO.11 46.88 46.11 46.75 11.50 -70. OCHSENTALERGL.80 11. LastSY: last survey year.12 10. VENEDIGER GRUP. KLEINELEND K.83 46.75 -32. MITTERKAR F.56 -70.08 47. GRUENAU F.32 11.34 -50. STUBAIER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR.05 10.87 12.68 13. PU AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AQ AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT 0310B 302 727 0310A 220 509 317 708 1301 312 0601B 320 706 507 229 321 307 304 702 308 0105C 0105B 0105A 33 5001 34 5006 131 5004 64 5005 5002 7 17 26 14 4 8 6 15 13 18 11 5003 16 9 12 10 5 20 19 3 PSFG 27 NAME ADAMS BAHIA DEL DIABLO BARTLEY CANADA CLARK CPI COMMONWEALTH FINGER GOODSPEED HART HEIMDALL KALESNIKA KRASOVSKOGO LA CROIX MESERVE MPII MIERS PACKARD SCHLATTER SUESS TAYLOR AN VICTORIA LOWER VICTORIA UPPER WRIGHT LOWER WRIGHT UPPER B ALERCE AZUFRE BONETE S CASTANO OVERO DE LOS TRES FRIAS FRIAS GUESSFELDT HORCONES INFERIOR MARTIAL MARTIAL ESTE MORENO PENON RIO MANSO TUPUNGATO 01 TUPUNGATO 02 TUPUNGATO 03 TUPUNGATO 04 UPSALA VACAS AEU. LANGTALER F.78 -54.43 12. WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 885 2665 893 877 894 878 873 888 889 890 1434 1079 875 892 886 880 872 876 874 881 879 891 895 1346 2851 1348 918 1675 1347 1661 2848 919 917 2000 920 2850 1345 2852 2853 2854 2855 921 2849 504 594 497 500 567 496 1453 1452 481 2674 603 502 528 604 513 577 597 562 1632 601 476 595 564 579 EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS KARNISCHE ALPEN EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS STUBAIER ALPEN GRANATSPITZ GR.48 47.78 47.18 -49.10 46.PAT.70 10.00 -68.08 47. HOFMANNS K. SILVRETTA STUBAIER ALPS STUBAIER ALPEN STUBAIER ALPEN GROSSGLOCKNER G STUBAIER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN VENEDIGER GRUP.17 -41.ICEFIELD ACONCAGUA ACONCAGUA MONTES MARTIAL MONTES MARTIAL S.08 161.50 162.67 13.33 11.13 47.81 47.98 47. DAUNKOGEL F.13 46.83 -73. OBERSULZBACH K.) MITTELBERG F.38 162.00 -71. GLOCKNER GR.92 10.00 47. SCHALF F. FREIGER F.60 12.23 12.06 -71. LIESENSER F.13 47.05 10.59 -32.PIRCHLKAR JAMTAL F.33 -41.60 10.00 -32.10 11.42 -77. OETZTALER ALPEN SCHOBER GROUP OETZTALER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN SILVRETTA STUBAIER ALPEN DACHSTEIN GR. FURTSCHAGL K. OETZTALER ALPEN SONNBLICK GR.59 10.15 12.00 162. GURGLER F. Notes: PU: political unit.65 -77.98 47.00 10. KALSER BAERENKOPF K. KESSELWAND FERNER KL.00 46. INN.00 -70.13 11.68 12. AUKOGEL GR. AUKOGEL GR. MITTLERE ZUNGE KRUML K.13 10.50 -77.22 11.33 -77.88 46.63 -77. KARLES F. FirstRY: first reference year.47 162. OEDENWINKEL K.15 11. SCHLEGEIS K.98 10.07 47.18 46. GROSSELEND K.25 12.TAUERN K. KARLINGER K. FirstSY: first survey year.50 .77 11.13 10.48 -35. PFAFFEN F.) MAURER K. FERNAU F. NoObs: number of observations.75 162.98 46.87 10.84 47.00 46.10 13. SCHMIEDINGER K.13 46.92 11. OETZTALER ALPEN AUKOGEL GR.14 12. HOCHJOCH F.08 11.80 47. SILVRETTA GLOCKNER GR.08 46.78 46. HABACH KEES HALLSTAETTER G. PFANDLSCHARTEN PITZTALERJOECHL PLESSNITZ K. MUTMAL F.73 -69.77 11.13 161. 47.10 12.25 12. HORN K.27 -77.GRUEBL F. BIELTAL F E BIELTAL F W BIELTAL F.13 11. GRANATSPITZ GROUP OETZTALER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR. KA.10 47.90 10. LITZNERGL. ZILLERTALER A. ALPEINER F. SCHLADMINGER G.88 46. EISER K.18 47.08 12. SONNBLICK GROUP VENEDIGER GRUP.62 46.37 -77. ROTMOOS F.17 47.78 46.88 46.58 -77.05 47.46 162.82 46.17 12.11 47.20 12.13 47.72 11.42 -68.48 162. BAERENKOPF K.13 10.16 12. LANDECK K. BIELTALFERNER MITTE BILDSTOECKL F.08 47.93 47.ANDES PATAGONIA NAHUEL HUAPIN. OETZTALER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR.92 10. ZILLERTALER A. OETZTALER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPS SILVRETTA GRANATSPITZ GR. ROTER KNOPF K. CORDILLERA PRINCIPAL CORDILLERA PRINCIPAL CORDILLERA PRINCIPAL CORDILLERA PRINCIPAL PATAGONIA CORDILLERA FRONTAL EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS TUPUNGATO TUPUNGATO TUPUNGATO TUPUNGATO S. KLOSTERTALER M KLOSTERTALER N KLOSTERTALER S KRIMMLER K.04 10. SILVRETTA DACHSTEIN GR.08 LONGITUDE 163.48 46.77 13.37 -33.52 -50.07 10. SILVRETTA STUBAIER ALPEN SILVRETTA SILVRETTA OETZTALER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR. STUBAI ALPS OETZTALER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN SCHOBER GROUP DACHSTEIN GR.88 12.80 46.ICEFIELD PLANCHON-PETEROA PATAGON.93 12. SCHATTENSPITZ SCHAUFEL F. WGMS ID: internal WGMS key.87 46. VENEDIGER GRUP.10 12. VENEDIGER GROUP SONNBLICK GROUP STUBAIER ALPEN GRANATSPITZ GR.13 12.68 12.08 -70.) HORN K.60 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs Appendix 2 Meta-data on available fluctuation data Overview table on available length change (FV) and mass balance data series (MB) up to the year 2005.78 47. E.28 -70.(ZILLER) HT. GLOCKNER GR. PSFG: local PSFG key.50 -35.87 46.ch/ dataexp.92 12.82 -77.88 12.93 47. BOCKKOGEL F. PASTERZEN K.12 47.77 10.15 47. CORDILLERA PRINCIPAL PLANCHON-PETEROA DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS TAYLOR VALLEY WRIGHT VALLEY MIERS VALLEY VICTORIA VALLEY TAYLOR VALLEY TAYLOR VALLEY TAYLOR VALLEY VICTORIA VALLEY VICTORIA VALLEY WRIGHT VALLEY WRIGHT VALLEY DRY VALLEYS ANTARCTIC PENINSULA DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS DRY VALLEYS AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT 1975 1896 1984 1859 1855 1983 1849 1877 1970 1953 1955 1898 1891 1896 1899 1924 1847 1847 1898 1890 1946 1937 1984 1881 1950 1982 1892 1961 1927 1970 1950 1840 1894 1850 1961 1898 1924 1844 1968 1968 1924 1896 1896 1906 1899 1905 1978 1879 1974 1928 1905 1932 1933 1870 1961 1896 1855 1891 1968 1870 1871 1850 1896 1879 1981 1884 1959 1929 1961 1952 1961 1968 1891 2002 1891 1924 1973 1891 1877 1984 1891 1896 1952 1973 1903 1974 1897 1984 1856 1856 1983 1850 1884 1971 1957 1955 1900 1892 1897 1893 1925 1848 1848 1900 1856 1947 1937 1984 1882 1951 1982 1892 1962 1927 1971 1951 1860 1900 1851 1963 1900 1924 1846 1969 1969 1924 1897 1897 1906 1900 1905 1978 1846 1974 1929 1905 1933 1934 1856 1896 1897 1856 1892 1969 1883 1815 1891 1897 1880 1981 1885 1959 1930 1963 1889 1963 1969 1892 2002 1847 1925 1974 1912 1884 1984 1857 1897 1952 1974 1969 1991 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1994 1969 1989 2004 2005 2005 2005 2003 2005 2005 2005 2005 2003 1991 2005 2005 1987 2005 2005 1994 2005 2005 1998 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1979 1982 2005 2005 1994 2005 2003 1986 1995 2004 2005 2005 1991 2003 2004 2005 1983 2005 2005 2003 1995 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1992 1971 1952 2005 2005 2002 1991 2005 2005 2005 2005 1994 2004 2005 1999 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 10 38 22 111 91 23 156 67 21 9 33 91 89 67 92 26 81 111 82 100 41 13 22 105 34 24 93 26 75 33 48 73 73 155 42 88 19 48 37 36 66 74 73 21 14 60 27 108 11 54 63 73 26 107 44 60 72 101 35 110 89 85 46 124 24 47 8 8 35 52 34 19 102 4 111 76 19 76 59 15 75 37 46 32 32 2005 2005 1 1991 1999 9 1963 1970 8 1998 1998 1 1953 2001 2005 2005 53 5 1989 2005 17 1953 2005 53 2001 2005 5 Source: Data from WGMS.47 47. SW MARZELL F.75 -77.70 -77.15 47.02 12. FREIWAND K.35 162.38 11. EAST KRIMMLER K.87 47.GLOCKNER GR. NIEDERJOCH F.(VEN.07 10.10 46.08 47. AUKOGEL GR. HOCHMOOS F.93 47.79 47.72 12.00 47.05 47.02 12.25 12.15 46.42 -77. STUBAIER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN DACHSTEIN GR.PAT.68 10.79 12. GRANATSPITZ GROUP GLOCKNER GR.80 12.11 46.05 47.OELGRUBEN F.03 47. SCHLATEN K.87 47.30 10. GLOCKNER GR.40 -73. DORFER K. GR. KLEINEISER K. LAENGENTALER F.95 12.83 -70.12 46.80 -69. GLOCKNER GR.12 13. STUBAIER ALPEN PATAGONIA CORDILLERA FRONTAL CENTRAL ANDES ANDES FUEGUINOS ANDES FUEGUINOS PATAGONIA CORDILLERA PRINCIPAL S.08 46. LAPERWITZ K.97 47.93 11.60 13. FILLECK K.90 11.12 11.39 -33.67 162.78 10.88 46. BACHFALLEN F. S KAELBERSPITZ K. GAISKAR F.55 -77.ICEFIELD ACONCAGUA OETZTALER ALPS STUBAIER ALPEN STUBAIER ALPEN STUBAIER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR.03 47.07 46.10 46.67 10.08 46. RETTENBACH F.36 -33.82 -75.85 46.(SCHOB.37 13.65 47.20 10. SCHLAPPEREBEN K.97 47.87 46.GOSAU G.78 -50.05 47. BRENNKOGL K.PAT.37 163.88 47. GR GOLDBERG KEE GR.12 10. GOESSNITZ K.75 12.33 -71.50 -77.html SPECIFIC LOCATION MIERS VALLEY VEGA ISLAND WRIGHT VALLEY TAYLOR VALLEY WRIGHT VALLEY TAYLOR VALLEY TAYLOR VALLEY WRIGHT VALLEY WRIGHT VALLEY WRIGHT VALLEY LATITUDE -78.08 47. HINTEREIS FERNER HOCHALM K.13 46.00 46.97 12.95 12. OETZTALER ALPEN STUBAIER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR.28 161.62 10.12 -70. OETZTALER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR.75 -69. LARAIN F.05 47.28 13.82 10.70 11.65 10.27 -41. EISKAR G. BERGLAS F. FROSNITZ K.78 47. RIFFL K.47 13. WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 552 585 530 508 522 532 1305 536 2675 1308 561 542 599 511 490 1310 535 491 538 492 495 550 531 589 521 505 480 571 540 2676 493 568 507 547 555 541 1306 477 485 486 484 584 1309 2677 527 499 569 510 553 479 498 607 2678 515 558 576 494 487 506 516 583 483 559 566 591 563 1311 2679 570 488 554 606 518 3297 509 514 526 602 534 544 580 586 548 525 533 EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS SPECIFIC LOCATION GLOCKNER GR.07 10.52 -77. OETZTALER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN VENEDIGER GRUP.85 47. GAISSBERG F.43 162. GRAWAWAND FERNER GRIESKOGL K. LITZNERGL.93 10. SCHNEEGLOCKEN SCHNEELOCH G.83 166.67 12.92 46.88 46.08 47.10 47.47 -33.13 46.FLEISS K.66 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 67 PU PSFG 722 406 325 225 202 1201 0802B 1101 313 709 1001 315 222 210 504 1102 209 1005 208 309 724 1202 402 203 228 106 0602B 1003 207 701 226 801 717 1002 803 703 0102B 0102A 0102C 0501A 0501B 806 305 604 223 721 107 306 101 218 714 510 206 214 227 217 502 103 712 704 324 707 213 603 212 718 0713A 215 224 219 108 311 1103 805 506 405 726 109 1104 NAME FRUSCHNITZ K.75 12.00 46. KRIMMLER K. MAURER K.55 -78.15 LONGITUDE 12.10 10.97 46.23 162.67 11.75 -69.75 -57.55 -41. GRANATSPITZ K. SCHOBER GROUP ZILLERTALER A.02 46.08 47.96 47.75 162.29 10.87 -41.07 46. KLEINER SONNBLICK KEES KLOCKERIN K.11 47.60 11.KRAEUL F.97 46.12 12.03 47.58 -82.98 47.87 47. N RIFFLKAR KEES ROFENKAR F.65 12.92 13. An update of this list in various digital formats is available on the WGMS website: www.45 -41. GEPATSCH F. GUSLAR F.87 46.07 12.73 10. SILVRETTA SILVRETTA SILVRETTA VENEDIGER GRUP.wgms.33 10.41 12. STUBAI MONTAINS GLOCKNER GR.59 11.89 47.43 162.77 12.42 -77.15 46.85 47.

20 -123.00 47.93 52.00 -72. COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS CDN ARCTIC ARCH COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS BRIT.35 -16.30 46.00 -63. SCHWARZENBERG F. VD.57 46.05 -116.23 -122.37 11.12 47.95 58.88 47.98 7.37 -116.60 52.95 7.42 9.13 -123.85 46.90 46.55 -122.92 -123. TAUERN K. WARD HUNT IS.83 -116.07 12.KASTEN K.97 -118.70 8. OETZTALER ALPEN STUBAIER ALPEN STUBAIER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN GRANATSPITZ GR.33 50.02 47.COLUMBIA COAST MOUNTAINS LABRADOR COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS ST. DATLASAKA RANGE BULKLEY RANGES NOEICK RIVERENE GARIBALDI PARK WAPTA ICEFIELD BIRKEN B.83 8.97 45.58 -116. STUBAIER ALPEN SILVRETTA OETZTALER ALPEN VENEDIGER GRUP.15 47. SIMMING F.COLUMBIA HAZELTON MTNS.12 46. W WESTLICHES WURTEN K.85 53.65 -125.42 9.77 -123.48 46. AUKOGEL GR.72 59.62 46.83 46.01 12.08 50.80 7.17 -73.67 50. GLOCKNER GR.75 51.ALM UMBAL K.66 11. ELAHO BASIN GARIBALDI PARK AXEL HEIBERG IS LATITUDE 75.75 12.07 46. UEBERGOSS.47 9.18 13.13 52.12 83.48 50.75 69.50 46.90 47.50 8.43 69.05 46.98 -123.25 58.11 13.88 7.98 47. WAVE WEDGEMOUNT WHITE WOOLSEY YOHO YURI ZAVISHA ALBIGNA ALLALIN ALPETLI(KANDER) AMMERTEN AROLLA (BAS) BASODINO BELLA TOLA BIFERTEN BIS BLUEMLISALP BOVEYRE BRENEY BRESCIANA BRUNEGG BRUNNI CALDERAS CAMBRENA CAVAGNOLI CHEILLON CORBASSIERE CORNO CROSLINA DAMMA DUNGEL EIGER EN DARREY FEE NORTH FERPECLE FIESCHER FINDELEN FIRNALPELI FORNO GAMCHI GAULI GELTEN GIETRO GLAERNISCH GORNER GRAND DESERT GRAND PLAN NEVE GRIES GRIESS(KLAUSEN) GRIESSEN(OBWA.35 12.38 7.43 50.04 47.65 8.53 -123.17 79.77 -123.50 8.95 50. SCHWARZENSTEIN SCHWARZKARL K.58 -137. UNT.15 47.90 51.98 47.38 -68.97 46.93 57.50 49.97 50. WILDGERLOS WINKL K.26 7.87 59.25 -116. TOTENFELD TOTENKOPF K.48 7.97 -123.77 CHILCOTIN BASIN NOEICK RIVER SE GARIBALDI ELAHO BASIN GARIBALDI PARK TORNGAT MTS. RISE WARD H.08 51.79 8.GRUEBL F.13 47.COLUMBIA COAST MOUNTAINS HIGH ARCTIC COAST MOUNTAINS ROCKY MOUNTAINS NWT CANADA NWT CANADA NWT CANADA NWT CANADA COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS ROCKY MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS BRIT.53 -130. NOEICK RIVER EASTERN SLOPES BANFF NAT.35 46.38 8.42 45.63 -122.98 -117.05 47.38 83. WURTEN K.34 7.20 -126.15 47.88 79.10 56.42 7. WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 529 501 588 556 560 520 3296 596 575 573 512 600 503 519 572 517 551 524 2680 592 543 574 605 582 478 593 482 489 581 598 539 565 590 523 2681 2682 549 587 537 557 545 578 1505 2667 1503 48 32 34 1419 26 1401 25 7 1 38 1435 1436 66 11 58 47 10 40 17 1392 1410 39 1398 1421 62 56 20 1404 1395 61 27 21 12 1397 45 49 1407 1400 23 1413 BRIT.85 50.15 13. VERBORGENBERG F.87 -116. STUBAIER ALPEN AUKOGEL GR.90 -117.95 11.71 9.37 51.85 51.03 8.30 46.60 10. WESTLICHER GRUEBLER F.37 46. SASKATCHEWAN R.10 50.53 46.60 -126.15 12.51 46.43 49.38 -74. VERMUNTGL. VENEDIGER GRUP.08 11.43 52.60 LONGITUDE -79.50 46.68 -123.80 46.90 12.70 7.22 13. TASCHACH F.03 47.13 10.33 7.25 1855 1881 1893 1969 1856 1893 1945 1883 1900 1893 1889 1881 1896 1934 1882 1920 1888 1893 1924 1889 1893 1989 1921 1893 1876 1880 1883 1891 1891 1885 1894 1833 1883 1882 1999 1889 1923 1882 1892 1893 1847 1929 1894 1870 1882 1891 1882 1884 1894 1970 1886 1894 1946 1884 1901 1894 1890 1882 1898 1941 1883 1921 1889 1894 1925 1890 1895 1990 1922 1894 1883 1929 1884 1892 1892 1886 1895 1864 1884 1886 2003 1890 1926 1883 1893 1894 1880 1930 1895 1881 1883 1892 1991 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1996 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2003 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2003 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2001 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2003 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 7 110 47 35 112 87 56 69 27 99 46 59 78 64 95 57 52 41 76 67 33 14 80 39 84 69 97 109 109 77 69 107 99 53 1 59 56 111 104 90 48 69 71 114 113 100 1976 1995 20 1962 2005 44 2005 2005 1 1992 2005 14 1923 1912 1883 1983 1964 1914 1883 1919 1959 1884 1927 1951 1978 1895 1927 1871 1951 1900 1795 1750 1904 1865 1951 1887 1923 1945 1928 1947 1984 1966 1951 1947 1924 1960 1906 1936 1982 1979 1931 1931 1902 1975 1954 1886 1893 1938 1935 1975 1888 1945 1958 1960 1979 1985 1978 1985 1979 1972 1962 1965 1936 1982 1982 1978 1948 1954 1982 1985 1978 1979 1965 1958 1975 1960 1978 10 15 1981 5 2 1981 7 5 5 6 3 1961 6 1 1 4 7 6 12 2 4 8 6 3 12 1 29 16 1975 1975 1 1975 1982 2005 1984 28 3 2005 45 1985 5 1990 8 CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH DEVON ISLAND 75.PARK GARIBALDI PARK GARIBALDI PROV.43 79.20 TATLOW RANGE YOHO NAT.GLOCKNER GR.07 46.60 -125.38 8.88 .20 52.28 -122.COLUMBIA COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS TROPICAL ANDES TROPICAL ANDES TROPICAL ANDES LABRADOR COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS SPECIFIC LOCATION ZILLERTALER A.50 -83.55 52.03 7. GLOCKNER GR.25 -90. W.92 52.50 46. SIMILAUN F.78 -123.73 53.53 -122.74 7.23 KOKANEE GLACIER 49.32 12.23 51.02 47.C.88 59.92 49.85 -116.77 7.78 9.40 -123.67 12. ISKUT RIVER ISKUT RIVER NOEICK RIVER NOEICK RIVER COLUMBIA ICEF. GLOCKNER GR. COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS ALBERTA CDN ARCTIC ARCH LABRADOR BRIT.08 10.63 46.13 46.53 7.67 -118. SH.45 46.24 46. ZETTALUNITZ K.00 12.58 8.15 52.22 -117.43 LONGITUDE 12.92 49. TAUFKAR F.25 46.57 -116. SONNBLICK KEES SPIEGEL F.85 -126. W.10 47.64 7.48 7.15 46.07 47. OETZTALER ALPEN GLOCKNER GR. 51.50 -99.68 52.15 7.88 47.83 46. CORDILLERA REAL CORDILLERA REAL CORDILLERA REAL TORNGAT MTS.08 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1903 1890 1850 1961 1955 1870 2003 1891 1896 1960 1891 1850 1895 1856 1968 1891 1896 1976 1970 1978 1871 1896 1960 1896 1961 1977 1902 1888 1891 1891 1925 1943 1881 1894 1974 1933 1896 1972 1920 1961 1850 1896 1963 1991 1981 1978 1945 1947 1898 1900 1922 1983 1891 1882 1963 1955 1883 2003 1892 1897 1961 1892 1891 1898 1878 1970 1892 1897 1975 1971 1978 1892 1897 1961 1829 1963 1977 1903 1889 1892 1893 1928 1944 1882 1891 1975 1934 1897 1913 1928 1963 1851 1897 1983 1992 1982 1980 1946 1951 1899 1951 1945 1989 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1990 2003 1991 2005 2005 2005 1992 2005 2005 2005 1991 2005 2005 2005 2005 2003 2004 2005 2005 2005 2003 1992 2005 2005 2004 1994 2005 2005 2005 2005 1984 1990 1946 1984 1931 1984 1980 6 67 102 38 48 76 3 78 71 45 104 89 67 85 20 87 16 29 33 26 52 73 45 74 17 28 85 114 71 57 62 59 99 85 27 59 41 34 62 25 155 67 16 14 3 7 1 4 13 4 23 1960 1976 2005 1984 31 9 1992 2003 1992 1982 1979 1978 2005 2005 2005 1984 1990 1990 14 3 14 3 9 10 1983 2005 23 1991 1965 1999 2005 9 41 1959 2005 47 1959 1971 1971 1 1974 1976 1982 1975 2000 1984 2 19 3 1964 1875 