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ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT
Syllabus Energy Management & Audit: Definition, Energy audit- need, Types of energy audit, Energy management (audit) approach-understanding energy costs, Bench marking, Energy performance, Matching energy use to requirement, Maximizing system efficiencies, Optimizing the input energy requirements, Fuel and energy substitution, Energy audit instruments
3.1 Definition & Objectives of Energy Management
The fundamental goal of energy management is to produce goods and provide services with the least cost and least environmental effect. The term energy management means many things to many people. One definition of energy management is: "The judicious and effective use of energy to maximize profits (minimize costs) and enhance competitive positions" (Cape Hart, Turner and Kennedy, Guide to Energy Management Fairmont press inc. 1997)
Another comprehensive definition is "The strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy, using systems and procedures so as to reduce energy requirements per unit of output while holding constant or reducing total costs of producing the output from these systems" The objective of Energy Management is to achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilisation, throughout the organization and: • • To minimise energy costs / waste without affecting production & quality To minimise environmental effects.
Energy Audit: Types And Methodology
Energy Audit is the key to a systematic approach for decision-making in the area of energy management. It attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use, and serves to identify all the energy streams in a facility. It quantifies energy usage according to its discrete functions. Industrial energy audit is an effective tool in defining and pursuing comprehensive energy management programme. As per the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, Energy Audit is defined as "the verification, monBureau of Energy Efficiency 54
3. Energy Management and Audit
itoring and analysis of use of energy including submission of technical report containing recommendations for improving energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce energy consumption". 3.2.1 Need for Energy Audit In any industry, the three top operating expenses are often found to be energy (both electrical and thermal), labour and materials. If one were to relate to the manageability of the cost or potential cost savings in each of the above components, energy would invariably emerge as a top ranker, and thus energy management function constitutes a strategic area for cost reduction. Energy Audit will help to understand more about the ways energy and fuel are used in any industry, and help in identifying the areas where waste can occur and where scope for improvement exists. The Energy Audit would give a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction, preventive maintenance and quality control programmes which are vital for production and utility activities. Such an audit programme will help to keep focus on variations which occur in the energy costs, availability and reliability of supply of energy, decide on appropriate energy mix, identify energy conservation technologies, retrofit for energy conservation equipment etc. In general, Energy Audit is the translation of conservation ideas into realities, by lending technically feasible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations within a specified time frame. The primary objective of Energy Audit is to determine ways to reduce energy consumption per unit of product output or to lower operating costs. Energy Audit provides a " bench-mark" (Reference point) for managing energy in the organization and also provides the basis for planning a more effective use of energy throughout the organization. 3.2.2 Type of Energy Audit The type of Energy Audit to be performed depends on: Function and type of industry Depth to which final audit is needed, and Potential and magnitude of cost reduction desired Thus Energy Audit can be classified into the following two types. i) Preliminary Audit ii) Detailed Audit 3.2.3 Preliminary Energy Audit Methodology Preliminary energy audit is a relatively quick exercise to: • Establish energy consumption in the organization • Estimate the scope for saving • Identify the most likely (and the easiest areas for attention • Identify immediate (especially no-/low-cost) improvements/ savings • Set a 'reference point' • Identify areas for more detailed study/measurement • Preliminary energy audit uses existing, or easily obtained data
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3.2.4 Detailed Energy Audit Methodology A comprehensive audit provides a detailed energy project implementation plan for a facility, since it evaluates all major energy using systems. This type of audit offers the most accurate estimate of energy savings and cost. It considers the interactive effects of all projects, accounts for the energy use of all major equipment, and includes detailed energy cost saving calculations and project cost. In a comprehensive audit, one of the key elements is the energy balance. This is based on an inventory of energy using systems, assumptions of current operating conditions and calculations of energy use. This estimated use is then compared to utility bill charges. Detailed energy auditing is carried out in three phases: Phase I, II and III. Phase I - Pre Audit Phase Phase II - Audit Phase Phase III - Post Audit Phase A Guide for Conducting Energy Audit at a Glance Industry-to-industry, the methodology of Energy Audits needs to be flexible. A comprehensive ten-step methodology for conduct of Energy Audit at field level is presented below. Energy Manager and Energy Auditor may follow these steps to start with and add/change as per their needs and industry types.
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Energy Management and Audit Ten Steps Methodology for Detailed Energy Audit Bureau of Energy Efficiency 57 .3.
Energy Management and Audit Bureau of Energy Efficiency 58 .3.
3. • Analyse the major energy consumption data with the relevant personnel. • Tour the site accompanied by engineering/production The main aims of this visit are: • To finalise Energy Audit team • To identify the main energy consuming areas/plant items to be surveyed during the audit. • To decide whether any meters will have to be installed prior to the audit eg. and at least a preliminary assessment of the cost of the improvements will be made to indicate the expected payback on any capital investment needed. Means of improving these efficiencies will be listed. The audit report should conclude with specific recommendations for detailed engineering studies and feasibility analyses. • To plan with time frame • To collect macro data on plant energy resources. • To identify any existing instrumentation/ additional metering required.building layout. major energy consuming centers • To create awareness through meetings/ programme Phase II. to ensure that nothing is overlooked. and will evaluate the efficiency of each step of the manufacturing process. Energy Management and Audit Phase I -Pre Audit Phase Activities A structured methodology to carry out an energy audit is necessary for efficient working. Initial Site Visit and Preparation Required for Detailed Auditing An initial site visit may take one day and gives the Energy Auditor/Engineer an opportunity to meet the personnel concerned. which must then be performed to justify the implementation of those conservation measures that require investments. compressed air distribution. • Obtain site drawings where available . and investigate.Detailed Energy Audit Activities Depending on the nature and complexity of the site. at nights and at weekends as well as during normal daytime working hours. as the planning of the procedures necessary for an audit is most important. steam. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 59 . An initial study of the site should always be carried out. kWh. During the initial site visit the Energy Auditor/Engineer should carry out the following actions: • Discuss with the site's senior management the aims of the energy audit. electricity distribution etc. a comprehensive audit can take from several weeks to several months to complete. to familiarize him with the site and to assess the procedures necessary to carry out the energy audit. oil or gas meters. • Discuss economic guidelines associated with the recommendations of the audit. energy and material balances for specific plant departments or items of process equipment are carried out. • To identify the instrumentation required for carrying out the audit. The audit report will include a description of energy inputs and product outputs by major department or by major processing function. Detailed studies to establish. Whenever possible. steam distribution. checks of plant operations are carried out over extended periods of time.
Fuel Consumption . Sources of energy supply (e. processes used and equipment details .Quantity & type of wastes generated . by department. recycled materials.Amount & type of input materials used . electricity from the grid or self-generation) 7. 8. • measurement exercises over abnormal workload periods (such as startup and shutdowns) • design values can be taken where measurements are difficult (cooling water through heat exchang er) DO NOT ESTIMATE WHEN YOU CAN CALCULATE DO NOT CALCULATE WHEN YOU CAN MEASURE Bureau of Energy Efficiency 60 . and the use of co-generation systems (combined heat and power generation). steam). The audit team should collect the following baseline data: . cooling water etc . Existing baseline information and reports are useful to get consumption pattern.Steam consumption . Energy consumption by type of energy. use of scrap or waste products. Generation and distribution of site services (eg. production cost and productivity levels in terms of product per raw material inputs.compressed air. is the production normal etc) • define how frequent data collection should be to account for process variations. Here are some basic tips to avoid wasting time and effort: • measurement systems should be easy to use and provide the information to the accuracy that is needed. Material balance data (raw materials.Technology.Water consumption .Capacity utilisation .) 3.Percentage rejection / reprocessing .Efficiencies / yield DATA COLLECTION HINTS It is important to plan additional data gathering carefully.Electrical energy consumption . Energy Management procedures and energy awareness training programs within the establishment. Process and material flow diagrams 5. 6. production of by-products for re-use in other industries.Other inputs such as compressed air.3. not the accuracy that is technically possible • measurement equipment can be inexpensive (flow rates using a bucket and stopwatch) • the quality of the data must be such that the correct conclusions are drawn (what grade of prod uct is on. intermediate and final products. by end-use 2. by major items of process equip ment. Energy cost and tariff data 4. Potential for fuel substitution.g. etc. process modifications. Energy Management and Audit The information to be collected during the detailed audit includes: 1.
Example: A flowchart of Penicillin-G manufacturing is given in the figure3. identify waste streams and obvious energy wastage An overview of unit operations. energy efficiency potential. the unit operations such as germinator. areas of material and energy use and sources of waste generation should be gathered and should be represented in a flowchart as shown in the figure below.1 below. Note that waste stream (Mycelium) and obvious energy wastes such as condensate drained and steam leakages have been identified in this flow chart The audit focus area depends on several issues like consumption of input resources. Energy Management and Audit Draw process flow diagram and list process steps.3. impact of process step on entire process or intensity of waste generation / energy consumption. Figure 3. and extraction are the major conservation potential areas identified.1 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 61 . Simultaneously the team should identify the various inputs & output streams at each process step. records and shop floor walk through will help in making this flow chart. Existing drawings. pre-fermentor. fermentor. In the above process. important process steps.
optimal loading of DG sets. Process analysis is useful tool for process integration measures. etc. For low investment short duration measures. service etc • The impact of energy efficiency measure on safety. Energy Management and Audit Identification of Energy Conservation Opportunities Fuel substitution: Identifying the appropriate fuel for efficient energy conversion Energy generation :Identifying Efficiency opportunities in energy conversion equipment/utility such as captive power generation. These may be classified into three categories: Bureau of Energy Efficiency 62 . Net Present Value method etc. production or process. optimising existing efficiencies. skilled manpower. which have attractive economic viability. high efficiency DG sets. Energy distribution: Identifying Efficiency opportunities network such as transformers. Energy usage by processes: This is where the major opportunity for improvement and many of them are hidden. payback is usually sufficient. reliability. quality. simplest of the methods. efficienct energy conversion equipment. steam generation in boilers. hot water. Etc. • The maintenance requirements and spares availability The Economic viability often becomes the key parameter for the management acceptance. minimum excess air combustion with boilers/thermic fluid heating. Internal Rate of Return method. a number of potential energy saving projects may be identified. biomass gasifiers. Cogeneration. thermic fluid heating.3. switchgears and power factor improvement in electrical systems and chilled water. compressed air. The economic analysis can be conducted by using a variety of methods. cooling water. A sample worksheet for assessing economic feasibility is provided below: Classification of Energy Conservation Measures Based on energy audit and analyses of the plant. Example: Pay back method. space. Technical and Economic feasibility The technical feasibility should address the following issues • Technology availability. cables.
medium return. Other projects have to be analyzed. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 63 . engineered and budgeted for implementation in a phased manner. The following format is applicable for most of the industries. and may require careful scrutiny before funds can be committed.high return. 3.3. Energy Management and Audit 1. Refer Table 3.3 Energy Audit Reporting Format After successfully carried out energy audit energy manager/energy auditor should report to the top management for effective communication and implementation. Projects relating to energy cascading and process changes almost always involve high costs coupled with high returns. 2. 3. These projects are generally complex and may require long lead times before they can be implemented. Low cost . High cost . A typical energy audit reporting contents and format are given below.high return projects receive priority. However the format can be suitably modified for specific requirement applicable for a particular type of industry. Medium cost .1 for project priority guidelines.high return Normally the low cost .
Energy Management and Audit Bureau of Energy Efficiency 64 .3.
Energy Management and Audit Bureau of Energy Efficiency 65 .3.
TABLE 3.Operational Improvement .Equipment Modification .Technology Change B C Bureau of Energy Efficiency 66 .Lakhs) Simple Payback period 1 2 3 4 Total TABLE 3. Energy Management and Audit The following Worksheets (refer Table 3.Lakhs Capital Investment (Rs.2 SUMMARY OF ENERGY SAVING RECOMMENDATIONS S.Product modification .3 TYPES AND PRIORITY OF ENERGY SAVING MEASURES Type of Energy Saving Options Annual Electricity /Fuel savings KWh/MT or kl/MT Annual Savings (Rs Lakhs) Priority A No Investment (Immediate) .No.3.3) can be used as guidance for energy audit assessment and reporting. Energy Saving Recommendations Annual Energy (Fuel & Electricity) Savings (kWh/MT or kl/MT) Annual Savings Rs.Housekeeping Low Investment (Short to Medium Term) .Energy efficient Devices .2 & Table 3.Process change High Investment (Long Term) .Controls .
3. Energy Management and Audit Bureau of Energy Efficiency 67 .
but also city to city and consumer to consumer though it does the same work everywhere. Few are listed below: • Fuel oil • Low Sulphur Heavy Stock (LSHS) • Light Diesel Oil (LDO) • Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) • COAL • LIGNITE • WOOD ETC.3.2 Annual Energy Bill three factors that should be considered while purchasing. Many factors are involved in deciding final cost of purchased electricity such as: • Maximum demand charges. The following factors should be taken into account during procurement of fuels for energy efficiency and economics. moisture etc) • Energy content (calorific value) Power Costs Electricity price in India not only varies from State to State. • When electricity is purchased on the basis of maximum demand tariff • They can suggest where savings are most likely to be made. Availability. In many industries sufficient meters may not be available to measure all the energy used. In such cases.4 Understanding Energy Costs Understanding energy cost is vital factor for awareness creation and saving calculation. which gives a base-line for future reference • Energy invoices may indicate the potential for savings when related to production requirements or to air conditioning requirements/space heating etc. type of transport • Quality of fuel (contaminations. transport charge. How fast the electricity is used? ) Bureau of Energy Efficiency 68 . Understanding fuel cost is fairly simple and it is purchased in Tons or Kiloliters.e. • In later years invoices can be used to quantify the energy and cost savings made through energy conservation measures Fuel Costs A wide variety of fuels are available for thermal energy supply. invoices for fuels and electricity will be useful. Energy invoices can be used for the following purposes: • They provide a record of energy purchased in a given year. kVA (i. • Price at source. cost and quality are the main Figure 3. The annual company balance sheet is the other sources where fuel cost and power are given with production related information. Energy Management and Audit 3.
3. Energy Management and Audit
• Energy Charges, kWh (i.e., How much electricity is consumed? ) • TOD Charges, Peak/Non-peak period (i.e. When electricity is utilized ?) • Power factor Charge, P.F (i.e., Real power use versus Apparent power use factor ) • Other incentives and penalties applied from time to time • High tension tariff and low tension tariff rate changes • Slab rate cost and its variation • Type of tariff clause and rate for various categories such as commercial, residential, industrial, Government, agricultural, etc. • Tariff rate for developed and underdeveloped area/States • Tax holiday for new projects Example: Purchased energy Bill A typical summary of energy purchased in an industry based on the invoices
Type of energy Electricity Fuel oil Coal Total
Original units 5,00,000 kWh 200 kL 1000 tons
Unit Cost Rs.4.00/kWh Rs.10,000/ kL Rs.2,000/ton
Monthly Bill Rs. 20,00,000 20,00,000 20,00,000 60,00,000
Unfortunately the different forms of energy are sold in different units e.g. kWh of electricity, liters of fuel oil, tonne of coal. To allow comparison of energy quantities these must be converted to a common unit of energy such as kWh, Giga joules, kCals etc. Electricity (1 kWh) = 860 kCal/kWh (0.0036 GJ) Heavy fuel oil (Gross calorific value, GCV) =10000 kCal/litre ( 0.0411 GJ/litre) Coal (Gross calorific value, GCV) =4000 kCal/kg ( 28 GJ/ton)
3.5 Benchmarking and Energy Performance
Benchmarking of energy consumption internally (historical / trend analysis) and externally (across similar industries) are two powerful tools for performance assessment and logical evolution of avenues for improvement. Historical data well documented helps to bring out energy consumption and cost trends month-wise / day-wise. Trend analysis of energy consumption, cost, relevant production features, specific energy consumption, help to understand effects of capacity utilization on energy use efficiency and costs on a broader scale. External benchmarking relates to inter-unit comparison across a group of similar units. However, it would be important to ascertain similarities, as otherwise findings can be grossly
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misleading. Few comparative factors, which need to be looked into while benchmarking externally are: • Scale of operation • Vintage of technology • Raw material specifications and quality • Product specifications and quality Benchmarking energy performance permits • Quantification of fixed and variable energy consumption trends vis-à-vis production levels • Comparison of the industry energy performance with respect to various production levels (capacity utilization) • Identification of best practices (based on the external benchmarking data) • Scope and margin available for energy consumption and cost reduction • Basis for monitoring and target setting exercises. The benchmark parameters can be: • Gross production related e.g. kWh/MT clinker or cement produced (cement plant) e.g. kWh/kg yarn produced (Textile unit) e.g. kWh/MT, kCal/kg, paper produced (Paper plant) e.g. kCal/kWh Power produced (Heat rate of a power plant) e.g. Million kilocals/MT Urea or Ammonia (Fertilizer plant) e.g. kWh/MT of liquid metal output (in a foundry) • Equipment / utility related e.g. kW/ton of refrigeration (on Air conditioning plant) e.g. % thermal efficiency of a boiler plant e.g. % cooling tower effectiveness in a cooling tower e.g. kWh/NM3 of compressed air generated e.g. kWh /litre in a diesel power generation plant. While such benchmarks are referred to, related crucial process parameters need mentioning for meaningful comparison among peers. For instance, in the above case: • For a cement plant - type of cement, blaine number (fineness) i.e. Portland and process used (wet/dry) are to be reported alongside kWh/MT figure. • For a textile unit - average count, type of yarn i.e. polyester/cotton, is to be reported along side kWh/square meter. • For a paper plant - paper type, raw material (recycling extent), GSM quality is some important factors to be reported along with kWh/MT, kCal/Kg figures. • For a power plant / cogeneration plant - plant % loading, condenser vacuum, inlet cool ing water temperature, would be important factors to be mentioned alongside heat rate (kCal/kWh). • For a fertilizer plant - capacity utilization(%) and on-stream factor are two inputs worth comparing while mentioning specific energy consumption • For a foundry unit - melt output, furnace type, composition (mild steel, high carbon steel/cast iron etc.) raw material mix, number or power trips could be some useful oper
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• • •
ating parameters to be reported while mentioning specific energy consumption data. For an Air conditioning (A/c) plant - Chilled water temperature level and refrigeration load (TR) are crucial for comparing kW/TR. For a boiler plant - fuel quality, type, steam pressure, temperature, flow, are useful com parators alongside thermal efficiency and more importantly, whether thermal efficiency is on gross calorific value basis or net calorific value basis or whether the computation is by direct method or indirect heat loss method, may mean a lot in benchmarking exer cise for meaningful comparison. Cooling tower effectiveness - ambient air wet/dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air and circulating water flows are required to be reported to make meaningful sense. Compressed air specific power consumption - is to be compared at similar inlet air tem perature and pressure of generation. Diesel power plant performance - is to be compared at similar loading %, steady run condition etc.
Plant Energy Performance Plant energy performance (PEP) is the measure of whether a plant is now using more or less energy to manufacture its products than it did in the past: a measure of how well the energy management programme is doing. It compares the change in energy consumption from one year to the other considering production output. Plant energy performance monitoring compares plant energy use at a reference year with the subsequent years to determine the improvement that has been made. However, a plant production output may vary from year to year and the output has a significant bearing on plant energy use. For a meaningful comparison, it is necessary to determine the energy that would have been required to produce this year production output, if the plant had operated in the same way as it did during the reference year. This calculated value can then be compared with the actual value to determine the improvement or deterioration that has taken place since the reference year. Production factor Production factor is used to determine the energy that would have been required to produce this year's production output if the plant had operated in the same way as it did in the reference year. It is the ratio of production in the current year to that in the reference year.
Production factor = Current year ' s production Reference year ' s production
Reference Year Equivalent Energy Use The reference year's energy use that would have been used to produce the current year's production output may be called the "reference year energy use equivalent" or "reference year equivalent" for short. The reference year equivalent is obtained by multiplying the reference year energy use by the production factor (obtained above) Reference year equivalent = Reference year energy use x Production factor The improvement or deterioration from the reference year is called "energy performance" and
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7 Maximising System Efficiency Once the energy usage and sources are matched properly.Current year' s energy x 100 Reference year equivalent The energy performance is the percentage of energy saved at the current rate of use compared to the reference year rate of use. has shown that once a plant has started measuring yearly energy performance. fan resizing for better efficiency. 3. installing variable speed drives • Eliminate damper operations in fans by impeller trimming. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 72 . resizing pump. Worst case design. heaters and other energy consuming equipment. air compressors. the higher the number will be. The greater the improvement. furnaces. • Moderation of chilled water temperature for process chilling needs • Recovery of energy lost in control valve pressure drops by back pressure/turbine adop tion • Adoption of task lighting in place of less effective area lighting 3. Energy Management and Audit is a measure of the plant's energy management progress. the next step is to operate the equipment efficiently through best practices in operation and maintenance as well as judicious technology adoption. PEP can just as easily be used for monthly reporting as yearly reporting. and is calculated by subtracting the current year's energy use from the reference years equivalent.3. Some illustrations in this context are: • Eliminate steam leakages by trap improvements • Maximise condensate recovery • Adopt combustion controls for maximizing combustion efficiency • Replace pumps. boilers. management wants more frequent performance information in order to monitor and control energy use on an on-going basis. pulley diameter modification for belt drives. It is the reduction or increase in the current year's energy use over the reference. wherever significant energy efficiency margins exist. fans. The result is divided by the reference year equivalent and multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage. while optimization is the energy manager's mandate and many situations present themselves towards an exercise involving graceful matching of energy equipment capacity to end-use needs. Plant energy performance = Reference year equivalent . Monthly Energy Performance Experience however. wastages etc. refrigeration compressors. is a designer's characteristic.6 Matching Energy Usage to Requirement Mismatch between equipment capacity and user requirement often leads to inefficiencies due to part load operations. installing variable speed dri ves. Some examples being: • Eliminate throttling of a pump by impeller trimming.
3. The range of measures could include: • • • • Shuffling of compressors to match needs. attention is accorded to considerations for minimizing energy input requirements. Replacement of LDO by LSHS Replacement of electric heaters by steam heaters Replacement of steam based hotwater by solar systems Case Study : Example on Fuel Substitution A textile process industry replaced old fuel oil fired thermic fluid heater with agro fuel fired heater. Energy is an important input in the production. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 73 . rice husk etc. power and sponge iron industries. Kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) have substituted soft coke in residential use. Fuel substitution has taken place in all the major sectors of the Indian economy. 3. Optimisation of transformer operation with respect to load. The economics of the project are given below: A: Title of Recommendation : Use of Agro Fuel (coconut chips) in place of Furnace oil in a Boiler Few examples of energy substitution B: Description of Existing System and its operation : A thermic fluid heater with furnace oil currently. There are two ways to reduce energy dependency. petro chemicals.8 Fuel and Energy Substitution Fuel substitution: Substituting existing fossil fuel with more efficient and less cost/less polluting fuel such as natural gas. Few examples of fuel substitution • • • Natural gas is increasingly the fuel of choice as fuel and feedstock in the fertilizer. energy conservation and substitution. In the same plant a coconut chip fired boiler is operating continuously with good performance. Periodic review of insulation thickness Identify potential for heat exchanger networking and process integration. Replacement of coal by coconut shells. C: Description of Proposed system and its operation : It was suggested to replace the oil fired thermic fluid heater with coconut chip fired boiler as the company has the facilities for handling coconut chip fired system. biogas and locally available agro-residues. Energy Management and Audit Optimising the Input Energy Requirements Consequent upon fine-tuning the energy use practices.
80 lakh . These instruments must be portable. The parameters generally monitored during energy audit may include the following: Basic Electrical Parameters in AC &DC systems . liquid flow. Energy Management and Audit D: Energy Saving Calculations Old System Type of fuel Firing GCV Avg. O2. Active power (kW). Rs.3. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 74 . easy to operate and relatively inexpensive.200 kCal/kg 82% 15 lakh kCal / hour 25 days x 12 month x 24 hours = 7. Key instruments for energy audit are listed below. = Rs.200 hrs. flue gas analysis . dust concentration. Harmonics. Parameters of importance other than electrical such as temperature & heat flow.CO2.Voltage (V). these measurements require the use of instruments. 10 lakh = Rs. apparent power (demand) (kVA). air velocity./hr = 50 lakh = 130 .9 Energy Audit Instruments The requirement for an energy audit such as identification and quantification of energy necessitates measurements. Frequency (Hz). revolutions per minute (RPM). 70 lakh = Rs. Energy consumption (kWh). The operating instructions for all instruments must be understood and staff should familiarize themselves with the instruments and their operation prior to actual audit use. 35 lakh = 6 months 3. Current (I). pH. relative humidity.50 = Rs. noise and vibration. etc. SOx. CO. NOx./hr.130 lakh (7200 x 1800 Rs. air and gas flow. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). Reactive power (kVAr). Thermal Efficiency Heat Duty Operating Hours Annual Fuel Cost : : : : : : Furnace Oil fired heater 10. durable. radiation. combustion efficiency etc.) Modified System Type of fuel saving GCV Average Thermal Efficiency Heat Duty Annual Operating Cost Annual Savings Additional Auxiliary Power + Manpower Cost Net Annual Saving Investment for New Coconut Fired heater Simple pay back period = Coconut chips fired Heater = 4200 kCal/kg = 72 % = 15 lakh kCal / hour = 7200 x 700 Rs. moisture content. Power factor.
A separate fyrite can be used for O2 and CO2 measurement. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 75 . kVAr. Hertz. Fyrite: A hand bellow pump draws the flue gas sample into the solution inside the fyrite. These instruments are applied on-line i.3. Combustion analyzer: This instrument has in-built chemical cells which measure various gases such as O2. PF. Amps and Volts. kW. Instant measurements can be taken with hand-held meters. while more advanced ones facilitates cumulative readings with print outs at specified intervals. A chemical reaction changes the liquid volume revealing the amount of gas. Fuel Efficiency Monitor: This measures oxygen and temperature of the flue gas.e on running motors without any need to stop the motor. Calorific values of common fuels are fed into the microprocessor which calculates the combustion efficiency. CO. NOX and SOX. Energy Management and Audit Electrical Measuring Instruments: These are instruments for measuring major electrical parameters such as kVA. In addition some of these instruments also measure harmonics.
3. Water flow meter: This non-contact flow measuring device using Doppler effect / Ultra sonic principle. This instrument is useful for measuring hot spots in furnaces. Water and other fluid flows can be easily measured with this meter. For surface temperature. a leaf type probe is used with the same instrument. Energy Management and Audit Contact thermometer: These are thermocouples which measures for example flue gas. The meter directly gives the flow. hot water temperatures by insertion of probe into the stream. There is a transmitter and receiver which are positioned on opposite sides of the pipe. surface temperatures etc. hot air. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 76 . Infrared Thermometer: This is a non-contact type measurement which when directed at a heat source directly gives the temperature read out. Pitot Tube and manometer: Air velocity in ducts can be measured using a pitot tube and inclined manometer for further calculation of flows.
converts to electrical impulses which are calibrated as lux. belt slip and loading.3. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 77 . More sophisticated and safer ones are non contact instruments such as stroboscopes. Lux meters: Illumination levels are measured with a lux meter. A simple tachometer is a contact type instrument which can be used where direct access is possible. It consists of a photo cell which senses the light output. Tachometer Stroboscope Leak Detectors: Ultrasonic instruments are available which can be used to detect leaks of compressed air and other gases which are normally not possible to detect with human abilities. Energy Management and Audit Speed Measurements: In any audit exercise speed measurements are critical as thay may change with frequency.
