Wind energy Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air.

It has been used for hundreds of years for sailing, grinding grain, and for irrigation. Wind energy systems convert this kinetic energy to more useful forms of power. Wind energy systems for irrigation and milling have been in use since ancient times and since the beginning of the 20th century it is being used to generate electric power. Windmills for water pumping have been installed in many countries particularly in the rural areas. Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical power, which can then be used directly for grinding etc. or further converting to electric power to generate electricity. Wind turbines can be used singly or in clusters called ‘wind farms’. Small wind turbines called aerogenerators can be used to charge large batteries. India ranks 5th in Five nations – Germany, USA, Denmark, Spain and India – the world with a account for 80% of the world’s installed wind energy capacity. total wind power Wind energy continues to be the fastest growing renewable energy source with worldwide wind power installed capacity capacity if 1080MW out of which 1025Mwhaev been reaching 14,000 MW. established in commercial Realizing the growing importance of wind energy, projects. manufacturers have steadily been increasing the unit size of the wind electric generators since the late 1980s. Another important development has been the offshore (i.e. in the sea) wind farms in some regions of Europe, which have several advantages over the on-shore ones. The third major development has been the use of new techniques to assess the wind resource for techno-commercial viability. In India the states of Tamilnadu Form of Energy: Kinetic and Gujarat lead in the field of energy wind energy. At the end of March 2000 India had 1080- This energy is used for: ships, Pumping MWs capacity wind farms, of Sailing Grinding which Tamilnadu contributed water/Irrigation, 770-MW capacity. Gujarat has Grains, Power generation 167MW followed by Andhra Pradesh, which has 88 MW Some of the gadgets and devices: Sails, installed wind farms.There are other about a dozen wind pumps of Windmills, Wind turbines various designs providing water for agriculture, afforestation, and domestic purposes, all scattered over the country.

once a uranium nucleus is split. For a more detailed look at nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Machines called nuclear reactors. in one. Presently. the Sun and other stars make heat and light by nuclear reactions. We have been able to harness that mechanism and regularly use it to generate power. Scientists are working like madmen to make fusion reactors which have the potential of providing more energy with fewer disadvantages than fission reactors. Uranium nuclei can be easily split by shooting neutrons at them. Also. . Unlike the stars. For example. It has a high tripod tower and its double-action pump increases water output by about 60% compared to the conventional singleaction pumps. Man-Made: Nuclear energy can be man-made too. Man-made nuclear reactions also occur in the explosion of atomic and hydrogen bombs. These changes are called nuclear reactions. Production Changes can occur in the structure of the nuclei of atoms. large nuclei are split to release energy. The sun and stars are seemingly inexhaustible sources of energy. Nuclear energy is produced in two different ways. That energy is the result of nuclear reactions. parts of nuclear power plants. Energy created in a nuclear reaction is called nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is produced naturally and in man-made operations under human control. multiple neutrons are released which are used to split other uranium nuclei. The atomic bomb and nuclear reactors work by fission. in which matter is converted to energy. Nuclear Fission: In nuclear fission. This phenomenon is known as a chain reaction. the nuclei of atoms are split. Naturally: Some nuclear energy is produced naturally. nuclear energy provides for approximately 16% of the world's electricity. The element uranium is the main fuel used to undergo nuclear fission to produce energy since it has many favorable properties. provide electricity for many cities. causing energy to be released. small nuclei are combined to release energy. or atomic energy.The design of the Auroville multi-blade windmill has evolved from the practical experience gained in operating these mills over a period of 20 years or so. the nuclear reactors that we have today work on the principle of nuclear fission. consult the nuclear physics page. In the other method.