1900 1900 1897 1900 1908 1912 1924 1935 1919 1968 1895 1893 1966 1946 1954 1928 1933 1947 1911 1925 1953 1936 1926 1970 1931 1947 1978 1978 1978 1995 1965 1984 1953 1980 1953 1985 1953 1978 1978 1979 7 6 2 8 17 3 1966 5 24 1 23 3 3 7 1982 6 1976 1989 1985 1989 10 1 1984 3 1966 1989 23 1974 9 1966 1965 2005 2005 39 41 CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH 1900 1883 1960 1886 1915 1720 1898 1951 1947 1961 1931 1921 1900 1903 1982 1979 1977 1977 1929 1982 1966 5 7 11 6 1981 4 3 14 1981 1981 1985 1985 5 5 1990 7 1947 1900 1959 1901 1948 1920 1960 1903 1979 1995 1977 1931 5 25 11 16 1978 1976 1990 1985 10 10 1960 1966 2005 1974 43 9 725 404 1006 715 804 508 5180 5150 110 133 148 150 170 185 187 190 205 0210A 0210B 0210C 234 245 265 275 290 310 335 350 370 431 480 510 575 560 675 685 690 692 698 784 840 851 855 875 890 940 1190 721 WIELINGER K.97 46.25 51.78 -122.34 8.17 47. ZILLERTALER A.50 45. ZILLERTALER A.05 52.22 -117.20 50. SIMONY K.12 11. VENEDIGER GRUP. COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS ROCKY MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS ROCKY MOUNTAINS SPECIFIC LOCATION MEIGHEN ISLAND TORNGAT MTS.96 47. WEISSEE F.78 -123.00 46. WURFER K. SCHWARZKOEPFL K. SULZTAL F.17 -16.95 -122.12 10.68 -127.TRIPP K.88 47.32 12.68 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 69 PU AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT BO BO BO CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA PSFG 407 303 403 716 710 204 318 511 0601A 221 0314A 301 205 0602A 216 723 110 323 901 512 0713B 503 719 322 104 211 505 316 1004 705 401 201 NAME SCHOENACH K.98 47.45 51.30 8.93 51.09 -68.80 7.28 -123. SULZENAU F. TEISCHNITZ K.88 11.98 46.38 51. GLOCKNER GR.15 46. VERNAGT FERNER VILTRAGEN K.COLUMBIA COAST MOUNTAINS LABRADOR COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS BRIT.68 10.48 -119.73 46.13 46.42 52.68 -136.78 46.60 10.12 -68.60 49.97 58.85 12.12 51.93 58.00 46.50 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA PSFG 720 1335 1350 1402 1430 1465 1590 1640 1660 1690 1815 1875 1905 1911 1915 1958 1965 1973 1983 1986 1995 2007 2015 2025 2050 2035 2040 2070 2075 2220 2318 2320 2330 2333 2340 2380 2520 2530 2605 116 11 109 111 27 104 21 77 107 64 41 36 103 20 72 95 99 119 29 38 120 121 70 112 59 30 13 25 4 16 75 102 61 52 113 37 80 14 31 45 3 74 76 5 73 7 NAME LAIKA GLACIER MEIGHEN ICE CAP MINARET NADAHINI NEW MOON NOEICK OVERLORD PEYTO PLACE PURGATORY RAM RIVER ROBSON SASKATCHEWAN SCOTT SENTINEL SOUTHEAST LYELL SPHINX STAIRCASE SUPERGUKSOAK SURF SYKORA TATS TCHAIKAZAN TERRIFIC THOMPSON GLACIE THUNDERCLAP TIEDEMANN TOBY TSOLOSS VICTORIA WARD H.85 12. RIFFL KEES UNTERSULZBACH K.80 10.47 49.11 46. AXEL HEIBERG BAFFIN ISLAND BAFFIN ISLAND BAFFIN ISLAND HOMATHKO RIVER TOBA INLET BAS.18 7.15 11.78 46.80 -123.45 46.45 7.08 -16.37 7.13 -63.15 8.75 75.02 51.00 -72.08 46.07 46.50 50.98 -117.25 12.98 46.) GROSSER ALETSCH HUEFI KALTWASSER WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 1412 16 50 3 5 28 43 57 41 29 1394 1418 8 1420 44 1393 19 18 51 13 59 72 60 15 1411 22 24 1403 63 1399 53 52 14 42 0 1402 1396 30 46 1674 394 439 435 377 463 383 422 388 436 459 368 465 384 427 403 399 464 375 366 468 1681 429 1678 442 374 392 379 471 389 424 396 440 449 1679 367 418 391 373 455 359 425 423 360 426 363 COAST MOUNTAINS COAST MOUNTAINS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS ALPS WESTERN ALPS ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS ELLESMERE IS.82 50. SONNBLICK GR.63 -123.60 -63.43 46.02 47.42 46.60 -126.96 47. SE GARIBALDI TORNGAT MTS ELAHO BASIN BRIDGE RIVER ALSEK RANGES CHILCOTIN RANGE TOBA INLET BAS.00 45. SE GARIBALDI HOMATHKO RIVER TATLOW RANGE WARD HUNT IS.17 -63. SEXEGERTEN F.15 51.39 46.57 -117.82 12.90 -117.28 -91.42 51.02 50. I.72 10.10 49.20 51.02 46. OETZTALER ALPEN STUBAI SONNBLICK GROUP GR.85 51. BRIDGE RIVER LILLOOET BASIN ELAHO BASIN LATITUDE 47. STUBAIER ALPEN ZILLERTALER A.43 -90.82 -130.20 79.15 50.13 46.98 -122.64 11. I. GRANATPITZ GR.82 46.00 -124.02 46.87 8.67 12.85 8.77 -126.80 10.68 13.00 46.75 69.78 -90.85 46.17 -122.97 -72.44 46.27 12. TRIEBENKARLAS F.13 -118.12 -130.52 51.PARK SE GARIBALDI 51.73 8.58 -122.88 -116.22 -117.98 7.72 11. OETZTALER ALPEN OETZTALER ALPEN STUBAIER ALPEN VENEDIGER GRUP.72 11.85 46.82 46.13 47.99 8.05 47.00 45.43 47. ELIAS MTS.13 -79. WASSERFALLWINKL WAXEGG K.22 -115.62 -116. GLOCKNER GR.68 51.93 7.03 51. CHACALTAYA CHARQUINI SUR ZONGO ABRAHAM ALEXANDER ANDREI ANGEL APE ASULKAN ATAVIST ATHABASCA BABY GLACIER BARNES ICE CAP BARNES ICE CAP BARNES ICE CAP BENCH BERM BOUNDARY BRIDGE BUGABOO CALTHA LAKE CLENDENNING COLUMBIA CDN 35 CRUSOE GLACIER DEVON ICE CAP DRUMMOND EAST CHABA ELKIN EMERALD FLEUR D.25 12.NEIGES FRANKLIN FRESHFIELD FRIENDLY FYLES GRIFFIN HAVOC HECTOR HELM HIDDEN HOURGLASS ILLECILLEWAET KOKANEE LAIKA GL + ICE ISKUT RIVER BRIDGE RIVER ADDA BASIN RHONE BASIN AARE BASIN AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN TESSIN BASIN RHONE BASIN LIMMAT BASIN RHONE BASIN AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN TESSIN BASIN RHONE BASIN REUSS BASIN INN BASIN ADDA BASIN TESSIN BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN TESSIN BASIN TESSIN ALPS REUSS BASIN BERNESE ALPS AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN REUSS BASIN ADDA BASIN AARE BASIN AARE BASIN BERNESE ALPS RHONE BASIN LIMMAT BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN REUSS BASIN REUSS BASIN RHONE BASIN REUSS BASIN RHONE BASIN 56. SILVRETTA GLOCKNER GROUP STUBAIER ALPEN HOCHKOENIG VENEDIGER GRUP. ELLESMERE IS.15 79.17 47. GLOCKNER GR.

22 46.PAT.ICEFIELD GOLMUD RIVER CHANGJIANG GOZHA LAKE GOZHA LAKE CHANGJIANG HUANGHE MUZHAERT BASIN AKSU BASIN SHULEHE BASIN KUYTUN HE KUYTUN HE KUYTUN HE MUZHAERT BASIN LANCANG JIANG -47.50 -70.82 46.00 -73.13 46.87 -46.12 -73.15 96.42 46.51 LAPATE NO.45 46.62 46.11 7.PAT.70 46.ICEFIELD N.GRINDELWALD OBERAAR OBERALETSCH OFENTAL OTEMMA PALUE PANEYROSSE PARADIES PARADISINO PIERREDAR PIZOL PLATTALVA PORCHABELLA PRAPIO PUNTEGLIAS RAETZLI RHONE RIED ROSEG ROSENLAUI ROSSBODEN ROTFIRN NORD SALEINA SANKT ANNA SARDONA SCALETTA SCHWARZ SCHWARZBERG SESVENNA SEX ROUGE SILVRETTA STEIN STEINLIMMI SULZ SURETTA TAELLIBODEN TIATSCHA TIEFEN TRIENT TRIFT (GADMEN) TSANFLEURON TSCHIERVA TSCHINGEL TSEUDET TSIDJIORE NOUVE TURTMANN (WEST) UNT.PAT.08 46.60 9.03 -49.57 -73.PAT.45 -50.40 84.70 -46.PAT.62 46.42 8. HENGDUAN SHAN KUNLUN MT.30 -73.PAT.PAT.84 -52.ICEFIELD S.30 -73.13 -33.47 -50.75 -69.42 -50.PAT.PAT.58 46.03 -73.01 8.28 -50.45 -46.53 MUZHAERT NAINUOGERU WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 2015 2008 1027 1660 1344 1646 1011 1021 2005 2006 2031 2024 2028 2036 2051 2052 2054 2055 2056 1637 1659 1044 1019 1020 1039 1038 1037 1640 1642 1643 1644 1648 1649 1647 1651 1654 1655 1638 1639 1016 2001 2002 2034 1022 1024 1636 1633 1015 2004 2003 1030 1031 1645 1658 1641 1032 1018 1017 2007 1041 1042 1656 1023 1036 1635 2014 1010 1013 2009 1043 2012 859 841 861 860 849 846 866 867 855 844 842 843 865 847 PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA CENTRAL ANDES CENTRAL ANDES PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA CENTRAL ANDES PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATOGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA NORTHERN CHILE PATAGONIA CENTRAL ANDES PATAGONIA LAKE DISTRICT KUNLUN MT.PAT.13 46.42 7.83 46.18 9.ICEFIELD N.38 -71.18 -74.51 7.PAT.45 .93 9.79 -52.38 46.97 -51.52 46.PAT.67 46.85 -48.78 -73.ICEFIELD S.13 -33.10 8.32 46.50 45.71 46.02 46.15 -70.38 46.81 N.00 -73.03 -49.97 8. KALAGEYULE WUK.22 8.ICEFIELD S.01 -73.90 -47.41 7.81 CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN S.46 46.28 41.60 7.ICEFIELD N.ICEFIELD N.57 46.13 -73.PAT.00 -50.04 8.21 10.45 7.03 7.87 81.93 99.63 46.02 46.ICEFIELD S.ICEFIELD S.35 -74.53 -51.87 -73.13 N.60 46.ICEFIELD N.PAT.13 -52.ICEFIELD LATITUDE 46.79 46.ICEFIELD N.98 46.ICEFIELD S.03 -48.PAT.03 8.38 -47.23 -73.13 -46.40 80.85 -73.05 9.ICEFIELD S.PAT.92 -73.72 42.08 -73.00 -50.58 -70.25 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU CL CL CL CL CL CL PSFG 59 71 20 63 0001B 49 28 26 68 69 1016 1009 1013 1021 1036 1037 1039 1040 1041 40 62 0001A 0004A 0004B 8 9 10 43 45 46 47 51 52 50 54 57 58 41 42 30 64 65 1019 25 23 39 36 31 67 66 17 16 48 61 44 15 0003A 0003B 70 6 5 59 24 11 38 55 29 35 72 2 75 36 28 34 35 31 23 14 15 4 25 27 26 13 33 NAME CHICO CIPRESES COLONIA DICKSON ECHAURREN NORTE EUROPA EXPLORADORES FIERO G30 G32 GALERIA GCN09 GCN13 GCN22 GCN37 GCN38 GCN40 GCN41 GCN42 GREVE GREY GROSSE GUALAS N-TONGUE GUALAS S-TONGUE HPN 1 HPN 2 HPN 3 HPS12 HPS13 HPS15 HPS19 HPS28 HPS29 HPS31 HPS34 HPS38 HPS41 HPS8 HPS9 JORGE MONTT JUNCAL NORTE JUNCAL SUR LENGUA LEONES NEF OCCIDENTAL OFHIDRO O'HIGGINS OLIVARES BETA OLIVARES GAMA PARED NORTE PARED SUR PENGUIN PINGO PIO XI PISCIS REICHER NE REICHER SW RISOPATRON SAN QUINTIN SAN RAFAEL SNOWY SOLER STEFFEN TEMPANO TRINIDAD TRONQUITOS TYNDALL UNIVERSIDAD UNNAMED RC1 VERDE COLLIERY DAGONGBA GOZHA GULIYA HAILUOGOU HALONG GL.62 46.00 -34.08 8.75 42.45 9.ICEFIELD S.55 9.PAT.58 36.PAT.90 46.PAT.05 -73.PAT.53 46.92 -73.PAT.72 -49.PAT.22 -47.72 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1893 1928 1917 1888 1882 1895 1885 1895 1894 1959 1891 1879 1890 1892 1956 1874 1918 1879 1858 1870 1922 1881 1885 1886 1873 1955 1923 1893 1969 1893 1898 1895 1925 1879 1895 1855 1880 1891 1956 1878 1867 1895 1998 1924 1880 1956 1898 1956 1893 1961 1912 1930 1922 1850 1922 1879 1891 1884 1934 1893 1890 1880 1885 1879 1876 1970 1971 1889 1926 1882 1893 1891 1892 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1961 1945 1945 1945 1911 1945 1894 1931 1919 1889 1886 1897 1886 1897 1895 1960 1892 1880 1891 1893 1957 1880 1919 1880 1880 1881 1923 1882 1895 1887 1898 1956 1924 1894 1970 1894 1899 1897 1928 1880 1896 1881 1882 1892 1957 1880 1882 1897 1999 1925 1909 1957 1899 1957 1894 1962 1913 1931 1923 1894 1923 1880 1892 1885 1943 1894 1891 1882 1886 1880 1880 1971 1973 1890 1927 1886 1894 1892 1893 1975 1975 1984 1984 1975 1976 1981 1976 1975 1984 1945 1975 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1992 1997 2005 2001 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2001 2001 2005 1996 2005 2004 2004 2005 2005 1995 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2001 2005 2005 2005 1996 2002 2005 2005 2004 2005 2005 2005 2005 2004 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1996 2003 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2001 2001 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1997 1996 1990 1986 1986 1990 1993 1997 1986 1990 1986 2000 1997 104 58 47 105 87 90 41 84 64 32 89 74 58 101 45 118 69 98 74 37 51 65 72 85 95 42 37 93 32 98 91 98 64 124 53 99 61 109 47 112 72 92 6 77 75 45 89 46 109 43 70 67 59 69 76 125 41 110 59 56 49 113 113 117 111 31 29 107 69 81 99 111 61 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 2 3 2 6 2 1960 2005 46 1980 1983 4 1948 1989 42 1948 1985 38 1945 1860 1945 1901 1945 1945 1945 1955 1955 1984 1984 1984 1942 1984 1984 1942 1942 1942 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1981 1945 1945 1981 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1976 1945 1955 1955 1942 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1955 1955 1945 1945 1981 1945 1830 1945 1945 1945 1955 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1955 1945 1955 1945 1961 1969 1981 1970 1970 1930 1966 1964 1973 1962 1964 1964 1964 1906 1932 1975 1888 1975 1945 1981 1975 1975 1997 1997 1986 1986 1986 1984 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1976 1967 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1984 1984 1984 1986 1984 1984 1970 1984 1984 1984 1976 1979 1976 1997 1997 1984 1975 1975 1976 1976 1976 1997 1997 1975 1975 1986 1984 1925 1975 1975 1975 1997 1975 1975 1984 1975 1975 1976 1986 1984 1975 1997 1975 1981 1989 1984 1987 1990 1966 1981 1978 1976 1976 1981 1981 1981 1959 1959 1996 1997 1990 1998 1986 1990 1990 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1987 1995 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1984 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 2000 1997 1998 1990 1990 1987 1986 1986 1997 1997 1990 1990 1986 1986 2000 1990 1990 1990 1997 1990 1990 1986 1990 1990 1986 2000 1996 1986 1997 1986 1997 1989 1990 1987 1990 1990 1981 1978 1976 1985 1981 2005 1981 1978 1982 3 4 3 5 1976 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 3 3 1 2 15 3 3 3 1 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 5 1 1 1 2 1 7 1 2 3 1976 1976 1 2005 30 N.43 8.17 9.43 43.83 39.07 8.00 46.75 -73.80 -73.53 -48.58 -50.92 46.ICEFIELD N.PAT.08 -74.PAT.62 -41.93 8.60 -50.27 46.25 -73.75 -52.ICEFIELD -46.ICEFIELD N.PAT.22 7.20 -70.47 7.28 29.27 35.14 -73.25 -50.01 -73.ICEFIELD S.30 -46.37 -73.50 -46.02 98.22 -73.ICEFIELD S.ICEFIELD N.37 7.70 43.40 46.17 -70.07 10.11 -73.20 -73.45 -46.55 -46.35 -71.98 9.40 46.ICEFIELD S.89 -52.92 -33.78 -33.87 -72.ICEFIELD S.88 7.83 46.97 46.84 8.68 -41.ICEFIELD N.57 -73.PAT.ICEFIELD S.00 -73.ICEFIELD S.85 -73.20 8.17 -47.37 46.13 -48.PAT.ICEFIELD -48.98 7.88 7.42 -28. KEGIKER LAOHUGOU LAPATE NO.66 45.13 -73.PAT.GRINDELWALD UNTERAAR VAL TORTA VALLEGGIA VALSOREY VERSTANKLA VORAB WALLENBUR ZINAL ZMUTT AMALIA ARCO ASIA BALMACEDA BENITO BERNARDO BLANCO CHICO BRUEGGEN CACHET CALVO CASA PANGUE CERRO BLANCO WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 431 393 437 386 416 414 421 400 358 470 380 381 369 372 378 1673 472 444 451 361 469 370 398 456 412 397 452 417 420 410 453 415 434 473 387 406 445 462 430 458 432 407 1680 438 395 401 454 408 448 447 419 411 362 402 433 457 446 371 405 441 364 376 385 443 450 466 467 365 409 413 428 382 390 1653 1028 1652 1657 1040 1634 2011 1014 1026 1650 2010 2013 WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA LAKE DISTRICT PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA LAKE DISTRICT PATAGONIA SPECIFIC LOCATION REUSS BASIN RHONE BASIN AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHEIN BASIN RHEIN BASIN LIMMAT BASIN INN BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN INN BASIN RHONE BASIN AARE BASIN AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN ADDA BASIN RHONE BASIN RHEIN BASIN ADDA BASIN RHONE BASIN LIMMAT BASIN LIMMAT BASIN RHEIN BASIN RHONE BASIN RHEIN BASIN AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN INN BASIN AARE BASIN TESSIN BASIN REUSS BASIN RHONE BASIN REUSS BASIN RHEIN BASIN AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN INN BASIN RHONE BASIN RHEIN BASIN AARE BASIN AARE BASIN LIMMAT BASIN RHEIN BASIN RHONE BASIN INN BASIN REUSS BASIN RHONE BASIN AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN INN BASIN AARE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN AARE BASIN AARE BASIN TESSIN BASIN TESSIN BASIN RHONE BASIN RHEIN BASIN RHEIN BASIN REUSS BASIN RHONE BASIN RHONE BASIN S.ICEFIELD S.PAT.72 -51.58 35.63 -73.PAT.07 46.18 101.68 -49.ICEFIELD S.95 7.ICEFIELD S.ICEFIELD S.67 7.17 8.52 8.63 46.70 -73.82 -51.ICEFIELD N.93 8.PAT.ICEFIELD S.20 -73.42 7.18 -73.48 101.85 46.ICEFIELD N.68 8.ICEFIELD S.33 46.25 7.92 -73.95 -47.23 -47.47 -41.32 46.18 -73.40 9.ICEFIELD S.40 7.02 45.07 46.58 -73.80 -50.17 -73.07 -70.PAT.92 46.63 7.42 46.60 -73.71 46.55 7.08 46.53 8.42 -48.ICEFIELD N.10 -73.ICEFIELD N.55 46.08 81.32 7.PAT.ICEFIELD N.PAT.ICEFIELD N.67 -73.70 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 71 PU CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL CL PSFG 68 12 63 18 82 84 78 98 46 106 24 23 35 32 26 94 2 57 50 6 9 34 100 44 86 101 49 81 114 88 48 83 65 1 17 92 56 105 69 42 67 91 115 62 10 97 47 90 53 54 79 87 8 96 66 43 55 33 93 60 40 28 19 58 51 118 117 39 89 85 71 22 15 56 19 55 60 7 37 74 32 21 53 73 34 NAME KEHLEN KESSJEN LAEMMERN LANG LAVAZ LENTA LIMMERN LISCHANA MARTINETS MITTELALETSCH MOIRY MOMING MONT DURAND MONT FORT MONT MINE MORTERATSCH MUTT OB.53 -73.ICEFIELD S.33 LONGITUDE 8.ICEFIELD N.ICEFIELD S.18 -70.93 -71.00 46.10 -48.30 28.55 84.37 80.55 -47.10 -70.75 -73.ICEFIELD S.55 LONGITUDE -73.ICEFIELD N.ICEFIELD S.76 -52.37 -46.23 -73.PAT.PAT.PAT.PAT.73 -49.87 -73.70 46.90 -73.08 -52.98 10.72 -73.65 46.PAT.05 -48.20 35.70 -74.27 9.15 8.ICEFIELD S.47 46.68 -51.92 -73.72 43.83 94.50 80.32 -49.27 10.67 -73.PAT.47 -47.88 46.90 -73.67 29.PAT.85 9.83 -52.08 45.PAT.ICEFIELD N.PAT.PAT.PAT.33 -73.05 -51.23 9.88 46.PAT.ICEFIELD N.93 7.33 -33.03 -33.09 8.99 10.67 7.PAT.18 46.PAT.18 -47.48 LAPATE NO.02 -46.43 7.08 -51.85 7.PAT.77 46.42 46.35 7.95 7.30 -49.87 -52.93 10.38 7.00 46.PAT.13 -70.19 -73.07 9.32 46.40 46. KUNLUN MT.28 -73.40 8.15 -49.17 -34.51 46.95 46.PAT.68 46.ICEFIELD RIO COPIAPO S.70 -33.10 8.48 -33.ICEFIELD S.90 46.84 46.PAT.ICEFIELD S.33 7.PAT. HENGDUAN SHAN ANYEMAGEN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN QILIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN HENGDUAN SHAN PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA CENTRAL ANDES CENTRAL ANDES PATAGONIA CENTRAL ANDES PATAGONIA PATAGONIA CENTRAL ANDES PATAGONIA PATAGONIA PATAGONIA CENTRAL ANDES CENTRAL ANDES SPECIFIC LOCATION LATITUDE -49.82 -52.67 -73.50 46.58 -73.77 -47.PAT.09 8.PAT.55 -73.33 -70.48 84.ICEFIELD -47.ICEFIELD N.09 -73.ICEFIELD S.PAT.01 7.42 -73.10 -50.48 -46.92 -74.17 -73.33 -73.70 46.73 -73.47 45.75 -73.

