Marielle Merci Angeli Guanzon Pili Groupmates: Palencia, Maraat, Angeles, Arevalo

May 2, 2011

EXPERIMENT 8: ALPIHATIC AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS I. Objectives

 

To be able to isolate a pure compound with high purity via steam distillation. To determine the physical and chemical characteristics of hexane, limonene and benzene.

II. Schematic Diagram of Procedure A. ISOLATION OF LIMEONENE

Cut citrus sample into small pieces and collect an amount enough to fill half of a 500 mL round bottom flask and add 250 mL water into the flask. ↓ Prepare a steam distillation set-up (see Figure1). Steam distill rapidly until you have about 100mL of the distillate and 3-5 mL saturated NaCl solution to the distillate and let is stand. ↓ Pipette out all the limonene that will float on the surface. ↓ Dry the mixture by a spatula-full of anhydrous Na2SO4 to the solution. Add another Na2SO4, if necessary. Swirl the mixture. Add more drying agent, if necessary, to increase the limeonene yield.

B.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROCARBON Note the physical state, color, solubility in water, and the density compared to water of hexane, limonene, and benzene.

C.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROCARBONS Place a drop each of hexane, limonene, and benzene into separate micro test tubes. Add 2 drops of tert-butyl chloride to each test tube. Mix thoroughly. ↓ Incline the test tube and place a small crystal of anhydrous AlCl3 near its mouth. Note: powdery AlCl3 is no longer anhydrous. Stopper the test tube in this position. Be sure the crystal doesn’t fall into the solution. ↓ Allow the solution to wet the crystal and observe the change in the color of the crystal. Repeat the procedure using the rest of the test solutions.

Place 2 drops each of hexane, limonene, and benzene into separate micro test tubes and 1 drop 0.050 M Br2 in water into each test tube. Shake well.

Wash skin with soap and water for at least 15 minutes. and toxic symptoms. Get medical attention for any breathing difficulty. limonene. lifting lids occasionally. Observe the character of the flame. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.6 C NaCl solution [Na]+ [Cl]- Appearance: Clear. Gasoline-like. 32F) Physical state: Liquid Appearance: Clear Colorless Odor: Aromatic. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention if irritation persists. sparks. Ingestion: If large amounts were swallowed. WARM water MUST be used. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. III. *Vapors irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. give artificial respiration. If swallowed. If not breathing. give artificial respiration.) Boiling Point: 80. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. and benzene into separate micro test tubes and drops 0. Get medical attention immediately. *Skin contact may cause irritation. odorless solution. lifting upper and lower eyelids occasionally.1 (176. *Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant. Physical State and Appearance: Solid. [Na]+ [SO4]2[Na]+ Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate Color: White. Vomiting may occur spontaneously. If irritation persists.005 M KMnO4 solution. and benzene contained in separate evaporating dishes in the hood.permeator) . If not breathing. . give oxygen. Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. Get medical attention immediately. If breathing is difficult. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.9°F) *Large doses may cause gastrointestinal upset. Shake well.Place 2 drops of hexane. and flames. give artificial respiration. belt or waistband. INGESTION: Give several glasses of milk or water. rather pleasant. Skin Contact: Remove any contaminated clothing. seek medical attention. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. FIRST AID Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. give water to drink and get medical advice. If breathing is difficult. *Dangerous fire and explosion hazard. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. of ingestion. give oxygen. limonene. (Strong. If breathing is difficult. INHALATION: Remove to fresh air. eye and skin irritation. n-hexane Physical State: Liquid Appearance: Clear Odor: Mild solvent odor Boiling point : 156 C Freezing point : -95. 100C (ca. EYES: Wash eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Ingestion: Aspiration hazard. give oxygen. (Crystalline granules solid. remove to fresh air. SKIN: Wash exposed area with soap and water. Give large quantities of water. of inhalation. *may cause respiratory tract.5°C (41. Get medical advice if irritation develops. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. dermatitis. Get medical attention if irritation develops or persists. Inhalation: If inhaled. benzene *Very hazardous in case of eye contact (irritant). call a physician immediately. tie. If not breathing. but it is not necessary to induce. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Ignite 5 drops each of hexane. Skin Contact: Wash exposed area with soap and water. 0C (ca. 212F) Melting Point: ca. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. If large quantities of this material are swallowed. Table of Reagents/Products Reagent/ Product Structure Physical Properties Hazards *Clear flammable liquid with gasoline type odor.) Melting/Freezi *may be harmful if swallowed. Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Wipe off excess from skin. Powdered solid. Call a physician. Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Avoid heat. Solubility: Miscible in water Boiling Point: ca. colorless . lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally.2°F) Melting Point: 5.

If breathing is difficult. Tert-Butyl Chloride Physical State: Liquid Appearance: Clear Color: Colorle ss MWeight: 92. Skin Contact: After contact with skin. belt or waistband. *Material is extremely destructive to the eyes. Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. *Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Boiling Point: 58C (136F) Melting Point: -7C (19F) Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. Skin: Get medical aid. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Do NOT use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. give artificial respiration. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. wash immediately with plenty of water. tie. Odor: Characteristic dipentene odor. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. creases and groin. *combustible and will sustain combustion at temperatures above its flashpoint. Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. hold eyelids apart and flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. colorless to light amber. Call a physician. Eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water.2°F) Appearance: Yellow/grey hexagonal deliquescent crystal Odour: hydrogen chloride odour that is sharp and irritating. Melting Point: 190 C *Harmful if swallowed. central nervous system and skin. seek medical attention. give oxygen. reddishbrown fuming liquid. give oxygen. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Inhalation: Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Ingestion: If swallowed. occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Inhalation: Get medical aid immediately. *Harmful if inhaled. If breathing is difficult. If victim is conscious and alert. Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. administer oxygen. give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Skin Contact: In case of contact. IV. sparks and open flame. Gently and thoroughly wash the contaminated skin with running water and non-abrasive soap. Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Odor: Pungent odor. Get medical aid immediately. Anhydrous Aluminum Chloride Bromine Br – Br Appearance: Dark. *Material is extremely destructive to the skin. Get medical aid immediately. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. *causes severe burns to every area of contact. Special Set-up . *corrosive and strong oxidizer * may be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Be particularly careful to clean folds. Boiling Point: 168ºC Freezing Point: <-20ºC *flammable liquid and vapor. If not breathing.5 7 g/mole Boiling Point: 124 F (51 C) Freezing Point: -13 F (25 C) Appearance: Clear liquid. give artificial respiration. tie. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If irritation persists. If breathing is difficult. Do not use an eye ointment. give artificial respiration. Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting. *contact with other material may cause fire. Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. If not breathing. *vapor may cause flash fire. wipe off excess material from skin then immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. If breathing is difficult. give oxygen.9°C (1630. crevices. eyes. *affects respiratory system. Give large quantities of water. Eye Contact: In case of contact. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. and belt.ng Point: 887. Physical State: Liquid. *causes irritation to eyes and skin Limonene *Irritating to eyes and skin. Give large amounts of water. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Wash clothing before reuse. If the victim is not breathing. If not breathing. *Avoid heat.

Halogenated organic solvents are disposed into correctly-labeled “Halogenated Solvent Waste” jars. . Dispose the spent drying agent in the trash bin or you may dissolve it in water and flush it down the sink. Waste Disposal • The aqueous solutions used for this experiment should be diluted and poured safely into the sink.IV.

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