3. Energy Management and Audit
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. List down the objective of energy management.. What are the managerial functions involved in energy management? Explain why managerial skills are as important as technical skills in energy management? What are the various steps in the implementation of energy management in an organization? State the importance of energy policy for industries. Explain the role of training and awareness in energy management programme? What is an energy audit? Explain briefly the difference between preliminary and detailed energy audits? What is the significance of knowing the energy costs? What are the benefits of benchmarking energy consumption? Explain the implications of part load operation of energy equipment with examples? What do you understand by the term fuel substitution? Give examples. What are the parameters that can be measured by on line power analyser? Name the one instrument used to measure CO2 from boilers stack is (a) Infrared thermometer (b) Fyrite (c) Anemometer (d) Pitot tube Non contact flow measurement can be carried out by (a) Orifice meter (b) Turbine flow meter (c) Ultrasonic flow meter (d) Magnetic flow meter Non contact speed measurements can be carried out by (a) Tachometer (b) Stroboscope (c) Oscilloscope (d) Odometer
1. 2. 3. 4. NPC energy audit manual and reports Energy management handbook, John Wiley and Sons - Wayne C. Turner Guide to Energy Management, Cape Hart, Turner and Kennedy Cleaner Production – Energy Efficiency Manual for GERIAP, UNEP, Bangkok prepared by National Productivity Council www.eeca.govt.nz www.energyusernews.com/
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5. ENERGY ACTION PLANNING
Syllabus Energy Action Planning: Key elements, Force field analysis, Energy policy purpose, perspective, Contents, Formulation, Ratification, Organizing - location of energy management, Top management support, Managerial function, Roles and responsibilities of energy manager, Accountability. Motivating-motivation of employees: Information systemdesigning barriers, Strategies; Marketing and communicating-training and planning.
Energy efficiency is extremely important to all organisations, especially those that are energy intensive. The four vital requirements for a successful energy management is shown in Figure 5.1. Any successful energy management programme within an organisation needs the total support of top management. Hence, top management support is the key requirement for success. Top management Figure 5.1 The 4 Pillars of Successful Energy Management should give energy efficiency equal importance in their corporate objectives as manpower, raw materials, production and sales. The other important requirements are a well charted strategy plan, an effective monitoring system and adequate technical ability for analysing and implementing energy saving options.
Energy Management System
Organizations seeking financial returns from superior energy management continuously strive to improve their energy performance. Their success is based on regularly assessing energy performance, planning and implementing action plans to improve energy efficiency. Hence a sound energy management system is a prerequisite for identifying and implementing energy conservation measures, sustaining the momentum and for effecting improvements on a continuous basis. The various steps for energy action planning are shown in Figure 5.2.
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5. Energy Action Planning
Figure 5.2 Steps in Energy Action Planning
5.2.1 Top Management Commitment and Support Top management shall make a commitment to allocate manpower and funds to achieve continuous improvement. To establish the energy management programme, leading organizations appoint energy manager, form a dedicated energy team and institute an energy policy. Appoint an Energy Manager The tasks of energy manger are setting goals, tracking progress, and promoting the energy management program. An Energy Manager helps an organization achieve its goals by establishing energy performance as a core value. The Energy Manager is not always an expert in energy and technical systems. Successful Energy Manager understands how energy management helps the organization achieve its financial and environmental goals and objectives. Depending on the size of the organization, the Energy Manager role can be a full-time position or an addition to other responsibilities. Location of Energy Manager The energy management function, whether vested in one "energy manager or coordinator" or distributed among a number of middle managers, usually resides somewhere in the organization between senior management and those who control the end-use of energy. Exactly how and where that function is placed is a decision that needs to be made in view of the existing organisational structure.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
• Establish a methodology how to accurately calculate the specific energy consumption of various products/services or activity of the firm.5. national and inter-national development on energy efficiency technology and management system and information denomination • Develop integrated system of energy efficiency and environmental up gradation. • Prepare information material and conduct internal workshops about the topic for other staff. • Prepare a scheme for efficient use of energy and its conservation and implement such scheme keeping in view of the economic stability of the investment in such form and manner as may be provided in the regulations of the Energy Conservation Act. and the job description. • Create knowledge bank on sectoral. • Provide support to Accredited Energy Audit Firm retained by the company for the conduct of energy audit • Provide information to BEE as demanded in the Act. collection and analysis system to keep track of energy consumption. • Co-ordinate nomination of management personnel to external programs. Energy Action Planning Energy Manager: Responsibilities and Duties to be Assigned Under The Energy Conservation Act. • Establish and/or participate in information exchange with other energy managers of the same sector through association Duties • Report to BEE and State level Designated Agency once a year the information with regard to the energy consumed and action taken on the recommendation of the accredited energy auditor. Form A Dedicated Energy Team The tasks of energy team are executing energy management activities across different parts of the organization and ensuring integration of best practices. • Co-ordinate implementation of energy audit/efficiency improvement projects through external agencies. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 104 . • Develop and manage training programme for energy efficiency at operating levels. as per BEE Format. Responsibilities • Prepare an annual activity plan and present to management concerning financially attractive investments to reduce energy costs • Establish an energy conservation cell within the firm with management's consent about the mandate and task of the cell. • Initiate activities to improve monitoring and process control to reduce energy costs. and with respect to the tasks given by a mandate. 2001. • Improve disaggregating of energy consumption data down to shop level or profit center of a firm. • Analyze equipment performance with respect to energy efficiency • Ensure proper functioning and calibration of instrumentation required to assess level of energy consumption directly or indirectly. • Establish an improved data recording.
2 Elements of Monitoring & Targeting System The essential elements of M&T system are: • Recording -Measuring and recording energy consumption • Analysing -Correlating energy consumption to a measured output. disciplined division of the facility into Energy Cost Centers. effluent. The utilities used in each centre are closely monitored. water. building occupancy. Techniques -energy consumption. It involves a systematic. steam. Data and information-analysis. Once this information is available on a regular basis. compressed air. Monitoring and Targeting is a management technique in which all plant and building utilities such as fuel. While. ENERGY MONITORING AND TARGETING Syllabus Energy Monitoring and Targeting: Defining monitoring & targeting. targets can be set. finished product inventory. 8. Particularly M&T system will involve the following: • Checking the accuracy of energy invoices • Allocating energy costs to specific departments (Energy Accounting Centres) Bureau of Energy Efficiency 159 . and the energy used is compared with production volume or any other suitable measure of operation. refrigeration. It essentially combines the principles of energy use and statistics. and electricity are managed as controllable resources in the same way that raw materials.8. The Monitoring and Targeting programs have been so effective that they show typical reductions in annual energy costs in various industrial sectors between 5 and 20%. which may have occurred. and remedial actions can be taken and implemented. monitoring is essentially aimed at establishing the existing pattern of energy consumption. personnel and capital are managed. 8. reduce and control current level of energy use and improve the existing operating procedures. variances can be spotted and interpreted. Cumulative sum of differences (CUSUM). such as production quantity • Comparing -Comparing energy consumption to an appropriate standard or benchmark • Setting Targets -Setting targets to reduce or control energy consumption • Monitoring -Comparing energy consumption to the set target on a regular basis • Reporting -Reporting the results including any variances from the targets which have been set • Controlling -Implementing management measures to correct any variances. targeting is the identification of energy consumption level which is desirable as a management goal to work towards energy conservation. Elements of monitoring & targeting. It builds on the principle "you can't manage what you don't measure". Production.1 Definition Energy monitoring and targeting is primarily a management technique that uses energy information as a basis to eliminate waste.
8. Energy Monitoring and Targeting
• • •
Determining energy performance/efficiency Recording energy use, so that projects intended to improve energy efficiency can be checked Highlighting performance problems in equipment or systems
A Rationale for Monitoring, Targeting and Reporting
The energy used by any business varies with production processes, volumes and input. Determining the relationship of energy use to key performance indicators will allow you to determine: • Whether your current energy is better or worse than before • Trends in energy consumption that reflects seasonal, weekly, and other operational parameters • How much your future energy use is likely to vary if you change aspects of your business • Specific areas of wasted energy • Comparison with other business with similar characteristics - This "benchmarking" process will provide valuable indications of effectiveness of your operations as well as energy use • How much your business has reacted to changes in the past • How to develop performance targets for an energy management program Information related to energy use may be obtained from following sources: Plant level information can be derived from financial accounting systems-utilities cost centre • Plant department level information can be found in comparative energy consumption data for a group of similar facilities, service entrance meter readings etc. • System level (for example, boiler plant) performance data can be determined from submetering data • Equipment level information can be obtained from nameplate data, run-time and schedule information, sub-metered data on specific energy consuming equipment. The important point to be made here is that all of these data are useful and can be processed to yield information about facility performance. •
8.4 Data and Information Analysis
Electricity bills and other fuel bills should be collected periodically and analysed as below. A typical format for monitoring plant level information is given below in the Table 8.1.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
8. Energy Monitoring and Targeting
TABLE 8.1 ANNUAL ENERGY COST SHEET
Thermal Energy Bill Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sub-Total % Fuel 1 Fuel 2 Fuel 3 Total Day Rs. Lakh kWh
Electricity Bill Night kWh Maximum Demand Total Rs. Lakh
Total Energy Bill Rs.Lakh
After obtaining the respective annual energy cost, a pie chart (see Figure 8.1) can be drawn as shown below:
Figure 8.1 % Share of Fuels Based on Energy Bill
Pie Chart on Energy Consumption All the fuels purchased by the plant should be converted into common units such as kCal. The following Table 8.2 below is for that purpose.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
8. Energy Monitoring and Targeting
TABLE 8.2 FUEL CONVERSION DATA
Energy source Electricity HSD Furnace Oil LPG
Supply unit kWh kg kg kg
Conversion Factor to Kcal 860 10,500 10,200 12,000
After conversion to a common unit, a pie chart can be drawn showing the percentage distribution of energy consumption as shown in Figure 8.2.
Figure 8.2 %Share of Fuels Based on Consumption in kCals
8.5 Relating Energy Consumption and Production.
Graphing the Data A critical feature of M&T is to understand what drives energy consumption. Is it production, hours of operation or weather? Knowing this, we can then start to analyse the data to see how good our energy management is. After collection of energy consumption, energy cost and production data, the next stage of the monitoring process is to study and analyse the data to understand what is happening in the plant. It is strongly recommended that the data be presented graphically. A better appreciation of variations is almost always obtained from a visual presentation, rather than from a table of numbers. Graphs generally provide an effective means of developing the energy-production relationships, which explain what is going on in the plant. Use of Bar Chart The energy data is then entered into a spreadsheet. It is hard to envisage what is happening from plain data, so we need to present the data using bar chart. The starting point is to collect and collate 24/12 months of energy bills. The most common bar chart application used in energy
Bureau of Energy Efficiency 162
each point represents the sum of the previous twelve months of data. Looking at these charts.Energy and Production This technique also smoothens out errors in the timing of meter readings. both energy and productions seem to be "tracking" each other . In this way.8. it does not tell us the full story about what is happening. For this chart. holidays.3) however. Having more than twelve months of production and energy data.3 Energy Consumption :Current Year(2000) Vs. etc. The Figure 8. We will also need production data for the same 24/12-month period. But we will need to watch for a deviation of the energy line to pick up early warning of waste or to confirm Bureau of Energy Efficiency 163 Energy .4 Moving Annual Total . Energy Monitoring and Targeting management is one showing the energy per month for this year and last year (see Figure 8. we can plot a moving Figure 8.4 shows a moving annual total for energy and production data. each point covers a full range of the seasons.this suggests there is no major cause for concern. Production Figure 8. Previous year(1999) annual total. If we just plot energy we are only seeing part of the story .so we plot both energy and production on the same chart .most likely using two y-axes.
So we now plot a chart of SEC (see Figure 8.e.6 SEC With Production Bureau of Energy Efficiency 164 .6. Refer Figure 8. This indicates that there might be fixed energy consumption .5).both energy and production. We also know that the level of production may have an effect on the specific consumption.8. Energy Monitoring and Targeting whether energy efficiency measures are making an impact. Knowing this.5: Monthly Specific Energy Consumption At this point it is worth noting that the quality of your M&T system will only be as good as the quality of your data . it helps to explain some of the features. For any company. SEC Figure 8. we can calculate Specific Energy Consumption (SEC). For example. consumption that occurs regardless of production levels.i. The chart shows some variation . the very low SEC occurred when there was a record level of production. which is energy consumption per unit of production. S E C P R O D U C T I O N Figure 8. we also know that energy should directly relate to production.an all time low in December 99 followed by a rising trend in SEC. If we add the production data to the SEC chart.
We now have the basis for implementing a factory level M&T system. Although. standard less 5%.7 shown is based on the data for 1999. A more sophisticated approach might be applying different reductions to the fixed and variable energy consumption. and to provide us with some basis for performance measurement. In producing the production/energy relationship chart we have also obtained a relationship relating production and energy consumption. and below the line is the regime of an improved one. The Figure 8. Energy consumed for the period = C + M x Production for same period Where M is the energy consumption directly related to production (variable) and C is the "fixed" energy consumption (i. We need not worry if our data fit is not good.e. Energy Monitoring and Targeting The next step is to gain more understanding of the relationship of energy and production.8. energy consumed for lighting.for example. Above the line is the regime of poor energy efficiency. Using this. This chart shows a low degree of scatter indicative of a good fit. At a simplistic level we could use the chart above and plot each new month's point to see where it lies. this is an XY chart option. and also set targets . To do this we plot energy against production . the same can be extended to individual processes as well with sub metering. we can calculate the expected or "standard" energy consumption for any level of production within the range of the data set. the above approach is at factory level. (In practice what we have done is carried out a single variable regression analysis!). We then add a trend line to the data set on the chart.7: Energy vs Production We can use it to derive a "standard" for the up-coming year's consumption. Figure 8.In Microsoft Excel Worksheet. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 165 . it indicates a poor level of control and hence a potential for energy savings. heating/cooling and general ancillary services that are not affected by production levels). We can predict standard consumption. If data fit is poor. but we know there should be a relationship.
Losses in induction motors.1 Introduction Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy by the interaction between the magnetic fields set up in the stator and rotor windings. All motor types have the same four operating components: stator (stationary windings). rpm is less than the synchronous speed. The rotor magnetic field locks onto the stator rotating magnetic field and rotates at the same speed. The speed of the rotor is a function of the supply frequency and the number of magnetic poles in the stator. This induced rotor current produces a second magnetic field. the synchronous motor rotate with no slip. 2. bearings. blowers and fans. and frame (enclosure). and is by far the most common motor type used in industry.e. The rotor is fed by DC from a separate source. as the name implies. Direct current motors are used in special applications. The slip energy is provided by the D. Energy saving opportunities with energy efficient motors.. The 3-phase squirrel cage motor is the workhorse of industry. Motor efficiency. the RPM is same as the synchronous speed governed by supply frequency and number of poles. 2. use direct-unidirectional. the induced magnetic field of the stator winding induces a current in the rotor. conveyers and production lines.e. ELECTRIC MOTORS Syllabus Electric motors: Types.2. which tries to oppose the stator magnetic field. While induction motors rotate with a slip. Synchronous Motors AC power is fed to the stator of the synchronous motor.. Industrial electric motors can be broadly classified as induction motors. rotor (rotating windings). compressors.2 Motor Types Induction Motors Induction motors are the most commonly used prime mover for various equipments in industrial applications. i. direct current motors or synchronous motors. Rewinding and motor replacement issues. These motors drive pumps. current. i. Direct-Current Motors Direct-Current motors.where high torque starting or where smooth acceleration over a broad speed range is required. and this causes the rotor to rotate. The 3-phase induction motor has three windings each connected to a separate phase of the power supply. excitation power Bureau of Energy Efficiency 25 . In induction motors. Factors affecting motor performance.C. it is rugged and reliable.
Squirrel cage motors are normally more efficient than slip-ring motors.2. like other inductive loads. since these are proportional to the square of the current. 6. Motors. there is no corresponding reduction in the magnetizing current. However. The speed of an AC motor depends on the frequency of the input power and the number of poles for which the motor is wound. 2. with a reduction in applied load. will be less than the synchronous speed. Induction motors. Efficiency is also a function of Bureau of Energy Efficiency 26 . and power factor (PF). are characterized by power factors less than one. where the frequency is in hertz or cycles per second: Synchronous Speed (RPM) = 120 × Frequency No. of Poles Indian motors have synchronous speeds like 3000 / 1500 / 1000 / 750 / 600 / 500 / 375 RPM corresponding to no. 8. typically revolutions per minute (RPM). The difference between synchronous and full load speed is called slip and is measured in percent. are the main reason for low power factor in electric systems. Manufacturer's guidelines should be referred for practical limits to speed variation. of poles being 2. both a high value for η and a PF close to unity are desired for efficient overall operation in a plant. 10. especially those operating below their rated capacity. Induction motors are efficiency (η). As a result. 12. the speed of an AC motor is determined by the number of motor poles and by the input frequency. defined as the ratio of the mechanical energy delivered at the rotating shaft to the electrical energy input at its terminals. Thus. 4. 16 (always even) and given the mains frequency of 50 cycles / sec. Power Factor The power factor of the motor is given as: Power Factor = Cos φ = kW kVA As the load on the motor comes down.4 Motor Efficiency Two important attributes relating to efficiency of electricity use by A.3 Motor Characteristics Motor Speed The speed of a motor is the number of revolutions in a given time frame. with which the motor operates. An important effect of operating with a PF less than one is that resistance losses in wiring upstream of the motor will be higher. It can also be seen that theoretically speed of an AC motor can be varied infinitely by changing the frequency. which is proportional to supply voltage with the result that the motor power factor reduces.C. Electric Motors 2. the speed of the motor can be decreased as well as increased. With the addition of a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD). The synchronous speed in RPM is given by the following equation. The actual speed. and higher-speed motors are normally more efficient than lower-speed motors. It is calculated using this equation: Slip (%) = Synchronous Speed – Full Load Rated Speed × 100 Synchronous Speed As per relation stated above. the total current draw needed to deliver the same real power is higher than for a load characterized by a higher PF. the magnitude of the active current reduces.
2 shows the effect of speed on power factor. Efficiency Bureau of Energy Efficiency 27 Figure 2. It can be seen that power factor drops sharply at part loads. fan-cooled (TEFC) motors are more efficient than screenprotected. frequency and voltage are noted. Fixed losses consist of magnetic core losses and friction and windage losses. They vary with the core material and geometry and with input voltage. Intrinsic losses are of two types: fixed losses . The efficiency of a motor is determined by intrinsic losses that can be reduced only by changes in motor design. Friction and windage losses are caused by friction in the bearings of the motor and aerodynamic losses associated with the ventilation fan and other rotating parts. Field Tests for Determining Efficiency No Load Test: The motor is run at rated voltage and frequency without any shaft load. Electric Motors motor temperature.dependent on load.1 % Load vs. but are generally proportional to the square of the rotor current. as with most equipment. Also.independent of motor load. Input power. To separate core and F & Figure 2. Power factor . and variable losses . drip-proof (SPDP) motors. Part-load performance characteristics of a motor also depend on its design. is quite low and hence low PF wattmeters are required. Magnetic core losses (sometimes called iron losses) consist of eddy current and hysteresis losses in the stator. The Figure 2. Power factor.1 shows the effect of load on power factor and efficiency. Variable losses consist of resistance losses in the stator and in the rotor and miscellaneous stray losses. motor efficiency increases with the rated capacity.2.2 Speed vs. From the input power. Resistance to current flow in the stator and rotor result in heat generation that is proportional to the resistance of the material and the square of the current (I2R). Totally-enclosed.F. current. Both η and PF fall to very low levels at low loads. The Figures 2. The no load P. stator I2R losses under no load are subtracted to give the sum of Friction and Windage (F&W) and core losses. Stray losses arise from a variety of sources and are difficult to either measure directly or to calculate.
The correction factor is given as follows : 235 + t2 R2 = . This will add cost. the following can be done: a) When purchasing large number of small motors or a large motor. b) See that efficiency values are specified without any tolerance c) Check the actual input current and kW. for selecting high efficiency motors. In view of this. keep a record of no load input power and current e) Use values of efficiency for comparison and for confirming. IEEE Standard 112 gives a complicated method.1 MOTOR RATING VS.9 % Pointers for Users: It must be clear that accurate determination of efficiency is very difficult. the operating temperature is likely to be in the range of 100°C to 120°C and necessary correction should be made. where. °C. ask for a detailed test certificate. 235 +t1 R1 The rotor resistance can be determined from locked rotor test at reduced frequency. if replacement is done d) For new motors. t1 = ambient temperature. IEEE – 112 specifies values from 0.2. The same motor tested by different methods and by same methods by different manufacturers can give a difference of 2 %. The actual value of stray losses is likely to be more. which is rarely used on shop floor. 2 Rotor I2R losses = Slip × (Stator Input – Stator I2R Losses – Core Loss) Accurate measurement of slip is possible by stroboscope or non-contact type tachometer.8 % (see Table 2. Slip also must be corrected to operating temperature. IS and IEC standards take a fixed value as 0. the intercept is Friction & Windage kW loss component. The resistance must be corrected to the operating temperature. Electric Motors W losses.8 % 1. STRAY LOSSES . F&W and core losses = No load power (watts) .5 % 1.5 % of input.IEEE Motor Rating 1 – 125 HP 125 – 500 HP 501 – 2499 HP 2500 and above Stray Losses 1. rely on measured inputs for all calculations. test is repeated at variable voltages. try to remain present during the tests.1. It is useful to plot no-load input kW versus Voltage.) TABLE 2. Correction to 75°C may be inaccurate.2 % 0. For modern motors. If possible.9 % to 1.(No load current)2 × Stator resistance Stator and Rotor I2R Losses: The stator winding resistance is directly measured by a bridge or volt amp method. but rotor I R losses are measured from measurement of rotor slip. °C & t2 = operating temperature. Stray Load Losses: These losses are difficult to measure with any accuracy. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 28 .
Electric Motors Estimation of efficiency in the field can be done as follows: a) Measure stator resistance and correct to operating temperature. V Current.264 Ohms 1063. rotor I2R losses are calculated c) From no load test. core and F & W losses are determined for stray loss The method is illustrated by the following example: Example : Motor Specifications Rated power Voltage Current Speed Insulation class Frame Connection No load test Data Voltage. Pnl = = = = = = = 34 kW/45 HP 415 Volt 57 Amps 1475 rpm F LD 200 L Delta = = = = = 415 Volts 16. I2R losses are calculated. From rated current value .1 Amps 50 Hz 0.2. F Stator phase resistance at 30°C No load power.74 Watts Bureau of Energy Efficiency 29 . I Frequency. b) From rated speed and output.
Electric Motors Bureau of Energy Efficiency 30 .2.
restricted physical space. the resulting large voltage drops could be detrimental to other equipment. An estimate of the switching frequency (usually dictated by the process). can help in selecting the appropriate motor for the duty cycle. Electric Motors 2.if the load variations are large.5 Motor Selection The primary technical consideration defining the motor choice for any particular application is the torque required by the load. special motor designs are available for corrosive or dusty atmospheres. One consideration with totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) motors is that the cooling may be insufficient when the motor is operated at speeds below its rated value. The demand a motor will place on the balance of the plant electrical system is another consideration . whether automatic or manually controlled. Ambient operating conditions affect motor choice. high temperatures. The duty / load cycle determines the thermal loading on the motor. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 31 . especially the relationship between the maximum torque generated by the motor (break-down torque) and the torque requirements for start-up (locked rotor torque) and during acceleration periods. etc.2. for example as a result of frequent starts and stops of large components like compressors.
design improvements are incorporated specifically to increase operating efficiency over motors of standard design (see Figure 2. Good knowledge of process parameters and a better understanding of the plant power system can aid in reducing oversizing with no loss of reliability. leading to sub-optimal energy performance.3). Electric Motors Reliability is of prime importance . Few of salient selection issues are given below: • • • • • • • 2. over a standard-efficiency motor. Energy-Efficient Motors Energy-efficient motors (EEM) are the ones in which. The power factor is about the same or may be higher than for standard motors. Design improvements focus on reducing intrinsic motor losses. The energy savings by motor replacement can be worked out by the simple relation : kW savings = kW output × [ 1/ηold – 1/ ηnew ] where ηold and ηnew are the existing and proposed motor efficiency values. the power drawn at 75 % of loading can be a meaningful indicator of energy efficiency. Improvements include the use of lower-loss silicon steel. worth of annual savings.in many cases.Many users are first-cost sensitive. a longer core (to increase active material). Furthermore.6 In the selection process. etc. which can be easily serviced or replaced. thinner laminations. Indian Standard 325 for standard motors allows 15 % tolerance on efficiency for motors upto 50 kW rating and 10 % for motors over 50 kW rating. energyBureau of Energy Efficiency 32 . thereby reducing the stock of spare parts that must be maintained and minimizing shut-down time. By the IEC test method. Both follow IEC 34-2 test methodology wherein. The cost benefits can be worked out on the basis of premium required for high efficiency vs. The Indian Standard IS 8789 addresses technical performance of Standard Motors while IS 12615 addresses the efficiency criteria of High Efficiency Motors. It would be prudent for buyers to procure motors based on test certificates rather than labeled values. Price is another issue . copper instead of aluminum bars in the rotor. Energy-efficient motors now available in India operate with efficiencies that are typically 3 to 4 percentage points higher than standard motors. stray losses are assumed as 0. energy efficient motors or other specially designed motors typically save within a few years an amount of money equal to several times the incremental cost for an energy efficient motor. This may result in major benefits in varying load applications. the losses are understated and if one goes by IEEE test methodology. energy-efficient motors are designed to operate without loss in efficiency at loads between 75 % and 100 % of rated capacity. Inventory is another consideration . For example. This practice affects the choice of motors that might provide better energy performance in specific applications. superior bearings and a smaller fan. leading to the purchase of less expensive motors that may be more costly on a lifecycle basis because of lower efficiency.2.5 % of input power. Shorter lead times for securing individual motors from suppliers would help reduce the need for this practice. In keeping with the stipulations of the BIS. designers and process engineers seeking reliability will grossly oversize equipment. thicker wires (to reduce resistance). smaller air gap between stator and rotor.Many large industries use standard equipment. however. Reactive power drawn (kVAR) by the motor. the motor efficiency values would be further lowered.