SER.08 79.88 45.75 88.35 73.37 -75.45 6.14 45.37 80.23 75.88 42.79 60.77 45.53 73.37 -75.30 73.17 29.13 -52.14 6.32 -75.45 92.84 6.30 -76.60 73.02 -53.01 77.22 -72.50 79.80 -45.70 42.70 42.30 -75.17 137.18 45.67 42. NARSSAQ BRAE NORDBOGLETSCHER NORDGLETSCHER QAPIARFIUP SER.65 0.88 99.43 -54. URUMQIHE S.36 32.92 2. COOK HARKER HEANEY HODGES ROSS WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 939 950 942 964 962 966 965 949 959 946 940 944 945 963 961 968 354 2324 1313 351 355 352 2326 353 2867 356 357 1312 1315 1314 232 241 233 234 236 238 240 2870 2868 2871 2872 2869 2902 2914 2874 2886 2876 3324 2883 3325 2879 2881 3326 2905 2878 2916 2917 2875 3327 2888 2903 3328 2891 1051 1050 1070 3051 3053 3050 1045 2921 3048 1047 3052 3044 3046 3054 3047 3049 3045 3055 1048 1049 1046 3059 UTTARANCHAL HIMACHAL PRADESH UTTARANCHAL HIMALAYA WESTERN HIMALAYA UTTARANCHAL CHAMOLI U.08 43.02 -53.33 -75.64 77.48 4.65 73.62 0.06 -53.4 SIGONHE NO. HIMACHAL PRADESH HIMACHAL PRADESH UTTARANCHAL HIMACHAL PRADESH UTTARANCHAL UTTARANCHAL UTTARANCHAL HIMACHAL PRADESH KINNAUR H.50 2522 CHANGMEKHANGPU CHHOTA SHIGRI CHIPA 191 DUNAGIRI GI.82 43.33 -75.05 0.16 31.42 65.87 37.88 6.81 4.17 137.63 42.94 45.35 80.40 77.QUMOLANGMA TAILAN BASIN SHIYANGHE BASIN MT.14 0.47 4.34 77.33 73.10 61.KANGIGD.47 6.33 86.88 4.55 32.85 44.13 -53.00 -53.37 -75.83 33.33 79.37 -75.33 -75.13 -45.05 -76.26 32.18 30.92 4.65 -0.40 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1975 1973 1958 1962 1921 1942 1976 1956 1959 1960 1959 1995 1962 1995 1966 1981 1969 1956 1930 1966 1930 1987 1945 1945 1945 1987 1986 1986 1997 1997 1961 1961 1961 1961 1961 1961 1987 1988 1959 1987 1987 1945 1987 1945 1988 1988 1990 1989 1991 1989 1989 1989 1989 1988 2001 2001 1945 1987 1958 1986 1991 1997 1986 1961 1987 1896 1994 1983 1946 1946 1946 1946 1904 1946 1946 1946 1946 1946 1946 1957 1985 1985 1957 1979 1979 1975 1973 1966 1976 1976 1972 1961 1965 1964 1996 1973 1996 1981 1984 1989 1977 1966 1981 1982 2000 1959 1959 1959 2000 1991 1991 1998 1998 1989 1989 1989 1965 1965 1970 2000 1991 1975 2000 2000 1959 2000 1959 1989 1989 1991 1989 1992 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 2002 2003 1959 2000 1986 1988 1997 1998 1988 1989 2000 1897 1995 1990 1957 1957 1957 1957 1905 1957 1957 1957 1957 1957 1957 1983 1957 1990 1983 1980 1979 1987 1973 1980 1976 1984 1972 1961 1984 1976 2005 1995 2005 1981 1990 1989 1977 1990 1981 1982 2000 1987 1987 1987 2000 2004 2004 1998 1998 1995 1995 1995 1995 2000 1995 2000 1997 1987 2000 2000 1987 2000 1987 1993 2003 2001 2003 2004 1993 1996 1992 2003 1993 2004 2004 1987 2000 2000 2004 2004 2004 2004 1995 2000 1900 2005 2000 2005 2000 2005 2000 2005 2005 2000 2000 2005 2005 2000 2005 2005 1990 2005 2 1 7 1 2 1 4 1 1 4 2 10 17 10 1 1989 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 4 4 1 4 4 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 2 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 4 4 7 5 7 9 4 5 3 7 4 3 2 4 1 10 5 3 2 5 2 1 4 1963 11 2 6 4 5 4 6 6 4 4 6 5 4 4 5 1 5 1995 1968 2005 6 11 1977 1979 3 1993 5 1988 1959 1988 2005 2005 2005 18 47 18 1976 1977 2 1976 1985 4 1946 1957 1957 1983 1985 1983 1983 1957 1946 1985 1946 1985 1985 1893 1983 1946 1866 1927 1904 1895 1818 1907 1959 1825 2000 1909 1905 1921 1818 1730 1981 1955 1942 1947 1957 1983 1983 1990 1990 1990 1990 1983 1957 1990 1957 1990 1990 1906 1990 1957 1883 1928 1905 1899 1874 1908 1960 1866 2001 1923 1906 1922 1878 1864 1981 1967 1953 1953 2000 2005 2005 2005 1990 2005 2005 2005 2005 1990 2000 1990 1990 1990 2000 2005 2005 1966 1973 2005 2005 2005 1967 2005 2005 2005 1935 1973 1973 1973 1981 1980 1981 1981 4 4 8 3 1 4 4 4 5 1 4 1 1 4 2 6 79 3 36 54 84 49 5 59 5 42 4 25 44 19 1 3 1981 3 7 1981 1979 1985 1983 5 5 1983 3 2002 1957 1949 2005 2005 2005 4 49 57 2001 2005 5 1976 2005 10 1992 2005 14 ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES FR FR FR FR FR FR FR FR FR FR FR FR FR FR GL GL GL GL GL GL GL GS GS GS GS GS HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM ID ID ID IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IS 1882 1902 1928 1930 1882 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1936 1936 1942 1962 1963 1980 1961 1984 1963 2000 1912 1963 1912 1962 1963 1985 1980 1939 1928 1914 1975 1955 1883 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1942 1942 1972 2002 2003 2001 1981 2001 1986 2003 2001 2001 2003 2001 2002 2001 2004 1986 1981 1957 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 1980 1980 1980 2004 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 2004 1980 1980 1980 1990 1990 1973 2002 2003 2001 1987 2001 1990 2003 2005 2001 2003 2001 2002 2001 2004 1989 1987 1977 4 8 4 4 7 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 6 6 2 1 1 1 7 1 5 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 7 2 1982 1986 1990 1988 9 3 2001 2005 5 1986 1990 5 1981 2003 1986 2005 6 3 33 4 6 26 8 1350 1020 105 111 1130 112 1150 1170 0113A 1140 1010 1040 1120 110 106 109 4 3 1 ALLISON ANZAC PEAK BAUDISSIN BROWN CHALLENGER COMPTON COMPTON 1 DOWNES DOWNES 1 EALEY 1 EALY JACKA MARY-POWELL MT DIXON MT OLSEN NARES STEPHENSON STEPHENSON 1 VAHSEL WINSTON WINSTON 1 CARSTENSZ MEREN NORTHWALL FIRN ADI KAILASH BEAS KUND BHAGIRATHI KHARAK BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN -53.5 TUERGANGOU TUGEBIELIQI URUMQIHE E-BR. NARSSARSSUAQ A.34 30.45 65.65 LONGITUDE 90.43 -0.73 27.92 2.45 6.13 0.65 42.15 0.34 -75.30 -72.82 4.53 -36.17 43.56 -53.24 30.27 -54.60 35.98 6.86 6.05 -76.12 86.92 2.10 97.63 42.79 27.83 42.81 4.33 -72.30 -72.77 42.39 6.95 80. CORDILLERA PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH SPECIFIC LOCATION YARLUNGZANGBU R MT.82 4.27 -36.37 -54.02 -0.92 2.82 4. QILIAN SHAN HENGDUAN SHAN ANYEMAGEN SHAN HENGDUAN SHAN CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-ORIENTAL CORDILL-CENTRAL CORDILL-CENTRAL EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS E.10 42.65 42.22 -75.92 4.92 4.63 42.33 60.15 6.87 4.45 2.85 94.30 -75.82 4.63 137.64 73.68 88.65 80.30 HAMTAH JHULANG (KHARSA) JOBRI MEOLA NIKARCHU PINDARI SARA UMGA 84 4 2432 304 SHAUNE GARANG TIPRA BANK ZEMU BAEGISARJ0KULL .46 80.70 65.24 45.41 -0.30 -72.73 27.08 36.30 -72.20 101.83 42.90 6. ANETO-MALADETA ANETO-MALADETA BALAITUS ANETO-MALADETA BALAITUS VINEMAL ANETO-MALADETA ANETO-MALADETA ANETO-MALADETA INFIERNO INFIERNO INFIERNO POSETS BALAITUS PERDIGUERO POSETS LATITUDE 28.88 4.81 6.60 14 12 3 1 1 9010 9030 1030 9040 1020 3010 9080 0907A 0907B 2020 0201A 0201B 7020 1010 8010 7010 TRIDENTE HOELLENTAL SCHNEEFERNER N ANTIZANA15ALPHA ALBA ANETO BALAITUS SE BARRANCS BRECHA LATOUR CLOT DE HOUNT CORONAS CREGUENA N CREGUENA S INFIERNO E INFIERNO W INFIERNO WW LA PAUL LAS FRONDELLAS LITEROLA LLARDANA RAMGANGA BEAS VISHNUGANGA TISTA BASIN PIR PANJAL RANGE DHAULIGANGA DHAULIGANGA BEAS CHANDRA DHAULIGANGA BEAS DHAULIGANGA KUTHIYANKTI PINDAR PARVATI BASPA VALLEY VAL.5 YANZIGOU YIEHELONG GL.30 32.25 -0.83 42.32 -75. XIAO DONGKZMADI XIAOGONGBA XIDATAN YANGLONGHE NO. VALHALTINDEGL.32 10. ST ANDREWS BAY MORAINE FJORD ST ANDREWS BAY THATCHER PENINSULA ROYAL BAY BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN BIG BEN LAURENS PENINSULA BIG BEN LATITUDE 42.48 73.38 -45.00 -53.82 99.05 -76.40 73.35 -36.99 6.23 41.95 32.99 45.82 4.02 -53. EQ.57 73.90 4.37 -75.90 4.67 39.1 URUMQIHE W-BR.64 0.04 -53.20 -36.08 -53.23 0.P.10 -4.90 4.79 -50.50 73.NO.67 42.13 0.28 0.85 38.37 -75.78 42.30 -72.93 -0.55 100.82 86.92 2.32 73.20 -75.07 41.00 -53.67 -0.30 -72.93 6.25 61.02 -53.45 4.67 42.03 -53.69 73.63 6.65 42.22 -45.63 42.37 -75.50 80.05 -75.05 0.45 6.03 -53.05 0.92 -45.18 73.77 42.60 61.78 42.43 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU ES ES PSFG 9090 7040 9020 5010 0302B 0502B 0502A 7030 2040 6010 9060 5030 5040 4010 0302A 9050 2 32 6 31 4 9 34 3 15 29 5 1 7 4 6 5 2 8 9 1 NAME LLOSAS LOS GEMELOS MALADETA MARBORECILINDRO MONFERRAT PERDIDO INF PERDIDO SUP POSETS PUNTA ZARRA ROBINERA SALENCAS SOUM RAMOND SE SOUM RAMOND SW TAILLON TAPOU TEMPESTADES ARGENTIERE BARD BIONNASSAY BLANC BOSSONS GEBROULAZ LAMET MER DE GLACE OSSOUE SAINT SORLIN SARENNES TACONNAZ TOUR TRE LA TETE AMITSULOQ ISKA. BOGDA MT.02 LONGITUDE 0. SUKKERTOPPEN NARSSARSSUAQ A.32 -75.11 -53.55 43.55 78.82 86.30 -75.57 101.30 45.82 4.21 30.38 -75.53 0.62 73.03 -0.28 0.83 43.63 42.23 29.45 2.90 77. CHANGJIANG GOLMUD RIVER BEIDAHE BASIN CHANGJIANG HUANGHE CHANGJIANG VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY VOLCAN NEVADO DEL HUILA VOLCAN NEVADO DEL HUILA VOLCAN NEVADO DEL HUILA VOLCAN NEVADO DEL HUILA VOLCAN NEVADO DEL HUILA VOLCAN NEVADO DEL HUILA VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL SANTA ISABEL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY SIERRA NEVADA DE EL COCUY VOLCAN NEVADO DEL HUILA VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ BAVARIAN ALPS BAVARIAN ALPS RIO ANTIZANA B.30 88.87 45.30 -75.07 -53.88 47.4 SIGONHE NO. YULONG ALFOMBRALES ALFOMBRALES E AZUFRADO E AZUFRADO W CENTRAL CERRO CON-CAVO (7) CERRO CON-CAVO (8) CERRO TOTI (B) CERRO TOTI (C) DESA S DESA SE DESA WSW EL MAYOR EL OSO EL VENADO 3 7 GUALI HOJALARGA 1 LA CABANA LA CONEJERA LA LISA LA PLAZUELA LAGUNA AZUL LAGUNILLAS LENGUA-SI 1 LENGUA-SI 2 LENGUA-SI 4CEN LENGUA-SI 4DER LENGUA-SI 4IZQ LENGUA-SI 5 LENGUA-SI 6 LENGUA-SI 7 LENGUA-SI 8 LENGUA-SI 8DER LENGUA-SI N LENGUA-SI PNORTE 9 2 LEONERA ALTA MOLINOS NEREIDAS PA3 PAB PASO BELLAVISTA (A) PULPITO DEL DIABLO SECTOR NORTE WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 871 869 856 863 870 868 857 838 862 854 864 1511 853 1512 845 1510 840 858 837 839 850 848 2692 2693 2696 2697 2713 2742 2743 2744 2745 2683 2684 2685 2686 2687 2688 2700 2758 2701 2721 2702 2705 2723 2706 2727 2728 2729 2730 2731 2732 2733 2734 2735 2736 2737 2738 2707 2708 2709 2767 2768 2769 2776 2690 2711 348 346 1624 967 943 954 941 953 960 970 969 971 957 955 956 948 952 951 947 HIMALAYA EASTERN PAMIR QILIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN HIMALAYA TIAN SHAN QILIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN TIAN SHAN ANYEMAGEN SHAN TIBETAN PLATEAU GONGGA SHAN KUNLUN MT.28 -0.15 80.P.33 -72.48 42.17 45.08 43.32 94.67 42.23 39.63 36.95 45.08 -53.47 73.48 -54.28 30.30 -76.33 32.06 -53.45 6.90 4.44 73.13 101.08 -4.68 6.68 42.21 30.12 4.35 80.99 6.90 4.40 73.63 0.83 42. OF FLOWERS TISTA BASIN TROELLASKAGI 30.42 47.90 80.47 42.20 30.33 88.22 -18.29 30.45 -54.54 -36.62 73.13 -4. BOGDA YIWU HE MUZHAERT BASIN URUMQIRIVER URUMQI RIVER URUMQIRIVER HUANGHE TANGGULA MTS.68 77.25 0.37 -75.14 6.72 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 73 PU CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO DE DE EC ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES PSFG 19 17 3 11 18 16 1 8 9 6 12 1 10 2 24 38 29 37 2 30 22 32 13 0013B 0005B 0005A 32 NAME QIANGYONG QIERGANBULAK QIYI QUNTAILAN RONGBU SAYIGAPEIR SHUIGUANHE NO. WEIGELE DANGXI.05 -76.63 45.99 10.25 -0.78 42.56 73.45 6.82 4.66 42.NO.82 4.70 42.05 -0.37 -75.43 0.05 -76.78 42.04 -53.45 6.87 4.37 -75.63 42.43 -0.53 73.MUZTAGATA BEIDAHE BASIN TAILAN BASIN MT.62 42. NARSSAQ AREA NARSSARSSUAQ A.05 -75.82 4.82 4.27 98.11 -53.63 -0.68 0.37 -75. CHAMOLI UP HIMALAYA N-ICELAND WESTERN ALPS PYRENEES WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS SW GREENLAND S GREENLAND S GREENLAND S GREENLAND S GREENLAND SW GREENLAND S GREENLAND SOUTH GEORGIA SOUTH GEORGIA SOUTH GEORGIA SOUTH GEORGIA SOUTH GEORGIA HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND HEARD ISLAND IRAN JAYA IRAN JAYA WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH PYRENEES SOUTH WESTERN ALPS SPECIFIC LOCATION ANETO-MALADETA POSETS ANETO-MALADETA PERDIDO VINEMAL PERDIDO PERDIDO POSETS INFIERNO LA MUNIA ANETO-MALADETA PERDIDO PERDIDO TAILLON VINEMAL ANETO-MALADETA MONT BLANC AREA MONT BLANC AREA EGRINS AREA MONT BLANC AREA VANOISE AREA MONT BLANC AREA CENTRAL PYRENEES GRANDES ROUSSES GRANDES ROUSSES MONT BLANC AREA MONT BLANC AREA MONT BLANC AREA TASERSIAQ NARSSARSSUAQ A.97 -78.15 0.63 0.97 28.30 -75.