killing over 100. Japan. Milestones in the History of Nuclear Energy Amore in depth and detailed history of nuclear energy is on the nuclear past page. 1956: The first major nuclear power plant opened in England. 1942: The Nuclear Age began at the University of Chicago when Enrico Fermi made a chain reaction in a pile of uranium. the nuclei of atoms are joined together. The hydrogen bomb. 1952: The first large version of the hydrogen bomb (thousands of times more powerful than the atomic bomb) was exploded by the United States for testing purposes.000.Fission of uranium 235 nucleus. like all other stars. hydrogen nuclei fuse to make helium. killing over 40. Nuclear power plants could still produce electricity after coal and oil become scarce. Hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium and in the process release huge amounts of energy thus producing a huge explosion. or fused. Nuclear Waste Nuclear Fusion: In nuclear fusion. December 2. August 6. One ton of uranium produces more energy than is produced by several million tons of coal or several million barrels of oil. . Nuclear power plants need less fuel than ones which burn fossil fuels. This happens only under very hot conditions. 1945: The United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Adapted from Nuclear Energy. humanity's most powerful and destructive weapon. November 1.000. August 9. Japan. also works by fusion. 1945: The United States dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. In the Sun. Advantages of Nuclear Energy The Earth has limited supplies of coal and oil. The Sun. The heat required to start the fusion reaction is so great that an atomic bomb is used to provide it. February 21. creates heat and light through nuclear fusion.

Coal and oil burning plants pollute the air. Because they could kill people who touch them. a much worse disaster struck Russia's Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to the radiation.000 nuclear weapons between them. The problem was solved minutes before a total meltdown would have occurred. In 1957.have about 50. In 1986. What if there were to be a nuclear war? What if terrorists got their hands on nuclear weapons? Or what if nuclear weapons were launched by accident? Nuclear explosions produce radiation. Both sides have their cases as . Several dozen died within a few days. Nuclear reactors also have waste disposal problems. there were no deaths. One possible type of reactor disaster is known as a meltdown. the cooling system failed at the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor near Harrisburg. Reactors produce nuclear waste products which emit dangerous radiation.Russia and the United States -. Fortunately. In such an accident. many nuclear wastes are stored in special cooling pools at the nuclear reactors. Radiation leaked. In 1979. buried nuclear wastes mysteriously exploded. Others say that we should get rid of all nuclear weapons and power plants. forcing tens of thousands of people to flee. In this incident. The nuclear radiation harms the cells of the body which can make people sick or even kill them. at a dump site in Russia's Ural Mountains. Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy The nations of the world now have more than enough nuclear bombs to kill every person on Earth. The Future of Nuclear Energy Some people think that nuclear energy is here to stay and we must learn to live with it. Currently. Nuclear reactors only last for about forty to fifty years. In the years to come. Well-operated nuclear power plants do not release contaminants into the environment. the fission reaction goes out of control. leading to a nuclear explosion and the emission of great amounts of radiation. several hundred miles from Moscow. Illness can strike people years after their exposure to nuclear radiation. The United States plans to move its nuclear waste to a remote underground dump by the year 2010. Pennsylvania. they cannot be thrown away like ordinary garbage. The two most powerful nations -. thousands more may die of cancers induced by the radiation. a large amount of radiation escaped from the reactor. killing dozens of people.

" meaning tree. divided. Within the region. we know that "thermal" is heat (like the thermal blankets.there are advantages and disadvantages to nuclear energy. wherein power generation plants are integrated with dedicated fuelwood tree plantations. Read more about the politics of the issues or go to the forum to share your own opinions and see what others think. well. to a lack of cost-effective wood supplies. it is up to you to formulate your own opinion. Dendrothermal energy Dendrothermal energy is the conversion of wood (by burning) to electricity. 1) “Dendrothermal systems” are an example of a direct combustion system using woodfuels. What do you think we should do? After reviewing the pros and cons. the Philippines attempted a national-scale dendrothermal electricity programme in the 1980s. that hold in your body's heat to keep you so warm!) "dendro" comes from the Greek word "dendron. but I will just give you the reference page (listed below) Scroll down on this page for the section on "Electricity from wood" Biomass Energy . Below I listed some things I found in different websites about dendrothermal energy. The programme was largely unsuccessful due to. Advantages in terms of cost and environmental impacts certainly exist under some circumstances . 2) Woodfuels could offer an alternative to power stations using fossil fuels in some areas. I listed the sources numerically below. 3) This one seems to be very well put. but their economic and commercial viability remains in doubt. These have been shown to be technically feasible. among other things. Still others have opinions that fall somewhere in between.especially where adequate and economic supplies of biomass are available.