Measures adopted for energy efficiency address each loss specifically as under: Stator and Rotor I2R Losses These losses are major losses and typically account for 55% to 60% of the total losses. These are reduced by using thinner laminations. length and cross sectional area. and are less affected by supply voltage fluctuations. Electric Motors Figure 2. Rotor I2R losses are a function of the rotor conductors (usually aluminium) and the rotor slip.3 Standard vs High Efficiency Motors efficient motors have lower operating temperatures and noise levels. Utilisation of copper conductors will reduce the winding resistance. are be reduced by utilizing lowloss grade of silicon steel laminations. Core Losses Core losses are those found in the stator-rotor magnetic steel and are due to hysterisis effect and eddy current effect during 50 Hz magnetization of the core material. the square of current. The reduction of flux density is achieved by suitable increase in the core length of stator and rotor. greater ability to accelerate higher-inertia loads. windage and circulating air through the motor and account for 8 – 12 % of total losses. This involves lowering the operating flux density and possible shortening of air gap. The suitable selection of copper conductor size will reduce the resistance. The hysterisis losses which are a function of flux density. Motor operation closer to synchronous speed will also reduce rotor I2R losses. These losses are independent of load and account for 20 – 25 % of the total losses. Reducing the motor current is most readily accomplished by decreasing the magnetizing component of current. Eddy current losses are generated by circulating current within the core steel laminations. I2R losses are heating losses resulting from current passing through stator and rotor conductors. Friction and Windage Losses Friction and windage losses results from bearing friction. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency 33 .2. Resistance of conductor is a function of conductor material. These losses are independent of load. I2R losses are the function of a conductor resistance.
the costs of energy-efficient motors are higher than those of standard motors. Electric Motors reduction in heat generated by stator and rotor losses permit the use of smaller fan. lower loss core steel reduces eddy current losses. Iron Efficiency Improvement Use of thinner gauge. machine tools. The mounting dimensions are also maintained as per IS1231 to enable easy replacement. energy. implementation. These include highly intermittent duty or special torque applications such as hoists and cranes. This lowers resistance (R) of the windings and reduces losses due to current flow (I).g. operation and maintenance efforts of energy managers. Use of optimized design and strict quality control procedures minimizes stray load losses. Also. traction drives. In cases where existing motors have not reached the end of their useful life. most energy-efficient motors produced today are designed only for continuous duty cycle operation. Use of more copper and larger conductors increases cross sectional area of stator windings. Rotor I2R 4. Stray Load-Losses These losses vary according to square of the load current and are caused by leakage flux induced by load currents in the laminations and account for 4 to 5 % of total losses. The higher cost will often be paid back rapidly in saved operating costs. The windage losses also reduce with the diameter of fan leading to reduction in windage losses. Use of low loss fan design reduces losses due to air movement. particularly in new applications or end-of-life motor replacements. These losses are reduced by careful selection of slot numbers. Energy efficient motors cover a wide range of ratings and the full load efficiencies are higher by 3 to 7 %. e. lowering conductor resistance (R) and losses due to current flow (I). Use of larger rotor conductor bars increases size of cross section. Stator I2R 3. voltage. there may be certain cases which are generally economically ill-suited to energyefficient motors. punch presses.2. A summary of energy efficiency improvements in EEMs is given in the Table 2. Because the favourable economics of energy-efficient motors are based on savings in operating costs. energy-efficient motors are not yet available for many special applications. In addition. on the other hand. tooth/slot geometry and air gap.2: TABLE 2. As a result of the modifications to improve performance. benefits of EEM's can be achieved only by careful selection. the economics will be less clearly positive. for flame-proof operation in oil-field or fire pumps or for very low speed applications (below 750 rpm).2 ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTORS Power Loss Area 1. frequency variations. Given the tendency of over sizing on the one hand and ground realities like . 2. efficient designs of multi-speed motors are generally not available. Stray Load Loss Bureau of Energy Efficiency 34 . efficacy of rewinding in case of a burnout. Longer core adds more steel to the design. Furthermore. Friction & Windage 5. which reduces losses due to lower operating flux densities. and centrifuges.
7 Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency & Minimising Motor Losses in Operation Power Supply Quality Motor performance is affected considerably by the quality of input power. Fluctuations much larger than these are quite common in utility-supplied electricity in India. An example of the effect of voltage unbalance on motor performance is shown in Table 2. Voltage fluctuations can have detrimental impacts on motor performance.2. The general effects of voltage and frequency variation on motor performance are presented in Table 2. Electric Motors 2. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 35 .6 % and frequency variation of +/. the condition where the voltages in the three phases are not equal. can be still more detrimental to motor performance and motor life. Motors in India must comply with standards set by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for tolerance to variations in input power quality. Unbalance typically occurs as a result of supplying single-phase loads disproportionately from one of the phases. The BIS standards specify that a motor should be capable of delivering its rated output with a voltage variation of +/. that is the actual volts and frequency available at motor terminals vis-à-vis rated values as well as voltage and frequency variations and voltage unbalance across the three phases.3: Voltage unbalance.4. It can also result from the use of different sizes of cables in the distribution system.3 %.
Electric Motors .Bureau of Energy Efficiency TABLE 2.3 GENERAL EFFECTS OF VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY VARIATION ON INDUCTION MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS 36 2.
For example.. resulting in under-loaded operation most of the time. Finally. Original equipment manufacturers tend to use a large safety factor in motors they select. When downsizing. under-loading also results from selecting a large motor for an application requiring high starting torque where a special motor. A careful evaluation of the load would determine the capacity of the motor that should be selected.. there are no rigid rules governing motor selection..30 0.. Electric Motors TABLE 2..... the savings potential needs to be evaluated on a case-to-case basis. However.. respectively. Therefore.30 17.... Another aspect to consider is the incremental gain in efficiency achievable by changing the motor.. Larger motors have inherently higher rated efficiencies than smaller motors. would have been suitable. machine tool equipment manufacturers provide for a motor rated for the full capacity load of the equipment ex...... Under-loading is common for several reasons. Under-loading results in lower efficiency and power factor... The options that can be exercised to minimize voltage unbalance include: i) Balancing any single phase loads equally among all the three phases ii) Segregating any single phase loads which disturb the load balance and feed them from a separate line / transformer Motor Loading Measuring Load % Loading of the motor can be estimated by the following relation: % loading = Input power drawn by the motor (kW) at existing load x 100 (Name plate full load kW rating / name plate full load motor efficiency) or % loading = Input power drawn by the motor (kW) at existing load x 100 √3 x kV x I CosØ • • Never assume power factor Loading should not be estimated as the ratio of currents. it may be preferable to select an energy-efficient motor..7 30 5. Under-loading of the motor may also occur from under-utilisation of the equipment. designed for high torque. the efficiency of which may be higher than that of a standard motor of higher capacity. The user may need this full capacity rarely..4 EXAMPLE OF THE EFFECT OF VOLTAGE UNBALANCE ON MOTOR PERFORMANCE Parameter Unbalance in current (%) . 0... Increased temperature rise (°C) . the replacement of motors operating at 60 – 70 % of capacity or higher is generally not recommended.0 40 * Percent unbalance in voltage is defined as 100 (Vmax – Vavg) / Vavg..40 40.... depth of cut in a lathe machine. Reducing Under-loading Probably the most common practice contributing to sub-optimal motor efficiency is that of under-loading. Another common reason for underloading is selection of a larger motor to enable the output to be maintained at the desired level even when input voltages are abnormally low. Where Vmax and Vavg are the largest and the average of the three phase voltages..4 0 Percent unbalance in voltage* 2... and higher-than-necessary first cost for the motor and related control equipment. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 37 .2....
In many instances. the benefits of PF would be only on upstream side. induction motors are characterized by power factors less than unity. i. more efficient. which help in load following de-rating of electric motors after initial start-up. It means that. frequent starts / stops. Operating in the star mode leads to a voltage reduction by a factor of '√3'. Thus. Under extreme load changes. A common practice in cases where such variable-loads are found is to select a motor based on the highest anticipated load. reduced voltage drop in the cables (leading to improved voltage regulation). As speed of the motor reduces in star mode this option may be avoided in case the motor is connected to a production facility whose output is related to the motor speed. Motor is electrically downsized by star mode operation. Sizing to Variable Load Industrial motors frequently operate under varying load conditions due to process requirements. For applications with high initial torque and low running torque needs. an inexpensive and effective measure might be to operate in star mode.e. a motor would be selected with a rating slightly lower than the peak anticipated load and would operate at overload for a short period of time. mechanical means (e. or high inertial loads. rather than selecting a motor of high rating that would operate at full capacity for only a short period. A change from the standard delta operation to star operation involves re-configuring the wiring of the three phases of power input at the terminal box.2. and provides equally satisfactory operation. and solid-state electronic variable speed drives. Traditionally. in addition to proper motor sizing. Electric Motors For motors. Power Factor Correction As noted earlier. this method of calculating the motor rating is unsuitable since it would underestimate the heating that would occur. it won't improve the operating PF of the motor. e. reduced I2R losses in cables upstream of the capacitor (and hence reduced energy charges). throttle valves in piping systems) have been used when lower output is required. leading to lower overall efficiency (and higher overall operating cost) associated with a plant's electrical system. but performance characteristics as a function of load remain unchanged. Capacitors connected in parallel (shunted) with the motor are typically used to improve the power factor. and an increase in the overall efficiency of the plant electrical system. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 38 . eddy-current couplings. The impacts of PF correction include reduced kVA demand (and hence reduced utility demand charges). an alternative approach is typically less costly. but the PF from starter terminals to the power generating side will improve.. motor operation in the star mode is possible only for applications where the torque-to-speed requirement is lower at reduced load. fluid couplings.g. Since operating within the thermal capacity of the motor insulation is of greatest concern in a motor operating at higher than its rated load.g. the motor rating is selected as that which would result in the same temperature rise under continuous full-load operation as the weighted average temperature rise over the actual operating cycle. the optimum rating for the motor is selected on the basis of the load duration curve for the particular application. With this approach. the control strategy employed can have a significant impact on motor electricity use. full-load operation in star mode gives higher efficiency and power factor than partial load operation in the delta mode. Thus. Where loads vary substantially with time. which consistently operate at loads below 40 % of rated capacity. However. if a PF capacitor is installed at the starter terminals of the motor. It should be noted that PF capacitor improves power factor from the point of installation back to the generating side. Del-Star starters are also available in market. More efficient speed control mechanisms include multi-speed motors.
economies of scale associated with the cost of capacitors and the labor required to install them will place an economic limit on the lowest desirable capacitor size. Since a reduction in line current.5 CAPACITOR RATINGS FOR POWER FACTOR CORRECTION BY DIRECT CONNECTION TO INDUCTION MOTORS Motor Rating (HP) 5 7.2. and associated energy efficiency gains. Maintenance Inadequate maintenance of motors can significantly increase losses and lead to unreliable operation. are reflected backwards from the point of application of the capacitor. Electric Motors The size of capacitor required for a particular motor depends upon the no-load reactive kVA (kVAR) drawn by the motor. which can be determined only from no-load testing of the motor. However. the capacitor is then selected to not exceed 90 % of the no-load kVAR of the motor. improper lubrication can cause increased friction in both the motor and Bureau of Energy Efficiency 39 . (Higher capacitors could result in over-voltages and motor burn-outs). From the above table.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Capacitor rating (kVAr) for Motor Speed 3000 2 2 3 3 5 6 7 9 10 12 15 20 25 30 40 45 1500 2 2 3 4 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 22 26 32 45 50 1000 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 12 15 15 20 25 30 35 45 50 750 3 3 5 7 8 9 10 15 18 20 22 26 32 40 50 60 600 3 4 5 7 9 9 10 16 20 22 25 32 35 45 55 65 500 3 4 6 7 10 12 15 20 22 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 parison to the high speed motor for the same HP of the motor. Alternatively. The capacitor rating for power connection by direct connection to induction motors is shown in Table 2. as the magnetizing current requirement of a low speed motor is more in comTABLE 2. as compared to somewhere further upstream in the plant's electrical system. In general. the maximum improvement in overall system efficiency is achieved when the capacitor is connected across the motor terminals. For example.5. it may be noted that required capacitive kVAr increases with decrease in speed of the motor. typical power factors of standard motors can provide the basis for conservative estimates of capacitor ratings to use for different size motors.
Inspect regularly the connections at the motor and starter to be sure that they are clean and tight. resulting in damage to both the motor and the driven equipment. though the power factor could be affected in the process. For example.) can cause a deterioration in motor efficiency over time. but in most cases. mechanical stresses due to load cycling can lead to misalignment. However. a common problem occurs when heat is applied to strip old windings : the insulation between laminations can be damaged. The population of rewound motors in some industries exceed 50 % of the total population. e. The life of the insulation in the motor would also be longer : for every 10°C increase in motor operating temperature over the recommended peak. it is generally recommended that the original design of the motor be preserved during the rewind. winding material. Overlubrication can also create problems. Improper alignment can cause shafts and bearings to wear quickly. Using wires of greater cross section. However. would reduce stator losses thereby increasing efficiency. insufficient cleaning of air cooling passages. corrosive atmosphere.2. causing premature failure or creating a fire risk. slot size permitting. high dust loading. losses in efficiency result. which rise with temperature. with adequate care. A change in motor load from the last test indicates a change in the driven load. However. For example. Electric Motors associated drive transmission equipment. excess oil or grease from the motor bearings can enter the motor and saturate the motor insulation. Efficiency can be improved by changing the winding design. 2. Rewinding can affect a number of factors that contribute to deteriorated motor efficiency : winding and slot design. Providing adequate ventilation and keeping motor cooling ducts clean can help dissipate heat to reduce excessive losses. if proper measures are taken. motor efficiency can be maintained. Checking periodically for proper alignment of the motor and the driven equipment. the cause of which should be understood. Resistance losses in the motor. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 40 . Inadequate lubrication can cause problems. thereby increasing eddy current losses. as noted above. motor performance can be maintained. unless there are specific. Checking load conditions to ensure that the motor is not over or under loaded. poor maintenance (inadequate lubrication of bearings. etc. the electrical properties of which do not change measurably with age. load-related reasons for redesign. Lubricating appropriately. However. after rewinding. and operating temperature. Manufacturers generally give recommendations for how and when to lubricate their motors. Ambient conditions can also have a detrimental effect on motor performance.8 Rewinding Effects on Energy Efficiency It is common practice in industry to rewind burnt-out motors.g. insulation performance. Careful rewinding can sometimes maintain motor efficiency at previous levels. excessively high temperatures. and in some cases increased. would increase. the time before rewinding would be needed is estimated to be halved A checklist of good maintenance practices to help insure proper motor operation would include: • • • • • Inspecting motors regularly for wear in bearings and housings (to reduce frictional losses) and for dirt/dust in motor ventilating ducts (to ensure proper heat dissipation). Ensuring that supply wiring and terminal box are properly sized and installed. Age Most motor cores in India are manufactured from silicon steel or de-carbonized cold-rolled steel. and humidity can impair insulation properties. A change in the air gap may affect power factor and output torque.
The control strategy to be adopted in any particular case will depend on a number of factors including investment cost. the speed of which can be varied by changing the supply frequency. because of their ruggedness and lower maintenance requirements. Machine tools are a typical example of a constant power load. Both AC synchronous and induction motors are suitable for variable speed control. Variable torque loads are those for which the torque required varies with the speed of operation. low-to-medium power applications like machine tools and rolling mills because of problems with mechanical commutation at large sizes. Centrifugal pumps and fans are typical examples of variable torque loads (torque varies as the square of the speed). 2. An induction motor is an asynchronous motor. for example centrifugal pumps and fans.2. By controlling the armature (rotor) voltage and field current of a separately excited DC motor. Maintaining documentation of no-load losses and no-load speed from the time of purchase of each motor can facilitate assessing this impact. for any particular application. Thus. The characteristics of the load are particularly important. a detailed review of the load characteristics. the features required of the speed control system. Motor Speed Control Systems Multi-speed motors Motors can be wound such that two speeds. DC motors are also expensive relative to AC motors. but their use is generally restricted to a few low speed. DC motors are available in a wide range of sizes. Constant torque loads are those for which the output power requirement may vary with the speed of operation but the torque does not vary. For example. Induction motors are generally more popular. in the ratio of 2:1. historical data on process flows. Because of the limitations of DC systems. AC motors are increasingly the focus for variable speed applications. Constant power loads are those for which the torque requirements typically change inversely with speed. Conveyors. Load refers essentially to the torque output and corresponding speed required. rotary kilns. comparison of no load current and stator resistance per phase of a rewound motor with the original no-load current and stator resistance at the same voltage can be one of the indicators to assess the efficacy of rewinding.9 Speed Control of AC Induction Motors Traditionally. Motors can also Bureau of Energy Efficiency 41 . where the power requirement changes as the cube of speed. Also. however. AC induction motors are inexpensive (half or less of the cost of a DC motor) and also provide a high power to weight ratio (about twice that of a DC motor). Constant torque loads are also suitable for VSD application. The largest potential for electricity savings with variable speed drives is generally in variable torque applications. DC motors have been employed when variable speed capability was desired. can be obtained. Electric Motors The impact of rewinding on motor efficiency and power factor can be easily assessed if the no-load losses of a motor are known before and after rewinding. Loads can be broadly classified as either constant power or Constant torque. load reliability and any special control requirements. the electricity tariffs and the investment costs would be a prerequisite to the selection of a speed control system. non-hazardous areas because of the risk of sparking at the brushes. they are restricted for use only in clean. a wide range of output speeds can be obtained. and constant-displacement pumps are typical examples of constant torque loads.
They have lower efficiency than single-speed motors Adjustable Frequency AC Drives Adjustable frequency drives are also commonly called inverters. They are designed to operate standard induction motors. The motor is constructed with armature and field windings. The tacho would be mounted on the motor and produces a speed feedback signal that is used within the controller. The motor rotor is constructed with windings which are brought out of the motor through slip rings on the motor shaft. The variable frequency is the actual requirement.10 Motor Load Survey: Methodology Large industries have a massive population of LT motors. for a total of four speeds. Wound rotor motors are most common in the range of 300 HP and above. which will control the motor speed. Multi-speed motors are suitable for applications. variable torque. which require limited speed control (two or four fixed speeds instead of continuously variable speed). Speed control is achieved by regulating the armature voltage to the motor. Usually the field winding is excited with a constant level voltage from the controller. These are known as Current Source Inverters (CSI). Then. Wound Rotor AC Motor Drives (Slip Ring Induction Motors) Wound rotor motor drives use a specially constructed motor to accomplish speed control. Multi-speed motors can be designed for applications involving constant torque. The basic drive consists of the inverter itself which coverts the 50 Hz incoming power to a variable frequency and variable voltage. These windings are connected to a controller which places variable resistors in series with the windings. each giving 2 operating speeds. Variable Voltage Inverters (VVI). Both of these windings require a DC excitation for motor operation. There are three major types of inverters designs available today. The speed of the motor is directly proportional to the applied voltage. The inverters are often sold separately because the motor may already be in place. This allows them to be easily added to an existing system. Electric Motors be wound with two separate windings. The armature connections are made through a brush and commutator assembly. The controller is a phase controlled bridge rectifier with logic circuits to control the DC voltage delivered to the motor armature. 2. in which cases they tend to be very economical. Load survey of LT motors can be Bureau of Energy Efficiency 42 . applying a DC voltage from the controller to the armature of the motor will operate the motor. Direct Current Drives (DC) The DC drive technology is the oldest form of electrical speed control. or for constant output power. and Pulse Width Modulated Inverters (PWM). Often a tacho generator is included to achieve good speed regulation. a motor can be included with the drive or supplied separately. The torque performance of the motor can be controlled using these variable resistors. They are available in a range of kW rating from fractional to 750 kW. If necessary.2. The drive system consists of a DC motor and a controller.
fluctuating load drive systems. The findings / recommendations may include: Identified motors with less than 50 % loading. availability of tail-end capacitors for PF correction. etc. ii) Measurements Studies on selected LT motors involve measurement of electrical load parameters namely volts. variable speed drives. throttling / damper operations for avenues like automatic controls / interlocks. etc. i) Sampling Criteria Towards the objective of selecting representative LT motor drives among the motor population. Electric Motors taken-up methodically to identify improvement options as illustrated in following case study. where drive motors with inefficient capacity controls on the machine side. pressure. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 43 • . machine side conditions like load / unload condition. Ex : Cooling Tower Fans. etc. iii) Analysis Analysis of observations on representative LT motors and connected drives is carried out towards following outputs: – Motor load on kW basis and estimated energy consumption. as a means to check combined efficiency of the motor. power factor.. whether it is a rewound motor. (as relevant) are also taken. Motor load survey is aimed not only as a measure to identify motor efficiency areas but equally importantly. – Conservation potential basis..e. load. – Scope for improving monitoring systems to enable sustenance of a regular in-house Energy Audit function. – Sample representative basis. driven machine and controller if any. over 100 % loading. idle operations. temperature. where one drive motor analysis can be reasoned as representative for the population. flow. are looked into. Observations on machine side parameters such as speed. etc. 75 – 100 % loading. frequency. metering provisions. current. Availability of online instruments for routine measurements. temperature. pressure. etc. – Scope areas for energy conservation with related cost benefits and source information. • Identified motors with machine side losses / inefficiencies like idle operations. for analysis. Air Washer Units. the criteria considered are: – Utilization factor i. damper / throttle operation. but the load survey would help to bring out savings in driven machines / systems. 50 – 75 % loading. The margins in motor efficiency may be less than 10 % of consumption often. hours of operation with preference given to continuously operated drive motors. kW drawn. The observations are to indicate: % loading on kW. voltage. • Identified motors with low voltage / power factor / voltage imbalance for needed improvement measures.2.. which can give 30 – 40 % energy savings. energy meters for monitoring is also looked into for each case. % voltage unbalance if any. power factor. amperes.
2. 7. What will be the savings in energy if the motor works for 6000 hours per year and cost of energy is Rs. 3. 4. 3. Electric Motors QUESTIONS 1. 8. How does efficiency loss occur in a rewound motor? How do you check the efficacy of rewound motor? A 50 kW induction motor with 86 % present full load efficiency is being considered for replacement by a 89 % efficiency motor. if frequency is changed by a V/F control to: (a)40 c/s (b) 45 c/s (c) 35 c/s List the losses in induction motors and their expected percentage out of the total losses. 6. What is the relation between RPM (speed) and frequency of an induction motor? A 4-pole squirrel case induction motor operates with 5 % slip at full load. REFERENCES 1. List the factors affecting energy efficiency of electric motors? The power factor of an induction motor a) increases with load b) decreases with load c) remains constant with load d) has no relation to load List factors affecting windage and friction losses while rewinding. What is the full load RPM you may expect. 9. 11. 12. 10. Technology Menu (NPC) BEE Publications PCRA Publications Bureau of Energy Efficiency 44 . Explain the ways by which efficiencies of energy efficient motors are increased.50 per kWh? 4. 5. Name three types of motors in industrial practice. 2. 2. What are the factors affecting core losses while rewinding? List methods by which speed control of motor can be achieved. 13.
2 Compressor Types Compressors are broadly classified as: Positive displacement compressor and Dynamic compressor. Capacity assessment. Dynamic compressors are basically centrifugal compressors and are further classified as radial and axial flow types. Only 10 – 30% of energy reaches the point of end-use. Compressor efficiency. COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM Syllabus Compressed air system: Types of air compressors. misuse and noise. and to meet instrumentation needs. Efficient compressor operation. Positive displacement compressors increase the pressure of the gas by reducing the volume. 3. and balance 70 – 90% of energy of the power of the prime mover being converted to unusable heat energy and to a lesser extent lost in form of friction. Leakage test. which is then converted to increased pressure at the outlet. Compressed air system components.3.1 Introduction Air compressors account for significant amount of electricity used in Indian industries. Dynamic compressors increase the air velocity. Air compressors are used in a variety of industries to supply process requirements. Positive displacement compressors are further classified as reciprocating and rotary compressors. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 45 . Factors affecting the performance and efficiency 3. to operate pneumatic tools and equipment.
000 cfm in single stage designs. horizontal balance-opposed and tandem. vertical. however.3. Positive Displacement Compressors Reciprocating Compressors Reciprocating compressors are the most widely used type for air compression. the compressor capacity is directly proportional to the speed. is a pulsating one. They are characterized by a flow output that remains nearly constant over a range of discharge pressures. Also. Reciprocating compressors are available in many configurations. Reciprocating compressors are also available in variety of types: • • Lubricated and non-lubricated Single or multiple cylinder 46 Bureau of Energy Efficiency . Compressed Air System The flow and pressure requirements of a given application determine the suitability of a particulars type of compressor. the four most widely used of which are horizontal. Horizontal balance opposed compressors are used in the capacity range of 200 – 5000 cfm in multi-stage design and upto 10. Vertical type reciprocating compressors are used in the capacity range of 50 – 150 cfm. The output.
3.3. i.287m3 Time taken to build up pressure : 4. EXAMPLE An instrument air compressor capacity test gave the following results (assume the final compressed air temperature is same as the ambient temperature) .e.7 Checklist for Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air System Ensure air intake to compressor is not warm and humid by locating compressors in wellventilated area or by drawing cold air from outside. and delivery piping Time take to build up pressure to P2 in minutes The above equation is relevant where the compressed air temperature is same as the ambient air temperature.05%.e.12 m3/minute Capacity shortfall with respect to 14. which indicates compressor performance needs to be investigated further.. 11.79 + 0. after cooler. say t20C is higher than ambient air temperature say t10C (as is usual case). 66 • Bureau of Energy Efficiency . perfect isothermal compression.75 m3/minute rating is 1. Every 4°C rise in air inlet temperature will increase power consumption by 1 percent.Comment? 7.4974 = 8..63 m3/minute i. In case the actual compressed air temperature at discharge.287 = 13. Compressed Air System Calculate the capacity as per the formulae given below : Actual Free air discharge Where P2 P1 P0 V T = = = = = Final pressure after filling (kg/cm2 a) Initial pressure (kg/cm2a) after bleeding Atmospheric Pressure (kg/cm2 a) Storage volume in m3 which includes receiver.021 minutes 8. the FAD is to be corrected by a factor (273 + t1) / (273 + t2).