26 SARCA BASIN TICINO BASIN PIAVE BASIN 46.92 64.49 10.63 7.47 -16.E M177 SKAFTAFELLSJ.22 -20.45 45.58 63.92 -22.W HOFSJOKULL E HOFSJOKULL N HOFSJOKULL SW HRUTARJOKULL HYRNINGSJOKULL JOKULHALS JOKULKROKUR KALDALONSJOKULL KIRKJUJOKULL KOELDUKVISLARJ.76 10. AOUILLE ARGUEREY MER.55 64.10 46.43 45.74 46.22 64.62 10.33 -16. THRANDARJOKULL TUNGNAARJOKULL VIRKISJOKULL ADAMÈ AGNELLO MER.70 7.67 -20.73 -22.00 -15.67 63.05 -16.83 -18.53 -19.03 64.14 45.) CARDONNE OR.G-SEL FLAAJ E146 FLAAJ E148 FLAAJ E150 FLAAJOKULL GEITLANDSJOKULL GIGJOKULL GLJUFURARJOKULL HAGAFELLSJOK.18 Langjökull EYJAFJALLAJ.20 46.22 64. BROUILLARD BY CADINI CADREGHE CALDERONE CALOTTA CAMOSCI CAMOSCI (SIEDEL) CAMPO (MERID. WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 643 1239 1253 1254 616 1145 2557 1130 658 611 1180 1247 1281 618 1258 1295 1297 1179 1175 1137 2453 2571 615 1260 1255 1256 608 2422 2581 2330 1107 1144 2522 630 2521 1106 680 640 1304 626 1189 1148 635 2358 2357 628 1184 1185 1163 1162 1208 1126 1165 2627 2625 1169 1203 663 662 1251 1198 1194 1257 1200 1290 1298 1195 1264 2508 685 2602 2530 1286 1233 1265 1221 1167 1217 647 1196 2349 1292 2338 1183 1151 CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS SPECIFIC LOCATION PIAVE BASIN LATITUDE 46.28 64.77 -23.89 VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL Vatnajökull Mýrdalsjökull MYRDALSJOEKULL MYRDALSJOEKULL MYRDALSJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL DORA RIPARIA BA ADIGE BASIN 64.E M175 SIDUJOK.49 46. MULAJOKULL W NAUTHAGAJOKULL OLDUFELLSJOKULL REYKJAFJARDARJ.42 46.70 10.13 -20.45 7.13 7.00 -16.62 -18.68 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1935 1997 1932 1936 1933 1933 1932 1935 1963 1971 1935 1957 1935 1933 1933 1934 1905 1934 1970 2002 1930 1932 1890 1970 1990 1904 1904 1967 1930 1905 1983 1947 1931 1934 1933 1887 1997 1993 1963 1934 2002 1950 1840 1932 1932 1932 1937 1932 1961 1850 1998 1990 1933 1933 1932 1970 1934 1950 1904 1904 1904 1990 2001 1930 1930 1930 1904 1950 1944 1932 1952 1915 1931 1923 1932 1944 1948 1979 1933 1936 1998 1935 1937 1934 1934 1933 1936 1964 1972 1936 1958 1936 1934 1934 1935 1931 1935 1971 2003 1934 1933 1902 1972 1991 1930 1930 1990 1932 1931 1984 1948 1933 1935 1936 1931 1998 1993 1971 1935 2003 1955 1886 1936 1935 1935 1938 1935 1967 1914 2001 1991 1934 1934 1934 1971 1935 1951 1932 1932 1932 1991 2002 1931 1932 1931 1932 1951 1946 1933 1953 1927 1975 1924 1953 1945 1949 1981 1952 1972 2005 1991 2002 2005 1984 2005 1994 1988 1985 1972 2005 2003 2005 2005 1982 2000 1994 2001 2005 2005 2005 2003 2003 1993 1995 1995 2004 1990 1998 1990 2005 2005 1990 2003 2005 2005 2005 2000 2005 2005 1982 2003 2005 2004 2004 1995 2005 2005 2005 2005 2004 1995 2003 2000 1972 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2004 1995 1995 2005 1995 2005 2005 2005 1995 2005 1975 2005 1993 1955 2005 2001 2005 29 8 56 53 67 30 72 45 4 13 33 46 67 57 69 39 46 44 7 3 38 43 33 12 3 39 41 13 47 44 1989 6 55 65 42 24 68 8 1995 5 19 61 3 5 1997 65 26 68 56 48 60 16 69 5 11 24 29 66 2 45 55 46 70 69 10 3 62 58 70 63 54 1994 50 63 3 50 1 39 6 8 54 19 28 1994 1996 2005 3 9 2005 9 2005 10 1988 1990 2005 2005 2005 17 18 16 1994 1994 1994 2005 2005 2005 11 4 11 1998 2005 7 1935 1971 1930 1930 1961 1952 1976 1926 1935 1960 1962 1937 1970 1921 1952 1951 1946 1962 1962 1970 1922 1945 1924 1961 1930 1930 1946 1926 1925 1984 1946 1969 1926 1925 1927 1942 1920 1920 1927 1950 1931 1952 1897 1959 1927 1926 1896 1926 1925 1925 1914 1923 1925 1927 1926 1925 1926 1898 1897 1961 1972 1964 1936 1925 1926 1927 1963 1971 1926 1972 1926 1927 1923 1932 1974 1966 1923 1970 1972 1941 1972 1963 1972 1959 1927 1952 1972 1953 1953 1962 1953 1977 1927 1936 1961 1963 1973 1975 1922 1973 1975 1947 1963 1963 1974 1923 1946 1925 1962 1953 1953 1947 1927 1926 1985 1947 1970 1928 1928 1940 1949 1921 1921 1928 1951 1932 1953 1898 1961 1928 1927 1897 1927 1929 1928 1915 1925 1926 1928 1927 1926 1927 1899 1899 1962 1975 1965 1952 1926 1927 1928 1964 1973 1927 1973 1927 1928 1924 1933 1975 1973 1925 1971 1974 1942 1973 1967 1973 1960 1928 2005 2005 2000 2000 2005 1977 1993 1981 1999 2005 1977 1973 1975 2005 1998 1975 2005 1999 1986 1974 1999 1977 2004 1999 2000 2000 1979 1944 1946 1993 2005 1975 1950 1988 1951 2000 1994 1999 2000 1990 1998 2001 2005 1991 1994 2005 1995 2001 2001 2001 1975 1975 1975 1944 1975 1976 1998 2001 2005 1999 1992 1975 2004 1996 1974 2001 1999 2005 1995 1974 1944 1949 1999 1974 1975 1973 2001 1975 2005 1992 2001 1988 2000 1974 2003 26 6 16 18 24 12 4 39 36 27 7 1 1 73 12 1 44 11 9 1 22 19 64 8 17 19 27 18 6 6 24 5 8 22 8 28 38 38 29 30 41 23 37 8 17 57 24 27 25 27 35 20 30 17 18 14 46 45 50 7 6 4 28 52 41 28 13 23 20 2 18 7 52 7 1 1 40 4 26 5 13 6 5 13 36 1992 2005 14 1967 2005 39 2001 2005 5 IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT TICINO BASIN 46.67 64.65 44.48 64. ANTELAO INFERIORE (OCC.47 7.72 -18.80 66.83 8.32 10.90 7.32 64.46 45.22 64. BASSAC BELLEFACE BELVEDERE (MACUGNAGA) BERIO BLANC BERTA BESSANESE BLINDENHORN SUP.12 10.22 -17.30 46.88 45.03 64. W SKEIDARARJOKULL M SLETTJOKULL WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 3060 3130 3061 3062 3063 3064 3065 3066 3067 3068 3069 3070 3071 3072 3073 3074 3075 3076 3077 3078 3128 3079 3080 3081 3082 3083 3084 3085 3135 3086 3087 3088 3089 3090 3091 3092 3093 3094 3095 3129 3096 3132 3097 3098 3131 3099 3101 3102 3103 3104 3105 3106 3107 3108 3109 3136 3110 3111 3112 3113 3114 3115 3116 3117 3118 3119 3134 3133 3120 3121 3122 3123 3124 3125 3126 3127 2562 684 1215 632 2551 2574 638 617 642 CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS SE-ICELAND SE ICELAND SE ICELAND SE-ICELAND SE ICELAND S-ICELAND S-ICELAND S-ICELAND S-ICELAND SE ICELAND SE ICELAND EASTERN ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND SE-ICELAND SE ICELAND SE-ICELAND SE ICELAND SE-ICELAND CENTRAL ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND S-ICELAND NW-ICELAND CENTRAL NORTHERN ICELAND NW-ICELAND S-ICELAND SE-ICELAND SE-ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND SE ICELAND SE-ICELAND SE-ICELAND CENTRAL ICELAND CENTRAL ICELAND CENTRAL ICELAND SE-ICELAND WEST-ICELAND WEST-ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND NW-ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND WEST-ICELAND S-ICELAND N-ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND SE-ICELAND SE ICELAND SE ICELAND SE-ICELAND E-ICELAND CENTRAL NORTHERN ICELAND E-ICELAND CENTRAL-ICELAND SE-ICELAND SE ICELAND SE-ICELAND SE ICELAND SE ICELAND SPECIFIC LOCATION Hofsjökull VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOEKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOEKULL VATNAJOEKULL LATITUDE 64.30 DORA BALTEA BAS 45.26 46.77 63.07 -16.15 9.03 64.12 7.30 -22. COOLIDGESUPER. CORNA ROSSA CORNISELLO MER.78 46.42 46.75 9.75 -16.97 -19.27 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU IT IT IT PSFG 966 138 200 201 338 583 591 779 778 64 363 166 124 325 206 36 40 360 342 533 311 652 219 69 202 203 216 243 689 12 1006 579 489 361 488 997 985 984 61 469 468 632 701 60 59 435 410 411 494 493 299 702 503 859 825 510 285 731 732 181 276 267 204 282 5 43 272 81 424 842 736 501 1 257 83 223 0506A 215 927 273 42 22 20 409 646 NAME ANTELAO SUP.42 46.18 64.45 46.70 LONGITUDE 12.81 45.W.20 10.17 64.12 8.26 46.43 ADDA BASIN 46.67 63. CARESER CARRO OCCIDENT.58 -20.33 64.22 -17.87 10.29 10.96 44.FITJAR FJALLSJ.80 64.94 45.87 64.93 10.80 0113B 0113C 0113A 0520B 0520A 1940 2214 721 609 29 210 730 559 661 644 336 967 SOLHEIMAJ E SOLHEIMAJ J SOLHEIMAJOK.98 -14.45 PO BASIN 46.70 45.44 10.90 6.42 7.04 12. CIMA FIAMMANTE OCC.B BREIDAMJOK.91 6.45 45.33 -16.00 63.22 -17. BOCCARECCIO BONDONE BASSO DE BORS BRENTEI BRENVA BREUIL (O BROGLI) BREUIL MER.11 45.18 64.45 45.34 46.18 46.97 64.E.92 46.31 46.61 7.68 9.48 46.70 64.09 45. SKALAFELLSJ E SKALAFELLSJOKUL SKEIDARARJ.48 45.68 46.72 8.08 64.20 -17.60 11. CASPOGGIO CASSANDRA OCC.47 -16.E HOFFELLSJ.06 46.84 46.45 46. BREUIL SETT. CIMA MADRICCIO CIME DEI FORNI CLAPIER COL COLLON COL DEI BECCHI COL DEL GIGANTE COL DELLA MARE I COL DU MIAGE COLLALTO COLLE VALCOURNE (CIGNANA) COLLERIN D'ARNAS COOLIDGE INF.31 8.72 64.E.45 46. E1 SKEIDARARJ.75 -16.58 63.84 12.70 64.44 13.57 -18.23 6.27 -19.23 45.W.72 -18.11 13.57 19. 45.82 6.92 45.25 7.02 64.12 8. AGUILLES DE TRELATETE MER.95 64.37 45.E HAGAFELLSJOK.95 45.33 45. CASTELLI OR.) ADIGE BASIN 46.09 10.) CAMPO SETT.30 64.60 TICINO BASIN 45.68 63. (PIAZZI OCC.93 45.W. E2 SKEIDARARJ.61 10. CANIN OR.67 64.82 64.79 10.55 7.52 -16.55 7.84 6.45 44.43 45.97 DRANGAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL HOFSJOKULL HOFSJOEKULL HOFSJOKULL MYRDALSJOEKULL DRANGAJOKULL Vatnajökull VATNAJOEKULL VATNAJOEKULL VATNAJOKULL 66.65 10.52 -15.18 64.72 7.52 46.22 64.58 64.18 64.58 63.45 46.57 -15.14 7.75 -19.22 -19. E3 SKEIDARARJ.49 45.48 64. CASSANDRA OR.) CARE ALTO OR.12 7.11 ADIGE BASIN 46.46 46.72 64.74 45. SNAEFELLSJOEKUL LANGJOKULL DRANGAJOKULL Langjökull Mýrdalsjökull VATNAJOKULL VATNAJOKULL Hofsjökull 64.27 7.84 -16.72 64.83 -17.78 -20.15 7. CASTORE CAVAION CEDEC CENTRALE DEL LAGO CEPPO CERENA CERVINO CEVEDALE FORCOLA CEVEDALE PRINCIPALE CHATEAU BLANC CHATEAU DES DAMES CHAVACOUR CHAVANNES CHERILLON CIAFRAION (GELAS OR.88 -18.40 -18.92 -19.28 -19.83 46.17 64.52 8.74 10.90 6.57 65.72 10.80 64.87 7.02 -15.36 10.B BREIDAMJOK.77 -18.63 -16.74 46.09 9.02 -15.75 -14.83 45.06 7.25 10.73 DORA BALTEA B.40 9.00 10.98 -17.13 -15.) BARBADORSO DI DENTRO BASEI BASODINO OCC.) CIAMARELLA CIAN ROISETTA CIARDONEY CIMA DI ROSSO ORIENT.00 63.25 64.17 64.13 64.58 -18. BRMFJ FJALLSJ.00 46.05 7.53 6.15 GRAN PARADISO ADIGE BASIN 45.04 10.47 46. RJUPNABREKKUJOKULL SATUJOKULL SIDUJOK.29 64.89 46.12 45.48 10.57 -18.51 10.42 TAGLIAMENTO TAGLIAMENTO BAS ADDA BASIN 46.28 -16.80 -14.22 -17.54 10.40 45.33 6.42 46.13 -16. (PIAZZI CENTR.88 -18.72 64.38 -19.97 64.76 45.67 64.13 -15. W SVINAFELLSJ S SVINAFELLSJ.W HALSJOKULL HEINABERGSJ H HEINABERGSJOEKU HEINABERGSJOKULL HOFFELLSJ.22 64.62 TICINO BASIN 46. CAPRA CARDONNE OCC.65 45.52 -16.58 7.C BROKARJOKULL BRUARJOKULL DYNGJUJOKULL EYJABAKKAJOKULL EYVINDSTUNGNAK FALLJOKULL FJALLS.91 9.63 10.47 -16.85 64.81 45.28 -19.12 64.15 45.73 11.33 LONGITUDE -15.92 46.02 7.67 42.88 -17. ARGUEREY SETT.82 7.67 64.20 46.36 46.75 10.62 7.98 64.16 46.55 -16.JOKULL LODMUNDARLOEKUL MORSARJOKULL MULAJOKULL S.65 65.27 -19.30 46.67 64.90 7.26 46.47 -15.88 -16.98 10.09 11.38 44.87 10. CASTELLI OCC.54 7.49 46.03 64.15 6.80 ADIGE BASIN ORCO BASIN 46.28 ADIGE BASIN ADIGE BASIN 46.A BREIDAMJOK.68 7.33 64.13 7.13 -15.72 45. KOTLUJOKULL KVERKJOKULL KVIARJOKULL KVISLAJOKULL LAMBAHRAUNSJOEK LANGJOKULL SOUTHERN DOME LEIRUFJ.47 -16.83 -17.45 46. CANIN OCC. ALTA (VEDRETTA) ALTO DI REDORTA AMBIEZ AMOLA ANDOLLA SETT.55 7. AURONA AVIO CENTRALE D AVIOLO BARBADORSO (FONTANA OR.41 45.17 -17.73 66.09 13.65 63.66 10.82 6.74 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 75 PU IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IS IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT PSFG 1527 1126A 1126B 1125A 1125B 1125C 1427 2400 2600 2300 1627 1021 1024B 1024A 1024C 1930D 1930C 1930B 1930A 112 103 306 204 117 1829B 1829A 2132 2031 0510B 0510A 0510C 923 100 201 7 102 2700 2500 822 409 200 108 318 0311A 0311B 210 114 300 530 0015A 0015B 419 1728B 1728A 0117A 0117B 0117C 116 NAME BIRNUDALSJOKULL BLAGNIPUJOKULL BREIDAMJOK.22 64.49 Vatnajökull VATNAJOEKULL VATNAJOKULL HOFSJOKULL HOFSJOKULL HOFSJOKULL VATNAJOKULL SNAEFELLSJ.53 -23.67 -15. CARRO ORIENT. TROELLASKAGI LANGJOKULL LANGJOKULL 64.88 45.22 .54 6.52 45.53 7.33 64.38 7.57 64.80 10.25 64.52 45.61 6.03 64.32 44.16 -17.A BREIDAMJOK.

63 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT PSFG 517 500 499 657 913 634 755 116 129 144 352 337 283 230 209 490 637 321 7 733 543 304 0931X 279 771 875 3 639 941 700 541 49 788 213 991 492 222 281 723 132 131 110 258 244 495 128 981 980 161 347 0931B 180 341 47 48 4 30 640 58 57 56 308 902 633 72 324 509 790 789 692 254 255 372 688 769 356 0506C 504 513 390 107 2 876 108 37 NAME LAGO BIANCO LAGO DEL CONF. INVERGNAN JUMEAUX LA MARE (VEDRETTA DE) WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 2560 1177 1271 1157 1117 644 2642 1159 1158 1115 654 1153 2329 2475 2503 1216 1191 1192 625 668 1197 2340 2372 2377 2416 1259 1232 2563 627 2380 1243 1507 657 2525 1204 670 2478 655 1294 2273 2624 1225 2406 2415 1218 1219 2647 2659 1293 1174 1262 1291 1176 1246 646 645 1116 656 2593 2592 1141 1142 1248 683 2599 1283 1235 652 1205 2374 1241 1164 1273 1238 1228 1224 622 1280 1279 2418 631 1209 1245 2441 636 CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS SPECIFIC LOCATION LATITUDE 46.93 6. MONTE FORCIAZ MONTE GIOVE MONTE NEVOSO 2 MORION OR. DOSDE OR.78 10.84 10.36 ADIGE BASIN 46.69 10.39 46.54 45.48 46.72 7.26 7.75 45.50 46.97 45.48 45.51 SARCA BASIN 46.72 7.52 45.38 46.57 46. FORÀ ORIENT.21 10.51 10.36 45.96 46.40 45.96 ADDA BASIN ADIGE BASIN PIAVE BASIN 46.11 45.92 46.74 6.55 7.47 45.57 7.61 7.06 7.87 45.14 7.51 ADIGE BASIN SARCA BASIN DOLOMITES 46.56 45.98 46.36 45.60 10.80 46.78 46.39 45.92 45.35 45.99 10.23 9.60 10.29 45.37 44.55 11.64 7.13 10.77 46.55 6.50 46.ZUITA CRISTALLO CENTR.60 10. GIGANTE OCC.81 45.50 10.63 46.49 46.35 7. NEL CENTRALE NEL ORIENTALE NETSCHO NEVES OR.73 10.47 45.11 45.35 7.58 7.39 12.45 46.82 ADIGE BASIN SARCA BASIN 46.94 ADIGE BASIN 46. NEVOSO OCC.18 46.29 7.60 10.50 46.19 ADDA BASIN ADDA BASIN 46.25 11. VIOZ OREN MERID. HOHSAND SETT.45 46.15 ADIGE BASIN DORA B. GAVIA (VEDRETTA) GAY GELAS GEMELLI DI BAN GIASSON GIGANTE CENTR.59 10.40 46.16 ADIGE BASIN ADIGE BASIN ADIGE BASIN 46. SW LAGOL LANA LARES LASTE LAUSON LAVACCIU LAVASSEY LEBENDUN LEONE LEONE (PENNINE) LESCHAUX LEX BLANCHE LO ZEBRU (VEDRETTA DE) LOBBIA LOCCE SETT.16 7.62 7.93 12.48 45.42 45.45 45.13 46.92 45.54 9.60 45. GIOVERETTO SUP.59 8. MULINET SETT.90 46.86 12.99 7.53 45.70 ADIGE BASIN 46.15 10.52 45.28 45. NISCLI NOASCHETTA NORDEND NW S.BLANC DU CRETON MADACCIO MALAVALLE MALEDIA MANDRONE MARMOLADA CENTR.56 ADIGE BASIN 46.95 45. (SABBIONE SETT.) CRESTA BIANCA CRISTALLO CRISTALLO .86 11.87 7.00 6.31 7.37 10. OREN SETTENR.51 8.43 10.40 45. FRENAY FREYNAY FREYNAY FROPPA DI FUORI GALAMBRA RAMO OCC.40 6.05 45.07 46.17 46.45 45.89 10.34 8. MOTTISCIA MULINET MERID.39 DORA BALTEA BAS 45.52 10.17 7. FOURNEAUX FRADUSTA FRANE FREBOUZIE FREDUAZ OCCIDENT.44 13.39 46.49 45.94 6.54 44. BASIN 45.51 45.87 DORA B.54 45.41 46.00 7.26 45.08 7.20 12.22 7.39 8.56 10. MONCIAIR MONCORVE MONEY MONT BRAULE MONT GELE MONTAGNA VECCHIA MONTANDEYNE MONTASIO OCC. MONTASIO OR.00 7.59 10. CRISTALLO OR.86 6.27 7.77 10.76 46. M.41 46.40 45.82 46.50 45.20 7.22 10. 45.90 TICINO BASIN 46.02 6.53 45.60 9.11 46.52 45.68 7.43 .12 10.95 45.23 ADIGE BASIN 46.03 8.92 7.11 46.51 45.53 46.21 12. MURAION MUTTET NARDIS OCC.56 10.38 46. GRAND ETRET GRANDE ROCHERE GRANDES JORASSES GRANDES MURAILLES GRIVOLA GRIVOLETTA GRUETTA ORIENT.48 46.86 10.88 ADIGE BASIN 46. MARMOTTE MAROVIN MARTELOT MAZIA MIAGE MINE MINIERA MON FRETY MON TABEL MONACHE OR.17 7.97 IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT DORA BALTEA BAS 45.13 7.50 46.90 46.13 45.11 7. PASQUALE DI DENTRO PASSO DEL DOSEGU PASSO DI BONDO PATRI INFERIORE PEIRABROC PENDENTE PENE BLANCHE PERA CIAVAL WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 1173 2529 2528 1154 650 1149 2608 1275 1285 1242 2481 2473 1201 1226 682 1160 1150 2462 2328 661 1138 620 679 2440 1129 672 1288 664 676 1125 2547 1301 2620 613 2653 1161 1220 1199 2272 1237 1236 1272 1234 1229 2523 1284 641 1121 2387 2477 1422 1250 1214 2351 1300 1289 2343 639 2356 1303 1302 2452 651 677 1261 1211 2535 2622 2621 2584 1230 1231 2489 2580 1128 1178 2534 2531 1170 2496 2371 1287 675 1270 1296 CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS SPECIFIC LOCATION LATITUDE 46.17 10. DOSEGU DRAGONE DUE DITA DZASSET ENTRELOR SETT. FORCA FORNI FORNO FOSSA OR.42 45.30 10.86 7.34 6.01 6.25 7.36 46.50 8.30 7. LOUROUSA (GELAS SETT.30 45.51 7.91 6.81 10.51 46.82 7.12 DORA BALTEA B.82 46.58 46.56 45.92 45.78 46.74 7.11 8.35 7.41 11.06 10.48 45.17 7.24 7.07 7.60 45.89 6.44 46.47 46.61 10.47 7.37 10.25 7.08 7.31 10.12 12.90 44.02 7.16 44.50 10.84 11.09 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1995 1962 1926 1939 1951 1923 1950 1900 1923 1927 1972 1934 1926 1975 1925 1969 1931 1931 1931 1925 1972 1984 1995 1986 1949 1931 1972 1949 1890 1985 1962 1925 1926 1925 1946 1969 1927 1927 1891 1947 1926 1946 1986 1946 1956 1960 1985 1942 1897 1925 1963 1923 1961 1931 1972 1972 1972 1929 1923 1923 1961 1942 1943 1927 1923 1927 1928 1925 1960 1975 1971 1925 1895 1950 1971 1949 1960 1970 1969 1994 1925 1921 1971 1927 1895 1996 1963 1927 1975 1952 1927 1951 1901 1927 1958 1973 1935 1927 1976 1926 1970 1932 1932 1932 1926 1975 1985 1996 1988 1950 1953 1973 1950 1898 1986 1963 1926 1927 1926 1947 1970 1928 1958 1905 1948 1927 1947 1987 1947 1958 1975 1986 1953 1898 1929 1973 1924 1962 1971 1974 1973 1974 1930 1924 1924 1970 1949 1948 1928 1924 1928 1933 1926 1961 1986 1972 1926 1903 1951 1974 1950 1961 1972 1974 1995 1926 1922 1972 1928 1897 2001 1971 2001 1975 1993 1998 1964 1975 1975 1990 2004 1976 1947 1997 2001 1971 1975 1993 2001 2005 1989 1995 2001 1999 1959 2000 1974 1960 2005 2001 2001 1993 1993 1957 1993 2005 1998 1990 2001 2005 1956 1987 1991 1975 1975 1975 1997 1961 2000 1975 1975 1999 1971 1999 2005 2005 1995 2000 1995 1995 1973 1973 2000 2005 1975 1979 2000 2001 1969 2000 2000 1975 2001 2000 1974 1975 2005 1975 1974 2001 2005 2000 1999 2001 2005 6 8 46 1 26 38 13 13 11 6 19 21 17 6 37 2 20 31 49 58 5 8 6 5 5 29 2 7 62 14 21 38 48 8 33 30 5 8 35 17 17 24 5 14 8 1 11 8 40 27 2 42 9 10 22 26 5 38 9 6 2 13 20 38 7 11 21 37 8 6 8 20 47 13 1 18 37 2 1 6 32 43 8 17 67 1983 2005 22 1929 1929 1926 1935 1976 1919 1929 1927 1928 1927 1985 1962 1925 1973 1929 1925 1895 1985 1926 1899 1931 1901 1973 1985 1899 1914 1923 1899 1901 1925 1939 1927 1926 1926 1942 1925 1949 1925 1994 1950 1927 1895 1926 1961 1925 1928 1920 1920 1986 1996 1974 1937 1962 1931 1904 1924 1928 1921 1954 1957 1927 1921 1898 1919 1927 1949 1926 1926 1926 1925 1962 1964 1934 1925 1970 1923 1989 1927 1925 1989 1926 1923 1922 1951 1951 1930 1930 1928 1936 1977 1920 1930 1928 1933 1928 1986 1963 1926 1974 1930 1926 1899 1986 1927 1901 1936 1902 1974 1986 1904 1915 1924 1911 1902 1933 1953 1928 1927 1927 1946 1926 1950 1926 1995 1951 1928 1903 1927 1962 1926 1929 1921 1921 1987 1997 1975 1938 1963 1955 1907 1925 1929 1927 1955 1959 1928 1922 1910 1920 1928 1950 1927 1927 1927 1926 1972 1969 1947 1926 1971 1941 1990 1928 1929 1995 1927 1924 1923 1974 1973 1977 1938 1938 2001 2005 2005 1939 2005 2001 2001 1998 1995 1995 1974 1998 1998 2005 2001 1947 2005 1999 2005 1994 2001 1995 2005 1980 2005 2005 1977 2001 2001 1953 1987 1990 1995 1974 1995 2000 2001 2001 2001 1975 1975 1996 2000 1999 1994 1999 2001 1975 1974 1995 2001 2001 1989 1960 2004 1956 2000 1978 2000 2004 2005 1999 2000 1995 1942 1953 1941 1974 1974 1976 1946 1977 2001 2001 1939 1990 2000 1958 1999 2005 1974 1973 32 5 5 37 27 33 5 24 22 36 9 5 16 1 63 24 61 10 17 51 14 95 11 5 20 34 46 52 37 15 18 25 18 49 15 15 11 38 6 25 36 39 21 12 10 8 42 28 8 3 1 11 9 21 41 46 2 68 2 15 5 42 41 47 13 18 13 14 15 5 2 4 18 5 5 24 11 9 10 5 22 53 35 1 1 1996 2005 10 2002 2005 4 2004 2005 2 ADIGE BASIN 47.48 46.82 45.63 7.) INDREN OCC.33 11. GLENO 5661 GLENO 5662 GLIAIRETTA VAUDET GOLETTA GRAMES ORIENT.08 45.76 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 77 PU IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT PSFG 603 355 109 482 963 937 956 485 484 838 828 655 8 344 419 214 474 475 473 512 275 23 113 140 220 208 256 635 439 146 145 713 780 0496A 286 507 349 823 27 950 812 229 197 218 0218B 0218A 969 26 518 75 6 354 163 929 930 928 813 720 719 5661 5662 168 148 727 127 130 893 290 115 143 502 111 134 238 226 260 123 122 232 357 306 162 280 699 NAME CORNO DI SALARNO COSTONE COUPE DE MONEY CRAPINELLIN (CRISTALLO D.28 7.30 8.93 44.20 10.44 7.92 46.08 10.83 12.89 45.62 9.82 10. FOND OR.95 46.45 12.47 ADIGE BASIN ADIGE BASIN 46.40 46.13 46.49 9.58 LONGITUDE 10.66 10. FOND OCCID.63 7. GIOGO ALTO GIOVERETTO INF.68 45.45 46.78 45. NEL OCCIDENT.31 7.44 46.44 45.20 10.53 7.72 10.87 10.52 ADIGE BASIN 46.55 7.75 7. BASIN ADIGE BASIN 46.50 46.27 7.92 7.GIACOMO OBERETTES DI LEVANTE OBERETTES DI PONENTE OCCID.24 7.93 7.55 45.03 8. ENTREVES ESTELLETTE EVEQUE FARGORIDA FELLARIA OCC.51 44.40 10.78 ADDA BASIN 46.41 45.14 46.38 10.84 45. GIGANTI OR. SE LAGO DEL CONF.15 6.34 46.95 44. CRODA DEL CAVAL CRODA ROSSA CROZZON DI BRENTA DE CESSOLE DELLA ROSSA DISGRAZIA DOMES DE MIAGE DOSDE CENTR.95 46.05 10.28 7.90 46.50 46.13 10.97 45. (SABBIONE MER.49 46.12 46.80 10.48 11.37 45.66 7.37 46.48 7. + CENTRALE GRAN NEYRON GRAN PARADISO GRAN PILASTRO GRAN SOMETTA GRAN VAL GRAN VAUDALA GRAN ZEBRU GRAND CROUX CENTR.25 46.10 12.) LUNGA (VEDRETTA) LUPO LYS M.05 46.15 LONGITUDE 10.72 6.97 45.56 45.08 45.89 10.16 45.44 46.90 46. FONTANA BIANCA FONTANA OCC.26 7.26 13.82 45.54 TAGLIAMENTO BAS 46.07 7.18 7.44 46.08 7.98 10. ORSAREIGLS ORSI ORTLES BASSO DE OSAND MER.38 46.33 46.39 46.42 10.80 10.) PALON DELLA MARE LOBO OR.77 10.34 7.66 45.87 10.08 8. GALAMBRA RAMO OR.81 46.21 45.73 46.84 45.67 10.58 7.48 45.06 12.77 45. DOSDE OCC.53 7.94 45.36 7.