corn. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. wood. yard clippings. Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil). The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or “black liquor. The particular plant used is usually not important to the end products. The most conventional way in which biomass is used. wood chips and garbage are often used for this. landfill gases. poplar. Their combustion therefore disturbs the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere. Biomass sources Biomass energy is derived from five distinct energy sources: garbage. sugarcane. which have been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum. and alcohol fuels. Wood energy is derived both from direct use of harvested wood as a fuel and from wood waste streams. sorghum. including miscanthus. is biological material from living. . biomass also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibers or chemicals. waste. however. branches and tree stumps). waste. willow. However.” a waste product from processes of the pulp. and alcohol fuels. a renewable energy source. switchgrass. and a variety of tree species. (hydrogen) gas. still relies on direct incineration. as plants can also generate electricity while still alive.Biomass. but it does affect the processing of the raw material. paper and paperboard industry. such as wood. Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient biomass. or recently living organisms. for example (such as dead trees. hemp. Forest residues. In this sense. living biomass can also be included. It excludes such organic materials as fossil fuels. they are not considered biomass by the generally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very long time.

It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Generating methods Conventional (dams) Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. Biodiesel. or ethanol. Also. manufacturing waste.Waste energy is the second-largest source of biomass energy. excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research. can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. This height difference is called the head. an installed capacity of 777 GWe supplied 2998 TWh of hydroelectricity in 2006. Worldwide. Hydroelectricity Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower. At times of low electrical demand. another transportation fuel. the project produces no direct waste. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. The main contributors of waste energy are municipal solid waste (MSW). and landfill gas." Crops like corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel. water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. It can be used directly as a fuel or as an additive to gasoline.[1] This was approximately 20% of the world's electricity. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed. . ethanol. release methane gas .also called "landfill gas" or "biogas. and agricultural and human waste. Biomass alcohol fuel. Rotting garbage. is derived primarily from sugarcane and corn. Pumped-storage This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants. When there is higher demand. A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water to the turbine.

It is generally accepted that they formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals[2] by exposure . Run-of-the-river Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity. The fossil fuels. At times of low electrical demand. When there is higher demand. and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs. excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. which contain high percentages of carbon. water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. petroleum. Tide A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides.Pumped-storage This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. like anthracite coal. Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane. Fossil fuels Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural resources such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. alone. include coal. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels. such sources are highly predictable. so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields. and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years. associated with oil. can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. and natural gas. to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. such as a waterfall or mountain lake. An underground tunnel is constructed to take water from the high reservoir to the generating hall built in an underground cavern near the lowest point of the water tunnel and a horizontal tailrace taking water away to the lower outlet waterway. Underground An underground power station makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways. or in the form of methane clathrates. or must be allowed to bypass the dam.

[4] Non-fossil sources in 2006 included hydroelectric 6.[6] Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radiative forcing and contributes to global warming. .4% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world.0%. so there is a net increase of 10. causing the average surface temperature of the Earth to rise in response. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year.65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year (one tonne of atmospheric carbon is equivalent to 44/12 or 3.[5] World energy consumption was growing about 2. [3] It was estimated by the Energy Information Administration that in 2007 primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36. waste) amounting to 0.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide).5%. amounting to an 86.0%.3% per year. but it is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount.to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years. A global movement toward the generation of renewable energy is therefore under way to help meet increased energy needs. wind. The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. which most climate scientists agree will cause major adverse effects. and others (geothermal. This biogenic theory was first introduced by Georg Agricola in 1556 and later by Mikhail Lomonosov in the 18th century. and reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made.3 billion tonnes (21. coal 27. natural gas 23.9 percent. The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21. wood. tide.4%.3%. solar. nuclear 8.

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