Consider the use of regenerative air dryers. to eliminate the `unloaded' running condition altogether. Check air compressor logs regularly for abnormal readings. it is advisable to have two separate compressed air systems. If more than one compressor is feeding to a common header. if air demand is less than 50 percent of compressor capacity. wherever possible. Compressed air piping layout should be made preferably as a ring main to provide desired pressures for all users. inter-stage and discharge pressures and temperatures and compressor load-cycle. to save energy. Keep the minimum possible range between load and unload pressure settings. Reduce compressor delivery pressure.3. The possibility of heat recovery from hot compressed air to generate hot air or water for process application must be economically analyzed in case of large compressors. A smaller dedicated compressor can be installed at load point. consider change over to a smaller compressor or reduce compressor speed appropriately (by reducing motor pulley size) in case of belt driven compressors. So frequency of drainage should be optimized. instead of supplying air through lengthy pipelines. Carry out periodic leak tests to estimate the quantity of leakage. Provide extra air receivers at points of high cyclic-air demand which permits operation without extra compressor capacity. 3 bar to 7 bar). Compressed air leakage of 40 – 50 percent is not uncommon. Automatic timer controlled drain traps wastes compressed air every time the valve opens. Install equipment interlocked solenoid cut-off valves in the air system so that air supply to a machine can be switched off when not in use. Retrofit with variable speed drives in big compressors. Present energy prices justify liberal designs of pipeline sizes to reduce pressure drops. Keep compressor valves in good condition by removing and inspecting once every six months. especially motor current cooling water flow and temperature. If pressure requirements for processes are widely different (e. Consideration should be given to two-stage or multistage compressor as it consumes less power for the same air output than a single stage compressor. say over 100 kW. Periodic cleaning of intercoolers must be ensured. Install manometers across the filter and monitor the pressure drop as a guide to replacement of element. located far off from the central compressor house. Worn-out valves can reduce compressor efficiency by as much as 50 percent. Minimize low-load compressor operation. Compressor efficiency will be reduced by 2 percent for every 250 mm WC pressure drop across the filter. Compressed Air System • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Clean air-inlet filters regularly.g. 67 Bureau of Energy Efficiency . Fouled inter-coolers reduce compressor efficiency and cause more water condensation in air receivers and distribution lines resulting in increased corrosion. Compressor free air delivery test (FAD) must be done periodically to check the present operating capacity against its design capacity and corrective steps must be taken if required. compressors must be operated in such a way that only one small compressor should handle the load variations whereas other compressors will operate at full load. which uses the heat of compressed air to remove moisture.
prevent wear of seals and other rubber parts thus preventing energy wastage due to excessive air consumption or leakage. general floor cleaning. Compressed Air System • • • • • • • All pneumatic equipment should be properly lubricated.3. Misuse of compressed air such as for body cleaning. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 68 . and other similar applications must be discouraged in order to save compressed air and energy. which will reduce friction. Hence they have to be used efficiently. Where possible welding is a good practice and should be preferred over threaded connections. Pneumatic transport can be replaced by mechanical system as the former consumed about 8 times more energy. they should be replaced with electrically operated tools. Highest possibility of energy savings is by reducing compressed air use. On account of high pressure drop. ball or plug or gate valves are preferable over globe valves in compressed air lines. Pneumatic equipment should not be operated above the recommended operating pressure as this not only wastes energy bus can also lead to excessive wear of equipment's components which leads to further energy wastage. Wherever possible. Pneumatic tools such as drill and grinders consume about 20 times more energy than motor driven tools. agitation.
Factors affecting Refrigeration and Air conditioning system performance and savings opportunities. Refrigeration deals with the transfer of heat from a low temperature level at the heat source to a high temperature level at the heat sink by using a low boiling refrigerant.1. low-energy level to a warmer. Coefficient of performance. Driven by the chilled water pump.1 Introduction The Heating. The cool air then cools the building space. and the condenser water pump sends it to the cooling tower. indoor air is driven by the supply air fan through a cooling coil. Water absorbs heat from the chiller’s condenser. Using a phase-change refrigerant. where it transfers its heat to chilled water. The cooling tower’s fan drives air across an open flow of the hot condenser water. – Chilled water loop. thermal energy moves from left to right as it is extracted from the space and expelled into the outdoors through five loops of heat transfer: – Indoor air loop. – Condenser water loop. Capacity.1 Heat Transfer Loops In Refrigeration System In the Figure 4. transferring the heat to the outdoors. In the leftmost loop. the chiller’s compressor pumps heat from the chilled water to the condenser water. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 71 . – Refrigerant loop. Types and comparison with vapor compression system. Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration system transfers the heat energy from or to the products. – Cooling tower loop. Saving potential 4. There are several heat transfer loops in refrigeration system as described below: Figure 4. or building environment. Energy in form of electricity or heat is used to power mechanical equipment designed to transfer heat from a colder. water returns from the cooling coil to the chiller’s evaporator to be re-cooled.4. Refrigerants. HVAC AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Syllabus HVAC and Refrigeration System: Vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Vapor absorption refrigeration system: Working principle. high-energy level.
They can also be used for ice bank formation. while VAR uses thermal energy as the driving force for refrigeration. water or some other process liquid. Centralized chilled water plants with chilled water as a secondary coolant for temperature range over 5°C typically.2 Types of Refrigeration System Vapour Compression Refrigeration Heat flows naturally from a hot to a colder body. In refrigeration system the opposite must occur i. Brine plants. which absorbs heat and hence boils or evaporates at a low pressure to form a gas.e. A large industry may have a bank of such units. This is achieved by using a substance called a refrigerant. VCR uses mechanical energy as the driving force for refrigeration.4. or removed. cooling towers. In this way heat is absorbed. heat flows from a cold to a hotter body. The refrigeration cycle can be broken down into the following stages (see Figure 4. which are available for use as given below: Air Conditioning (for comfort / machine) Split air conditioners Fan coil units in a larger system Air handling units in a larger system Refrigeration Systems (for processes) Small capacity modular units of direct expansion type similar to domestic refrigerators. 50 – 250 TR as medium capacity and over 250 TR as large capacity units. which use brines as lower temperature. 4. secondary coolant.2): 1 – 2 Low pressure liquid refrigerant in the evaporator absorbs heat from its surroundings. The same industry may also have two or three levels of refrigeration & air conditioning such as: Comfort air conditioning (20° – 25° C) Chilled water system (8° – 10° C) Brine system (sub-zero applications) Two principle types of refrigeration plants found in industrial use are: Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR) and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration (VAR). from a low temperature source and transferred to a higher temperature source. there are several options / combinations. as an off site utility. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 72 . usually air. which come as modular unit capacities as well as large centralized plant capacities. and at the evaporator exit is slightly superheated. such that it transfers the heat it has gained to ambient air or water and turns back (condenses) into a liquid. The plant capacities upto 50 TR are usually considered as small capacity. often with common chilled water pumps. for typically sub zero temperature applications. HVAC and Refrigeration System Air-Conditioning Systems Depending on applications. During this process it changes its state from a liquid to a gas. condenser water pumps. This gas is then compressed to a higher pressure. small capacity refrigeration units.
to-air heat exchangers. efficient lighting. pre-cooling of fresh air by air. Ensure adequate quantity of chilled water and cooling water flows. avoid bypass flows by closing valves of idle equipment. idle flows. variable volume air system. by way of: i) Flow optimization ii) Heat transfer area increase to accept higher temperature coolant iii) Avoiding wastages like heat gains. roof painting. Minimize part load operations by matching loads and plant capacity on line. Adopt VAR system where economics permit as a non-CFC solution. iv) Frequent cleaning / de-scaling of all heat exchangers f) At the Refrigeration A/C Plant Area i) ii) iii) iv) v) Ensure regular maintenance of all A/C plant components as per manufacturer guidelines.8 Energy Saving Opportunities a) Cold Insulation Insulate all cold lines / vessels using economic insulation thickness to minimize heat gains. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 91 . c) Building Heat Loads Minimisation Minimise the air conditioning loads by measures such as roof cooling. HVAC and Refrigeration System 4. and choose appropriate (correct) insulation. e) Process Heat Loads Minimisation Minimize process heat loads in terms of TR capacity as well as refrigeration level.e. sun film applications. loss of chilled water.. otpimal thermo-static setting of temperature of air conditioned spaces. b) Building Envelope Optimise air conditioning volumes by measures such as use of false ceiling and segregation of critical areas for air conditioning by air curtains. etc. temperature required.4. adopt variable speed drives for varying process load. i. Make efforts to continuously optimize condenser and evaporator parameters for minimizing specific energy consumption and maximizing capacity.
the size of impeller eye. Where different pump designs could be used. or to the next impeller should the pump have a multi-stage configuration. In principle. The water velocity is collected by the diffuser and converted to pressure by specially designed passageways that direct the flow to the discharge of the pump. Efficient system operation. Displacement pumps can be sub-classified as rotary or reciprocating pumps. polycarbonate. The pressure (head) that a pump will develop is in Figure 6. the number of impellers. Velocity is developed as the water flows through the impeller spinning at high speed. Dynamic pumps can be sub-classified as centrifugal and special effect pumps. is attached to a shaft and driven by a motor. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 113 .1 Pump Types Pumps come in a variety of sizes for a wide range of applications. the more energy is required. Flow control strategies and energy conservation opportunities 6. PUMPS AND PUMPING SYSTEM Syllabus Pumps and Pumping System: Types. any liquid can be handled by any of the pump designs. They can be classified according to their basic operating principle as dynamic or displacement pumps.1 Centrifugal pump direct relationship to the impeller diameter. The two main parts of the pump are the impeller and the diffuser. The diffuser (also called as volute) houses the impeller and captures and directs the water off the impeller. Atmospheric pressure and centrifugal force cause this to happen. centrifugal pumps account for the majority of electricity used by pumps. the centrifugal pump is generally the most economical followed by rotary and reciprocating pumps. Although. which affect the horsepower size of the motor to be used. Capacity is determined by the exit width of the impeller. Impellers are generally made of bronze. positive displacement pumps are generally more efficient than centrifugal pumps. Water enters the center (eye) of the impeller and exits the impeller with the help of centrifugal force. and shaft speed. stainless steel as well as other materials. The more the quantity of water to be pumped. Performance evaluation. cast iron. The head and capacity are the main factors.6. the benefit of higher efficiency tends to be offset by increased maintenance costs. Centrifugal Pumps A centrifugal pump is of a very simple design. worldwide. As water leaves the eye of the impeller a low-pressure area is created. the focus of this chapter is on centrifugal pump. which is the only moving part. Since. Impeller. causing more water to flow into the eye.
6. Pumps and Pumping System A centrifugal pump is not positive acting. plotted against Flow. in order to attain the highest efficiency possible.2 Pump Performance Curve Given the significant amount of electricity attributed to pumping systems. the lesser is the flow from the pump.hs (m) x ρ (kg/m3) x g (m/s2) / 1000 Where hd – discharge head. The actual contours of the hydraulic passages of the impeller and the casing are extremely important. Since the pump is a dynamic device. Figure 6. the less it will pump. ρ – density of the fluid. transmission drive. The greater the depth of the water. it will not pump the same volume always. Ph / pump efficiency.e. when it pumps against increasing pressure. it is convenient to consider the pressure in terms of head i. hd . are conventionally shown on the vertical axis. hs – suction head. ηPump Electrical input power = Pump shaft power Ps ηMotor Bureau of Energy Efficiency 114 . The standard convention for centrifugal pump is to draw the pump performance curves showing Flow on the horizontal axis and Head generated on the vertical axis. Efficiency. For these reasons it is important to select a centrifugal pump that is designed to do a particular job. pump shaft power and electrical input power Hydraulic power Ph = Q (m3/s) x Total head. piping and valves. Hydraulic power. The pump generates the same head of liquid whatever the density of the liquid being pumped. meters of liquid column. Also. g – acceleration due to gravity Pump shaft power Ps = Hydraulic power. as illustrated in Figure 6. Power & NPSH Required (described later). The pump is among the most inefficient of the components that comprise a pumping system. even small improvements in pumping efficiency could yield very significant savings of electricity. including the motor.2.
This reduces wear on the motor and its controller. Use booster pumps for small loads requiring higher pressures. Repair seals and packing to minimize water loss by dripping. in these applications pump efficiency does not necessarily decline during periods of low flow demand. Avoid pumping head with a free-fall return (gravity). Using a system perspective to identify areas in which fluid energy is dissipated in non-useful work often reveals opportunities for operating cost reductions. For example. Increase fluid temperature differentials to reduce pumping rates in case of heat exchangers. VFDs may offer operating cost reductions by allowing higher pump operating efficiency. Pumps and Pumping System sents a large portion of the total head.add an auto-start for an on-line spare or add a booster pump in the problem area. 6. Operators should review the performance of VFDs in similar applications and consult VFD manufacturers to avoid the damage that can result when a pump operates too slowly against high static head.5 times the normal operating current). caution should be used in deciding whether to use VFDs. Balance the system to minimize flows and reduce pump power requirements. flow meters. increasing flow through bypass lines does not noticeably impact the backpressure on a pump. This efficiency response provides an essential cost advantage. This high current fades when the motor spins up to normal speed. VFDs offer a means to improve pump operating efficiency despite changes in operating conditions. but the principal savings derive from the reduction in frictional or bypass flow losses.6. By analyzing the entire system.22. VFDs allow the motor to be started with a lower startup current (usually only about 1. Stop running multiple pumps . cooling towers feed water pumps. When a VFD slows a pump. condenser pumps and process pumps. Operate pumps near best efficiency point. The effect of slowing pump speed on pump operation is illustrated by the three curves in Figure 6. its head/flow and brake horsepower (BHP) curves drop down and to the left and its efficiency curve shifts to the left. Modify pumping system and pumps losses to minimize throttling. Consequently. air compressors. in many systems. Use siphon effect to advantage: Conduct water balance to minimise water consumption Avoid cooling water re-circulation in DG sets. Another system benefit of VFDs is a soft start capability. however. the energy lost in pushing fluid through bypass lines and across throttle valves can be identified. During startup. most motors experience in-rush currents that are 5 – 6 times higher than normal operating currents. For many systems. Adapt to wide load variation with variable speed drives or sequenced control of multiple units.7 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Energy Conservation Opportunities in Pumping Systems Ensure adequate NPSH at site of installation Ensure availability of basic instruments at pumps like pressure gauges. refrigeration systems. the energy and maintenance costs of the pump can be significantly reduced. 132 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bureau of Energy Efficiency . by keeping the operating efficiency as high as possible across variations in the system's flow demand.
6. carefully combine the operation of pumps to avoid throttling Provide booster pump for few areas of higher head Replace old pumps by energy efficient pumps In the case of over designed pump. Optimise number of stages in multi-stage pump in case of head margins Reduce system resistance by pressure drop assessment and pipe size optimisation Bureau of Energy Efficiency 133 . or downsize / replace impeller or replace with correct sized pump for efficient operation. Pumps and Pumping System ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ In multiple pump operations. provide variable speed drive.
which follows exactly the parabolic shape of the lamp. Choice of lighting. The most commonly used discharge lamps are as follows: • • • • • Fluorescent tube lamps (FTL) Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) Mercury Vapour Lamps Sodium Vapour Lamps Metal Halide Lamps 153 Bureau of Energy Efficiency .2 Basic Terms in Lighting System and Features Lamps Lamp is equipment. has given rise to tremendous energy saving opportunities in this area. Innovation and continuous improvement in the field of lighting. The principal parts of an incandescent lamp. which provides a major scope to achieve energy efficiency at the design stage. by incorporation of modern energy efficient lamps. and Energy conservation avenues 8. the bulb. The reflector is resistant to corrosion. Lighting is an area. • Reflector lamps: Reflector lamps are basically incandescent. the fill gas and the cap. provided with a high quality internal mirror. The most commonly used lamps are described briefly as follows: • Incandescent lamps: Incandescent lamps produce light by means of a filament heated to incandescence by the flow of electric current through it. The power consumption by the industrial lighting varies between 2 to 10% of the total power depending on the type of industry. also known as GLS (General Lighting Service) lamp include the filament. Luminance requirements. 8.1 Introduction Lighting is an essential service in all the industries. apart from good operational practices. LIGHTING SYSTEM Syllabus Lighting System: Light source. • Gas discharge lamps: The light from a gas discharge lamp is produced by the excitation of gas contained in either a tubular or elliptical outer bulb. which produces light. thus making the lamp maintenance free and output efficient.8. luminaires and gears.
Colour Rendering Index (RI) Is a measure of the degree to which the colours of surfaces illuminated by a given light source confirm to those of the same surfaces under a reference illuminent. filters or transforms the light emitted from one or more lamps. Lux (lx) This is the illuminance produced by a luminous flux of one lumen. suitable allowance having been made for the state of Chromatic adaptation. transmission and refraction. The basic physical principles used in optical luminaire are reflection. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 154 . • Ignitors: These are used for starting high intensity Metal Halide and Sodium vapour lamps.3 Lamp Types and their Features The Table 8. it aids the initial voltage build-up. together with the means for connecting them to the electric supply. In case of fluorescent lamps. Lighting System Luminaire Luminaire is a device that distributes. all the parts necessary for fixing and protecting the lamps. required for starting. Luminous Efficacy (lm/W) This is the ratio of luminous flux emitted by a lamp to the power consumed by the lamp. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter. Control Gear The gears used in the lighting equipment are as follows: • Ballast: A current limiting device. by the area of that element. The lighting level produced by a lighting installation is usually qualified by the illuminance produced on a specified plane. uniformly distributed over a surface area of one square metre. Illuminance This is the quotient of the illuminous flux incident on an element of the surface at a point of surface containing the point. It is a reflection of efficiency of energy conversion from electricity to light form. The illuminance provided by an installation affects both the performance of the tasks and the appearance of the space. to counter negative resistance characteristics of any discharge lamps. absorption. luminaires also include the necessary circuit auxiliaries. except the lamps themselves. this plane is the major plane of the tasks in the interior and is commonly called the working plane.1 shows the various types of lamp available along with their features. In most cases.8. In some cases. The luminaire includes. 8.
flood lighting. 8–18 14 Color Rendering Index Excellent Typical Application Homes. shops.1 LUMINOUS PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMONLY USED LUMINARIES Type of Lamp Incandescent Lumens / Watt Range Avg. construction areas General lighting in factories. Each range consists of three successive steps of the recommended scale of illuminances. street lighting Roadways.5 represents the smallest significant difference in subjective effect of illuminance. For working interiors the 155 Bureau of Energy Efficiency . coating Very good Fair 5000 8000–10000 5000 Halogen lamps 18–24 20 Excellent 2000–4000 High pressure sodium (HPSV) SON 67–121 90 Fair 6000–12000 Low pressure sodium (LPSV) SOX 101–175 150 Poor 6000–12000 8. a range of illuminances is recommended for each type of interior or activity intended of a single value of illuminance.4 Recommended Illuminance Levels for Various Tasks / Activities / Locations Recommendations on Illuminance Scale of Illuminance: The minimum illuminance for all non-working interiors. restaurants.8. garages. the following scale of illuminances is recommended. flood lighting Display. has been mentioned as 20 Lux (as per IS 3646). Therefore. tunnels. homes. hospitals. A factor of approximately 1. homes Hotels. emergency lighting Offices. Lighting System TABLE 8. canals.t. ware houses. offices General lighting in factories. street lighting Typical Life (hours) 1000 Fluorescent Lamps Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) High pressure mercury (HPMV) 46–60 40–70 44–57 50 60 50 Good w. … Lux Illuminance ranges: Because circumstances may be significantly different for different interiors used for the same application or for different conditions for the same kind of activity. shops.r. 20–30–50–75–100–150–200–300–500–750–1000–1500–2000. general lighting. car parking. stadium exhibition grounds.
Lighting System middle value (R) of each range represents the recommended service illuminance that would be used unless one or more of the factors mentioned below apply. tableting. stairs and ladders Exterior pump and valve areas Pump and compressor houses Process plant with remote control Process plant requiring occasional manual intervention Permanently occupied work stations in process plant Control rooms for process plant Pharmaceuticals Manufacturer and Fine chemicals manufacturer Pharmaceutical manufacturer Grinding. filling.8. Chemical and Petrochemical works Exterior walkways. lower value (L) of the range may be used when reflectances or contrasts are unusually high. reader may refer Illuminating Engineers Society Recommendations Handbook/ Chemicals Petroleum. errors are costly to rectify. mixing. visual work is critical. preparation of solutions. stairs and ladders Process plant Fine chemical finishing Inspection Soap manufacture General area Automatic processes Control panels Machines Bureau of Energy Efficiency 156 30–50–100 50–100–150 100–150–200 30–50–100 50–100–150 150–200–300 200–300–500 300–500–750 30–50–100 50–100–150 300–500–750 300–500–750 200–300–500 100–200–300 200–300–500 200–300–500 . to user's satisfaction. For recommended illumination in other sectors. washing. hardening Fine chemical manufacturers Exterior walkways. platforms. s terilising. Similarly. accuracy or higher productivity is of great importance and the visual capacity of the worker makes it necessary. platforms. capping. wrapping. Recommended Illumination The following Table gives the recommended illuminance range for different tasks and activities for chemical sector. drying. The values are related to the visual requirements of the task.(Source IS 3646 (Part I) : 1992). to practical experience and to the need for cost effective use of energy. The higher value (H) of the range should be used at exceptional cases where low reflectances or contrasts are present in the task. speed & accuracy is not important and the task is executed only occasionally. granulating.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency 157 . Lighting System Paint works General Automatic processes Control panels Special batch mixing Colour matching 200–300–500 150–200–300 200–300–500 500–750–1000 750–100–1500 8. POPULATION AND USE PROFILE S. as daytime lux and night time lux values alongside the number of lamps "ON" during measurement.3). fuse ratings may be inventorised along the above pattern in place of transformer kVA. Step–2: With the aid of a lux meter.2 DEVICE RATING. of hours / Day TABLE 8. No. TABLE 8. No. & transformers in the facility as per following typical format (Table – 8.3 LIGHTING TRANSFORMER / RATING AND POPULATION PROFILE: S.8. Plant Location Lighting Device & Ballast Type Rating in Watts Lamp & Ballast Population Numbers No.5 Methodology of Lighting System Energy Efficiency Study A step-by-step approach for assessing energy efficiency of lighting system is given below: Step–1: Inventorise the Lighting System elements. Plant Location Lighting Transformer Rating (kVA) Numbers Installed Meter Provisions Available Volts / Amps / kW / Energy In case of distribution boards (instead of transformers) being available. measure and document the lux levels at various plant locations at working level.2 and 8.
High efficacy gas discharge lamps suitable for different types of applications offer appreciable scope for energy conservation. etc. with due consideration to life and power factor apart from watt loss. Occupancy sensors d. color rendering index. Over the years development in lamp technology has led to improvements in efficacy of lamps. Group control switches / units c. Typical energy efficient replacement options. with due consideration to luminiare. along with the per cent energy saving. On / off type voltage regulation type (for illuminance control) b. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 158 . Computerized lighting control programs Install input voltage regulators / controllers for energy efficiency as well as longer life expectancy for lamps where higher voltages. Replace conventional magnetic ballasts by more energy efficient ballasts. Examine scope for replacements of lamps by more energy efficient lamps. power factor and power consumption at various input points. Modify layout for optimum lighting. still constitute a major share of the lighting load. which could include : i) ii) Maximise sunlight use through use of transparent roof sheets. Photocell controls e.6 Case Examples Energy Efficient Replacement Options The lamp efficacy is the ratio of light output in lumens to power input to lamps in watts. such as incandescent bulbs. are given in Table8. namely the distribution boards or the lighting voltage transformers at the same as that of the lighting level audit. current. Pager operated controls g. north light roof.4.8. However. Timer operated controls f. iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) 8. Step–4: Compare the measured lux values with standard values as reference and identify locations as under lit and over lit areas. measure and document the voltage. Providing individual / group controls for lighting for energy efficiency such as: a. Step–5: Collect and Analyse the failure rates of lamps. Select interior colours for light reflection. the low efficacy lamps. Step–6: Based on careful assessment and evaluation. fluctuations are expected. Lighting System Step–3: With the aid of portable load analyzer. lux level as well as expected life comparison. ballasts and the actual life expectancy levels from the past data. Replace energy efficient displays like LED's in place of lamp type displays in control panels / instrumentation areas. bring out improvement options. etc.
4 SAVINGS BY USE OF HIGH EFFICACY LAMPS Lamp type Sector Existing Domestic/Commercial Industry GLS GLS GLS TL HPMV HPMV 100 W 13 W 200 W 40 W 250 W 400 W Proposed *CFL *CFL Blended TLD HPSV HPSV 25 W 9W 160 W 36 W 150 W 250 W Power saving Watts 75 4 40 4 100 150 % 75 31 20 10 37 35 Industry/Commercial * Wattages of CFL includes energy consumption in ballasts.8.000 hours. Lighting System TABLE 8. Installation of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL's) in place of incandescent lamps. Energy efficient lamps are based on the highly sophisticated tri-phosphor fluorescent powder technology.7 Some Good Practices in Lighting Installation of energy efficient fluorescent lamps in place of "Conventional" fluorescent lamps.5 TABLE 8. which is 10 times longer than that of a normal incandescent Bureau of Energy Efficiency 159 . Compact fluorescent lamps are generally considered best for replacement of lower wattage incandescent lamps. Energy Saving Potential in Street Lighting The energy saving potential. These lamps have efficacy ranging from 55 to 65 lumens/Watt. The average rated lamp life is 10. They offer excellent colour rendering properties in addition to the very high luminous efficacy.5 SAVING POTENTIAL BY USE OF HIGH EFFICACY LAMPS FOR STREET LIGHTING Existing lamp Type GLS GLS TL HPMV HPMV HPMV W 200 300 2 X 40 125 250 400 Life 1000 1000 5000 5000 5000 5000 Replaced units Type ML ML TL HPSV HPSV HPSV W 160 250 2 X 36 70 150 250 Life 5000 5000 5000 12000 12000 12000 Saving W 40 50 8 25 100 150 % 7 17 6 44 40 38 8. in typical cases of replacement of inefficient lamps with efficient lamps in street lighting is given in the Table 8.