49 46. PIZZO FERRE PIZZO SCALINO PLANPINCIEUX PLATIGLIOLE PLATTES DES CHAMOIS PONCIAGNA POPENA POPERA OCC.33 59.13 -0.18 61.30 37.03 17.30 37.65 68.47 46.15 -0.03 45.57 10.62 5.43 10.62 -98.39 46.93 46.35 6.15 -0.80 61.89 46.33 7.28 10.68 61.43 13. BASIN ADIGE BASIN 45.10 10.43 6.09 6. DI) SALARNO SALDURA MER.90 7.30 37.92 45.26 46.35 46.64 137.50 46.52 9.56 12.13 7.51 45. SFORZELLINA SFULMINI SISSONE SIULA (GELAS SETT. VITELLI WEISSTHOR XII APOSTOLI ZAI DI DENTRO ZAI DI MEZZO ZAY DI FUORI HAMAGURI YUKI CESAR DARWIN DIAMOND FOREL GREGORY HEIM JOSEPH KOLBE KRAPF LEWIS MELHUISH NORTHEY TYNDALL NOROCCIDENTAL VENTORRILLO AALFOTBREEN AUSTDALSBREEN AUSTERDALSBREEN AUSTRE BROEGGERBREEN AUSTRE MEMURUBR AUSTRE TORELL BERGSETBREEN BLAISEN BLOMSTERSKARDBR BOEDALSBREEN BOEVERBREEN BOEYABREEN BONDHUSBREEN BOTNABREEN BREIDALBLIKKBREA BRENNDALSBREEN BRIKSDALSBREEN BUARBREEN CAINHAVARRE CHOMJAKOV ENGABREEN WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 2537 2536 1274 1227 1143 2553 2570 1276 1202 623 633 2652 1252 1133 1188 2484 1123 2586 1156 1155 2407 1268 2331 649 659 2569 1269 2341 2579 621 2379 2509 2618 665 673 629 2639 1206 1207 1190 2335 2339 671 2467 2573 1515 1127 609 897 694 696 692 691 693 690 689 1065 688 695 1066 698 697 915 914 317 321 288 292 1317 293 2290 1328 1321 2291 2298 2297 318 2292 2671 2293 314 315 1330 309 298 SPITSBERGEN NORTH NORWAY SOUTHWESTERN NORWAY WESTERN NORWAY WEST NORWAY WESTERN NORWAY CENTRAL NORWAY WESTERN NORWAY SOUTHERN NORWAY SPITSBERGEN EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA CENTRAL MEXICO CENTRAL MEXICO WESTERN NORWAY WESTERN NORWAY WEST NORWAY SPITSBERGEN EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA CENTRAL ALPS N.33 6.39 46.09 7.61 10.36 8.39 10.13 44.36 45.47 7.42 46.16 46.70 7.51 10.38 7. TIMORION TORRENT TOULES TRAJO TRAVIGNOLO TRESERO WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 2450 1240 2348 2465 619 2454 2455 666 1181 1187 1223 624 1249 2657 2637 1122 1139 1124 681 1182 637 1135 1146 2337 1172 1171 686 2334 1132 2499 1277 1212 2517 2635 2364 2345 1222 610 1166 674 648 2397 612 2396 2598 1147 1131 2583 1168 678 1136 1140 1186 2511 1299 2411 2336 1267 634 1210 2344 667 1152 2506 2327 1134 1244 1193 660 1119 1120 1118 2486 2590 2488 1213 1263 653 1266 1282 2384 614 1278 1514 669 EASTERN BASIN CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS SPECIFIC LOCATION LATITUDE 45.50 45.20 60.) SOBRETTA NE (VEDR.97 LONGITUDE 10.28 7.73 10.00 10.77 11.13 7.09 10.64 9.55 45.57 12. SPIAN.22 12.52 45. TRESERO LINGUA SETT.50 45.62 78.91 46.98 IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT ADIGE BASIN 46.84 10.77 10.70 7.60 -0.68 7.15 -0.15 -0.14 9.50 45.14 6.19 45. NORDFJORD JOSTEDALSBREEN TOSTEDALSBREEN KONGSFJORD HORNSUND REGION KRUNDALEN 46.20 10.52 44.57 45. 45.40 10.13 46.46 46.39 46.30 37.72 7.48 46.90 10.38 .43 7.10 61.36 10.15 -0.66 10. VALAISAN VALEILLE VALLANTA INFERIORE VALLE DEL VENTO VALLELUNGA VALLESINELLA VALLETTA VALLONETTO VALPIANA VALTOURNANCHE VAUDALETTA VAZZEDA VEDRETTA PIANA CGI VENEROCOLO VENEZIA (VEDR.07 46.15 -0.17 46.54 10.85 10.65 60.64 10.47 45.54 7. PUNTA SFORZELLINA SETT.44 46.30 37.29 45.66 46.00 9.48 46.62 45. SERANA (VEDR.51 46.09 7.64 10.93 45.50 15.83 45.68 44.28 7.90 7.90 7.11 46.51 10.53 10.73 10.29 45.55 10.36 ADIGE BASIN ADIGE BASIN 47.53 46.67 46.43 46.90 9.72 9.) SESIA SEVINE ORIENT.97 10. (FUORI) VAL VIOLA OCC.48 46.74 10.92 45.55 45.90 7. SALINE SAN GIACOMO SASSOLUNGO OCC.06 46.78 7.90 45. POPOCATEPETL V.95 66.02 10.27 46.27 7.45 45.85 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT PSFG 301 139 41 326 312 0312A 313 577 365 443 225 481 172 1005 936 987 549 658 235 408 678 524 602 19 515 514 889 16 795 399 120 339 466 908 78 35 224 754 506 697 920 0189B 189 0189A 726 604 794 691 508 926 527 550 432 433 46 207 18 102 728 314 31 516 653 422 0006A 522 147 265 762 974 975 973 369 710 371 340 79 829 95 126 155 221 121 947 511 NAME PERAZZI PERCIA PIAN GIAS PICCOLO FILLAR PIODE PIODE (RAMO OCC.96 LONGITUDE 7.08 12.13 -0. TRIBOLAZIONE TRIOLET TROBIO (TRE CONFINI) TROBIO-GLENO TUCKETT TUF MERIDIONALE TYNDALL TZA DE TZAN ULTIMA (VEDR.23 46. RAYES NOIRES (ROSSA) REBBIO RINALPI RIOTORBO ROCCIA VIVA ROCCIAMELONE ROCHEFORT ROSIM ROSOLE ROSSA (VEDR.27 8.63 12.12 10.28 11.98 46.47 45.98 7. TARAMONA TELECCIO TESSA TESSONET MER.88 10.28 45.02 10. MOLERBI) SOCHES TSANTELEINA SOLATSET SOLDA (VEDRETTA DI) SORAPIS CENTRALE SORAPIS OCC.75 7.09 10.02 19.) PIODE (RAMO ORIENT.55 77.02 61.98 6.55 44.91 46. STERNAI SETT & MERID.45 7.30 37. QUAIRA BIANCA QUARNERO RAMULDA SETT.98 9.85 6.00 7.09 6.93 7.00 16.89 7.39 46.67 46.04 9.88 61.67 ADDA BASIN 46.65 7.15 -0.29 10.10 10.30 37.58 46. (LOBO OR.88 7.77 44.34 46.98 10.57 7.49 45.50 46.44 9.85 DORA BALTEA B.40 18.91 7.15 -0.54 36.51 46.02 45.23 9.) ROSSO DESTRO RUITOR ORIENT.64 10.91 45.55 46.30 60. TAMBÒ SUP.82 46.38 45.02 68.84 7.66 45.55 61.73 45.27 11.86 DORA B.30 37.86 7.19 45.30 37.16 ADDA BASIN 46.47 7.54 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1925 1926 1926 1926 1909 1930 1945 1935 1925 1925 1925 1923 1958 1926 1933 1932 1958 1946 1931 1931 1986 1926 1984 1980 1922 1945 1969 1927 1925 1926 1972 1924 1922 1919 1926 1899 1925 1913 1913 1931 1958 1961 1921 1921 1944 1924 1930 1897 1899 1919 1947 1947 1930 1947 1899 1899 1930 1893 1947 1944 1893 1958 1921 1974 1912 1908 1902 1936 1996 1998 1996 1903 1903 1902 1996 2002 1996 1897 1908 1961 1909 1926 1927 1927 1927 1910 1934 1946 1952 1926 1926 1930 1925 1975 1930 1951 1947 1959 1947 1932 1932 1987 1927 1985 1981 1923 1946 1974 1928 1926 1927 1973 1925 1923 1920 1934 1907 1926 1914 1914 1932 1961 1962 1923 1922 1945 1930 1934 1899 1908 1963 1963 1963 1944 1963 1930 1920 1944 1899 1987 1963 1899 1982 1950 1976 1913 1909 1903 1958 1997 1999 1997 1904 1905 1903 1997 2003 1997 1899 1909 1983 1910 2002 1975 2001 1975 1973 1970 2001 2000 1995 2001 1995 1969 1975 1999 1975 1968 1969 1977 2000 2000 1999 1999 2000 2005 1999 1972 1974 1960 1946 2005 1999 1998 1977 2005 2004 2005 1966 2001 1995 1994 1989 1988 1999 1950 1998 2005 2005 2005 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 1947 2004 2004 1987 2004 2004 1982 1999 1978 2000 2005 1953 1988 2005 1999 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 1985 2005 28 29 39 40 24 5 24 11 46 57 30 25 1 12 11 22 10 15 21 19 10 33 9 22 55 17 1 4 5 69 6 12 8 47 18 80 8 60 51 23 8 5 47 15 17 25 23 26 1981 6 8 4 4 8 4 6 3 6 15 1 5 15 1 9 3 14 70 1967 14 7 9 1965 1 9 24 51 71 9 3 9 106 51 1965 2 70 1970 2005 36 1968 4 1963 2005 9 1977 1981 5 1968 4 1968 2005 1972 39 5 1995 1963 1987 1998 2005 2005 4 43 19 1979 1996 18 2005 22 1926 1934 1927 1922 1914 1921 1921 1912 1926 1885 1949 1897 1948 1931 1957 1932 1940 1911 1897 1913 1920 1938 1968 1974 1925 1925 1929 1986 1929 1989 1973 1962 1931 1926 1988 1970 1946 1897 1925 1897 1928 1961 1926 1926 1924 1919 1929 1925 1926 1931 1926 1931 1890 1926 1927 1988 1984 1917 1933 1914 1928 1925 1934 1926 1927 1925 1950 1968 1922 1899 1901 1900 1945 1946 1926 1962 1934 1926 1971 1952 1922 1932 1932 1952 1925 1927 1975 1928 1923 1915 1922 1922 1918 1927 1899 1950 1905 1949 1932 1958 1933 1942 1920 1904 1916 1925 1975 1969 1975 1929 1929 1930 1987 1931 1990 1974 1963 1932 1927 1989 1971 1947 1898 1926 1898 1930 1962 1927 1927 1925 1920 1930 1926 1927 1932 1927 1933 1897 1927 1928 1989 1985 1918 1935 1915 1929 1926 1935 1927 1928 1926 1951 1969 1923 1900 1902 1901 1946 1947 1927 1963 1952 1927 1972 1974 1962 1933 1953 1953 1926 1944 1975 1995 1998 2005 1973 1972 2005 2001 2005 1999 1993 2001 1995 1997 1995 1976 2001 2005 2001 2004 1975 1969 1987 1975 1975 2005 1989 1973 2001 1974 1971 1985 1944 1992 1999 1999 2005 2001 2004 2005 1973 2005 1972 1977 1999 1973 1946 1976 1998 1996 1975 2001 2001 2001 1997 1988 1995 1995 1976 1974 2005 1976 2001 1972 1975 2001 1973 1995 2000 1986 2000 1966 1977 2001 1995 1987 2004 1994 1974 2001 2004 1976 2005 2000 17 1 8 23 56 14 15 55 56 55 19 19 13 7 14 11 22 32 80 34 56 1 1 2 11 11 33 3 21 10 1 8 13 17 4 10 19 29 40 42 28 7 75 34 7 15 20 6 18 15 9 24 49 21 30 5 4 9 14 37 2 61 27 28 15 3 22 3 42 31 21 29 5 13 46 9 4 31 5 1 18 48 16 13 46 1987 2000 14 SESIA BASIN 45.30 -98.46 10. RUTOR RUTOR SAENT (SETT.37 ADIGE BASIN 46.07 7.54 ADIGE BASIN 46.32 37.65 7.17 6.52 46.31 45.83 8.20 7.65 ADIGE BASIN 46.63 10. VAL SAENT CENTR. POROLA PRA FIORITO PRE DE BAR PREDAROSSA PRESANELLA PROFA PRUDENZINI PUNTA DANTE PUNTA SFORZELLINA OCC.53 46.58 46.14 10.52 10.08 6.09 10.88 7.51 45.38 46.10 76.68 45.36 45.56 46.14 ADIGE BASIN ADIGE BASIN TATEYAMA REGION MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA MOUNT KENYA POPOCATEPETL V.81 7.47 46.) VAL LOGA VAL NERA OCC.15 -0.33 7.91 ADIGE BASIN 46.00 7.46 6.21 45.31 46.12 8.) SEA SEIGNE SELLA SENGIE SETT.52 LOEN JOTUNHEIMEN JOSTEDAL HARDANGERFJORD FOLGEFONNA SONDRE FOLGEFONNA OLDEN OLDEN FOLGEFONN HORNSUND REGION SVARTISEN 61.30 44.28 7.75 61.20 7.51 OGLIO BASIN ADIGE BASIN ADDA BASIN 46.15 19.40 ADDA BASIN 46. VAL LIA (PIAZZI OR.90 10.91 45.36 6.12 10.29 46.28 9.40 6.32 37.19 46.36 46.45 7.43 47.92 6.15 DORA BALTEA BAS ADIGE BASIN 45.78 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 79 PU IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT JP KE KE KE KE KE KE KE KE KE KE KE KE KE MX MX NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PSFG 0511B 0511A 112 234 567 566 650 117 284 259 729 983 185 519 467 367 996 705 477 476 198 103 13 919 777 649 106 25 687 289 142 425 772 581 698 416 0942A 297 298 471 17 21 483 328 659 749 750 751 1 4 6 10 11 9 12 3 0009B 1 8 14 13 5 102 101 36204 37323 31220 15504 0053A 12503 31013 7421 1930 37219 548 33014 20408 20515 37109 37110 21307 7393 12408 67011 NAME TRESERO LINGUA MER.82 10.51 46.63 46.51 46.92 6.74 10.60 46.62 37.58 DORA BALTEA BAS ADIGE BASIN ADDA BASIN 45.93 11.73 10.21 12.15 -0.76 9.34 45.30 37.29 9.04 46.) VENTINA VERNEL ORIENT VERRA (GRANDE DI) VERRA (PICCOLO DI) VERVA MAGGIORE (BASSO) VISO VISO NORD ORIENT. SURETTA MERID.98 10.40 44.05 46.51 10.98 46.44 10.17 10.JAPAN ALPS EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS EASTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL ALPS SPECIFIC LOCATION LATITUDE 46.73 46.) URSIC USSELETTES VAL DELL'ALPE MERID.77 61.86 7.85 9.39 9. SORAPIS OR.42 47.14 46. VAL VIOLA OR.27 7.40 45.68 ADIGE BASIN ADIGE BASIN ADIGE BASIN DORA BALTEA BAS 46.43 12.39 45.39 46.29 46. RASICA ORIENT.69 13.03 60.07 46.73 10.44 7.) PARROT PISGANA OCC. SAVORETTA SCAIS SCERSCEN INFERIORE SCERSCEN SUP.35 46.73 46.92 OGLIO BASIN 46.21 12.90 6.41 46.

48 LONGITUDE 168.72 61.32 -43.95 -8.08 169.40 8.82 -43.05 7.10 7.43 13.75 171.) EVANS FITZGERALD (GOD) FITZGERALD (KAR) FOX FRANKLIN FRANZ JOSEF FRESHFIELD GLENMARY GODLEY GREY & MAUD GUNN HOOKER HORACE WALKER IVORY JACK JACKSON JALF KAHUTEA KEA LA PEROUSE LAMBERT LAWRENCE LE BLANC LEEB-LORNTY LINDSAY LLAWRENNY LYELL MACAULAY MARCHANT MARION MARMADUKE DIXON MATHAIAS MC COY MUELLER MURCHISON PARK PASS POET RAMSAY REISCHEK RETREAT RICHARDSON RIDGE ROLLESTON SALE SEPARATION SIEGE SINCLAIR SNOW WHITE SNOWBALL SOUTH CAMERON SPENCER ST.68 -43.37 -44.38 171.52 66.50 -43.80 -43.22 -43.62 66.45 -44.02 170.MATHAIAS CLYDE HOOKER MURCHISON ROCK BURN HAAST RAKAIA REISCHEK STM FARQUHARSON CK HOPKINS CASS OTIRA WHITCOMBE GODLEY BARLOW CLYDE ARAWHATA JOE CAMERON WAIHO RAMSAY KARANGARUA BLUE R TASMAN HOOKER-MUELLER WAIATOTO CANYON CK ARAWATA MT CARRINGTON AVOCA FOG PK BARRIER PK PYKE BAKER CK COOK WHATOAROA DART WHITE WHATAROA WHATAROA WILKINSON HAAST PARON BASIN LLANGANUCO VAL.55 61.BLANCA CORD.67 5.58 -77.93 27.58 7.58 170.92 -43.72 61.19 169.47 -43.00 169.48 171.78 170.42 -43. FONDALSBREEN GRAAFJELLSBREA GRAASUBREEN HANSBREEN HANSEBREEN HARBARDSBREEN HARDANGERJOEKULEN HEIMRE ILLAABRE HELLSTUGUBREEN HOEGTUVBREEN HORN IRENEBREEN JOSTEFONN KJENNDALSBREEN KOERBER KONGSVEGEN KOPPANGSBREEN KVALFANGAR LANGFJORDJOEKUL LEIRBREEN LODALSBREEN MIDTDALSBREEN MIDTRE LOVENBREEN MUEHLBACHER NIGARDSBREEN NORDRE ILLAABRE OKSTINDBREEN PAIERL REMBESDALSKAAKI RUNDVASSBREEN SAMARIN SONDRE ILLAABRE SPOERTEGGBREEN STEGHOLTBREEN STEINDALSBREEN STORBREEN STORGJUVBREEN STORGLOMBREEN STORSTEINSFJELL STYGGEDALSBREEN SUPPHELLEBREEN SVARTISHEIBREEN SVELLNOSBREEN TRETTEN-NULL-TO TROLLBERGDALSBR TUNSBERGDALSBRE TVERRAABREEN VESLEDALSBREEN VESTRE MEMURUBR WALDEMARBREEN WERENSKIOLD WIBE AX010 AX030 DX080 EB050 GYAJO KONGMA KONGMA TIKPE RIKHA SAMBA THULAGI YALA ABEL ADAMS ALMER/SALISBURY ANDY ASHBURTON AXIUS BALFOUR BARLOW BARRIER BLAIR BONAR BREWSTER BURTON BUTLER CAMERON CARIA WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 289 2299 2672 299 306 322 2320 304 2300 300 286 308 2669 1676 2294 310 1456 2309 296 323 301 2301 2295 291 295 290 2302 324 294 2296 2670 311 2303 319 313 2310 302 2308 297 1329 303 287 320 2304 312 316 1316 2305 1331 1318 2307 305 307 906 911 907 910 1069 909 908 1516 1535 912 1546 2923 1548 1590 1570 2283 1604 1608 2281 1551 1587 1597 1606 1544 1565 1558 1579 1571 1564 2287 898 2286 SPITSBERGEN SPITSBERGEN SPITSBERGEN HIMALAYAS HIMALAYAS HIMALAYAS HIMALAYAS HIMALAYAS HIMALAYAS HIMALAYAS HIMALAYAS HIMALAYA HIMALAYAS WHATAROA WANGANUI WAIHO OLIVINES S.02 170.50 -43.22 -43.49 6.63 169.80 69.62 -44.80 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 81 PU NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ PSFG 31015 67012 547 12419 36206 30704 22303 530 511 5507 12411 15402 37223 12404 15510 12415 85008 548 31019 4302 15506 12416 31014 531 64902 12417 22303 12407 534 31027 31021 541 67313 7381 30720 33014 65509 523 67315 68507 3100 522 3733A 0053B 15403 12501 12414 5 6 7 8 11 10 9 12 13 4 NAME FAABERGSTOELSB.72 27.72 -43.95 27.95 27.17 -43.10 16.37 7.83 -77.00 170.48 168.00 -44.23 -44.15 171.48 28.42 -43.75 -43.88 27.93 171.97 170.72 170.90 169.) DOUGLAS (RAK.17 -70.75 -8.82 12.17 -77.95 170.10 61.42 171.37 171.57 -43.40 -44.83 -43.61 61.83 -44.13 8.50 170.BLANCA SE ANDES SPECIFIC LOCATION WAIATOTO TUTOKO DOUGLAS CAMERON WANGANUI GODLEY DOUGLAS FOX TARAMAKAU WAIHO RIVER TASMAN DOBSON GODLEY GODLEY HOLLYFORD HOOKER DOUGLAS WAITAHA RIVER OTOKO LANDSBOROUGH WAIKUKUPA WILBERFORCE GALWAY CK COOK GARDEN OF ALLAH LAWRENCE HAAST WANGANUI POSIEDON CK LYELL MACAULAY KARANGARUA JOE WHITE S.23 13.17 -44.38 170.97 170.37 66.62 -42.87 61.52 170.58 168.72 169.62 -44.39 61.30 7.75 -43.24 -44.48 -43.28 14.30 169.70 27.12 169.83 86.72 66.80 167.38 170.63 168.45 -44.05 -44.60 61.08 12.67 -43.05 -76.93 7.43 170.20 -43.92 28.43 -43.68 86.75 7.92 -43.27 170.32 18.64 66.49 -43.37 -44.57 86.00 -43.13 -43. RAURA WESTERN ALPS HOLLYFORD KARANGARUA RAKAIA WANGANUI EASTERN ALPS KARANGARUA COOK OTIRA WESTLAND EASTERN ALPS WAITAKI WAITAKI WAITAKI HOLLYFORD WAITAKI KARANGARUA WESTLAND PARINGA HAAST WAIKUKUPA RAKAIA WANGANUI COOK WANGANUI EASTERN ALPS LANDSBOROUGH WESTERN ALPS OKURU ARTHUR RAKAIA EASTERN ALPS COPLAND ARAWHATA WAIMAKA RIRI RAKAIA RANGITATA WAITAKI WAITAKI CLUTHA LANSBOROUGH RAKAIA RAKAIA HOKITIKA WAITAKI WAITAKI TARAMAKAU WHITCOMBE EASTERN ALPS WHATAROA RANGITATA ARAWHATA ARAWHATA RAKAIA CALLERY RAKAIA COPLAND WILKIN WAITAKI EASTERN ALPS WAIATOTO AHURIRI OLIVINES WAI MAKARIRI RAKAIA SHOTOVER CLINTON FIORDLAND LANDSBOROUGH FOX WESTERN ALPS CLUTHA WAIMAKARIRI WHATAROA WHATAROA WHITCOMBE LANDSBOROUGH CORD.16 14.02 16.00 17.62 170.07 78.88 6.30 60.98 170.10 70.77 8.02 170.27 -43.88 170.52 -43.07 15.92 7.47 12.BLANCA CORD.35 170.44 -43.67 170.95 78.87 -43.48 171.05 8.08 16.52E+03 797G1 UNNAMED NZ664C UNNAMED NZ685F UNNAMED NZ752E UNNAMED NZ797G UNNAMED NZ851A/036 UNNAMED NZ868B VICTORIA WHATAROA WHITBOURNE WHITE WHYMPER WIGLEY WILKINSON ZORA 2005 1 NZ NZ NZ PE PE PE PE PE PE PE PE 3 3 9 7 8 1 0002B 6 ARTESONRAJU BROGGI GAJAP-YANACARCO HUARAPASCA PASTORURI QUELCCAYA SAFUNA SANTA ROSA 711M1 693C1 CLASSEN COLIN CAMPBELL CROW DAINTY DART DISPUTE .60 -43.77 168.85 -9.20 -43.53 170.28 -43.80 170.40 60.07 -43.28 -43.57 66.95 170.80 69.47 -44.13 167.45 77.14 1999 1 NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ 664C1 685F1 7.57 61.80 170.76 -43.72 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1899 1909 2002 1918 1903 1910 2003 1936 2005 1942 2005 2004 98 33 3 23 1964 1962 1989 1986 1998 2005 2005 2005 2005 2001 2005 2005 1977 2005 2000 10 44 15 17 4 43 44 7 4 5 1988 1987 1987 1989 1988 1988 1984 1989 1989 1980 1988 1989 1989 1989 1989 1985 1988 1980 1989 1948 1989 1989 1989 1984 1989 1996 1985 1985 1989 1989 1989 1988 1986 1989 1989 2000 1985 1989 1989 1989 1986 1983 1989 1989 1987 1989 1989 1993 1995 1989 1985 1987 1987 2002 1989 1985 1986 1989 1989 2000 1987 1989 1986 1989 1989 1989 1989 1987 1980 1989 1988 1988 1989 1980 1989 1989 1986 1948 1980 1980 1980 1963 1968 1977 2000 1995 1993 1992 1992 2000 1993 1991 1993 1981 1996 1994 1995 1994 1993 1992 1995 1981 1993 1949 1993 1995 1993 1995 1992 1997 1994 1999 1993 1993 1995 2000 1995 1993 1993 2000 1995 1991 1993 1994 1995 1995 1995 1993 1993 1994 1993 1995 1996 1992 1995 1993 1993 2004 1992 1996 1994 1992 1991 2000 1995 1992 1995 1993 1993 1993 1993 1998 1995 1995 1999 1995 1993 1995 1992 1995 1995 2005 1968 1981 1981 1981 1974 1969 1978 2000 2003 2005 1995 2003 2001 1995 2005 1995 2005 2002 2000 2003 2004 2005 2002 2005 2005 1995 1994 1995 2004 1995 2005 2005 2002 1995 2005 1995 1995 2004 2000 1995 2005 2005 2003 2000 2005 2005 2005 1995 2004 2005 1995 2000 1995 1995 2004 2000 2005 1995 2005 2003 2004 2000 2003 2005 1995 2005 2004 1995 2005 1995 1995 1994 1995 1995 1999 1995 2005 2005 2001 2005 2005 2000 2005 2005 2005 2004 2005 1990 2005 1980 1974 1983 1 6 11 4 7 2 2 13 3 25 3 5 6 7 12 9 6 23 3 2 3 8 3 10 8 5 2 6 3 3 6 1 1 8 11 3 3 7 10 11 1 6 8 3 4 2 3 6 2 11 1 8 7 1 7 5 6 4 15 4 1 11 1 2 2 3 3 2 1 5 5 3 11 10 6 7 7 1 32 13 9 15 3 5 6 1976 1980 5 2005 2005 1 1959 1959 1 1970 1975 6 NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ 1980 1903 1901 1961 2000 1996 1960 1998 1961 1998 1907 1899 1982 1961 1908 1903 1900 1995 1900 1903 1908 1998 1901 1997 1981 1904 1902 1983 2001 1997 1961 1999 1983 1999 1908 1903 1983 1983 1909 1904 1918 1996 1918 1904 1909 1999 1902 1998 1983 1959 2005 1985 2005 2005 1984 2005 1984 2005 2004 1970 2005 1985 2005 1961 1985 2005 1985 1961 2005 2005 2004 2005 3 17 49 2 5 9 2 1963 1962 1971 2002 1996 1987 5 2 7 33 63 23 3 91 22 1986 5 9 2002 4 22 1988 97 4 54 8 1985 1964 1901 1899 1903 1901 1956 1900 1901 1905 1902 1909 1978 1961 1978 1978 1976 1976 1970 1978 1978 1974 1958 1982 1989 1879 1989 1987 1989 1987 1985 1989 1987 1989 1987 1989 1989 1989 1988 1989 1989 1988 1988 1994 1980 1988 1902 1903 1904 1902 1957 1903 1902 1906 1903 1936 1982 1983 1989 1989 1989 1989 1973 1989 1989 1994 1972 1987 1993 1892 1993 1993 1993 1998 1995 1992 1998 1993 1995 1992 1993 1992 1993 1993 1994 1995 1995 1996 1981 1998 2005 2005 1958 1912 1970 1975 1963 1965 1953 2005 1988 1985 1999 1989 1995 1989 1995 1995 1995 1999 1988 1996 1995 2003 2005 2005 2005 2002 2005 2000 1999 1995 2000 2005 2000 2005 2005 1995 2002 2001 2005 2000 2005 2002 81 61 13 11 1985 14 55 33 25 16 17 5 3 7 1 2 1 3 2 2 3 4 4 3 13 12 12 8 4 9 5 2 3 3 14 7 14 10 3 7 3 5 5 18 4 2005 1999 1996 1967 1968 1995 1980 1970 1966 1981 1988 1949 1962 2000 1968 1989 2005 19 NZ NZ NZ HORNSUND REGION WESTERN FINMARK JOTUNHEIMEN JOSTEDAL HARDANGERJOKULE KONGSFJORD HORNSUND REGION JOSTEDAL JOTUNHEIMEN KORGEN HORNSUND REGION HARDANGERJOKULE BLAAMANNSISEN HORNSUND REGION JOTUNHEIMEN BREHEIMEN JOSTEDAL JOTUNHEIMEN SVARTISEN JOTUNHEIMEN JOSTEDALSBREEN SVARTISEN JOTUNHEIMEN SVARTISEN SVARTISEN JOTUNHEIMEN 77.10 21.83 170.98 -9.52 -44.77 169.78 -43.15 171.57 170.12 170.13 8.37 -44.83 -10.62 -77.12 170.03 168.57 78.42 170.02 14. LATITUDE -44.47 -43.53 -42.83 28.23 169.08 77.00 -43.67 60.60 168.89 8.08 61.72 168.60 168.47 7.60 61.17 170.25 -43.58 -43.12 61.32 -42.32 14.45 12.83 61.83 -9.02 -43.57 61.88 170.53 61.22 -44.58 -44.83 83.37 15.65 16.50 84.72 171.18 -43.53 67.47 -42.39 61.13 60.50 -43.15 8.03 170.70 76.16 7.52 170.22 61.18 -77.68 -44.45 -43.37 170.BLANCA CORD.30 -43.92 169.50 85.09 170.32 -43.90 -13.93 169.33 -44.52 170.88 77.38 -43.37 8.93 -7.98 170.00 168.87 168.07 168.53 2005 17 NZ NZ NZ 2001 2005 2005 1997 2 38 44 12 NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ 2004 3 NZ NZ NZ 1991 4 NZ NZ NZ 2005 2005 1995 1982 1995 1986 1994 1972 1967 1971 2005 1980 1999 57 10 10 2 8 2 11 7 1 4 11 1 4 NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ KAFFIOYRA HORNSUND REGION HORNSUND REGION SHORONG HIMAL SHORONG HIMAL KHUMBU HIMAL KHUMBU HIMAL KHUMBU HIMAL KHUMBU HIMAL KHUMBU HIMAL DHAULAGIRI MANASLU HIMAL LANGTANG VALLEY PERTH ADAMS WAIHO WILLIAMSON S.BLANCA CORD.00 171.35 61.12 61.53 61.97 -43.45 7.32 170.43 -43.95 -44.78 60.63 170.00 15.32 -43.32 -43.25 -43.98 -43.87 168.89 170.48 -43.22 170.98 20.67 86.75 61.35 -43.58 -43.ASHBURTON WAIATOTO BALFOUR PERTH FIORDLAND WAITAKI WAIPARA WILLS-BURKE CALLERY RAKAIA RAKAIA ARAWHATA WAITAKI RANGITATA WAIMAKARIRI WESTERN ALPS OTAGO WESTERN ALPS CENTRAL NORWAY CENTRAL NORWAY SOUTHERN NORWAY NORTHERN NORWAY CENTRAL NORWAY NORHERN NORWAY NORTH NORWAY NORTH NORWAY SPITSBERGEN CENTRAL NORWAY WESTERN NORWAY WEST NORWAY NORTHERN NORWAY CENTRAL NORWAY NORTHERN NORWAY NORTHERN NORWAY SPITSBERGEN SPITSBERGEN WEST NORWAY CENTRAL NORWAY NORTHERN NORWAY SPITSBERGEN NORTHERN NORWAY SPITSBERGEN NORTHERN NORWAY SOUTHERN NORWAY WESTERN NORWAY SPITSBERGEN WEST NORWAY NORTHERN NORWAY SOUTHWESTERN NORWAY SOUTHERN NORWAY SPITSBERGEN WESTERN NORWAY WESTERN NORWAY CENTRAL NORWAY CENTRAL NORWAY SOUTHERN NORWAY NORTH NORWAY SPITSBERGEN SPITSBERGEN SOUTH NORWAY SPECIFIC LOCATION TOSTEDAL SVARTISEN SONDRE FOLGEFONNA JOTUNHEIMEN HORNSUND REGION NORDFJORD JOSTEDAL HARDANGERVIDDA JOTUNHEIMEN JOTUNHEIMEN RANA HORNSUND REGION KAFFIOYRA LOEN HORNSUND REGION LATITUDE 61.37 -42.50 -43.40 -44.32 170.53 168.37 16.67 77.27 8.47 -43.22 168. JAMES STRAUCHON STUART TASMAN TEWAEWAE THERMA THURNEYSON TORNADO WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 2284 1585 1601 1543 1611 2278 1602 1536 2964 899 2966 1550 1581 1580 1560 1576 1600 900 1553 1552 1549 1569 1545 1605 1612 2275 1595 2288 1556 1561 1567 2280 1598 1591 1541 2997 1572 1575 1578 1559 1594 1568 1566 1542 1574 1547 1538 1614 2279 1616 1573 1588 1589 3019 1607 2274 1599 1555 1074 2276 1592 1554 1586 1539 1540 1557 1562 2282 1596 3034 2285 1583 3037 1609 1610 1615 1593 3292 220 223 222 224 219 1343 225 CORD.30 -44.97 168.65 77.57 86.80 170.24 7.72 66.40 168.60 15.80 13.32 -42.36 169.92 170.18 -43.75 86.68 7.37 170.36 169.57 171.99 170.96 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU NZ NZ PSFG NAME DONALD DONNE DOUGLAS (KAR.82 -77.37 -43. CARIA GODLEY CLYDE CROW WANGANUI DART RIVER TURNBULL 78.77 8.45 -43.17 86.65 -43.55 -43.28 170.12 -43.67 68.ASHBURTON TE NAHI COOK WHATAROA PYKE HUXLEY WAIPARA HAAST WAIHO LOUPER CAMERON MT.57 170.40 16.93 171.30 76.48 61.97 170.89 168.40 8.60 170.88 -43.45 -44.40 168. PATIVILCA BASIN PACHACOTO BASIN PACHACOTO BASIN SICUANI NE RIO HUAURA BAS.68 LONGITUDE 7.88 -43.07 27.52 -44.23 77.

17 269.43 38.58 73.12 39.17 LONGITUDE -77.70 37.85 72.14.03.18 39.92 38.08 469.18 39.14.57 18.15 38.14.23 38.03.07 39.17 375.03.14.93 72.03.14 12.14 165.03.98 37.08 612.12 39.20 73.92 73.14.17 241.88 73.08 617.82 38.02 39.15 40.14.03.14.60 72.14.17 42.03.13 38.14.20 35.13 46. SUOTTASJEKNA TARFALAGL UNNA RAEITA GL.03.82 72.93 72.43 73.80 72.57 72.58 74.60 72.14.03.88 72.08 605.14. KARAMBAR MINAPIN SHAIGIRI TAP TOSHAIN RUPAL MIEGUSZOWIECKIE POD BULA POD CUBRYNA TATRAS PATCHES HYLLGLACIAEREN ISFALLSGLAC.14.14 520.70 73.14.95 72.17 41.08 39.03.98 39.18 73.95 38.92 37.08 514.70 72.40 72.97 38.93 38.14.90 38. CARPATHIANS W.90 38.67 73.95 72.03.03.53 72.03.03.03.03.17 268.14.87 39.08 37.17 306.85 38.27 76.55 18.72 72.14.85 72.03.17 271.03.02 73.14.08 591.08 531.98 39. PASSUSJIETNA W RABOTS GLACIAER RIUKOJIETNA RUOPSOKJEKNA RUOTESJEKNA SALAJEKNA SE KASKASATJ GL STORGLACIAEREN STOUR RAEITAGL.03.14 155.90 72.14.17 30.08 499.14.14 173.15 388.14.03.14 446.14.88 -9.03.14 385.97 73.95 38.95 72.03.95 38.03.03.17 261.08 73.10 39.88 72.14.14.10 38.15 39.14.14.02 73.03.17 152.17 262.07 73.14.08 38.14.14 WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 3293 3294 221 226 1630 987 972 985 1002 994 976 974 973 903 1617 902 901 344 333 330 328 1461 338 327 331 345 334 342 340 337 341 329 332 335 336 326 343 339 2184 2188 2223 2224 2189 2158 2159 2160 2190 2225 2226 2227 2191 2228 2229 2230 2231 2232 2233 2234 2235 2236 2237 2161 2162 2163 2238 2164 2239 2168 2169 2170 2193 2171 2172 2173 2174 2175 2176 2177 2178 2179 2240 2180 2241 2242 2244 CORD.03.14 598.14 239.03.03.14 541.95 72.17 39.15 44.80 38.03.03.03.68 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 2005 2001 1948 1971 1970 1939 1902 1856 1955 1889 1934 1934 1934 1980 1980 1980 1978 1967 1897 1908 1970 1897 1967 1968 1968 1950 1963 1965 1965 1898 1950 1897 1970 1896 1897 1949 1967 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1973 1980 1980 1980 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 2002 1968 1972 1989 1988 1913 1934 1993 1893 1958 1958 1958 1981 1981 1981 1984 1968 1910 1909 1971 1899 1970 1969 1969 1951 1968 1967 1967 1908 1951 1908 1971 1901 1910 1951 1968 1980 1980 1978 1990 1990 1980 1980 1980 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1980 1980 1980 1990 1980 1990 1980 1990 1980 1990 1990 1990 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1990 1980 1990 1990 1990 2005 2005 2005 2005 1993 1995 1989 1987 1994 1987 1987 1987 1987 2005 2005 2005 1984 2003 2005 1997 1977 2002 2003 2000 1995 2002 2002 2000 2002 2002 2005 2003 1998 2002 1951 2000 2003 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1980 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1980 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1 3 29 30 2 3 5 3 2 7 2 2 2 22 25 24 1 19 53 49 6 1990 41 24 19 14 31 19 17 22 23 31 63 12 24 5 18 21 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1986 2005 12 1946 2005 60 1982 1986 2005 2005 23 19 1997 2000 4 2005 16 1982 1993 8 2005 2005 1 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1973 1980 1980 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1980 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1973 1980 1980 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1980 1990 1980 1990 1990 1978 1990 1980 1980 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1978 1990 1990 1978 1990 1990 1990 1990 1980 1990 1990 1978 1990 1980 1980 1980 1990 1990 1978 1980 1980 1978 1980 1980 1980 1990 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1978 1980 1980 1980 1980 1978 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1990 1980 1980 1980 1980 1990 1990 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU TATRA MOUNTAINS TATRA MOUNTAINS TATRA MOUNTAINS TATRA MOUNTAINS NW SAREK KEBNEKAISE ABISKO N KEBNEKAISE KEBNEKAISE SAREK S SAREK N KEBNEKAISE N KEBNEKAISE KEBNEKAISE KEBNEKAISE NE SAREK SAREK SULITELMA KEBNEKAISE KEBNEKAISE KEBNEKAISE N SAREK KEBNEKAISE KEBNEKAISE SAREK 49.20 38. KARSOJIETNA KUOTOTJAKKAGL.65 35.62 73.20 39.03.97 39.13 38.03.05 38.03.32 18.03.14.03.14.00 38.92 38.43 17.05 39.88 38.68 38.13 453.57 72.08 39.60 37.87 72.03.05 68.14.92 37. CENTRAL CORD.17 273.03.68 72.60 72.14.03.38 18.14.14.14.03.73 72.67 17.14. CARPATHIANS CARPATHIANS N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN NORTHERN SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN NORTHERN SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN NORTHERN SWEDEN N SWEDEN N SWEDEN EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR SPECIFIC LOCATION QUILLCAY BASIN 1D3522BB-BC-CA BASIN RIO NEGRO BASIN YANAYACU BASIN HUSHE RIVER HUNZA BASIN SHIGAR ISHKOMAN-GILGIT HUNZA VALLEY LATITUDE -9.08 54.14.03.65 72.14.80 38.80 38.14.03.68 72.14.03.14.14.03.85 38.03.13 72.14 390.14.85 38.75 72.73 72.93 72.14.03.17 160.08 606.14 170. MARMAGLACIAEREN MIKKAJEKNA PARTEJEKNA PASSUSJIETNA E.03.47 16.03.03.90 72.92 37.05 20.10 37.14.08 449.03.57 73.03.14.38 18.14 161.80 37.03.65 18.95 39.65 72.92 68.14 242.03.80 72.14.15 394.03.14.08 543.08 582.10 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU SU SU SU PSFG NAME 284.08 508.14.67 18.63 72.03.08 593.08 17.14 174.14.17 136.03.90 72.13 72.03.88 38.97 38.14.17 WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 2245 2185 2194 2246 2211 2195 2101 2102 2103 2247 2248 2249 2196 2197 2250 2212 2253 2254 2213 2255 2256 2198 2199 2182 2257 2258 2214 2203 2105 2106 2107 2204 2205 2215 2108 2109 2216 2110 2111 2112 2206 2186 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119 2217 2120 2121 2122 2123 2218 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 2130 2132 2133 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2141 2143 2243 2208 2145 2146 2148 2149 2151 2152 2153 2154 2156 2157 2201 2187 EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR SPECIFIC LOCATION LATITUDE 38.87 72.47 36.07 39.03 38.14.03.14.14.03.14 336.92 39.58 67.08 623.03.58 72.03.08 324.88 38.03.08 600.72 74.14.14.14.62 74.23 36.14.03.82 38.78 73.05 -77.42 67.03.03.14 331.14 208.03.08 473.77 38.65 73.08 549.08 38.38 17.87 72.14 31.03.03.28 73.88 38.17 15.14.13 38.98 17.03.73 72.82 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 83 PU PE PE PE PE PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PL PL PL PL SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU PSFG 3 1 5 4 35 4 1001 1501 28 13 1508 1506 1515 140 111 180 1 780 787 798 795 799 766 763 797 796 785 790 764 767 759 789 788 784 768 791 783 765 NAME SHALLAP SHULLCON URUASHRAJU YANAMAREY ALING BUALTAR CHOGO LUNGMA CHUNGPAR-TASH.92 72.03 73.00 38.14.14.08 72.95 38.03. CAPATHIANS W.10 39.95 38.03.72 38.27 39.03.77 72.22 67.78 72.08 519.14.08 544.14.14 281.03.22 74.20 38.03.57 72.14.58 74.14.17 429.05 38.03.02 73.14 280.45 39.03.78 72.72 73.08 448.12 67.20 39.03.14.14.17 139.17 264.14.78 38.14 169.80 75.08 572.13 38.90 67.03.17 100.19 49.88 72.73 73.08 622.18 49.17 8.15 434.03.03.03.14.03.93 72.70 72.14 159.14.15 73.78 72.23 72.14.15 68.03.03.03.14.73 72.14 599.55 73.14.08 509.08 560.14.03.03.70 72.08 512.93 37.87 38.13 5.15 39.14.14.03.14 273.14.12 36.08 72.14.08 597.03.60 18.35 68.68 72.00 39.57 18.03 73.87 73.03.08 578.10 73.14.03.62 72.14 34.14.90 68.83 38.14.77 73.95 37.07 73.BLANCA CORD.14.80 72.02 73.60 72.95 72.03.03. VARTASJEKNA 1.14.03.08 315.14.87 72.80 36.87 39.17 263.60 72.55 73.18 35.03.08 38.17 134.00 73.14.03.13 39.03.03.BLANCA CORD.14.02 39.14.03.83 39.47 73.14.14 464.10 38.03.98 73.14.33 67.93 38.08 586.03.14.93 67.97 72.18 39.03.82 38.03.14.18 72.14.03.08 614.03.58 18.13 73.14.93 67.08 558.14.30 37.43 39.57 38.17 503.17 270.25 73.08 329.32 -77.03.68 73.08 506.03.63 72.37 73.88 38.70 17.70 73.93 38.07 38.14.14.90 37.14.92 37.97 67.08 17.14.14 3.77 38.14 471.08 551.00 74.14.40 67.14.14.87 38.12 39.08 52.83 67.53 72.57 20.14 31.47 72.14.03.82 72.03.07 39.14.03.08 20.14.03 73.14.03.03.82 72.03.15 LONGITUDE 73.08 608.07 20.03.68 72.70 72.14.14.14.14.14.08 449.18 73.63 73.05 67.75 73.87 38.17 243.05 73.00 35.03.17 39.77 72.03.47 18.20 38.13 39.95 72.03.62 72.97 67.03.17 279.80 72.03.03.14.03.93 37.18 49.72 38.08 532.18 35.14.14.12 .03.14.14 168.14.17 257.14.14.14 101.93 73.14 254.53 72.03.13 447.14 172.93 37.14.17 36.12 73.03.48 -11.17 74.08 474.03.03.12 72.12 37.14.67 73.43 18.10 38.85 38.17 68.05 38.17 259.23 38.17 240.17 260.17 242.92 37.58 -9.14.17 26.03 73.03.75 72.88 38.30 73.03.17 39.97 38.72 72.17 314.14.03.BLANCA KARAKORUM KARAKORUM KARAKORUM NANGA PARBAT KARAKORUM KARAKORUM NANGA PARBAT NANGA PARABAT NANGA PARABAT W.08 37.14.14.08 47.57 18.08 580.14.48 38.92 37.33 -76.14.14.95 37.03.08 538.08 67.17 10.07 73.47 67.14.88 38.82 72.14.03.03.14.48 39.03 39.53 72.08 579.83 38.14 16.73 73.14.48 38.14.07 37.85 38.14.70 37.14.08 573.