But the colour rendering property of HPSV is very low.000 hours) • Very sensitive to the voltage fluctuations Recently. for heights greater than 7 metres.000 hours) It is recommended to install LEDs for panel indicator lamps at the design stage. These lamps offer efficient white light. etc.Low. yard lighting. Hotel lounges. High pressure sodium vapour (HPSV) lamps offer more efficacy. Installation of High Pressure Sodium Vapour (HPSV) lamps for applications where colour rendering is not critical. The LEDs have the following merits over the filament lamps. Light distribution Energy efficiency cannot be obtained by mere selection of more efficient lamps alone. etc. fault indication. • Lesser power consumption (Less than 1 W/lamp) • Withstand high voltage fluctuation in the power supply. These lamps are highly suitable for applications such as assembly line. etc. Luminaires for high intensity discharge lamp are classified as follows: • Low bay. Bars. which has got the following disadvantages: • High energy consumption (15 W/lamp) • Failure of lamps is high (Operating life less than 1. Restaurants. • Medium bay. Pathways. • High bay. • Longer operating life (more than 1. Corridors. The luminaires fitted with a lamp should ensure that discomfort glare and veiling reflections are minimised.8. CFL's are highly suitable for places such as Living rooms. It is recommended to install metal halide lamps where colour rendering is more critical. depends upon the height . the conventional filament lamps are being replaced with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). metal halide is the choice for colour critical applications where. luminaires that are having light distribution characteristics appropriate for the task interior should be selected. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 160 . Hence. inspection areas. painting shops. higher illumination levels are required. etc. Installation of LED panel indicator lamps in place of filament lamps. Hence. Medium & High Bay. Lighting System lamps. for heights less than 5 metres. Installation of suitable luminaires. Efficient luminaires along with the lamp of high efficacy achieve the optimum efficiency. for heights between 5 – 7 metres.00. Mirror-optic luminaires with a high output ratio and bat-wing light distribution can save energy. Conventionally filament lamps are used for the purpose. it is recommended to install HPSV lamps for applications such street lighting. Building entrances. For achieving better efficiency. signaling. Installation of metal halide lamps in place of mercury / sodium vapour lamps. Panel indicator lamps are used widely in industries for monitoring. Metal halide lamps provide high color rendering index when compared with mercury & sodium vapour lamps.
where it is not required. installation of exclusive transformer for lighting is not economically attractive. to enable reduction of electric light in the window zones during certain hours. will also improved due to the stabilized voltage. a flexible lighting system has to be provided. when not needed. voltage can be optimised. the option to optimise the voltage level fed to the lighting feeder. servo stabilizer can be installed for the lighting feeders. which can take pre-programme commands and activate specified lighting circuits. ballasts. a switching method. Hence. which can be controlled manually or by timer control. This does not provide the flexibility to control the lighting. The lighting control can be obtained by using logic units located in the ceiling. Installation of microprocessor based controllers Another modern method is usage of microprocessor / infrared controlled dimming or switching circuits. During this period. the voltage levels are on the higher side. which in turn increases the efficiency of the lighting system. during the non-peaking hours. the lighting equipment has to be isolated from the power feeders. This should not introduce glare or a severe imbalance of brightness in visual environment.8. to provide greater flexibility in lighting control Grouping of lighting system. In many cases. lighting load varies between 2 to 10%. • Installation of servo stabilizer for lighting feeder Wherever. Lighting System System layout and fixing of the luminaires play a major role in achieving energy efficiency. day lighting can be used in combination with electric lighting. without any significant drop in the illumination level. This will reduce the voltage related problems. The following light control systems can be adopted at design stage: • • Grouping of lighting system. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 161 . Hence. but the resulting operational costs may be high. Usage of day lighting (in offices/air conditioned halls) will have to be very limited. has to be designed. This also varies from application to application. The performance of "gears" such as chokes. Hence. Most of the problems faced by the lighting equipment and the "gears" is due to the "voltage" fluctuations. The initial investment for this set up is extremely low. • Optimum usage of daylighting Whenever the orientation of a building permits. • Installation of "exclusive" transformer for lighting In most of the industries. This set up also provides. which will offer switch-off or reduction in lighting level. because the air conditioning load will increase on account of the increased solar heat dissipation into the area. Light Control The simplest and the most widely used form of controlling a lighting installation is "On-Off" switch. This provides a better voltage regulation for the lighting. In many plants. to feed signals to the controllers. fixing the luminaires at optimum height and usage of mirror optic luminaries leads to energy efficiency. Advanced lighting control system uses movement detectors or lighting sensors. This will provide stabilized voltage for the lighting equipment.
gear and controls used in different areas of industry. The life of the electronic ballast is high especially when.6 gives the type of luminaire.6 TYPES OF LUMINAIRE WITH THEIR GEAR AND CONTROLS USED IN DIFFERENT INDUSTRIAL LOCATIONS Location Plant Source HID/FTL Luminaire Industrial rail reflector: High bay Medium bay Low bay FTL/CFL Flood light Street light luminaire Gear Conventional/low loss electronic ballast Electronic/low loss Suitable Suitable Controls Manual/electronic Office Yard Road peripheral FTL/CFL HID HID/PL Manual/auto Manual Manual Bureau of Energy Efficiency 162 . TABLE 8. many manufacturers have improved the design of the ballast leading to drastic improvement in their reliability. Lighting System • Installation of high frequency (HF) electronic ballasts in place of conventional ballasts New high frequency (28–32 kHz) electronic ballasts have the following advantages over the traditional magnetic ballasts: Energy savings up to 35% Less heat dissipation. Recently.8. used in a lighting circuit fitted with a automatic voltage stabiliser. which reduces the air conditioning load • • • • • Lights instantly Improved power factor Operates in low voltage load Less in weight Increases the life of lamp The advantage of HF electronic ballasts. In the past the failure rate of electronic ballast in Indian Industries was high. The Table 8. out weigh the initial investment (higher costs when compared with conventional ballast).
2. Explain how electronic ballast saves energy? A CFL can replace a) FTL b) GLS c) HPMV d) HPSV 3. 5. 10. What are the types of commonly used lamps? What do the following terms mean? – Illuminance – Luminous efficacy – Luminaire – Control gear – Colour rendering index What is the function of ballast in a lighting system? Rate the following with respect to their luminous efficacy – GLS lamp – FTL – CFL – HPSV – LPSV Rate the following with respect to colour rendering index – GLS lamp – HPSV lamp – Metal halide lamps – LPSV lamp Briefly describe the methodology of lighting energy audit in an industrial facility? List the energy savings opportunities in industrial lighting systems.8. 9. Lighting System QUESTIONS 1. 4. 6. NPC Experiences Bureau of Energy Efficiency 163 . 8. 7. Explain briefly about various lighting controls available? REFERENCES 1.
Energy performance assessment of diesel conservation avenues 9. Hence. the descending piston draws in fresh air. Compression stroke .while the valves are closed. 1st : 2nd : 3rd : 4th : Induction stroke . In the diesel engine. Let us look at the principle of operation of the four-stroke diesel engine. which drives an alternator to produce electrical energy. the bulk of IC engines use the four stroke cycle. the air is compressed to a pressure of up to 25 bar.while the inlet valve is open.the exhaust valve is open and the rising piston discharges the spent gases from the cylinder. However.Diesel Engine The 4 stroke operations in a diesel engine are: induction stroke. ignition and power stroke and exhaust stroke.1 Introduction Diesel engine is the prime mover.9. Four Stroke . while the valves are closed (fuel injection actually starts at the end of the previous stroke). the diesel engine is also known as compression ignition (CI) engine. Exhaust stroke . Ignition and power stroke .fuel is injected. DG SET SYSTEM Syllabus Diesel Generating system: Factors affecting selection.1 Bureau of Energy Efficiency Schematic Diagram of Four-Stroke Diesel Engine 165 . A metered quantity of diesel fuel is then injected into the cylinder. During this compression. the air is heated to a temperature of 700–900°C. DG set can be classified according to cycle type as: two stroke and four stroke. air is drawn into the cylinder and is compressed to a high ratio (14:1 to 25:1). the fuel ignites spontaneously and the piston is forced downwards by the combustion gases. Figure 9. which ignites spontaneously because of the high temperature. compression stroke.
d) The foundation and power house civil works. There are many variations of engine configuration. vee or radial configurations. It is necessary to select the components with highest efficiency and operate them at their optimum efficiency levels to conserve energy in this system. DG Set System Since power is developed during only one stroke. Smoother running is obtained with multi cylinder engines because the cranks are staggered in relation to one another on the crankshaft. The engine power rating should be 10 – 20 % more than the power demand by the end use. motor drives. with diesel engines typically running at lower Bureau of Energy Efficiency 166 . horizontally opposed. lighting etc. Fig 9. b) The AC Generator. Speed is measured at the output shaft and given in revolutions per minute (RPM). which is most suitable for a specific application. DG Set as a System A diesel generating set should be considered as a system since its successful operation depends on the well-matched performance of the components.9. namely: a) The diesel engine and its accessories. 4 or 6 cylinder. several factors need to be considered. in-line. An engine will operate over a range of speeds. the single cylinder four-stroke engine has a low degree of uniformity.2 DG Set System Selection Considerations To make a decision on the type of engine. c) The control systems and switchgear. This prevents overloading the machine by absorbing extra load during starting of motors or switching of some types of lighting systems or when wear and tear on the equipment pushes up its power consumption. The power requirement is determined by the maximum load. for example. The two most important factors are: power and speed of the engine. e) The connected load with its own components like heating.
9. For continuous operation.1. low speed diesel engine is more cost-effective than high speed diesel engine. For some applications. without much requirement of process steam. Minimum cooling water requirements. Suppliers or manufacturers literature will specify the required information when purchasing an engine. speed governing (fixed or variable speed). These include the following: cooling system. then some form of gearing will be necessary . drive type. If a good match can be obtained.). ambient temperature. load factor (percentage of full load).a gearbox or belt system. the speed of the engine is not critical. Adopted with air cooled heat exchanger in areas where water is not available Short start up time A brief comparison of different types of captive power plants (combined gas turbine and steam turbine. It can be seen from the Table that captive diesel plant wins over the other two in terms of thermal efficiency. starting equipment. poor maintenance. Most frequently used diesel engine sizes are between the range 4 to 15 MW. etc. for example. which will add to the cost and reduce the efficiency. it is important to get a good speed match. but for other applications such as a generator. the ideal method of power generation would be by installing diesel generator plants. control system. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 167 . conventional steam plant and diesel engine power plant) is given in Table 9. capital cost. The main reason for their extensive use is the higher efficiency of the diesel engines compared with gas turbines and small steam turbines in the output range considered. There are various other factors that have to be considered. Diesel Generator Captive Power Plants Diesel engine power plants are most frequently used in small power (captive non-utility) systems. abnormal environmental conditions (dust. The fuels burnt in diesel engines range from light distillates to residual fuel oils.which will lead to higher maintenance and running costs. To determine the speed requirement of an engine. There will be an optimum speed at which fuel efficiency will be greatest. Engines should be run as closely as possible to their rated speed to avoid poor efficiency and to prevent build up of engine deposits due to incomplete combustion . auxiliary power consumption. The efficiency of an engine depends on various factors. plant load factor etc. engine size. direct coupling of engine and generator is possible. altitude. humidity. In applications requiring low captive power. dirt. if not. one has to again look at the requirement of the load. fuel quality. DG Set System speeds (1300 – 3000 RPM). etc. space requirements. and engine type. Advantages of adopting Diesel Power Plants are: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Low installation cost Short delivery periods and installation period Higher efficiency (as high as 43 – 45 %) More efficient plant performance under part loads Suitable for different type of fuels such as low sulphur heavy stock and heavy fuel oil in case of large capacities. when choosing an engine for a given application.
Slow speed diesel engine. unlike gas turbine.000 – 18. compares very favourably over other prime movers such as medium speed diesel engine.) 42 – 48 52 – 60 8 – 10 5000 – 6000 120 – 180 Diesel Engine Power Plants 43 – 45 7. The net result – lower fuel consumption per kWh and further increase in overall thermal efficiency.000 125 % (Approx.1 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CAPTIVE POWER PLANT Description Thermal Efficiency Initial Investment of Installed Capacity Space requirement Construction time Project period Auxiliary Power Consumption Plant Load Factor Start up time from cold Units % Rs. After finding out the diversity factor.2.) Conventional Steam Plant 33 – 36 15.9.500 – 10. high efficiency turbochargers.) 12 – 15 12 1. With the arrival of modern. the correct capacity of a DG set can be found out. which is able to do so with only costly fuel treatment equipment. steam turbines and gas turbines.3 .500 – 9. DG Set System TABLE 9.3 Turbocharger Slow speed dual fuel engines are now available using high-pressure gas injection.000 100 % (Approx.2 Selection and Installation Factors Sizing of a Genset: a) If the DG set is required for 100% standby.000 250 % (Approx. then the entire connected load in HP / kVA should be added. The specific fuel consumption has come down from a value of 220 g/kWh in the 1970s to a value around 160 g/kWh in present times. with its flat fuel consumption curve over a wide load range (50%–100%). it is possible to use an exhaust gas driven turbine generator to further increase the engine rated output.1 7200 – 7500 15 – 20 Months Months % kWh/kW Minutes 24 – 30 30 – 36 2–4 6000 – 7000 About 10 Diesel Engine Power Plant Developments The diesel engine developments have been steady and impressive. 9. The diesel engine is able to burn the poorest quality fuel oils./kW Combined GT & ST 40 – 46 8. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 168 . which gives the same thermal efficiency and power output as a regular fuel oil engine. Figure 9.
High Speed Engine or Slow/Medium Speed Engine The normal accepted definition of high speed engine is 1500 rpm.54 650 x 0.54 = 350 kW 70 350/0.8 PF. the cost of economics for both the engines should be worked out before arriving at a decision. DG Set System Example : Connected Load Diversity Factor (Demand / connected load) Max. For existing installation: kVA kVA Rating where Load factor = √3 V I = kVA / Load Factor = Average kVA / Maximum kVA c) For a new installation. This will give a fair idea about the current taken from which the rating of the set can be calculated. Then.7 = 500 kW 625 kVA For an existing installation. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 169 . The high speed sets have been developed in India. * Typical recommendations from manufacturers Slow speed engine Low More High Continuous use 8000 hours Less High speed engine High Less Less Intermittent use 3200 High Keeping the above factors and available capacities of DG set in mind. voltage and power factors (kWh / kVAh) reading at the main bus-bar of the system at every half-an-hour interval for a period of 2–3 days and during this period the factory should be having its normal operations. correct capacity can be arrived at.9. rating b) = = = = = = 650 kW 0.therefore wear and tear and consumption of spares Weight to power ratio.therefore sturdiness and life Space Type of use Period between overhauls* Direct operating cost (includes lubricating oils. applying a diversity factor depending on the industry. whereas the slow speed engines of higher capacities are often imported. The other features and comparison between high and medium / slow speed engines are mentioned below: Factor Break mean effective pressure . Demand % Loading Set rating At 0. record the current. The non-essential loads should be switched off to find the realistic current taken for running essential equipment. an approximate method of estimating the capacity of a DG set is to add full load currents of all the proposed loads to be run in DG set. filters etc. process involved and guidelines obtained from other similar units.
Other safety equipment like high temperature. some supply undertakings ask the consumer to give an undertaking that the DG set will not be run in parallel with their supply. it is certainly economical to go in for one large DG set than two or more DG sets in parallel. Hence. DG Set System Capacity Combinations From the point of view of space. The reasons stated are that the grid is an infinite bus and paralleling a small capacity DG set would involve operational risks despite normal protections like reverse power relay. While.needs to filled up. In practice. Parallel Operation with Grid Running the DG set in parallel with the mains from the supply undertakings can be done in consultation with concerned electricity authorities. Another advantage is that one DG set can become 100% standby during lean and low power-cut periods. the engine would stop and prevent damage. water and air cooled sets are equally good except that proper care should be taken to ensure cross ventilation so that as much cool air as possible is circulated through the radiator to keep its cooling water temperature within limits. However. over load and earth fault protection on all the DG sets. maintenance and initial capital investment. from performance and maintenance point of view. Two or more DG sets running in parallel can be a advantage as only the short-fall in power–depending upon the extent of power cut prevailing . However.9. Water Cooling The general feeling has been that a water cooled DG set is better than an air cooled set. it may be possible to have air cooled engines in the lower capacities. However. It is also essential to provide reverse power relay when DG sets are to run in parallel to avoid back feeding from one alternator to another. as most users are worried about the overheating of engines during summer months. in case of smaller capacity DG sets. Also. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 170 . low lube oil pressure cut-outs should be provided. Safety Features It is advisable to have short circuit. it is strongly recommended to install a circuit protection. The voltage and frequency throughout the motor starting interval recovers and reaches rated values usually much before the motor has picked up full speed. so that in the event of any of these abnormalities. this may become uneconomical. while the other DG set is generating at least 50% of the power requirement. voltage and frequency relays. This is to some extent is true and precautions have to be taken to ensure that the cooling water temperature does not exceed the prescribed limits. it will be necessary to go in for water cooled engines in larger capacities to ensure that the engine does not get over-heated during summer months. Maximum Single Load on DG Set The starting current of squirrel cage induction motors is as much as six times the rated current for a few seconds with direct-on-line starters. Air Cooling Vs. it has been found that the starting current value should not exceed 200 % of the full load capacity of the alternator. flexibility of operation is increased since one DG set can be stopped. operation.
DG Set System In general.986 0.980 0. if the type of starting is changed over to star delta or to auto transformer starter.913 0. The maximum unbalanced load between phases should not exceed 10 % of the capacity of the generating sets.925 0.915 0. which may result in unbalanced output voltages.780 0.765 0. TABLE 9.950 0.895 0.935 0. Site Condition Effects on Performance Derating Site condition with respect to altitude.850 0.855 0.580 171 Temperature Correction Intake °C 32 35 38 41 43 46 49 52 54 Correction Factor 1.937 0. since unbalanced loads can cause heating of the alternator.745 0.9. Neutral Earthing The electricity rules clearly specify that two independent earths to the body and neutral should be provided to give adequate protection to the equipment in case of an earth fault.962 0.685 0. intake temperature and cooling water temperature derate diesel engine output as shown in following Tables: 9.680 0.712 0.950 0. the capacity of the induction motor can be increased.974 0. the HP of the largest motor that can be started with direct on line starting is about 50 % of the kVA rating of the generating set.900 .3.2 and 9. Unbalanced Load Effects It is always recommended to have the load as much balanced as possible.630 0.2 ALTITUDE AND INTAKE TEMPERATURE CORRECTIONS Correction Factors For Engine Output Altitude Correction Altitude Meters over MSL 610 915 1220 1525 1830 2130 2450 2750 3050 3660 4270 4880 Bureau of Energy Efficiency Non Super Charged 0.820 0.882 0.612 0. and also to drain away any leakage of potential from the equipment to the earth for safe working.000 0.550 0.494 Super Charged 0.790 0. On the other hand. and with this starting the HP of the largest motor can be upto 75 % of the kVA of Genset.980 0.740 0.820 0.
Engine manufacturers offer curves indicating % Engine Loading vs fuel Consumption in grams/BHP. Sequencing of Loads The captive diesel generating set has certain limits in handling the transient loads. additional D. the engine and alternator loading conditions are both to be achieved towards high efficiency.9.G. generators are designed to meet 50% overload for 15 seconds as specified by standards. great care is required in sequencing the load on D. If there is substantial variation in load.G. In this context. needs to be maintained above 50%. then consideration should be given for parallel operation of D.3 DERATING DUE TO AIR INTER COOLER WATER INLET TEMPERATURE Water Temperature °C 25 30 35 40 Flow % 100 125 166 166 Derating % 0 3 5 8 9.G. the base load that exists before the application of transient load brings down the transient load handling capability. The 'over load' has a different meaning when referred to the D. which appear insignificant and harmless on electricity board supply. set. Manufacturers curves can be referred to for best efficiency point and corresponding kW and kVA loading values.G. Load Pattern In many cases.set/s. It is advisable to start the load with highest transient kVA first followed by other loads in the descending order of the starting kVA. DG Set System TABLE 9.G. The typical case may be Bureau of Energy Efficiency 172 . Ideally.3 Operational Factors Load Pattern & DG Set Capacity The average load can be easily assessed by logging the current drawn at the main switchboard on an average day. This applies to both kW (as reflected on the engine) and kVA (as reflected on the generator). Overloads. The D. This will lead to optimum sizing and better utilisation of transient load handling capacity of D. it increases the transient voltage dip. the engine loading in terms of kW or BHP.G. set(s) are to be switched on when load increases. Alternators are sized for kVA rating with highest efficiency attainable at a loading of around 70% and more. Optimal engine loading corresponding to best operating point is desirable for energy efficiency. In such a situation. Diesel engines are designed for 10% overload for 1 hour in every 12 hours of operation.C.set should be carefully analysed. the load will not be constant throughout the day. It would be ideal to connect steady loads on DG set to ensure good performance. and in case of A.set/s selection should be such that the overloads are within the above specified limits.G. generators. may become detrimental to a D. The A. Alongside alternator loading.G. and hence overload on D. Hence.set.set.C.sets.
Lower power factor demands higher excitation currents and results in increased losses. The A.C.C. When other connected loads like motor loads are fed with unbalanced set of voltages additional losses occur in the motors as well. sets can be run at optimum operating points or near about. D.set.C. Special Loads: Special loads like rectifier / thyristor loads.C. generator may have to be procured. which are sensitive to voltage. – Power Factor: The load power factor is entirely dependent on the load.G. These characteristics are entirely load dependent and cannot be controlled by the D. – Unbalanced Load: Unbalanced loads on A. Hence.8 lag as specified by standards. generator leads to unbalanced set of voltages and additional heating in A. Such a combination ensures that the prime mover is not unnecessarily over sized which adds to capital cost and running cost. Load Characteristics Some of the load characteristics influence efficient use of D. consideration should be given to segregate the loads. In certain cases of loads. consideration should be given for procuring single phase A.set.G. generators should be balanced as far as possible. a specially designed generator may have to be selected. voltage wave form. DG Set System an establishment demanding substantially different powers in first. the load on the A. Such an alternative ensures that special design of AC generator is restricted to that portion of the load which requires high purity rather than increasing the price of the D.9. Transient Loading: On many occasions to contain transient voltage dip arising due to transient load application.C. The manufacturer of diesel engine and AC generator should be consulted for proper recommendation so that desired utilisation of DG set is achieved without any problem. generators for operation at lower power factors results in lower operating efficiency and higher costs. Many times an unstandard combination of engine and A.C. second and third shifts. By parallel operation. Over sizing A. – – Waste Heat Recovery in DG Sets A typical energy balance in a DG set indicates following break-up: Bureau of Energy Efficiency 173 . generator. and feed it by a dedicated power supply which usually assumes the form of DG motor driven generator set.C.G. frequency regulation. Where single phase loads are predominant. flexibility is built into the system. generator.G. furnace loads need an application check. The economical alternative is to provide power factor improvement capacitors. for optimum fuel consumption and additionally. This scheme can be also be applied where loads can be segregated as critical and non-critical loads to provide standby power to critical load in the captive power system. welding loads. The extent of detrimental influence of these characteristics can be reduced in several cases.set by specially designed AC generator for complete load. generator is designed for the power factor of 0.
respectively Bureau of Energy Efficiency 174 . temperature margin. stack losses through flue gases or the exhaust flue gas losses on account of existing flue gas temperature of 350°C to 550°C. and with 480°C exhaust gas temperature. at 800 KW loading. TABLE 9. the actual realisable potential depends upon various factors and if applied judiciously.08 kgs/Sec 7. constitute the major area of concern towards operational economy.50 kgs/Sec 370°C 350°C 330°C 325°C If the normal load is 60%.4 TYPICAL FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AND FLOW PATTERN IN A 5-MW DG SET AT VARIOUS LOADS 100% Load 90% Load 70% Load 60% Load 11.25 being the specific heat of flue gases and kWh output being the actual average unit generation from the set per hour. Fluctuations and gross under loading of DG set results in erratic flue gas quantity and temperature profile at entry to heat recovery unit.000 kCal/hr While the above method yields only the potential for heat recovery. i.400 kgs/Hour. DG Set System Input Outputs : : 100% 35% 4% 33% 24% 4% Thermal Energy Electrical Output Alternator Losses Stack Loss through Flue Gases Coolant Losses Radiation Losses Among these. (the criteria being that limiting exit gas temperature cannot be less than 180°C. a well configured waste heat recovery system can tremendously boost the economics of captive DG power generation.80. 180°C outlet temperature and 27180 kgs/Hour gas flow. the flue gas parameters for waste heat recovery unit would be 320°C inlet temperature.9. thereby leading to possible cold end corrosion and other problems. in kcals/Hour as: Potential WHR = (kWh Output/Hour) x (8 kg Gases / kWh Output) x 0. 4. It would be realistic to assess the Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) potential in relation to quantity. values would be 355°C and 32. the waste heat potential works out to: 800 kWh x 8 kg gas generation / kWh output x 0. For a 1100 KVA set.25 kcal/kg°C x (tg – 180°C) Where. At 90% loading.e. however. to avoid acid dew point corrosion). 0.84 kgs/Sec 10. temperature of exhaust gases Hours of operation and Back pressure on the DG set Consistent DG set loading (to over 60% of rating) would ensure a reasonable exit flue gas quantity and temperature..25 kCal/kg°C x (480 – 180). The factors affecting Waste Heat Recovery from flue Gases are: a) b) c) * DG Set loading.80 kgs/Sec 9. tg is the gas temperature after Turbocharger.
With continuous DG Set operations. kW. * The configuration of heat recovery system and the choice of steam parameters can be judiciously selected with reference to the specific industry (site) requirements. DG Set System * Number of hours of operation of the DG Set has an influence on the thermal performance of waste heat Recovery unit. and specifications of the plant. characteristics. e) Specific power generation kWh/liter. Choice of convective waste heat recovery systems with adequate heat transfer area are known to provide reliable service. Back pressure in the gas path caused by additional pressure drop in waste heat recovery unit is another key factor. Much good work has taken place in Indian Industry regarding waste heat recovery and one interesting configuration. wherein the following measurements are logged at 15 minutes intervals. 2) Collect technical literature. PF.4 Energy Performance Assessment of DG Sets Routine energy efficiency assessment of DG sets on shopfloor involves following typical steps: 1) Ensure reliability of all instruments used for trial. The favourable incentives offered by Government of India for energy efficient equipment and technologies (100% depreciation at the end of first year). make the waste heat recovery option.9. c) Percentage loading on alternator. a) Fuel consumption (by dip level or by flow meter) b) Amps. f) Comments on Turbocharger performance based on RPM and gas temperature difference. Relative Humidity (RH) d) Intake cooling water temperature e) Cylinder-wise exhaust temperature (as an indication of engine loading) f) Turbocharger RPM (as an indication of loading on engine) g) Charge air pressure (as an indication of engine loading) h) Cooling water temperature before and after charge air cooler (as an indication of cooler performance) i) Stack gas temperature before and after turbocharger (as an indication of turbocharger performance) 4) The fuel oil/diesel analysis is referred to from an oil company data. g) Comments on charge air cooler performance. b) Average engine loading. deployed is installation of waste heat boiler in flue gas path along with a vapour absorption chiller. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 175 . 3) Conduct a 2 hour trial on the DG set. volts. the maximum back pressure allowed is around 250–300 mmWC and the heat recovery unit should have a pressure drop lower than that. Payback period is only about 2 years 9. ensuring a steady load. cost benefits are favourable. kWh c) Intake air temperature. d) Percentage loading on engine. to produce 8°C chilled water working on steam from waste heat. 5) Analysis: The trial data is to be analysed with respect to: a) Average alternator loading. Generally.