83 70.45 38.37 42.23 42.45 42. OKTYABRSKIY MALIY AKTRU MALIY AZAU MALYY BERELSKIY MANSHUK MAMETOV MARUKHSKIY MAYAKOVSKIY MAZARSKIY MEDVEZHIY MGU MIKELCHIRAN MIZHIRGICHIRAN MNA MOLODEZHNIY MURAVLEV MURKAR MUSHKETOV MUTNOVSKIY NE MUTNOVSKIY SW NANKALDY NICHKEDZHILGA WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 791 1105 790 706 2183 789 1109 763 2207 731 1111 794 1084 710 795 762 830 811 727 808 746 716 728 755 1509 769 812 796 776 715 788 787 2150 2134 1508 780 702 707 782 771 712 805 775 723 827 721 714 821 1433 729 809 747 807 831 1085 743 744 1086 1087 2144 2099 824 1101 815 1097 797 705 718 770 781 814 724 748 760 777 754 1093 817 774 704 826 785 752 740 836 TIEN-SHAN CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASUS GISSARO-ALAI GISSARO-ALAI TIEN-SHAN GISSARO-ALAI NORTH CAUCASUS DZHUNGARSKIY NORTH CAUCASUS PAMIRS CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN TIEN-SHAN CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN NORTH CAUCASUS CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN TIEN-SHAN EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR GISSARO-ALAI POLAZ UZAL TIEN-SHAN TIEN-SHAN TIEN-SHAN ALTAY ALTAI GISSARO-ALAI GISSARO-ALAI ALTAY ALTAI PAMIR ALTAY NORTH CAUCASUS ALTAY TIEN-SHAN NORTH CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN PAMIRS PAMIRS POLAZ UZAL NORTH CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASUS CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN DZHUNGARSKIY CAUCASUS PAMIRS KAMCHATKA KAMCHATKA EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR ALTAI ALTAY NORTH CAUCASUS ARCTICA TIEN-SHAN CAUCASUS GISSARO-ALAI TIEN-SHAN CAUCASUS PAMIRS PAMIR PAMIRS GISSARO-ALAI TIEN-SHAN NORTH CAUCASUS EASTERN PAMIR PAMIR KAMCHATKA NORTH CAUCASUS EASTERN PAMIR KAMCHATKA KAMCHATKA SPECIFIC LOCATION KRONOTSKY PENIN AVACHINSKAYA ARDON RIVER B.78 43.03.92 39.77 72.00 43.12 42.72 73.61 43.43 87.58 39. ALMATINKA SEVERO-CHUISKIY SEVERO-CHUISKIY TURKESTANSKIY ZERAVSHAN RIVER Altay 50.70 42.30 43.85 43. ALMATINKA OBIHINGOU RIVER VANCH RIVER MALAYA SCHUCHIA ELBRUS MOUNTAIN TEREK RIVER MOUNTAIN KAZBEK ZAILIYSKIY SAMUR RIVER MUKSU RIVER MUTNOVSKY VOLC.76 87.507 NO.675 NO.80 41.50 43.36 158.42 77.37 43.14 93.63 72. ELBRUS MOUNTAIN ELBRUS MOUNTAIN KATUNSKY RANGE ELBRUS MOUNTAIN SEVERO-CHUISKIY AKSHIYRAK MASS. ALMATINKA ELBRUS MOUNTAIN ELBRUS MOUNTAIN PSKEMSKIY RIDGE TERSKEY-ALA-TOO SYRDARYA BASIN ELBRUS MOUNTAIN TERSKEY ALATAU CHATKAL MUKSU RIVER CUBAN RIVER MOUNTAIN KAZBEK TURKESTANSKIY SYRDARYA BASIN ALAISKIY RIDGE TURKESTANSKIY TERSKEY ALATAU RIONI RIVER SEVERO-CHUISKIY 43.35 54.55 72.38 1971 15 4 22 2 16 13 1 44 9 32 14 9 24 20 2 1957 1968 1991 1980 5 13 2005 49 .314 NO.17 44. TERSKEY ALA-TOO TEREK RIVER ZERAVSHAN RIVER AKSHIYRAK KURA RIVER SURKHOB RIVER PAMIRO-ALAY SURKHOB RIVER ZERAVSHAN RIVER GISSARO-ALAY BOLSHAYA KHADAT M.08 39.03 67.32 44.68 43.08 43.07 39.30 41.30 80.08 38.55 72.85 44.80 67.503 NO.03 45.00 38.00 80.10 43.20 38.58 80.17 39.65 72.14.10 80.70 77.17 77.80 38.03.10 41.78 80.23 39.97 79.517 NO.17 87.77 70.36 43.65 77.75 42.00 71.27 80.28 49.92 95.05 80.50 72. 125 (VODOPADNIY) NO.00 72.45 38.17 WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 2219 2220 2221 2222 2209 2210 767 1098 732 709 750 802 784 699 1091 736 1077 751 711 1104 818 823 2104 703 1092 737 756 764 1082 701 792 829 2200 765 2131 1110 799 757 804 766 713 722 726 798 820 2147 1099 2142 1081 801 1095 1096 761 719 1083 717 1100 768 786 753 832 2140 730 816 759 758 819 2192 813 749 835 1078 738 800 720 700 772 742 1112 825 739 741 735 783 793 PAMIR-ALAY GISSARO-ALAI GISSARO-ALAI TYAN SHAN CAUCASUS ALTAY TYAN SHAN TIEN-SHAN PAMIRS NORTH CAUCASUS CAUCASUS GISSARO-ALAI TIEN-SHAN KAMCHATKA EASTERN PAMIR POLAZ UZAL TIEN-SHAN NORTH CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN EASTERN PAMIR TIEN-SHAN TYAN SHAN WEST NORTH CAUCASUS CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASUS PAMIR ALTAY PAMIRS EASTERN PAMIR ALTAI TIEN-SHAN TIEN-SHAN NORTH CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN CAUCASUS PAMIR GISSARSKI PAMIR NORTH CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN TIEN-SHAN EASTERN PAMIR TYAN SHAN NORTH CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASUS ALTAY NORTH CAUCASUS ALTAY TYAN SHAN EASTERN PAMIR CAUCASUS EASTERN PAMIR TIEN-SHAN GISSARO-ALAI EASTERN PAMIR NORTH CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN PAMIR TYAN SHAN PAMIR ALAI PAMIR TIEN-SHAN TIEN-SHAN TIEN-SHAN NORTH CAUCASUS EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR CAUCASUS SPECIFIC LOCATION LATITUDE 38.70 43.75 42.90 38.70 42.97 50.48 38.13 14 20 27 18 9 9 2 2 23 6 23 6 24 27 16 22 1980 GISSARSKIY RID.83 42.84 42.00 45.80 67.20 43.67 45.396 NO.03.82 43.08 43.03 43.50 42.75 80.50 44.43 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1973 1973 1973 1973 1980 1980 1860 1965 1954 1960 1962 1956 1921 1965 1953 1957 1965 1961 1972 1962 1970 1961 1973 1888 1953 1943 1958 1959 1850 1969 1924 1932 1980 1964 1973 1887 1980 1958 1932 1960 1964 1973 1887 1927 1972 1973 1967 1973 1936 1977 1966 1966 1959 1972 1833 1962 1966 1860 1982 1975 1973 1958 1958 1958 1966 1973 1971 1960 1957 1965 1955 1978 1977 1965 1964 1964 1966 1940 1936 1964 1957 1966 1936 1978 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1959 1969 1967 1962 1963 1977 1980 1966 1972 1977 1973 1962 1975 1963 1971 1962 1980 1965 1972 1957 1986 1986 1952 1970 1932 1955 1990 1968 1980 1933 1981 1986 1943 1961 1965 1975 1967 1979 1982 1980 1968 1980 1952 1981 1967 1967 1987 1975 1895 1963 1967 1959 1983 1976 1980 1966 1983 1983 1967 1980 1972 1968 1986 1971 1977 1981 1978 1966 1968 1965 1967 1960 1960 1965 1974 1967 1937 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1972 1997 1990 1990 1990 1990 1995 1972 1977 1973 1990 1990 1972 1990 1990 1980 1998 1972 1974 1997 1997 1962 1997 1990 1974 1990 1990 1990 1974 1990 1997 1985 1990 1978 1985 2005 1990 1984 1990 1972 1990 2005 1990 1974 1974 1997 1985 1985 1989 1972 1990 1985 1990 1990 1981 1997 1997 1990 1990 1998 1985 1997 1973 1977 1989 1990 2000 1990 1990 1973 1985 1990 1990 1977 1990 2005 2 1 1 1 1 1 26 4 12 8 25 10 10 26 1 1 1 27 3 10 18 20 1 29 1 2 2 3 2 23 15 2 1 8 2 14 9 2 7 27 6 10 21 10 2 2 5 2 21 4 8 8 3 11 11 13 6 28 3 14 2 6 2 2 20 2 24 15 2 2 1 7 11 28 8 21 7 16 24 20 2 16 38 1976 1979 4 1957 1998 42 1976 1976 1978 1990 3 15 1969 1979 1994 1979 26 1 1984 2005 22 1968 2005 38 1984 1985 2 1968 1998 31 1971 1964 1948 1974 1973 1986 1964 1959 1980 1975 1887 1975 1850 1963 1911 1959 1962 1958 1964 1958 1962 1953 1958 1888 1963 1958 1966 1964 1962 1995 1995 1980 1973 1985 1985 1970 1985 1970 1980 1985 1974 1974 1975 1975 1977 1977 1966 1953 1963 1936 1850 1908 1963 1850 1850 1973 1973 1961 1966 1961 1966 1966 1890 1973 1882 1969 1967 1962 1959 1959 1975 1953 1902 1887 1890 1968 1980 1961 1961 1957 1982 1965 1967 1975 1980 2000 1968 1983 1990 1976 1933 1976 1938 1964 1936 1987 1967 1962 1966 1962 1963 1960 1986 1989 1966 1973 1982 1968 1963 1996 1996 1990 1980 1986 1986 1971 1986 1973 1981 1986 1975 1976 1976 1976 1981 1981 1967 1960 1968 1939 1952 1960 1964 1897 1897 1980 1980 1962 1967 1962 1967 1967 1970 1975 1965 1972 1968 1963 1987 1968 1976 1972 1908 1933 1965 1969 1981 1963 1963 1986 2000 1974 2000 2000 1990 2000 1973 1997 1990 1980 1973 2005 2005 1990 2005 1997 1978 1970 2000 1990 1985 1981 1997 1998 1990 1990 1991 1985 1990 2000 1999 1990 1990 1995 2005 1998 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1989 1985 1989 1990 1985 1974 1981 1990 1980 2005 1990 1990 1986 1986 1990 1990 1990 1972 1990 1972 1991 2000 1990 1990 1990 1984 1990 1997 1985 1990 1972 2005 1990 2000 1990 1990 1990 1990 1997 6 10 15 8 2 1 2 2 1 5 4 30 27 7 51 3 9 5 31 19 12 5 2 6 9 11 10 9 22 5 4 1 2 9 20 17 5 4 9 5 10 11 7 12 9 3 8 8 17 1982 1973 2000 1997 6 25 1985 1985 1 3037 4101 4036 5067 5115 5116 3002 5104 5066 4038 5072 4063 3006 5105 3026 3034 3004 7104 5110 3035 ABANO ABAYA ABRAMOV AKBAYTAL AKBULAKULKUN AKSU ZAPADNIY AKSU-VOSTOCHNIY ALIBEKSKIY ALTYNSARINA AYLAMA AYSBERGOV AYUTOR-2 BAKCHIGIR BARKRAK PRAVYY BARKRAK SREDNIY BATYRBAI BELEULI BEZENGI BEZSONOVA BEZYMYANNYY BIRDZHALYCHIRAN BITYUKTYUBE BOLSHOY ABYL-OY BOLSHOY AZAU BOLSHOY MAASHEY BORDU BUZ-CHUBEK CHACHI CHAKYDZHILGA CHALAATI MOUNTAIN KAZBEK ALAI RANGE KARAKUL BASIN MAIDANTALSKIY KJUNGEI ALA-TOO KJUNGEI ALA-TOO CUBAN RIVER TERSKEY ALATAU UGAMSKIY RIDGE BARTANG YU.00 65.19 72.38 73.50 38.05 42.30 80.03.37 49.17 44.47 77.12 42.53 72.00 43.10 87.03 43.50 44.13 SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU 5075 3014 3007 4060 4046 5065 4058 3021 6001 3008 4023 3040 5082 5079 3012 5070 3030 3019 5002 5078 4062 2002 5093 5071 5095 7101 7109 4055 4044 7108 7105 3005 1001 5081 3041 4045 5106 3016 4003 4007 4017 4064 4103 1977 2005 29 1962 2005 44 1976 1967 1976 1990 1977 1990 15 11 15 1976 1979 1990 1991 15 13 1980 1980 1984 1984 5 5 NO.14 89.08 38.TUYUKSUYSKIY TSANERI TSEYA TURAMUZ-I TURO TURPAKBEL NIZHN TUTEK ULLUCHIRAN SEVERO-CHUISKIY SEVERO-CHUISKIY TEREK RIVER SEVERNAYA ZEM.30 42.08 37.53 42.63 43.28 44. ALMATINKA CUBAN RIVER M.14.83 38.93 42.08 1977 1976 1988 1983 1985 2005 1988 1991 1985 1989 29 6 4 3 5 5119 3027 5109 3036 4047 4013 3010 5121 4104 CHONG-TUR PRAVI CHUNGURCHATCHIR DAVIDOVA DEVDORAKI DIAKHANDARA DIDAL DJANKUAT DOLONATA DUGOVA DUSAKASAY DZHAMBULA DZHAYLYAUKUMSAY TALASS ELBRUS MOUNTAIN AKSHIYRAK MOUNTAIN KAZBEK SURKH BASIN PAMIRO-ALAY BAKSAN RIVER KUNGEI-ALA-TOO ALAI 42.78 77.32 46.03 42.23 72.08 42.89 43.72 88.65 66.62 38.50 77.20 39.58 72.08 1967 1991 25 TEREK RIVER OBIHINGOU RIVER MOUNTAIN KAZBEK DJETIM-BEL RIDG ZAILIYSKIY RIONI RIVER MAIDANTALSKIY ELBRUS MOUNTAIN SAMUR RIVER PSKEMSKIY RIDGE ZAILIYSKIY INGURI RIVER TEREK RIVER ALAISKIY RIDGE ZERAVSHAN RIVER UGAMSKIY RIDGE ALAISKIY RIDGE ELBRUS MOUNTAIN 42.95 43.50 160.40 86.90 72.70 41.25 42.00 38.00 77.42 39.12 87.48 80.13 44.08 53.02 38.10 42.17 73.72 73.03 42.78 71.84 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 85 PU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU PSFG NAME 83.00 52.63 39.20 43.17 49.55 80.53 79.85 42.02 42.17 73.191 NO.20 42.38 77. PSKEM GISSARSKIY RID.95 38.80 77.07 1976 1976 1976 1977 1990 1990 1990 2 15 15 11 3031 4022 4039 3038 5060 8001 2001 5076 3029 3028 5001 5080 5068 3022 5107 5118 4021 3003 3042 4056 4061 4059 4057 5103 3015 7103 GARABASHI GARMO GEBLERA (Katunsky) GEOGRAPHICHESKO GERASIMOVA GERGETI GLACIOLOGA GOLUBIN GRECHISHKINA ICHKELSAY IGAN IGLI TUYUKSU IRIK IRIKCHAT KALESNIK KARA-ART KARA-BATKAK KARABULAK KARACHAUL KAVRAYSKOGO KELDYKE KENG-TUR KHADYRSHA KHAKEL KIBISHA KIRCHIN KIRTISHO KIZILGORUM KLJUEV KOKBELES KOLPAKOVSKOGO KORELDASH KORUMDU ELBRUS MOUNTAIN PAMIRO-ALAY KATUNSKY RANGE VANCH RIVER MOUNTAIN KAZBEK KIRGHIZIA SREDNYY KHREBET BOLSHAYA KHADAT M.07 45.84 42.00 42.53 44.14.45 LONGITUDE 72.77 42.08 42.80 LONGITUDE 161. ZAILIYSKIY 39.70 72.17 38.89 42.84 72.14.49 42.14.67 80.84 70.67 42.131 NO.27 71.08 43.00 42.58 72.10 70.17 42.08 45.67 70.14 93.25 50.08 50.10 158.70 88.53 80.45 80.90 43.65 43.00 73.12 78.63 72.13 42.42 43.00 50.45 77.46 52.80 43.67 42.00 43.10 41.63 39.68 72. 462V (KULAK NIZHNIY) NO.10 42.00 42.87 39.75 43.03 38.80 43.14.82 70.356 NO. MUTNOVSKY VOLC.17 79.00 87.53 71.00 45.00 42.50 70.07 80.50 71.32 70.23 42.85 42.82 78.93 42.08 43.37 43.47 70.14 87.84 86.08 50.73 71.10 43.13 70.75 70.70 73.45 80.67 39.42 39.28 66.67 42.75 70.10 80.00 79.00 44.20 43.55 77.84 70.00 43.51 77.30 38.83 42.22 160.23 43.30 78.35 38.33 42.23 47.37 41.62 44. ALMATINKA PSKEMSKIY RIDGE M.SEMYACHIC ELBRUS MOUNTAIN SURKHOD SEVERO-CHUISKIY SEVERO-CHUISKIY KARAKUL BASIN SEVERO-CHUISKIY ELBRUS MOUNTAIN KATUNSKY RANGE M.72 42.80 7106 5117 DZHELO DZHUUKUCHAK FYODOROVICHA GAGARINA SEVERO-CHUISKIY TERSKEI ALA-TOO 50.45 72.03 41.08 38.45 86.57 73.70 45.15 50.28 50.72 38.05 43.10 41.20 38.80 38.08 42.50 72.77 77.80 65. LATITUDE 54. 122 (UNIVERSITET) NO.03.08 39.53 42.03.95 42.17 96.63 67.83 42.18 44.75 70.68 43.48 47.47 58.67 71.33 43.73 88.30 42.57 72.57 88.70 38.25 42.18 50.22 158.104 NO.47 72.67 68.80 43.03 77.03 71.72 72.10 71.00 45.01 43.08 39.55 70.08 38.68 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU PSFG 8003 8005 3009 8006 3033 4100 7102 7107 4037 7100 3032 7083 5091 3001 5094 4042 4040 2003 3025 3043 3039 5090 6002 3020 4041 8011 8012 NAME KORYTO KORZHENEVSKOGO KOZELSKIY KOZITSITI KRASNOSLOBODTSEV KROPOTKINA KVISH KYUKYURTLYU KYZYLDZHILGA KYZYLKUL LEKZIR LEVIY AKTRU LEVIY KARAGEMSK M.58 67.45 87.97 38.62 74.12 42.55 39.42 77.23 39.20 49.03 38. TEREK RIVER AKSHIYRAK MASS.75 42.60 73.03 45.08 79. AL.63 38.38 45. MOUNTAIN KAZBEK 42.13 70.08 77.14 42.16 43.02 38.676 OBRUCHEVA (DZ) OBRUCHEVA (UR) ORDZHONIKIDZE PAKHTAKOR PARTIZAN PRAVIY AKTRU PRAVIY KARAGEMSKIY RAIGORODSKIY RAMA RODZEVICHA SAPOZHNIKOVA SEVERNIY DZHAYLYAUKUMSAY SEVERNIY ZULUMART SEVERTSOV SHCHUKINA SHOKALSKIY SHULTSA SHUMSKIY SKAZKA SKOGACH SUATISI SREDNIY SUYOK ZAPADNIY TALGAR YUZHNIY TBILISA TEKESHSAI-I TERSKOL TIKHITSAR TOKMAKSOLDY-I TRONOVA TS.62 42.17 67.15 80.22 80.77 44.37 41.23 42.