Lit/kWh 0.337 0.007 0.004 0. kW 300 300 230 160 160 160 230 230 230 230 230 230 320 320 750 320 320 750 640 640 750 800 Type of Fuel used LDO LDO LDO HSD HSD HSD LDO LDO LDO LDO LDO LDO HSD HSD LDO HSD HSD LDO HSD HSD LDO LDO Average Load as % of Derated Capacity 89 110 84 89 106 Specific Fuel Cons.004 0. 10.003 0.318 0.335 0. 21.334 0. 18.334 0. insulation.002 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 176 . DG Set System h) Comments on load distribution among various cylinders (based on exhaust temperature. kW 480 480 292 200 200 200 292 292 292 292 292 292 400 400 880 400 400 880 800 800 880 920 Derated Electricity Generating Capacity. 6.324 0. 13 14.004 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.290 0.349 0.307 0.006 0. 3.356 0. 20.004 0. the temperature to be ± 5% of mean and high/low values indicate disturbed condition).339 0.335 0.005 0. A format as shown in the Table 9.5TYPICAL FORMAT FOR DG SET MONITORING DG Set No.297 0. 11. 7. 16. vibrations.325 0.007 0. Electricity Generating Capacity (Site).007 0. 12.362 0. Lit/kWh 0.005 0. etc. 4. 8.003 79 81 94 88 76 69 75 65 85 70 80 78 74 91 96 77 0. 1.006 0. 17.335 0.9. 19.5 is useful for monitoring the performance TABLE 9. 5. i) Comments on housekeeping issues like drip leakages.345 0.342 0.353 0.002 0.024 0.338 Specific Lube Oil Cons.006 0. 2.335 0. 9.002 0. 15. 22.
dust free air at intake (use of air washers for large sets. g) Ensure steady load conditions. k) Carryout regular field trials to monitor DG set performance. and maintenance planning as per requirements.5 Energy Saving Measures for DG Sets a) Ensure steady load conditions on the DG set. c) Ensure fuel oil storage. handling and preparation as per manufacturers' guidelines/oil company data. consider partial use of biomass gas for generation. Ensure tar removal from the gas for improving availability of the engine in the long run. avoiding fluctuations. imbalance in phases. e) Calibrate fuel injection pumps frequently. i) In terms of fuel cost economy.9. harmonic loads. d) Consider fuel oil additives in case they benefit fuel oil properties for DG set usage. in case of dry. f) Ensure compliance with maintenance checklist. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 177 . vapour absorption system adoption. h) In case of a base load operation. can be considered). hot weather. consider waste heat recovery system adoption for steam generation or refrigeration chiller unit incorporation. Even the Jacket Cooling Water is amenable for heat recovery. DG Set System 9. and provide cold. b) Improve air filtration. j) Consider parallel operation among the DG sets for improved loading and fuel economy thereof.
How do you assess waste heat recovery potential in a DG set? What are the factors affecting waste heat recovery from DG sets? What is the role of an energy manager/auditor for energy efficiency in DG plants of an industrial unit? List the energy savings opportunities in an industrial DG set plant.9. 12. 11. 6. 5. What is the desirable set rating with respect to 0. Explain the principle of a four stroke diesel engine. 3. 9. Proceedings of National Workshop on Efficient Captive Power Generation with Industrial DG Sets NPC Case Studies Wartsila-NSD Literature Bureau of Energy Efficiency 178 . The efficiency of a Genset ranges between: a) 20 – 25% (b) 0 – 20% (c) 40 – 45% (d) 60 – 70% What are the components of a DG Set System? List briefly the salient developments in DG Plants. 2. 4. 2. 8. REFERENCES 1. 7.8 PF and the set load factor of 75%? What is the effect of altitude and intake air temperature on DG set output? What is the function of turbo charger in DG set? Draw a typical energy balance of a DG Set. Connected load of a plant is 1200 kW and Diversity factor is 1. DG Set System QUESTIONS 1. 10. 3.8.
Alarm is sounded when demand approaches a preset value.1 Maximum Demand Controller and restarted as per the desired load profile.1) is a device designed to meet the need of industries conscious of the value of load management. the controller switches off non-essential loads in a logical sequence. Energy efficient lighting controls. Energy efficient motors. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 179 . The plant equipments selected for the load management are stopped Figure 10. Soft starters with energy saver. Maximum Demand Controllers High-tension (HT) consumers have to pay a maximum demand charge in addition to the usual charge for the number of units consumed. Occupancy sensors. Variable speed drives. Energy saving potential of each technology.1. This charge is usually based on the highest amount of power used during some period (say 30 minutes) during the metering month. Demand control scheme is implemented by using suitable control contactors.10. The maximum demand charge often represents a large proportion of the total bill and may be based on only one isolated 30 minute episode of high power use. If corrective action is not taken. 10. Considerable savings can be realised by monitoring power use and turning off or reducing non-essential loads during such periods of high power use. This sequence is predetermined by the user and is programmed jointly by the user and the supplier of the device. Energy efficient transformers. Audio and visual annunciations could also be used. Automatic power factor controllers. ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Syllabus Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical Systems: Maximum demand controllers. Electronic ballast. Maximum Demand Controller (See Figure10.
this may give leading PF at the substation. This is compared with a reference voltage. when maintaining a particular voltage is of prime importance. which measures the power factor of the installation and converts it to a DC voltage of appropriate polarity. During light load time and low source voltage. Relay is the brain of control circuit and needs contactors of appropriate rating for switching on/off the capacitors. which are fed to the PF correction mechanism. Figure 10. There is a built-in power factor transducer.10. The capacitors can be switched to respond to a decreasing power factor as a result of change in system loading. which is to be taken note of. Kilovar control requires two inputs . This type of control is independent of load cycle. either the microprocessor or the relay. Generally. Two of the most common controls are: Voltage Control and kVAr Control Voltage Control Voltage alone can be used as a source of intelligence when the switched capacitors are applied at point where the circuit voltage decreases as circuit load increases. This type of control can also be used to avoid penalty on low power factor by adding capacitors in steps as the system power factor begins to lag behind the desired value. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 180 .current and voltage from the incoming feeder.2) are used at locations where the voltage level is closely regulated and not available as a control variable. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System 10. Voltage is the most common type of intelligence used in substation applications.2 Automatic Power Factor Control Relay It controls the power factor of the installation by giving signals to switch on or off power factor correction capacitors. which can be set by means of a knob calibrated in terms of power factor. where they are applied the voltage should decrease as circuit load increases and the drop in voltage should be around 4 – 5 % with increasing load.2 Automatic Power Factor Controllers Various types of automatic power factor controls are available with relay / microprocessor logic. KILOVAR Control Kilovar sensitive controls (see Figure 10.
only when the PF goes beyond this range. This avoids dangerous over voltage transient. the capacitors are switched on in sequence. Intelligent Power Factor Controller (IPFC) This controller determines the rating of capacitance connected in each step during the first hour of its operation and stores them in memory.at higher cost . Special timing sequences ensure that capacitors are fully discharged before they are switched in.3 Energy Efficient Motors Minimising Watts Loss in Motors Improvements in motor efficiency can be achieved without compromising motor performance . All of these changes to reduce motor losses are possible with existing motor design and manufacturing technology. Under current blocking (low current cut out) shuts off the relay. The capacitors controlled by the relay must be of the same rating and they are switched on/off in linear sequence.within the limits of existing design and manufacturing technology. 10. it can be seen that any improvement in motor efficiency must result from reducing the Watts losses. The solid state indicating lamps (LEDS) display various functions that the operator should know and also and indicate each capacitor switching stage. a dead band is provided. When the load is low. switching off all capacitors one by one in sequence. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System When the power factor falls below setting. Based on this measurement. The relays are provided with First in First out (FIFO) and First in Last Out (FILO) sequence. This setting determines the range of phase angle over which the relay does not respond. require additional materials and/or the use of higher quality materials and improved manufacturing processes resulting in increased motor cost. To prevent over correction hunting. In terms of the existing state of electric motor technology.10.1. the IPFC switches on the most appropriate steps.3 Energy Efficient Motor They would. however. Figure 10. From the Table 10. thus eliminating the hunting problems normally associated with capacitor switching. Simply Stated: REDUCED LOSSES = IMPROVED EFFICIENCY Bureau of Energy Efficiency 181 . when load current is below setting. a reduction in watts losses can be achieved in various ways. the relay acts. the effect of the capacitors is more pronounced and may lead to hunting.
and improved manufacturing techniques. Generally. required time between re-greasing increases. Stator I2 R 3. lowering conductor resistance (R) and losses due to current flow (I). motor life doubles for each 10°C reduction in operating temperature.10. Select energy-efficient motors with a 1. Efficiency comparison for standard and high efficiency motors is shown in Figure 10. Use of more copper and larger conductors increases cross sectional area of stator windings. the motor is oversized for the application. Electrical power problems. or its nominal efficiency has been reduced by damage or previous rewinds. Longer core adds more steel to the design. Lower temperatures translate to long lasting insulation. which reduces losses due to lower operating flux densities. Use of larger rotor conductor bars increases size of cross section. This is true if the motor runs continuously. bearing grease lasts longer. Use of low loss fan design reduces losses due to air movement. better materials. Use of optimised design and strict quality control procedures minimizes stray load losses. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 182 . Rotor I2 R 4. Friction & Windage 5.4 Technical aspects of Energy Efficient Motors Figure 10. power rates are high. Stray Load Loss Thus energy-efficient electric motors reduce energy losses through improved design. lower loss core steel reduces eddy current losses. especially poor incoming power quality can affect the operation of energy-efficient motors. At lower temperatures. Replacing a motor may be justifiable solely on the electricity cost savings derived from an energy-efficient replacement. and may require less maintenance.4 Efficiency Range for Standard and High Efficiency Motors Energy-efficient motors last longer. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System TABLE 10. This lowers resistance (R) of the windings and reduces losses due to current flow (I).1 WATT LOSS AREA AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT Watts Loss Area 1. Iron Efficiency Improvement Use of thinner gauge. 2.15 service factor. and design for operation at 85% of the rated motor load.
Figure 10.10. Motor life will be extended as damage to windings and bearings is reduced. The use of Star Delta only provides a partial solution to the problem. Facility managers should be careful when applying efficient motors to high torque applications.5) provides a reliable and economical solution to these problems by delivering a controlled release of power to the motor. belts. etc. AC Induction motor develops more torque than is required at full speed.6).4 Soft Starter When starting. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System Speed control is crucial in some applications. providing controlled starting and stopping with a selection of ramp times and current limit settings to suit all applications (see Figure 10. the higher the efficiency. Less slippage in energy efficient motors results in speeds about 1% faster than in standard counterparts. Starting torque for efficient motors may be lower than for standard motors. Lower maximum demand.6 Soft Starter: Starting current. stepless acceleration and deceleration. Should the motor slow down during the transition period. 10. gears. Figure 10. In polyphase induction motors. mechanical seals. Additionally. This stress is transferred to the mechanical transmission system resulting in excessive wear and premature failure of chains. Stress profile during starting Advantages of Soft Start – – – – Less mechanical stress Improved power factor. Less mechanical maintenance 183 Bureau of Energy Efficiency . slip is a measure of motor winding losses. Soft Start & Soft Stop is built into 3 phase units. The lower the slip. thereby providing smooth.5 Soft Starter the high peaks can be repeated and can even exceed direct on line current. Soft starter (see Figure 10. rapid acceleration also has a massive impact on electricity supply charges with high inrush currents drawing +600% of the normal run current.
The motor will consume only 25% as much energy at 50% speed than it will at 100% speed. and a 3:1 speed increase (300 percent of full speed). machine tools. The energy savings potential of variable torque applications is much greater than that of constant torque applications. Motors connected to VFD provide variable speed mechanical output with high efficiency. and the loads that are applied to. punch presses.C. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System 10. resulting in a large reduction of horsepower for even a small reduction in speed. the technology of AC variable frequency drives (VFD) has evolved into highly sophisticated digital microprocessor control. The VFD rectifies standard 50 cycle AC line power to DC. The following laws illustrates these relationships: ❖ Flow is proportional to speed ❖ Head is proportional to (speed)2 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 184 . which make up the majority of HVAC applications. Although the number of poles in an induction motor cannot be altered easily. which define the relationships between speed. varying the resistance of the rotor circuit. Constant Torque Variable speed drives. using multi speed windings. Variable Torque Vs. System. varying the input voltage. in addition to the significant reduction in physical size. including. Constant torque loads include vibrating conveyors. the torque required varies with the square of the speed. can generally be divided into two groups: constant torque and variable torque. This has led to significantly advanced capabilities from the ease of programmability to expanded diagnostics. The speed can also be varied through a number of other means. The rotational speed of an AC induction motor depends on the number of poles in that stator and the frequency of the applied AC power. The two most significant benefits from the evolution in technology have been that of cost and reliability. or by using rotary or static voltage and frequency converters. rock crushers. and other applications where the drive follows a constant V/Hz ratio. variable speed can be achieved through a variation in frequency. using mechanical means such as gears and pulleys and eddy-current or fluid coupling. This is referred to as the Affinity Laws. and the horsepower required varies with the cube of the speed. along with high switching frequency IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bi Polar Transistors) power devices.10. On account of high cost-implications and limitations of D. Variable torque loads include centrifugal pumps and fans. torque. Variable Frequency Drive The VFD operates on a simple principle. induction motors are preferred for variable speed application. flow.5 Variable Speed Drives Speed Control of Induction Motors Induction motor is the workhorse of the industry. It is cheap rugged and provides high power to weight ratio. In recent years. Why Variable Torque Loads Offer Greatest Energy Savings In variable torque applications. These devices are capable of up to a 9:1 speed reduction ratio (11 percent of full speed). using Scherbius or Kramer drives. and horsepower. then synthesizes the DC to a variable frequency AC output. the speed of which can be varied by changing the supply frequency.
but drives can be programmed to ramp up the motor much more gradually and smoothly. on the other hand. but are sufficient for the majority of variable speed drive applications. Full-voltage (across the line) starters can only run the motor at full speed. These drives are unable to retrieve feedback from the process. Extended equipment life and reduced maintenance Single-speed starting methods start motors abruptly. modern AC variable speed drives are very close to the DC drive in terms of fast torque response and speed accuracy. or a sensor less vector drive. Many open-loop variable speed drives do offer slip compensation though.10. and back down to shutdown. machine tool. Variable speed drives. Closed-loop operation can be accomplished with either a field-oriented vector drive. or reduced-voltage soft starters (RVSS). Variable speed drives can also run a motor in specialized patterns to further minimise mechanical and electriBureau of Energy Efficiency 185 . which allows the drive to hold the set point based on actual feedback from the process. which measures and transmits to the drive the speed and/or rate of the process. Most variable torque drives have Proportional Integral Differential (PID) capability for fan and pump applications. which communicates the feedback from the process to the drive. on the other hand. or extruder. and soft starts and reduced voltage soft starters can only gradually ramp the motor up to full speed. reducing maintenance and repair costs. such as a conveyor. or to apply a specific amount of torque. can be programmed to run the motor at a precise speed. The variable speed drive uses this continual feedback to adjust itself to hold the set point. torque. which enables the drive to measure its output current and estimate the difference in actual speed and the set point (the programmed input value). The drive will then automatically adjust itself towards the set point based on this estimation. and extending the life of the motor and the driven equipment. In fact. gradually ramp the motor up to operating speed to lessen mechanical and electrical stress. High levels of accuracy for other applications can also be achieved through drives that offer closed-loop operation. which means they provide open-loop operation. and/or position. or liquid level. The field-oriented vector drive obtains process feedback from an encoder. However. rate. Variable speed drives. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System ❖ Torque is proportional to (speed)2 ❖ Power is proportional to (speed)3 Tighter process control with variable speed drives No other AC motor control method compares to variable speed drives when it comes to accurate process control. air flow rate. to stop at a precise position. Most drives used in the field utilize Volts/Hertz type control. AC motors are much more reliable and affordable than DC motors. subjecting the motor to a high starting torque and to current surges that are up to 10 times the full-load current. and can operate the motor at less than full speed to decrease wear and tear. making them far more prevalent. The drive then adjusts itself accordingly to sustain the programmed speed. Then the signal is sent to a PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers). are also able to step a motor up gradually. Soft starts. rather than relying on estimation. A transducer or transmitter is used to detect process variables such as pressure levels. liquid flow rate.
For example. frequency controllers are relatively reliable and need little maintenance. The interaction of the fluxes produced by the two currents gives rise to a torque at the Figure 10. a slip power recovery system varies the rotor voltage to control speed. so the loss is also generally not significant.8) work on the hydrodynamic principle. Eddy Current Drives This method employs an eddy-current clutch to vary the output speed. which reduces motor efficiency and reduces motor output . The motor starts with the load at rest and a DC excitation is provided to the secondary member.in some cases it may necessitate using a motor with a higher rating. The major disadvantage of this system is relatively poor efficiency particularly at low speeds. In a suitable operating environment. but at low power requirement the absolute kVAr requirement is low.7 Eddy Current Drive load shaft. A disadvantage of static converters is the generation of harmonics in the supply. The efficiency of VSDs generally decreases with speed but since the torque requirement also decreases with speed for many VSD applications.7) Slip Power Recovery Systems Slip power recovery is a more efficient alternative speed control mechanism for use with slipring motors. which reduces the backlash that can occur when a conveyor is accelerating or decelerating. Because of the relatively sophisticated equipment needed. slip power recovery tends to be economical only in relatively high power applications and where the motor speed range is 1:5 or less. without changing the speed of the motor. but instead of dissipating power through resistors. The power factor of a VSD drops drastically with speed. Typical full-load efficiencies are 95% and higher. In essence. an S-curve pattern can be applied to a conveyor application for smoother control. (see Figure 10. By varying the DC excitation the output speed can be varied to match the load requirements.10. The secondary member is separately excited using a DC field winding. which induces eddy-currents in the primary member. The clutch consists of a primary member coupled to the shaft of the motor and a freely revolving secondary member coupled to the load shaft. Inside every fluid coupling are two basic elements – the impeller and the runner and together they conBureau of Energy Efficiency 186 . Construction Fluid couplings (see Figure 10. High power units are still more efficient. the absolute loss is often not very significant. Fluid Coupling Fluid coupling is one way of applying varying speeds to the driven equipment. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System cal stress. the excess power is collected from the slip rings and returned as mechanical power to the shaft or as electrical power back to the supply line.
maximum fluid is transmitted from impeller to rotor and maximum torque is transmitted from the coupling.10. The impeller is connected to the prime mover while the rotor has a shaft bolted to it. 10. Operating Principle There is no mechanical inter-connection between Figure 10. which is of great importance. They are suitably enclosed in a casing. The slipping characteristic of fluid coupling provides a wide range of choice of power transmission characteristics. The impeller and the rotor are bowl shaped and have large number of radial vanes. This maximum torque is the limiting torque. The fluid coupling has the same characteristics in both directions of rotation. One can imagine the impeller as a centrifugal pump and the runner as a turbine.8 Fluid Coupling the impeller and the rotor and the power is transmitted by virtue of the fluid filled in the coupling. When the impeller is rotated by the prime mover. Thin mineral oil of low viscosity and goodlubricating qualities is filled in the fluid coupling from the filling plug provided on its body. A fusible plug is provided on the fluid coupling which blows off and drains out oil from the coupling in case of sustained overloading.6 Energy Efficient Transformers Most energy loss in dry-type transformers occurs through heat or vibration from the core. the normal torque transmitting capacity can be varied. Slip is an important and inherent characteristic of a fluid coupling resulting in several desired advantages. The conventional transformer is made up of a silicon alloyed iron (grain oriented) core. the fluid flows out radially and then axially under the action of centrifugal force. The fluid coupling also acts as a torque limiter. The new high-efficiency transformers minimise these losses. facing each other with an air gap. The maximum torque or limiting torque of the fluid coupling can also be set to a pre-determined safe value by adjusting the oil filling. This shaft is further connected to the driven equipment through a suitable arrangement. As the slip increases. By varying the quantity of oil filled in the fluid coupling. However when the rotor is at a stand still. The iron loss of any transformer depends on Bureau of Energy Efficiency 187 . Characteristics Fluid coupling has a centrifugal characteristic during starting thus enabling no-load start up of prime mover. It then crosses the air gap to the runner and is directed towards the bowl axis and back to the impeller. To enable the fluid to flow from impeller to rotor it is essential that there is difference in head between the two and thus it is essential that there is difference in RPM known as slip between the two. more and more fluid can be transferred. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System stitute the working circuit.
The current flow takes place through an atmosphere of lowpressure mercury vapour. Figure 10. which is quite significant. At present amorphous metal core transformers are available up to 1600 kVA.5% efficiency at 35% load. Conventional Vs Electronic Ballasts The conventional ballasts make use of the kick caused by sudden physical disruption of current in an inductive circuit to produce the high voltage required for starting the lamp and then rely on reactive voltage drop in the ballast to reduce the voltage applied across the lamp. Fluorescent lamp is an electric discharge lamp. The auxillary circuit housed in a casing is known as ballast. generally tend to go beyond the limits specified by Indian standard specifications. However the latest technology is to use amorphous material . When sufficient voltage is impressed on these electrodes.with unique physical and magnetic properties.7 Electronic Ballast Role of Ballast In an electric circuit the ballast acts as a stabilizer. Though these transformers are a little costlier than conventional iron core transformers. With high values of current and flux densities the operational losses and temperature rise are on the higher side in conventional choke.a metallic glass alloy for the core (see Figure 10. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 188 . The expected reduction in energy loss over conventional (Si Fe core) transformers is roughly around 70%.9 1600 kVA Amorphous Core Transformer 10. By using an amorphous core. On account of the mechanical switch (starter) and low resistance of filament when cold the uncontrolled filament current.9).these new type of transformers have increased efficiencies even at low loads – 98. Electrical distribution transformers made with amorphous metal cores provide excellent opportunity to conserve energy right from the installation. they need an ancillary circuit and device to get started and remain illuminated. electrons are driven from one electrode and attracted to the other.10. The two electrodes are separated inside a tube with no apparent connection between them. Since the fluorescent lamps cannot produce light by direct connection to the power source. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System the type of core used in the transformer. the overall benefit towards energy savings will compensate for the higher initial investment.
Another significant benefit resulting from this phenomenon is the absence of stroboscopic effect. proportional to the RMS (Root Mean Square) value of the current. This phenomenon along with continued persistence of the phosphors at high frequency will improve light output from 8–12 percent. 10. thereby significantly improving the quality of light output. It is now well established that the fluorescent lamp efficiency in the kHz range is higher than those attainable at low frequencies. since occupants often remain still or quiet for short periods and do not appreciate being plunged into darkness if not constantly moving around. At higher frequencies (kHz range). To stabilize the gas discharge 3. The basic functions of electronic ballast are: 1. the gas will stay ionized and. If the period of frequency of excitation is smaller than the light retention time constant for the gas in the lamp. and off again after a set time period. This is achieved in two ways. the ionisation state cannot follow the instantaneous variations of the current and hence the ionisation density is approximately a constant. acoustic. To supply the power to the lamp The electronic ballasts (see Figure 10. when no occupancy movement detected. And second is increased light output due to the excitation of the lamp phosphors with high frequency. which detect either movement or noise in room spaces.8 Energy Efficient Lighting Controls Occupancy Sensors Occupancy-linked control can be achieved using infra-red. quite unlike old fashioned magnetic ballasts. With this type of system it is important to incorporate a built-in time delay. This is possible only with high frequency electronic ballast.10. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 189 . The circuit components form a tuned circuit to deliver power to the lamp at a high resonant frequency (in the vicinity of 25 kHz) and voltage is regulated through an inbuilt feedback mechanism. The first is its amazingly low internal core loss. They are designed to override manual switches and to prevent a situation where lighting is left on in unoccupied spaces. To ignite the lamp 2. therefore. These sensors switch lighting on when occupancy is detected. ultrasonic or microwave sensors. produce light continuously. At lower frequencies (50 or 60 Hz) the electron density in the lamp is proportional to the instantaneous value of the current because the ionisation state in the tube is able to follow the Figure 10.10 Electronic Ballast instantaneous variations in the current. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System The high frequency electronic ballast overcomes the above drawbacks. One of largest advantages of an electronic ballast is the enormous energy savings it provides.10) make use of modern power semi-conductor devices for their operation.
It is however important to incorporate time delays into the control system to avoid repeated rapid switching caused. Daylight Linked Control Photoelectric cells can be used either simply to switch lighting on and off. Dimming control is also more likely to be acceptable to room occupants. By using an internally mounted photoelectric dimming control system. Typical units of this type are vulnerable to damage because the shaft is weak and the knob is not securely attached to the shaft.11 Timed Turnoff Switch silent. Dial timers allow the occupant to set the time span." a spring-wound mechanical timer that is set by twisting the knob to the desired time. the best choice is an electronic unit that allows the engineering staff to set a fixed time interval behind the cover plate. but this is not likely to be done with a view toward optimising efficiency. In some cases. while still operating it in other areas where it is required. Localized Switching Localized switching should be used in applications which contain large spaces. Local switches give individual occupants control over their visual environment and also facilitate energy savings. Some models allow occupants to keep the lights on. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 190 . Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System Timed Based Control Timed-turnoff switches are the least expensive type of automatic lighting control. The choice of time span is a compromise. overriding the timer. The energy saving potential of dimming control is greater than a simple photoelectric switching system. a situation which is impossible if the lighting for an entire space is controlled from a single switch. Electronic switches can be made much more rugged than the spring-wound dial timer. or for dimming. Newer types of timed-turnoff switches are completely electronic and Figure 10. Some spring-wound units make an annoying ticking sound as they operate. then the electric lighting can be turned off. by fast moving clouds. Most models allow occupants to turn off the lights manually.10. their low cost and ease of installation makes it desirable to use them where more efficient controls would be too expensive (see Figure 10. Some electronic models provide a choice of time intervals. Types and Features The oldest and most common type of timed-turnoff switch is the "dial timer. These units typically have a spring-loaded toggle switch that turns on the circuit for a preset time interval. For most applications. By using localized switching it is possible to turn off artificial lighting in specific areas. Shorter time spans waste less energy but increase the probability that the lights will turn off while someone is in the space.11). which you select by adjusting a knob located behind the faceplate. it is possible to ensure that the sum of daylight and electric lighting always reaches the design level by sensing the total light in the controlled area and adjusting the output of the electric lighting accordingly. If daylight alone is able to meet the design requirements. They may be mounted either externally or internally. for example. Timed-turnoff switches are available with a wide range of time spans.
acoustic. 2. 3.Ring Induction motor 10. 5. Handbook of Energy Engineering. 2. – Albert Thumann & Paul Mehta. INC. Explain the principle of automatic power factor controller . 2002 – Dr.10. 6. Hydrodynamic principle for speed control is used in a) DC drives b) Fluid coupling c) Pulse width modulation d) Eddy Current Drive Typical loss in conventional magnetic chokes for a 40 W FTL is of the order of a) 8 Watts b) 14 Watts c) 20 Watts d) 6 Watts Which method uses infrared. What are the advantages of energy efficient motors? What are the precautions to be taken in the case of energy efficient motor application ? Explain the working of a soft starter and its advantage over other conventional starters. Butterworth Heinemann. Energy Efficient Technologies in Electrical System QUESTIONS 1. Explain how maximum demand control works. 4. 7. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 191 . Clive Beggs. ultrasonic or microwave sensors for lighting control? a) Time-based control b) Daylight-linked control c) Occupancy-linked control d) Localized switching Slip Power Recovery system is used in a) All kinds of motors b) Synchronous motors d) None of the above c) Slip . The Fairmont Press. REFERENCES 1. 9. Energy Management Supply and Conservation. 8. Explain why centrifugal machines offers the greatest savings when used with Variable Speed Drives.
and only when they are operating at less than one-third to one-half capacity. Replacement of under loaded motors with smaller motors will allow a fully loaded smaller motor to operate at a higher efficiency. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF MOTORS AND VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES 5. In this state. depending on their size. With motors designed to perform this function efficiently. The efficiencies of induction motors remain almost constant between 50% to 100% loading (Refer figure 5. When a motor has a higher rating than that required by the equipment. Figure 5. Loading 5. the opportunity for savings with motors rests primarily in their selection and use. This arrangement is generally most economical for larger motors.2 Performance Terms and Definitions Efficiency : The efficiency of the motor is given by Pout Ploss η = —— = 1 – —— Pin Pin Where Pout – Output power of the motor Pin – Input power of the motor PLoss – Losses occurring in motor Motor Loading : Motor Loading % = Actual operating load of the motor x 100 Rated capacity of the motor Bureau of Energy Efficiency 73 .1 Introduction The two parameters of importance in a motor are efficiency and power factor.1).5. the efficiency of the motor is reduced.1 Efficiency vs. motor operates at part load.
Europe: IEC 60034-2. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives 5. frequency and voltage are noted. 235 + t1 The rotor resistance can be determined from locked rotor test at reduced frequency.5. the operating temperature is likely to be in the range of 100°C to 120°C and necessary correction should be made. Rotor I2R losses = Slip x (Stator Input . and the new IEC 61972 US: IEEE 112 . The no load P. Slip also must be corrected to operating temperature. The following are the testing standards widely used. From the input power. Field Tests for Determining Efficiency (Note: The following section is a repeat of material provided in the chapter-2 on Electrical Motors in Book-3. It is worthwhile plotting no-load input kW versus Voltage. is quite low and hence low PF watt meters are required. Stray Load Losses : These losses are difficult to measure with any accuracy. IS and IEC standards take a fixed value as 0. Input power.F. The correction factor is given as follows : R2 —– R1 235 + t2 = ———– . To separate core and F & W losses.5 % of Bureau of Energy Efficiency 74 .) No Load Test : The motor is run at rated voltage and frequency without any shaft load. IEEE Standard 112 gives a complicated method.Stator I2R Losses . current. °C & t2 = operating temperature. stator I2R losses under no load are subtracted to give the sum of Friction and Windage (F&W) and core losses. For modern motors. measurement of output or losses need a laborious exercise with extensive testing facilities.3 Efficiency Testing While input power measurements are fairly simple. t1 = ambient temperature.Core Loss) Accurate measurement of slip is possible by stroboscope or non-contact type tachometer. The resistance must be corrected to the operating temperature. For simplicity nameplate efficiency rating may be used for calculations if the motor load is in the range of 50 -100 %. which is rarely used on shop floor. test is repeated at variable voltages. the intercept is F & W kW loss component. °C. F&W and core losses = No load power (watts) – (No load current)2 x Stator resistance Stator and Rotor I2R Losses : The stator winding resistance is directly measured by a bridge or volt amp method. Correction to 75°C may be inaccurate. but rotor I2R losses are measured from measurement of rotor slip. where.Method B Japan: JEC 37 Even between these standards the difference in efficiency value is up to 3%.
5 % 1.112 specifies values from 0. b) From rated speed and output. V Current.74 Watts Calculate iron plus friction and windage losses Calculate stator resistance at 120°C 235 + t2 R2 = R1 x ———— 235 + t1 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 75 . F Stator phase resistance at 30°C No load power. I Frequency.264 Ohms 1063. core and F & W losses are determined for stray loss The method is illustrated by the following example : Example : Motor Specifications Rated power Voltage Current Speed Insulation class Frame Connection No load test Data Voltage.9 % to 1. rotor I2R losses are calculated c) From no load test. I2R losses are calculated. Estimation of efficiency in the field can be summarized as follows: a) Measure stator resistance and correct to operating temperature.9 % Points for Users : It must be clear that accurate determination of efficiency is very difficult.8 % 1. It must be remarked that actual value of stray losses is likely to be more. Motor Rating 1 – 125 HP 125 – 500 HP 501 – 2499 HP 2500 and above Stray Losses 1. Pnl a) b) = = = = = = = 34 kW/45 HP 415 Volt 57 Amps 1475 rpm F LD 200 L Delta = = = = = 415 Volts 16. From rated current value.2 % 0.5. IEEE . Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives output.8 %.1 Amps 50 Hz 0. The same motor tested by different methods and by same methods by different manufacturers can give a difference of 2 %.
5 % of the motor rated power Calculate motor full load efficiency and full load power factor Solution a) Let Iron plus friction and windage loss. Pst.43 = 995. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives c) d) e) f) Calculate stator copper losses at operating temperature of resistance at 120°C Calculate full load slip(s) and rotor input assuming rotor losses are slip times rotor input.354 ohms per phase Stator copper losses at full load.0167) = 34577.cu) = 3 x (16.5. Pnl = 1063. 120 + 235 R120°C = 0. Pi + fw No load power.3 + (0.1 / √3)2 x 0. Pr = Poutput/ (1-S) = 34000 / (1-0. P st-30°C (Pst.cu = 1063.264 = 68.0167 Rotor input.8 Watts * where.43 Watts Pi + fw = Pnl . P input = Pr + Pst.74 – 68. Determine the motor input assuming that stray losses are 0.4 Watts e) Motor full load input power.5% of rated output (assumed) Motor efficiency at full load Poutput Efficiency = ——– x 100 Pinput = = Bureau of Energy Efficiency c) d) f) 34000 ——– 36892.Pst.8 92.264 x ————— 30 + 235 = 0.354 = 1150.1 Watts Full load slip S = (1500 – 1475) / 1500 = 0. stray losses = 0.3 W b) Stator Resistance at 120°C.2% 76 .cu 120°C = 3 x (57 / √3)2 x 0.74 Watts Stator Copper loss.4 + 1150.1 + 995.005* x 34000) = 36892.cu 120°C + (Pi + fw) + Pstray = 34577.
e) When a motor is rewound. b) The actual value of stray loss of motors up to 200 HP is likely to be 1 % to 3 % compared to 0. c) The value of full load slip taken from the nameplate data is not accurate.5 % assumed by standards.5.8 ——————– √3 x 415 x 57 0. So corresponding input power at full-rated load Nameplate full rated kW Pir = ———————————————— • • ηfl ηfl = Efficiency at full-rated load Pir = Input power at full-rated load in kW • The percentage loading can now be calculated as follows Pi Load = — x 100% Pir Bureau of Energy Efficiency 77 . Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives Full Load PF = Pinput = —————– = √3 x V x Ifl = = = = 36892. it is not added to the rated shaft output. in the above calculation. there is a fair chance that the resistance per phase would increase due to winding material quality and the losses would be higher. 5. It would be interesting to assess the effect of a nominal 10 % increase in resistance per phase.4 Determining Motor Loading 1.90 Comments : a) The measurement of stray load losses is very difficult and not practical even on test beds. however. Actual measurement under full load conditions will give better results. By Input Power Measurements • First measure input power Pi with a hand held or in-line power meter Pi = Three-phase power in kW Note the rated kW and efficiency from the motor name plate The figures of kW mentioned in the name plate is for output conditions. before calculating the rotor input power. d) The friction and windage losses really are part of the shaft output. The error however is minor.
Pir Percentage loading = 15 /0. Input power at full-rated power in kW. efficiency η = 0. down to about 75% of full load. Find out the loading of the motor.5 kW = 3 kW Bureau of Energy Efficiency 78 . Below the 75% load point.5 kW Determine actual output power. actual output power would be 40% x 7. = 120f/P) f: frequency. Using a power meter the actual three phase power drawn is found to be 8 kW. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives Example The nameplate details of a motor are given as power = 15 kW.9.7 kW = 8/16. % Load = Input load current ———————— *100 (Valid up to 75% loading) Input rated current 3. Slip Method In the absence of a power meter. In the low load region. power factor degrades and the amperage curve becomes increasingly non-linear.5.9 = 16.Measured speed in rpm Ss = Synchronous speed in rpm at the operating frequency Sr = Nameplate full-load speed Example: Slip Load Calculation Given: Synchronous speed in rpm (Synchronous speed Nameplate full load speed Measured speed in rpm Nameplate rated power = 1500 at 50 HZ operating frequency. 1500 – 1480 Load = ————— 1500 – 1450 *100% = 40% From the above equation. Load = Slip —— *100% Ss–Sr Where: Load = Output power as a % of rated power Slip = Synchronous speed . P: Number of poles = 1450 = 1480 = 7. current measurements are not a useful indicator of load. However. the slip method can be used which requires a tachometer. The amperage draw of a motor varies approximately linearly with respect to load.7 = 48 % 2. By Line Current Measurements The line current load estimation method is used when input power cannot be measured and only amperage measurements are possible. This method also does not give the exact loading on the motors. this method may be used only as a preliminary method just for the purpose of identification of oversized motors.
if smaller diameter wire is used. When rewinding a motor. A review of the rewind shop's procedure should also provide some indication of the quality of work. The voltage compensated load can be calculated as shown Slip Load = ———————– x 100% (Ss – Sr) x (Vr/V)2 Where: Load = Output power as a % of rated power Slip Ss Sr V Vr = Synchronous speed . Slip also varies inversely with respect to the motor terminal voltage squared. A voltage correction factor can. A relatively simple procedure for evaluating rewind quality is to keep a log of no-load input current for each motor in the population. the resistance and the I2R losses will increase. also. a comparison should be made of the efficiency before and after a rewinding. a seemingly minor 5 rpm disparity causes a 12% change in calculated load.5. The accuracy of the slip method. is limited. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives The speed/slip method of determining motor part-load is often favored due to its simplicity and safety advantages. Given a 40 rpm "correct" slip. This figure increases with poor quality rewinds. be inserted into the slip load equation. the slip method relies on the difference between full-load nameplate and synchronous speeds. Manufacturers generally round their reported full-load speed values to some multiple of 5 rpm. The largest uncertainty relates to the accuracy with which manufacturers report the nameplate full-load speed.Measured speed in rpm = Synchronous speed in rpm = Nameplate full-load speed = RMS voltage.5 Performance Evaluation of Rewound Motors Ideally. mean line to line of 3 phases = Nameplate rated voltage 5. Most motors are constructed such that the shaft is accessible to a tachometer or a strobe light. however. While 5 rpm is but a small percent of the full-load speed and may be considered as insignificant. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 79 .
Load is quite steady. stops.Load starts. stops. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives 5.if yes How many times rewound ?--No Motor Loading %_________________ Bureau of Energy Efficiency 80 . and fluctuates when "On" Measured Data Supply Voltage By Voltmeter VRY ________ V avg ______ VYB ________ VBR ________ Input Amps By Ammeter A a __________ A b __________ A avg ______ A c __________ Power Factor (PF) _____________________ Input Power (kW) ______________________ Motor Operating Speed ____________RPM At frequency of __________ Driven Equipment Operating Speed __________RPM Type of Transmission (Direct/Gear/Fluid coupling) Stator resistance per phase = Rewound Yes .6 Format for Data Collection The motor loading survey can be performed using the format given below: Motor Field Measurement Format Company_________________________ Location_______________________ Date ________ Process________________________ Department_____________________ General Data Driven Equipment__________________ Motor Name Plate Data Manufacturer ______________________ Model ___________________________ Serial Number _____________________ Type :Squirrel cage/Slp ring__________ Size (hp/kW)______________________ Synchronous Speed (RPM) ___________ Full-Load Speed (RPM) _____________ Voltage Rating _____________________ Full-Load Amperage ________________ Full-Load Power Factor (%) __________ Full-Load Efficiency (%) ____________ Temperature Rise __________________ Insulation Class ____________________ From Test Certificate Load Current PF Efficiency 100% 75% 25% No Load Motor Operating Profile: No of hours of operation I Shift _____________ II Shift _____________ III Shift _____________ Annual Operating Time ______ hours/year Type of load 1. but is constant when "On" 3.5.Load starts. motor "On" during shift 2.
7. 5. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency Figure 5. and p is the number of poles in any multiple of 2. variable pulley etc. as well as the number of poles in the motor stator.5.1 Components of a Variable Speed Drive 81 . and to enable control of the output frequency. This is expressed by the equation: RPM = (f x 120) / p Where f is the frequency in Hz. The rectifier receives the 50-Hz AC voltage and converts it to direct current (DC) voltage. there are two basic components..7 Application of Variable Speed Drives (VSD) Although there are many methods of varying the speeds of the driven equipment such as hydraulic coupling. Therefore. if the frequency applied to the motor is changed. gear box. the motor speed changes in direct proportion to the frequency change. VSD Power Conversion As illustrated by Figure 5. The control of frequency applied to the motor is the job given to the VSD. The VSD's basic principle of operation is to convert the electrical system frequency and voltage to the frequency and voltage required to drive a motor at a speed other than its rated speed. the most possible method is one of varying the motor speed itself by varying the frequency and voltage by a variable frequency drive. The two most basic functions of a VSD are to provide power conversion from one frequency to another.1. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives The monitoring format for rewound motor is given below: 5. to accomplish power conversion. a rectifier and an inverter. A DC bus inside the VSD functions as a "parking lot" for the DC voltage.1 Concept of Variable Frequency Drive The speed of an induction motor is proportional to the frequency of the AC voltage applied to it.
and positioning. For example. Variable frequency drives should also offer a true system power factor of 0. If the equipment being driven is centrifugal. punch presses. Conveyors. a motor should not be run at any speed less than 20% of its specified maximum speed allowed. or flux vector variable frequency drive. Variable torque operation allows the motor to apply only the torque needed. Auxiliary motor cooling should be used if the motor must be operated at very slow speeds. and other similar type applications require constant level of torque at all speeds. torque. 5. c) Efficiency and Power Factor The variable frequency drive should have an efficiency rating of 95% or better at full load.7. then a variable torque drive will be more appropriate. a fan needs less torque when running at 50% speed than it does when running at full speed.2 Factors for Successful Implementation of Variable Speed Drives a) Load Type for Variable Frequency Drives The main consideration is whether the variable frequency drive application require a variable torque or constant torque drive. to save on demand charges. the motor will overheat. Variable torque variable frequency drives need only an overload current capacity of 120% for one minute since centrifugal applications rarely exceed the rated current. positive displacement pumps. constant torque variable frequency drives would be more appropriate for the job. add together the full-load amp ratings of each of the motors. such as a fan or pump. In which case. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 82 . and to protect the equipment (especially motors). If tight process control is needed. Generally. extruders. A constant torque drive should have an overload current capacity of 150% or more for one minute. then you may need to utilize a sensor less vector. Energy savings are usually the primary motivation for installing variable torque drives for centrifugal applications.95 or better across the operational speed range.5. b) Motor Information The following motor information will be needed to select the proper variable frequency drive: Full Load Amperage Rating. which converts it back to AC voltage again. d) Protection and Power Quality Motor overload Protection for instantaneous trip and motor over current. Using a motor's horsepower is an inaccurate way to size variable frequency drives. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives DC bus energizes the inverter. Multiple Motors. All motors controlled by a single drive must have an equal voltage rating. The inverter can be controlled to produce an output frequency of the proper value for the desired motor shaft speed. To size a variable frequency drive that will control more than one motor. which allow a high level of accuracy in controlling speed. which results in reduced energy consumption. If it is run at a speed less than this without auxiliary motor cooling. Speed Range.
The history of the previous three faults shall remain in memory for future review. provide indication of the fault condition.3 Example of an excellent variable speed drive candidate Figure 5. In effect the load should be of a varying nature to demand a VSD ( refer figure 5.3 Information needed to Evaluate Energy Savings for Variable Speed Application 1.3 & 5. ground fault.7.4 Example of a poor variable speed drive candidate The first step is to identify the number of operating hours of the equipment at various load conditions.4). 2. 5. Method of flow control to which adjustable speed is compared: o output throttling (pump) or dampers (fan) o recirculation (pump) or unrestrained flow (fan) o adjustable-speed coupling (eddy current coupling) o inlet guide vanes or inlet dampers (fan only) o two-speed motor. control or microprocessor fault. door-interlocked fused disconnect and circuit breaker or motor circuit protector (MCP) To determine if the equipment under consideration is the right choice for a variable speed drive: The load patterns should be thoroughly studied before exercising the option of VSD. Figure 5. If a built-up system is required. Under voltage from a power loss shall be set to automatically restart after return to normal. there should also be externally-operated short circuit protection. over temperature. This can be done by using a Power analyzer with continuous data storage or by a simple energy meter with periodic reading being taken. Pump or fan data: o head v's flow curve for every different type of liquid (pump) or gas (fan) that is handled o Pump efficiency curves. 83 Bureau of Energy Efficiency . and require a manual reset (except under voltage) before restart.5. These protective circuits should provide an orderly shutdown of the VFD. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives Additional Protection: Over and under voltage.
Process information: o specific gravity (for pumps) or specific density of products (for fans) o system resistance head/flow curve o equipment duty cycle. flow levels and time duration. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives 3. 4. i. Efficiency information on all relevant electrical system apparatus: o motors. If we do not have precise information for all of the above.e. constant and variable speed o variable speed drives o gears o transformers. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 84 . we can make reasonable assumptions for points 2 and 4.5.
what method you would suggest for measuring the motor load? A 20 kW rated motor is drawing actual measured power of 14 kW. If the rated efficiency is 92%. Motor challenge: Office of Industrial Technologies. Why it is difficult to measure motor efficiency at site? Describe the various methods by which you calculate motor loading. USA Energy audit Reports of National Productivity Council Bureau of Energy Efficiency 85 . Department of Energy. 2. determine the motor loading? What are the limitations of slip method in determining motor loading? A 4 pole motor is operating at a frequency of 50 Hz. Energy Performance Assessment of Motors and Variable Speed Drives QUESTIONS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Define motor efficiency. If no instrument other than tachometer is available. Find the RPM of the motor? What are the two factors influencing the speed of induction motor? A fan's operating hours and loading are given below: 15 hours at 100% load 8 hours at 95% load 1 hour at 40% load Is the application suitable candidate for application of VSD? 11) The losses in a variable speed drive is a) 12% b) 8% c) <5% d) no losses at all REFERENCES 1.5.
i. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF LIGHTING SYSTEMS 10. The purpose of performance test is to calculate the installed efficacy in terms of lux/watt/m² (existing or design) for general lighting installation. 10.2 Purpose of the Performance Test Most interior lighting requirements are for meeting average illuminance on a horizontal plane. The installed power density per 100 lux is the power needed per square metre of floor area to achieve 100 lux of average maintained illuminance on a horizonBureau of Energy Efficiency 123 . The installed load efficacy of an existing (or design) lighting installation can be assessed by carrying out a survey as indicated in the following pages. Circuit Watts is the total power drawn by lamps and ballasts in a lighting circuit under assessment. indoor and outdoor for providing comfortable working environment. Unit: lumens per circuit watt (lm/W) Installed Power Density. The calculated value can be compared with the norms for specific types of interior installations for assessing improvement options.e. 10.1 Introduction Lighting is provided in industries.3 Performance Terms and Definitions Lumen is a unit of light flow or luminous flux. Lux is the metric unit of measure for illuminance of a surface. either throughout the interior. Unit: lux per watt per square metre (lux/W/m²) Lamp Circuit Efficacy is the amount of light (lumens) emitted by a lamp for each watt of power consumed by the lamp circuit. This is a more meaningful measure for those lamps that require control gear.e highest lighting at lowest power consumption. The primary objective is to provide the required lighting effect for the lowest installed load i. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter.10. The most common measurement of light output (or luminous flux) is the lumen. including control gear losses. Light sources are labeled with an output rating in lumens. commercial buildings. The lumen rating of a lamp is a measure of the total light output of the lamp. Installed Load Efficacy is the average maintained illuminance provided on a horizontal working plane per circuit watt with general lighting of an interior. or in specific areas within the interior combined with general lighting of lower value.
Unit: watts per square metre per 100 lux (W/m²/100 lux) 100 Installed power density (W/m²/100 lux) = —————————————– Installed load efficacy (lux/W/m²) Installed Load Efficacy Ratio (ILER) = Actual Lux/W/m² ——————— or Target Lux/W/m² Target W/m²/100lux ———————— Actual W/m²/100lux Average maintained illuminance is the average of lux levels measured at various points in a defined area. Accuracies of readings should be ensured by – Using accurate illuminance meters for measurements – Sufficient number and arrangement of measurement points within the interior – Proper positioning of illuminance meter – Ensuring that no obstructions /reflections from surfaces affect measurement. which should be as square as possible.g. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 124 . There should be no significant obstructions to the flow of light throughout the interior. To determine the CRI of a lamp. If the color rendering differs from the reference light source. Color Rendering Index (CRI) is a measure of the effect of light on the perceived color of objects. The illuminance at the centre of each area is measured and the mean value calculated. 100 to 600 lux. – that the number and arrangement of measurement points are sufficient and suitable to obtain a reasonably accurate assessment of the average illuminance throughout an interior. the following care should be taken: • • • All lamps should be operating and no luminaires should be dirty or stained. 10. This gives an estimate of the average illuminance on the horizontal working plane. the CRI is less than 100. especially at the measuring points. A low CRI indicates that some colors may appear unnatural when illuminated by the lamp. Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems tal working plane with general lighting of an interior. the color appearances of a set of standard color chips are measured with special equipment under a reference light source with the same correlated color temperature as the lamp being evaluated.4 Preparation (before Measurements) Before starting the measurements. to establish if a correction factor should be applied. it should be compared with one that has been checked over a range of illuminances.10. The procedure recommended in the CIBSE Code for such site measurements is as follows: • The interior is divided into a number of equal areas. Other precautions – If the illuminance meter is relatively old and has not been checked recently. e. its CRI is 100. If the lamp renders the color of the chips identical to the reference light source.
Width = 5m. These should be spaced as shown below: Bureau of Energy Efficiency 125 . it may be necessary to increase the number of points. which is the height of the lighting fittings above the horizontal working plane. i.1 To Determine the Minimum Number and Positions of Measurement Points Calculate the Room Index: RI = LxW ————– Hm(L + W) Where L = length of interior.1. W = width of interior. For example. yards or feet as long as the same unit is used throughout. 6 x 3.85m above floor level in manufacturing areas. It does not matter whether these dimensions are in metres. i. Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems 10.607 2(9 + 5) From Table 10.1 the minimum number of measurement points is 16 As it is not possible to approximate a "square array" of 16 points within such a rectangle it is necessary to increase the number of points to say 18. the spacing between the points on each axis to be approximately the same.1 DETERMINATION OF MEASUREMENT POINTS Room Index Below 1 1 and below 2 2 and below 3 3 and above Minimum number of measurement points 9 16 25 36 To obtain an approximately "square array".10. the dimensions of an interior are: Length = 9m.5 Procedure for Assessment of Lighting Systems 10. Height of luminaires above working plane (Hm) = 2m Calculate RI = 9 x 5 = 1.e.75m above the floor in offices and at 0.5. Hm = the mounting height. Ascertain the minimum number of measurement points from Table10.e. TABLE 10. The working plane is usually assumed to be 0.
2 Calculation of the Installed Load Efficacy and Installed Load Efficacy Ratio of a General Lighting Installation in an Interior STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 Measure the floor area of the interior: Calculate the Room Index Determine the total circuit watts of the installation by a power meter if a separate feeder for lighting is available. = ---------------Lux/W/m² = --------------- Target Lux/W/m² = ILER = Bureau of Energy Efficiency 126 .maint.83m.10.m² RI = ----------------------- Total circuit watts = -------- STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 STEP 8 W/m² = ---------------------- Eav.75m. Value of step 3 ÷ value of step 1 Ascertain the average maintained illuminance by using lux meter. Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems Therefore in this example the spacing between points along rows along the length of the interior = 9 ÷ 6 = 1. 0.5. If the actual value is not known a reasonable approximation can be obtained by totaling up the lamp wattages including the ballasts: Calculate Watts per square metre.5 ÷ 2 = 0. Maintained Divide 5 by 4 to calculate lux per watt per square Metre Obtain target Lux/W/m² lux for type of the type of interior/application and RI (2): Calculate Installed Load Efficacy Ratio ( 6 ÷ 7 ).5m and the distance of the 'end' points from the wall = 1. 10. If the grid of the measurement points coincides with that of the lighting fittings. large errors are possible and the number of measurement points should be increased to avoid such an occurrence. Similarly the distance between points across the width of the interior = 5 ÷ 3 = 1.67m with half this value. between the 'end' points and the walls. Area = -------------------. Eav.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency 127 .3 INDICATORS OF PERFORMANCE ILER 0.51 .75 or over 0.5 or less certainly justify close inspection to identify options for converting the installation to use more efficient lighting equipment.51 – 0.3 ILER Assessment Compare the calculated ILER with the information in Table 10. Of course there can be good reasons for a low ratio. TABLE 10.5 or less Assessment Satisfactory to Good Review suggested Urgent action required ILER Ratios of 0. 10.2 Target lux/W/m² (W/m²/100lux) values for maintained illuminance on horizontal plane for all room indices and applications: Ra : Colour rendering index The principal difference between the targets for Commercial and Industrial Ra: 40-85 (Cols. The targets for very clean industrial applications.10.0. are as column 2.74 certainly merit investigation to see if improvements are possible. Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems TABLE 10. such as having to use lower efficacy lamps or less efficient luminaires in order to achieve the required lighting result -but it is essential to check whether there is a scope for a more efficient alternative.2 & 3) of Table 10.5.74 0.75 or more may be considered to be satisfactory. Existing installations with an ILER of 0.2 is the provision for a slightly lower maintenance factor for the latter. Existing installations with ratios of 0. with Ra: of 40 -85.3.
of operating hours = (1 . 3 ÷1 : Ascertain the average maintained illuminance. Annual energy wastage = (1 .7 Referring to table 3. etc.0.5.maint. explore the scope for introducing translucent sheets Assess scope for more energy efficient lamps and luminaries Assess the scope for rearrangement of lighting fixtures 128 Bureau of Energy Efficiency . ILER of 0. It may be that the requirements dictate a type of luminaire that is not as efficient as the best.7 Areas for Improvement • • • • Look for natural lighting opportunities through windows and other openings In the case of industrial lighting. Area = 45 m² RI = 1.ILER) x Total load (kW) x annual operating hours (h) This process of comparing the installed load efficacy (ILE) with the target value for the Room Index and type of application can also be used to assess the efficiency of designs for new or replacement general lighting installations. when doing so. then the difference between the actual ILER and the best possible (1.6 Example of ILER Calculation (for the room as mentioned in paragraph 10. or the surface reflectances are less than the normal maxima. they should be checked to see if a more efficient solution is possible. For a given installation: Annual energy wastage (in kWh) = (1. the calculated ILE (lux/W/m²) is less than the target value then it is advisable to ascertain the reasons. If the actual value is not known a reasonable approximation can be obtained by totaling up the lamp wattages including the ballasts: Calculate Watts per square metre.0) can be used to estimate the energy wastage..ILER) x watts x no. or the environment is dirty. = 700 Lux/W/m² = 31. Eav. Whatever the reasons.1) STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 Measure the floor area of the interior: Calculate the Room Index Determine the total circuit watts of the installation by a power meter if a separate feeder for lighting is available.7) x 990 x 8 hrs/day x 300 days = 712 kWh/annum 10. 10. Maintained (average lux levels measured at 18 points) Divide 5 by 4 to calculate the actual lux per watt per square Metre Obtain target Lux/W/m² lux for type of the type of interior/ application and RI (2):(Refer Table 10.7 means that there is scope for review of the lighting system.2) Calculate Installed Load Efficacy Ratio ( 6 ÷ 7 ).8 Target Lux/W/m² = 46 ILER = 0.0 .93 Total circuit watts = 990 W STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 STEP 8 W/m² = 22 Eav. Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems Having derived the ILER for an existing lighting installation.10. If.