UNAKWIK INLET COLLEGE FIORD CHULITNA -SUSI.80 47.70 -123.80 48.ELIAS MTS.72 40.88 58.18 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs PU US US US US US US PSFG 2130 1315 2132 2125 2054 7004 1323 1325 1319 2028 1317 1308 416 600 1900 1305A 2055 2056 208 1328 417 2002 1342 1 625 1802 315 1340 1121 7003 403 2027 2078 1804 1306A 2016 2076 2033 2004 608 609 1338 525 2031 2133 2003 1316 1333 1341 603 1332 2012 1122 2079 1351 610 635 636 2075A 2075B 628 2077 619 2013 1307A 2032 0414B 5001 2007 7005 7006 7007 7008 7009 7010 605 206 2029B 2030 2029A 1805 2006A 2006B NAME HUBERT HUGH MILLER HUMES ICE RIVER ICE WORM ISABELLE JOHNS HOPKINS KADACHAN KASHOTO KAUTZ LAMPLUGH LAPEROUSE LAWRENCE LEARNARD LECONTE LEMON CREEK LITUYA LOWER CURTIS LYNCH MACLAREN MARGERIE MARQUETTE MAZAMA MCBRIDE MCCALL MEARES MENDENHALL MIDDLE TOKLAT MUIR N MAC KEITH NAVAJO NELLIE JUAN NISQUALLY NOISY CREEK NORRIS NORTH CRILLON NORTH GUARDIAN NORTH KLAWATTI NORTH MOWICH PARK PENNIMAN EAST PENNIMAN WEST PLATEAU PORTAGE PUYALLUP QUEETS RAINBOW REID RENDU RIGGS ROARING ROMER ROOSEVELT S MAC KEITH SANDALEE SCIDMORE SERPENTINE SHERIDAN SHERMAN SHOESTRING A SHOESTRING B SHOLES SHOUP SILVER SMITH SOUTH CASCADE SOUTH CRILLON SOUTH MOWICH SPENCER SPERRY SQUAK ST VRAIN NO 1 ST VRAIN NO 2 ST VRAIN NO 3 ST VRAIN NO 4 ST VRAIN NO 5 ST VRAIN NO 6 SURPRISE SUSITNA TAHOMA NORTH SL TAHOMA NORTH-L.47 -134.53 -121.45 43.40 -146.03 -105.17 -105.55 46.55 40.15 -122.62 -148.18 58.62 -137.10 72.WALL HOLYOKE HOONAH HOTLUM GLACIER ZERAVSHAN RIVER M.45 58.03 -123.97 -120.37 -121.28 -147.65 -105.33 -104.13 40.12 60.62 46.87 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1959 1957 1957 1973 1973 1887 1973 1973 1973 1959 1959 1973 1973 1880 1980 1973 1958 1957 1909 1969 1966 1969 1969 1966 1964 1966 1898 1966 1933 1966 1957 1924 1966 1938 1964 1984 1905 1950 1931 1889 1966 1966 1879 1984 1977 1968 1966 1966 1968 1949 1985 1892 1984 1966 1966 1985 1962 1966 1968 1967 1920 1986 1931 1988 1969 1966 1984 2000 1879 1967 1879 1925 1968 1925 1905 1969 1933 1968 1966 1968 1920 1997 1986 1986 1990 1978 1933 1980 1980 1980 1960 1960 1980 1980 1975 1990 1980 1974 1977 1927 1970 1974 1970 1970 1971 1968 1974 1899 1974 1939 1974 1977 1933 1974 1939 1965 1985 1910 1993 1932 1933 1974 1974 1892 1985 1978 1974 1974 1974 1974 1953 1986 1899 1985 1967 1974 1986 1965 1971 1974 1970 1939 1986 1932 1989 1970 1974 1985 2005 1892 1974 1892 1926 1969 1931 1909 1970 1939 1974 1974 1971 1935 1997 1997 1997 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 2000 2000 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1974 1980 1970 1970 1974 1970 1970 1974 1974 1985 1985 1974 1965 1976 1980 1977 1976 1995 2003 1985 1981 1993 1990 1965 1985 1974 1985 1985 1979 1985 1985 1985 1980 1968 2005 2000 1985 1990 1985 2005 2005 1976 1974 2005 1976 1988 1985 1990 1970 1974 1985 2005 1985 1985 1985 1969 1975 1985 1985 1970 1977 1980 1985 1985 1944 1 2 2 1 2 9 1976 2 2 2 31 1977 31 2 2 14 1 1976 2 1 3 8 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 7 1 4 2 4 5 2 44 6 1 4 1 7 3 2 1 5 1 2 2 3 3 2 5 10 31 1 5 3 6 5 3 1982 1 7 8 3 8 2 1 1 1 1 8 3 7 8 7 5 6 1 9 2 3 4 2 1966 2005 40 1984 2005 22 1986 2003 1988 2003 3 1 1990 2005 16 1983 2 1984 2005 22 1984 1978 2005 1978 22 1 1956 1999 44 1990 15 1977 1 1990 15 1924 1879 1907 1924 2000 1969 1879 1968 1968 1966 1879 1980 1966 1984 1983 1984 1985 2000 1966 1966 1967 1967 1968 1898 1968 1954 1879 1957 1969 1964 1857 1941 1984 1965 1980 1964 1966 1966 1879 1965 1967 1913 1967 1879 1929 1964 1966 1968 1964 1957 1984 1905 1968 1964 1960 1975 1980 1899 1964 1984 1981 1966 1938 1970 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1899 1967 1980 1964 1965 1970 1970 1933 1892 1913 1933 2005 1970 1892 1974 1971 1967 1892 1985 1974 1985 1985 1985 1986 2005 1974 1974 1970 1974 1969 1905 1974 1992 1892 1977 1970 1966 1885 1950 1985 1966 1982 1965 1974 1974 1892 1966 1974 1916 1970 1892 1931 1968 1974 1974 1965 1977 1985 1909 1974 1965 1975 1979 1985 1909 1965 1985 1985 1974 1948 1974 1970 1970 1970 1970 1970 1970 1900 1973 1985 1966 1968 1974 1974 1977 1985 1977 1976 2005 1970 1985 1980 1985 1985 1980 1985 1974 1985 1985 1985 2005 2005 1985 1976 1974 1985 2000 1985 1980 1992 1985 1980 1970 1985 1990 1980 1985 1968 1984 1975 1976 1976 1974 1985 1984 1976 2005 1985 1985 1985 1976 1985 1968 1980 1985 1985 1985 1968 1975 1979 1985 1985 2000 1985 1985 1974 1973 1974 1970 1970 1970 1970 1970 1970 1985 1975 1990 1990 1980 1974 1974 6 8 12 6 1 1 10 2 4 3 5 1 1 1 1 1953 1 8 1 3 2 2 3 10 5 2 1 13 4 1 4 53 3 1 3 1993 2 6 2 2 9 4 2 15 11 6 7 4 2 3 4 2 1995 1 4 3 4 1 1 1990 1 1993 4 35 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1981 2 2 9 3 1 1 1983 3 1953 2005 52 2005 7 2005 16 2005 5 1984 2005 22 2005 7 2003 1993 2003 2005 1 7 1993 2000 8 1984 1984 1981 2005 2005 1983 22 22 3 2005 53 1984 2005 22 3013 5096 USHBA VISYACHIY-1-2 VOLODARSKIY 1 VOLODARSKIY 2 VOLODARSKIY 3 INGURI RIVER M.82 58.38 43.47 40.38 37.35 -136.40 -121.67 37.40 -137. M CASCADE MTNS CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS KENAI MTS.82 48.00 60. KENAI MTS.12 47.75 63.48 -146.18 -121.07 -143.35 -147.28 -144.78 61.38 59.ELIAS MTS.05 HARRIMAN FIORD COLLEGE FIORD BARRY ARM OLYMPIC MTNS BLACKSTONE BAY MT SANFORD OLYMPIC MTNS BLACKSTONE BAY OLYMPIC MTS.23 42.93 61.63 48.77 -136. TAKU TALUM TALUM-L LOBE WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 213 142 214 209 82 1358 137 117 140 200 114 146 95 173 206 3334 149 77 81 181 133 96 1362 208 1388 158 122 1668 129 110 1357 179 201 1666 123 148 1352 1664 195 1363 103 104 121 174 197 215 79 141 130 128 99 131 1349 111 1667 207 170 151 107 185 186 3295 155 1665 161 205 147 196 1391 218 1366 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 171 183 1430 198 199 124 1365 1431 CHUGACH MTNS ALASKA RANGE M CASCADE MTNS M CASCADE MTNS M CASCADE MTNS COAST MTNS ROCKY MTNS WRANGELL MTNS WASHINGTON ST ELIAS MTNS CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS CASCADE RANGE CASCADE RANGE NORTH CASCADES CHUGACH MTNS WASHINGTON CHUGACH MTNS N CASCADE MTNS ST.28 61.38 -148.78 -120.00 -105.13 0.32 43.13 -120.80 60.87 -105.65 -120.12 -120.62 47.38 58.82 60.70 -148.58 -148.68 -123.53 -149.65 47. WASHINGTON CASCADES WASHINGTON COAST MTNS ST.72 -149.75 48.42 -148.02 -137. ST ELIAS MTNS NE BROOKS RANGE CHUGACH MTNS COAST MTNS ALASKA RANGE ST ELIAS MTNS WRANGELL MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS M CASCADE MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS ST.63 48.73 42.00 -105.70 -136.82 -121.92 -148.78 47. YUKON-TANANA GLACIER BAY MT WRANGELL PORT NELLIE JUA MT RAINIER NORTH CASCADES TAKU INLET FAIRWEATHER RNG NORTH CASCADES MT RAINIER HARRIMAN FIORD HARRIMAN FIORD GLACIER BAY TURNAGAIN ARM MT RAINIER OLYMPIC MTNS MT.17 MT WRANGELL OLYMPIC MTNS KINGS BAY 62.55 48.25 46. M CASCADE MTNS CHUGACH MTNS NORTH CASCADES CHUGACH MTS.67 58.15 42.83 58. ALMATINKA 39.82 -120.20 -136.12 -121.83 -123.92 39.67 -121.88 72.35 43.52 -121.82 -149.08 58. Baker PORT VALDEZ NORTH CASCADES COLLEGE FIORD S FORK CASCADE FAIRWEATHER RNG MT RAINIER GLACIER NAT PK 63.33 -148.87 -136.57 46.88 -147.82 58.98 61.80 48.65 48.40 42.38 -121.73 -145.02 -105.58 -105.42 58. BAKER GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY HARRIMAN FIORD GLACIER BAY MT WRANGELL NORTH CASCADES GLACIER BAY HARRIMAN FIORD GLACIER RIVER GLACIER RIVER MT ST HELENS MT ST HELENS Mt.10 48.17 61.87 -123.95 -121.82 58.78 58.78 29.10 -148.20 48.48 47.ELIAS MTS.48 -144.77 61.07 LONGITUDE -123.02 -121.17 -148.28 -145.17 -148.35 38.10 -147.80 59.35 59.98 -148.03 -123.98 48.38 -121.92 -136.50 77.80 58.45 46.67 60.82 -143.27 48.62 -121.25 -147. COAST MOUNTAINS COAST RANGE ST.52 38. NORTH CASCADES ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS ROCKY MTNS ALASKA RANGE CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS WASHINGTON SOUTH ALASKA WASHINGTON CASCADES SOUTHERN ALASKA CHUGACH MTNS ALASKA RANGE NORTH CASCADE CHUGACH MTNS KENAI MTS.25 72.82 -134.37 -134.00 58.37 58.75 40.03 -105.07 60.90 46.60 60.35 -136.78 -123.23 -148.82 -148.68 -144.75 OLYMPIC MTNS CHUGACH MNTS.74 -121.68 -148.15 42.97 P.13 48.13 43.42 -121.20 46.47 61.03 39.08 -121.87 -120. KENAI MTNS CHUGACH MTS. MT RAINIER OLYMPIC MTNS BARRY ARM HARRIMAN FIORD GLACIER BAY ICY BAY MT WRANELL COPPER RIVER KINGS BAY KINGS BAY GLACIER BAY 61.02 -148.48 63.77 48.80 61.78 -146.73 61.72 -132. CHUGACH MTNS ALASKA RANGE M CASCADE MTNS WASHINGTON CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS ST.73 -120.15 42.67 -134.72 -113.03 -105.98 60.72 -148.17 48.67 60.13 47.78 -136.05 40.05 -137.83 -147.82 -121.78 -121.68 60.83 47.87 60.50 -145.52 60.25 -145.WILLIAM SOUND KINGS BAY MT RAINIER BARRY ARM 61.17 60.58 -121.73 47.03 -148.07 63.80 -136.72 -148.17 40.82 48.ELIAS MTS.92 -148.82 -136.05 60.12 61. NORTH CASCADES NORTH CASCADES ALASKA RANGE ST ELIAS MTNS KENAI MTNS WASHINGTON ST ELIAS MTNS WASHINGTON WASHINGTON NORTH CASCADES SPECIFIC LOCATION OLYMPIC MTNS GLACIER BAY OLYMPIC MTNS OLYMPIC MTNS LATITUDE 47.03 63. ALMATINKA 43.82 47.67 LONGITUDE 42. TAHOMA SOUTH-L.85 47.53 -137.65 -123.27 42.95 60.82 59.18 -137.60 -121.80 58.08 58.52 46.75 .88 -143.42 -136.00 -148.97 -121.47 42.75 -120.67 73.18 -148.10 72.42 HARRIMAN FIORD MT.60 -148.90 -137.58 48.PT B5 UNAKWIK INLET STEPHENS PASS.17 -120.60 58.17 40.72 -123.88 61.80 -121.95 46.10 61.05 39.10 -137.93 47.83 46.43 58.22 4043 5092 1 1123 2137 7011 406 7000 7002 607 1337 615 612 413 2122 418 1120 2127 419 2126 2005 626 618 320 2020 2106 611 604 1313A 402 1124 634 409 408 1322 2011 2057 627 404 2025 613 2052 2009 606 207 1808 2008 2113 391 2022 390 7012 405 1309A 2053 1314 1321 1330 5000 200 602 621 7001 2124 1806 614 1320 4001 ZERAVSHANSKIY ZORTASHKOL ZOYA KOSMODEMYA ZULUMART SPEKE AHTNA ANDERSON ANDREWS APPLEGATE ARAPAHO ARIKAREE BAKER BALDWIN BARNARD BARRY BARTLETT BEAR PASS BELOIT BETSELI BLACK BLACKSTONE BLUE GLACIER BOULDER BRILLIANT BRYN MAWR CANTWELL CARBON CARRIE CASCADE CATARACT CHARPENTIER CHENEGA CHETASLINA CHILDS CLAREMONT NORTH CLAREMONT WEST CLARK US COLEMAN COLUMBIA (2057) COLUMBIA (627) CONTACT COWLITZ COXE DANIELS DEMING DETACHED EAST FORK EAST TWIN EASTON EEL EKLUTNA EMMONS EXIT GLACIER FAIR FALLING FINGER FOSS GEIKIE GILMAN GRAND PACIFIC GRINNELL GULKANA HARRIMAN HARVARD HENDERSON HOH HOLE IN TH.80 61.75 46.90 -148.17 47.18 -146.80 58.28 60.52 58.05 US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY MT RAINIER GLACIER BAY FAIRWEATHER RNG BLACKSTONE BAY PASSAGE CANAL JUNEAU ICEFIELD FAIRWEATHER RNG 58.97 70.07 59.17 -137.18 -122.ELIAS MTS.05 -122.48 72.53 -137.53 60.80 56.HAYES MT RAINIER MT RAINIER MT RAINIER TAKU INLET 61.85 60.00 39.86 Global glacier changes: facts and figures Appendix 87 PU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU SU UG US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US PSFG 3023 3024 NAME ULLUKAM ULLUKOL ULLUMALIENDERKU URTA-BAKCHIGIR 1 URTA-BAKCHIGIR 2 WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 2098 834 833 2252 2251 773 806 2165 2166 2167 778 725 779 2155 2181 745 2202 810 2100 1088 112 216 1341 92 1354 1356 102 1359 165 168 1390 189 97 109 211 98 210 1364 157 162 1669 204 187 169 100 144 180 113 152 176 177 116 1369 76 156 178 202 167 83 1368 101 182 1361 1367 188 85 203 86 1342 91 145 84 143 138 132 217 90 172 160 1355 191 125 166 139 194 WASHINGTON COAST MTNS CHUGACH MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS CASCADE RANGE KENAI MTNS ST.03 58.95 61.63 62.00 39.80 62.67 48.65 77.10 62.35 40.88 48.23 63.05 47.87 46. MT RAINIER KENAI MOUNTAINS KINGS BAY FAIRWEATHER RNG GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER NAT PK DELTA BASIN HARRIMAN FIORD COLLEGE FIORD OLYMPIC MTNS TAKU RIVER COLLEGE FIORD GLACIER BAY MOUNT SHASTA 47.15 60.20 48.55 58.82 46.97 -137.45 -147.57 48.75 HARRIMAN FIORD SUSITNA RIVER 61.82 -121.25 60.48 58.17 -113.18 40.60 -105.83 41.80 59.12 -121.02 -148.00 60.40 SUSITNA RIVER GLACIER BAY BLACKSTONE BAY GLACIER BAY DEMARC.83 -123.10 61.57 3018 3011 3017 YUGO-VOSTOCHNIY YUNOM YUZHNIY YUZHNIY KARAYKASHAN ZAPADNIY OKTYABRSKIY SULAK RIVER ADYRSU VALLEY SULAK RIVER 42.08 69.38 -144.72 72.80 -136.82 61.17 58.43 46. WRANGELL MTNS CHUGACH MTNS KENAI MTNS KENAI MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS WASHINGTON KENAI MTNS WRANGELL MTNS WASHINGTON KENAI MTNS WASHINGTON CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS KENAI MTNS WRANGELL MTNS WASHINGTON NORTH CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASUS EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR CAUCASUS TIEN-SHAN EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASUS CAUCASUS EASTERN PAMIR EASTERN PAMIR GISSARO-ALAI EASTERN PAMIR TIEN-SHAN EASTERN PAMIR SPECIFIC LOCATION ELBRUS MOUNTAIN ELBRUS MOUNTAIN ELBRUS MOUNTAIN LATITUDE 43.53 -134.28 61.45 46.03 -147.02 -105.68 -120.63 -148.33 -148.45 -136.ELIAS MTS.07 -137.83 -147.70 -137.55 72.78 -132.85 72. M CASCADE MTNS WASHINGTON NORTH CASCADES ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS CHUGACH MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS WASHINGTON M CASCADE MTNS KENAI MTS.

88 59.80 41.55 58.77 -133.27 58.87 61.90 60.03 -137.38 -145.73 -122.10 -147.22 48. ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS SPECIFIC LOCATION KINGS BAY BLACKSTONE BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY GLACIER BAY OLYMPIC MTNS COLLEGE FIORD PORT VALDEZ COLLEGE FIORD COLLEGE FIORD SUSITNA BASIN ISABEL PASS TAKU RIVER OLYMPIC MTNS MOUNT SHASTA MOUNT SHASTA NELLIE JUAN TSINA RIVER TAKU RIVER COLLEGE FIORD LATITUDE 60.75 -137.42 41.27 48.15 -147.22 -122.40 61.57 -147.05 59.52 -121.58 47.03 FV FirstRY FV FirstSY FV LastSY FV NoObs MB FirstRY MB LastSY MB NoObs 1964 1984 1968 1968 1957 1968 1966 1968 1966 1968 1968 1933 1966 1910 1905 1998 1966 1985 1968 1815 1944 1883 1968 1964 1964 1899 2000 1966 1985 1974 1971 1966 1971 1971 1974 1974 1974 1974 1939 1971 1914 1910 2003 1974 1986 1974 1924 1951 1934 1969 1966 1967 1910 2005 1974 1985 1985 1985 1974 1985 1974 1974 1980 1980 1980 1965 1976 1985 1985 2003 1985 1987 1974 1977 1984 1944 1975 1985 1980 1985 2005 2 1 3 6 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 1 2 1981 2 1 11 4 2 7 3 7 7 1 1984 2005 22 1966 2004 39 1983 3 1988 1990 3 .12 -136.65 61.20 63.00 -137.20 61.80 61.48 -137.20 58.87 -121.50 -147.52 68.88 -136.05 59.17 -147.25 61.92 -147.88 Global glacier changes: facts and figures PU US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US PSFG 410 0414A 1327 1326 412 1324 623 1318 1329 1331 1334 2123 624 629 617 2051 616 205 195 1807 2128 4009 4004 411 630 1809 622 2050 NAME TAYLOR US TEBENKOF TOPEKA TOYATTE TRAIL TYEEN UNNAMED US0623 UNNAMED US1318 UNNAMED US1329 UNNAMED US1331 UNNAMED US1334 UNNAMED US2123 UNNAMED US624 VALDEZ VASSAR WATSON WELLESLEY WEST FORK WEST GULKANA WEST TWIN WHITE% WHITNEY GLACIER WINTUN GLACIER WOLVERINE WORTHINGTON WRIGHT YALE YAWNING WGMS ID GENERAL LOCATION 93 175 134 135 1389 136 1387 115 118 119 120 190 106 154 163 89 164 184 78 126 212 192 193 94 153 127 159 75 ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS ST ELIAS MTNS WASHINGTON CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS CHUGACH MTNS NORTH CASCADES CHUGACH MTNS ALASKA RANGE ALASKA RANGE COAST MTNS WASHINGTON CASCADE RANGE CASCADE RANGE KENAI MTNS CHUGACH MTNS COAST MTNS CHUGACH MTNS NORTH CASCADES ST ELIAS MTNS KENAI MTNS KENAI MTS.45 LONGITUDE -148.47 61.63 -148.65 -146.17 58.72 58.73 -123.40 60.07 47.93 58.17 -148.92 -145.57 60.97 -123.47 -133.08 -137.62 -147.

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