000 lux. TABLE 10. A number of tasks are accomplished in the room. All tasks fall into 1 of 9 illuminance categories. Step 1: The visual task is reading card files in a library. In such a cases.I. milking cows. covering from 20 to 20.4.FOR GENERIC INDOOR ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY Public spaces with dark surroundings Simple orientation for short temporary visits Working spaces where visual tasks are only occasionally performed Performance of visual tasks of high contrast or large size Performance of visual tasks of medium contrast or small size Performance of visual tasks of low contrast or very small size Performance of visual tasks of low contrast or very small size over a prolonged period Performance of very prolonged and exacting visual tasks Performance of very special visual tasks of extremely low contrast CATEGORY A B C D E F G H I LUX 20-30-50 50-75-100 100-150-200 200-300-500 500-750-1000 1000-1500-2000 2000-3000-5000 5000-7500-10000 10000-15000-20000 FOOTCANDLES 2-3-5 5-7.10. writing etc). a category is chosen based on the generic descriptions in the IES Illuminance Category and Illuminance table discussed in step 3.8. and each provide a range of 3 iluminance values (low. The categories are known as A .4 IES ILLUMINANCE CATEGORIES AND VALUES . (2 to 2000 foot candles). mid and high). lobby space) D-F for localized tasks G-I for extremely difficult visual tasks 10.5-10 10-15-20 20-30-50 50-75-100 100-150-200 200-300-500 500-750-1000 1000-1500-2000 A-C for illuminances over a large area (i. and 100's of very specific tasks and activities (such as drafting. blowing glass and baking bread).8 Other Useful Information 10.1 IES . See Table 10. parking. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 129 . For example.2 Example Using IES Recommendations Let us determine the appropriate light level for a card file area in a library. Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems 10.e. offices will usually require Category E: 500-750-1000 lux.Recommendations The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) has published illuminance recommendations for various activities.8. These tables cover both generic tasks (reading.
Next.2 .2 . but D through I are for illuminance on the task. 10. Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems Step 2: More detailed task descriptions are given in the recommended illuminance level tables in the IES Handbook.0. Filing of cards correctly is not a critical activity.39 0. important or critical.39 32 20000 40 15000 .39 12 20000 20 15000 .3 Characteristics of Different Types of Lamps Type of Lamp Lamp Lumens Wattage (Watts) Lamp Efficiency (Lumens/Watt) Choke Life of Capacitor Color Rating Lamp Rating Rendering (Watts) (Hours) Required Index (Micro farads) 13 15000 .0.2 .39 45 20000 --------18 20 25 40 15000 20000 15000 20000 15000 20000 15000 0.0.0.2 .0. the metric version of footcandle. Categories G through I would require a combination of general lighting and task lighting.0.8. So use the middle recommended illuminance.0.39 20 20000 20 15000 .10.0. So choose "greater than 70 percent" for a weighting factor of -1.0.2 . Step 3: From the IES Illuminance Category and Ranges table.39 0. (For an intensive lighting survey) Under the task category "Libraries. decide whether the demand for speed and accuracy is not important.2 . Notice that categories A through C are for general illumination throughout the area.39 --------- HPSV HPSV HPSV HPSV HPSV Super HPSV Super HPSV Super HPSV Super HPSV 70 150 250 400 70 100 150 250 400 5600 14000 25000 47000 --9500 15500 30000 54000 80 93 100 118 --95 103 120 129 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 130 . or 750 lux. The total weighting factor is 0. Step 4: Use the weighting factors to decide which of the values in the illuminance range to use.2 . The task background reflectance for black type on a white page is 85%.0." the illuminance category is E. An example of critical might be drafting work. For more detailed information on this the IES handbook may be referred. there may be many individuals over 55 years of age so select the category 'Over 55' for a weighting factor of +1. Since libraries are public facilities. so the weighting factor of zero (0) is selected. find category E and choose 500-7501000 lux for the range of illuminance recommended." subheading "Card files. The first column in the table is illuminance values in units of lux.0.39 0.0.2 .
6 .3.0.93 0.89 --8 10 18 18 ----------22.214.171.124.0.93 0.89 0.6 .0.6 .8 .0.93 0.9 .9 .8 3.9 . Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems Super HPSV Super HPMV HPMV HPMV HPMV Metal Halide Metal Halide Metal Halide Metal Halide Metal Halide FTL FTL Super 600 80 125 250 400 70 150 250 400 1000 40 36 --3400 6300 13000 22000 4200 10500 19000 31000 80000 2400 3250 --43 50 52 55 84 70 76 76 80 60 90 --9 12 16 25 26 20 25 60 65 15 5 20000 --4000 5000 4000 5000 4000 5000 4000 5000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 4400 14000 --0.2 .69 0.0.69 0.69 0.93 0.0.9 .0.69 0.6 .10.8 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 131 .0.9 .93 0.8 .3.2 .
The 'LIGHTSWITCH' programme. Distinguish between lux and lumens. Energy Saving Trust. Illumination engineering for energy efficient luminous environments by Ronald N. calculate room index? For a room of 9 x 6 m. What do you understand by the term colour rendering index? Define room index? For a room of length 10 m and width 20 m. UK Bureau of Energy Efficiency 132 . Helms. 2. Energy Performance Assessment of Lighting Systems QUESTIONS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) What is circuit watts? Define ILER and its significance.10. determine the appropriate number of measuring points for lux levels? What possible improvement measures you would look for in a general lighting system? Which of the following lamps has the maximum lamp efficiency? (lumes/Watt) a) Metal Hallide b) Fluorescent c) Incandescent d) HPSV REFERENCES 1. Prentice-Hall. Inc.
the management of the organisation would ask: • • How much will the proposal cost? How much money will be saved by the proposal? These are.30. Example 1 The capital cost of the DG set is Rs. the costs involved should always be considered. Consider the case of an energy auditor who advises the senior management of an organisation that capital should be invested in new boiler plant. of course. In order to make a decision about any course of action. Variable costs are those which vary directly with the output of a particular plant or production process. Fixed costs are those costs. The cost of producing each unit of electricity is 3. not unreasonable questions. Inflation too will influence the value of any future energy savings that might be achieved. energy management proposals should show the likely return on any capital that is invested.00. The total cost of any project is therefore the sum of the fixed and variable costs.1 Introduction When planning an energy efficiency or energy management project. such as fuel costs. PERFORMING FINANCIAL ANALYSIS 11. Therefore. The financial issues associated with capital investment in energy saving projects are investigated in this chapter. The capital value of plant or equipment usually decreases with time and it often requires more maintenance as it gets older. Inevitably. as with any other type of investment. each of which requires funding and it is the job of senior management to invest in capital where it is going to obtain the greatest return.2 Fixed and Variable Costs When appraising the potential costs involved in a project it is important to understand the difference between fixed and variable costs. the discounted cash flow techniques of net present value and internal rate of return are discussed in detail. such as site-rent and insurance.50 Rs.000 per annum. taking into consideration both fixed and variable cost is: Bureau of Energy Efficiency 133 ./kWh. with the aim of determining which investments should be undertaken. then interest will have to be paid on the loan. The total cost of a diesel generator operating over a 5-year period. If money is borrowed from a bank to finance a project. management needs to be able to appraise all the costs involved in a project and determine the potential returns. and the maintenance cost is Rs. In particular. This however. 11.9. since within any organisation there are many worthy causes. It is therefore important that the cost appraisal process allows for all these factors. and of optimising the benefits achieved. which are not dependent on plant or process output.000. is not quite as simple as it might first appear. the annual output is 219 MWh.11. Example 1 illustrates how both fixed and variable costs combine to make the total operating cost. To this end a number of accounting and financial appraisal techniques have been developed which help energy managers and auditors make correct and objective decisions.
If this output were increased to an average of 70 kW. Performing Financial Analysis Item Capital cost of generator Annual maintenance Fuel cost Type of cost Fixed Fixed Variable 30.65. Thus the average unit cost of production decreases as output increases. the break-even point is given by: Thus.5% of the total cost. when the average output is 50 kW is given by: 4. the annual electricity output of 219 MWh assumes that the plant is operating with an average output of 50 kW. Example 2 If the electricity bought from a utility company costs an average of Rs. then the fuel cost would become Rs.37% of the total.5 x 50 x n) 21000 hours (9.11.50.000 x 5 (years) 219.00.88.00.2500 4.000 + 150000) + (3. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 134 .000 + 150000) + (3. with the result that the fixed costs would drop to 16. the generator) is being better utilised. In fact.50 x 5 Total cost Calculation Cost 9.5 x 50 x n = n = 4. it can be seen that the fixed costs represent 21. the breakeven point for the generator described in Example 1.000 1.500.5/kWh.83.50 x 70 x n) 15000 hours If the average output is 70 kW. 53. increasing the average output of the generator significantly reduces the break-even time for the project.000 x 3. The concept of fixed and variable costs can be used to determine the break-even point for a proposed project.4. The break-even point can be determined by using the following equation.00.000 3.2500 From Example 1. This is because the capital investment (i.5 x 70 x n = n = (9.e.
00.000 135 .00.00. It is therefore important to understand how interest charges are calculated. A fixed interest percentage is applied to each year of the loan and repayments are calculated using the equation. let us calculate the value of the total repayment and the monthly repayment value.3.00.00 to finance a new boiler installation.3 Interest Charges In order to finance projects.75. because interest charges must be paid on the loan. Interest charges can be calculated by lending organization in two different ways: simple interest and compound interest. (i) Assuming simple interest: Total repayment Monthly repayment = = 30.00.00.000 (ii) Assuming compound interest Repayment at end of year 1 Repayment at end of year 2 Bureau of Energy Efficiency = = 30.30.000 + (10/100 x 30. Performing Financial Analysis 11.00.000 + (10/100 x 30. If the interest rate is 10% per annum and the repayment period is 5 years.000) = Rs.45.000 33. organizations often borrow money from banks or other leading organizations.11. (ii) Compound interest: Compound interest is usually calculated annually (although this is not necessarily the case).00. The value of the total repayment can be calculated using the equation. Example 3 A company borrows Rs.000 / (5 x 12) = Rs.33.36.000 45. then charges are calculated as a fixed percentage of the capital that is borrowed. (i) Simple interest: If simple interest is applied.000 x 5) = Rs.00.00.000 + (10/100 x 33. assuming (i) simple interest and (ii) compound interest.00.000) = Rs. Projects financed in this way cost more than similar projects financed from organisation's own funds. It is termed 'compound' because the outstanding loan is the sum of the unpaid capital and the interest charges up to that point. The interest charged is calculated as a percentage of the outstanding loan at the end of each time period.
530 11. the more attractive the project becomes. 43. The length of the maximum permissible payback period generally varies with the business culture concerned.1530. the repayments at the end of years 3. 4 and 5 can be calculated: Repayment at end of year 3 Repayment at end of year 4 Repayment at end of year 5 = = = Rs. Performing Financial Analysis Similarly. payback periods in excess of 3 years are considered acceptable. the lender recoups an additional Rs. It is not surprisingly lenders usually charge compound interest on loans. all the project capital costs will have been recouped and any additional cost savings achieved can be seen as clear 'profit'.48.300 Rs.31.000 x (1 + 10 / 100)5 4831530 = Rs.31530 Alternatively. 48.4 Simple Payback Period This is the simplest technique that can be used to appraise a proposal. Total repayment value Monthly repayment = = 5 x 12 It can be seen that by using compound interest.000 Rs. In some companies.525 = Rs. The simple payback period can be defined as 'the length of time required for the running total of net savings before depreciation to equal the capital cost of the project'. once the payback period has ended. the shorter the payback period. Obviously. Simple payback period is illustrated in Example 4.11. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 136 . 39. The payback period can be calculated using the equation The annual net cost saving (AS) is the least savings achieved after all the operational costs have been met.92.80.33. In theory.93.00. 30. the following equation can be used to determine the compound interest repayment value.
600 The value of the sum at the end of year 2 = 23.600 + (0.4. should accrue interest as time passes.97.23.08 x 22.000 in a bank at an annual interest rate of 8%. The two most commonly used techniques are the 'net present value' and the 'internal rate of return' methods.1000 in year 2. Discounting is the opposite process to compounding.86. consider the case described in Example 3. the expected payback period for the project can be worked out as.408 The value of the investment would grow as compound interest is added. which is invested. The present value (PV) is determined by using an assumed interest rate. This is done by equating each future cash flow to its current value today.000 / (4. Thus Rs. However.08 x 23.000 and the annual maintenance and operating costs are Rs. If instead of installing a new cogeneration system. The net present value method achieves this by quantifying the impact of time on any particular future cash flow.1000 in year 10 of a project will be worth less than a cash flow of Rs.0 years 11. which are based on the fact that money invested in a bank will accrue annual interest.000) = 5. If the capital cost of the new boiler installation is Rs.22.20.20. where" discounting determines the present value of future cash flows. Solution PB = 22. then: The value of the sum at the end of year 1 = 22.11. it has a number of major weaknesses: • • The payback method does not consider savings that are accrued after the payback period has finished. In simple terms there is a 'time value' component to cash flows.86. Net Present Value Method The net present value method considers the fact that a cash saving (often referred to as a 'cash flow') of Rs.000 – 42.000. in other words determining the present value of any future cash flow. 42.20.20. which can easily be used to provide a quick evaluation of a proposal.000) = Rs.22. the company invested Rs. The payback method does not consider the fact that money.1000 today is more valuable than Rs.97.25. usually referred to as a discount rate.000 + (0. In order to understand the concept of present vale.20.000. Compounding determines the future value of present cash flows.89.97. In order to overcome these weaknesses a number of discounted cash flow techniques have been developed. until after n years the value of the sum would be: Bureau of Energy Efficiency 137 .600) = Rs. 5 Discounted Cash Flow Methods The payback method is a simple technique. Performing Financial Analysis Example 4 A new small cogeneration plant installation is expected to reduce a company's annual energy bill by Rs.1000 in 10 years' time.
22.11.908. it could equally be said that Rs.20. The discount factor is based on an assumed discount rate (i.61908.000 now (assuming an annual interest rate of 8%).4 in interest and will be worth Rs. after 5 years will be: FV = 22.e. In other words the present value of Rs.32. The present value of an amount of money at any specified time in the future can be determined by the following equation. The higher the net present value. DF = (1 + IR/100)–n The product of a particular cash flow and the discount factor is the present value.4. the more attractive the proposed project.e.32.000 x (1 + 8/100)5 = Rs.20.32. PV = S x DF The values of various discount factors computed for a range of discount rates (i.4 So in 5 years the initial investment of 22. The sum of all the present values is known as the net present value (NPV).e. interest rate) and can be determined by using equation. Performing Financial Analysis Example : The future value of the investment made at present.61. Alternatively. interest rates) are shown in Table 11. However.61.00. The net present value method calculates the present value of all the yearly cash flows (i.41.4 in 5 years time is worth Rs. it is common practice to use a discount factor (DF) when calculating present value.1. The Example 5 illustrates the process involved in a net present value analysis.908.000 now.908. Costs are represented as a negative value and savings as a positive value.32.20.908.40 in 5 years time is Rs.22.10.000 will accrue Rs. and summates them. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 138 . capital costs and net savings) incurred or accrued throughout the life of a project. The present value of a future cash flow can be determined using the equation above.61.
943 0.962 0.552 0.555 0.270 0.312 8 1.743 0.456 6 1.893 0.794 0.452 0.630 0.263 0.888 0.820 0.1COMPUTED DISCOUNT FACTORS Discount rate % (or interest rate %) Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2 1.855 0.758 0.475 0.527 0.476 0.350 0.837 0.051 Example 5 Using the net present value analysis technique.558 0.577 0.825 0.116 0.257 0.564 0.673 4 1.350 0.731 0.060 0.322 0.00 +6 600.351 0.069 0.519 0.183 0.641 0.319 0.149 12 1.665 0. Assume an annual discount rate of 8% for each project.218 0.862 0.287 0.123 0.906 0.229 0.168 0.467 0.000 0.601 0.442 0.11.145 0.180 0.636 0.198 0.146 0.540 0.163 0.386 0.400 0.00 Net annual saving (Rs.397 0.000 0.404 0.790 0.340 0.792 0.00 +6 300.804 0.093 0.703 0.567 0.232 0.108 0.683 0.463 0.743 0.354 0.371 0.534 0.368 0.000 0.104 14 1.456 0.621 0.308 0.) +6 600.735 0.840 0.429 0.712 0.889 0.747 0.714 0.00 .417 0.728 0.140 0.) Year 1 2 3 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 30 000.924 0.681 0.331 0.788 0.290 0.195 0.494 0.361 0.164 0.700 0.877 0.675 0.263 0.751 0.853 0.676 0.000 0.961 0.797 0.627 0.000 0.424 0.773 0.980 0.497 0.469 0.926 0.760 0.394 0. Project – 1 Capital cost (Rs.909 0.292 0.215 10 1.822 0. let us evaluate the financial merits of the proposed projects shown in the Table below.000 0.208 0.315 0.250 0.507 0.583 0.305 0.000 0.769 0.) +6 000.513 0.686 0.227 0.095 0.00 +6 000.857 0.083 0.00 Net annual saving (Rs.108 0.826 0.130 0.513 0.080 0.237 0.890 0. Performing Financial Analysis TABLE 11.592 0.125 0.182 0.871 0.00 139 Project – 2 30 000.705 0.270 0.205 0.410 0.650 0.500 0.073 16 1.160 0.000 0.942 0.00 +6 000.625 0.239 0.592 0.
10.00.80.00 (a x b) –30 000.500 0.00 +4 410.50 +4 086.00 +6 600. Therefore Project 2 is the preferential proposal.) (Rs.00 +2 700.00 +6 000.00 +3 498. while for Project 2 it is Rs.00 +6 000.00 +6 000.10.00 +6 000. Performing Financial Analysis 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total net saving at end of year 10 +6 000.630 0.00 +6 000.583 0.00 +6 000.681 0.000 0.857 0.00 +5 142.00 +5 700.463 NPV = +10 254.00 +5 556.00 +5 700.00 +6 000.00 +5 700.00 +3 000.794 0.735 0.) (Rs.254.00 +6 300.867.00 +5 400.00 +6 600.00 Solution The annual cash flows should be multiplied by the annual discount factors for a rate of 8% to determine the annual present values.540 0.) (b) –30 000.00 +6 000.00 +6 000.00 +6 111.00 +6 000.00 +6 300.00 +3 240.10 +3 078.00 +6 000.00 +6 000.20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.00 +6 000.20 +5 002.00 NPV = +10 867.00 +2 778.00 +5 400.00 +4 764.80 It can be seen that over a 10 year life-span the net present value for Project 1 is Rs.00 +6 000.00 +5 700.00 +6 000.00 +3 780.60 +5 656.00 +6 000.00 +4 086.20 +4 630. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 140 .11.00 (a x c) (c) –30 000.00 +5 400.00 + 60 000.00 +6 000.00 +6 000.00 Project 2 Net Present savings value (Rs.) –30 000.926 0. as shown in the Table below: Year Discount Factor for 8% (a) Project 1 Net Present savings value (Rs.00 +60 000.00 +2 500.00 +5 400.00 +6 300.00 +3 780.00 +3323.00 +6 000.00 +6 000.
00 Given the above cash flow data. Performing Financial Analysis The whole credibility of the net present value method depends on a realistic prediction of future interest rates. This will ensure that the overall analysis is slightly pessimistic. It is clear that the discount rate which must be applied. in order to achieve a net present value of zero.00 +4000.) –20. with the result that Project 2 is the better proposition.00 +6000. at a discount rate of 8%. Internal rate of return method It can be seen from Example 5 that both projects returned a positive net present value over 10 years. thus acting against the inherent uncertain ties in predicting future savings.20 000. The cash flows generated by the project are shown in the table below: Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cash flow (Rs. let us find out the internal rate of return for the project.11.00 +4500. This means that the average rate of return for Project 2 is higher than for Project 1. It is prudent therefore to set the discount rate slightly above the interest rate at which the capital for the project is borrowed. Example 6 illustrates how an internal rate of return analysis is performed. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 141 . Example 6 A proposed project requires an initial capital investment of Rs. will be higher for Project 2 than for Project 1. if the discount rate were reduced there would come a point when the net present value would become zero. However.00 +5500.00 +5000. which can often be unpredictable.00 +4000.000.
12 + (0.5 3970 3307.93 %.636 0.12 + (0.735 0.410 –20000 5172 4086.5) Thus the internal rate of return for the project is 12.857 0.567 0. Profitability index Another technique.893 0.712 0.12) x (459. The profitability index can be defined as: Bureau of Energy Efficiency 142 x 100 x 100 = 12. while the internal rate of return method is designed to assess whether or not a single project will achieve a target rate of return.000 0.12) x (459.16 – 0.11.5 3205 2484 1904 1640 NPV = 2791 NPV = 459.5 Internal rate of return = 0.5 NPV = –1508. Yet there is an important difference between the two. is the profitability index.5)) 459. To find the value exactly.476 0.5 It can clearly be seen that the discount rate which results in the net present value being zero lies somewhere between 12% and 16%.000 0. which enables a number of projects to be compared.5 + 1508.641 0.630 –20000 5556 4713.000 0.5 Internal rate of return = 0.5 – (–1508.743 0.93% .794 0. For12% discount rate.507 –20000 5358 4383.5 2724 2520 12% discount rate Discount Present factor value 1. NPV is positive.552 0. one can interpolate between the two rates as follows: 459.) (Rs.) 1. present value benefits are equated to present value costs. NPV is negative. At first sight both the net present value and internal rate of return methods look very similar.) 1. which can be used to evaluate the financial viability of projects. and in some respects are. The net present value method is essentially a comparison tool. for 16% discount rate.797 0.926 0.) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 –20000 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 4000 8% discount rate Discount Present factor value (Rs. Performing Financial Analysis Solution Cash flow (Rs.16 – 0.862 0.5 3560 3862 2268 2028 16% discount rate Discount Present factor value (Rs.681 0. Thus for some discount rate between 12 and 16 percent.
20.1500.000 and after 5 years its salvage value is Rs.11. Example 8 It is proposed to install a heat recovery equipment in a factory.1000 saved in 10 years time.362 = 0. we have to find out the net present value after 5 years. they do not allow for the following important considerations: • • The capital value of plant and equipment generally depreciates over time General inflation reduces the value of savings as time progresses. The capital cost of installing the equipment is Rs.342 11. = 30. Rs. Performing Financial Analysis The application of profitability index is illustrated in Example 7.000 10867 For Project 2: Profitability index Project 2 is therefore a better proposal than Project 1.6 Factors Affecting Analysis Although the Examples 5 and 6 illustrate the basic principles associated with the financial analysis of projects. The capital depreciation of an item of equipment can be considered in terms of its salvage value at the end of the analysis period. Data Year 1 7000 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 2 6000 143 3 6000 4 5000 5 5000 .000 = 0. Example 7 Determine the profitability index for the projects outlined in Example 5 10254 For Project 1: Profitability index = 30. If the savings accrued by the heat recovery device are as shown below. The Example 8 illustrates the point. For example. Discount rate is assumed to be 8%.1000 saved in 1 year's time will be worth more than Rs.
the net present value of the project would have been only Rs.00 +4764.) (a) x (b + c) –20.00 +4426. assuming the discount rate remains at 8% and that the rate of inflation is 5%. which is determined centrally and reflects average inflation over a range of commodities.500.50 NPV = +4489. the real value of cash flow decreases with time.000. RV = S x IF The application of inflation factors is considered in Example 9. Performing Financial Analysis Solution Year Discount Factor for 8% (a) 1. S is the value of cash flow in n years time and R is the inflation rate (%).4489.000 0. Had the salvage value of the equipment not been considered. The real value of sum of money (S) realised in n years time can be determined using the equation.11.00.00 +6000.926 0. Example 9 Recalculate the net present value of the energy recovery scheme in Example 8.00 +6000. In some countries. RV = S x (1 + R/100)–n Where RV is the real value of S realized in n years time. inflation is expressed in terms of the retail price index (RPI).) (c) Present Value (Rs.00 +6482.857 0.3468.000.50 0 1 2 3 4 5 It is evident that over a 5-year life span the net present value of the project is Rs.794 0.735 0. Real value Inflation can be defined as the rate of increase in the average price of goods and services.00 +3675.00 Net Savings (Rs.) (b) –20. Because of inflation.00 +7000.00 Capital Investment (Rs. As with the discount factor it is common practice to use an inflation factor when assessing the impact of inflation on a project.681 +1. IF = (1 + R/100)–n The product of a particular cash flow and inflation factor is the real value of the cash flow.00 +5000.00 +5142.50.00 +6000. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 144 . The inflation factor can be determined using the equation.
915 0.00 0.88 The Example 9 shows that when inflation is assumed to be 5%.00 +6000.4397.36 +3654.943 0. the net present value of the project reduces from Rs.12 +4397. Performing Financial Analysis Solution Because of inflation. because general inflation will always erode the value of future 'profits' accrued by a project.00 +5442.81 +4743.) –20.00 +4145.000 0.971 0.88.00 +6000.00 +5000. This is to be expected.00 +6664.00 +5184.907 0.11.50 to Rs.864 0.00 +6470.) Inflation Factor For 5% 1.74 +5131.000.) –20. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 145 . Real interest rate = Discount rate – Rate of inflation Therefore Real interest rate = 8 – 5 = 3% Year Capital Investment (Rs.000.952 0.85 0 1 2 3 4 5 +7000.784 NPV = +4397.00 Net real Savings (Rs.000 Net real Savings (Rs.00 Real Discount Factor For 3% 1.4489.00 +5096.888 0.863 Present Value (Rs.) –20.00 +1500.823 0.000.00 +5000.
4. Clive Beggs.000/-. What is the objective of carrying out sensitivity analysis? You are investing Rs. Energy Management. What is the present value and what is the future value? 3. REFERENCES 1.60.1. Performing Financial Analysis QUESTIONS 1.5 lakhs per year on an average to operate and maintain and is expected to save Rs. Dr. 2. What is the main draw back of simple pay back method? Calculate simple pay back period for a boiler that cost Rs.100 in a bank. 6. 7.000/.11. 9. Supply and Conservation.00 lakhs to purchase and Rs. Why fresh investments are needed for energy conservation in industry ? Cost of an heat exchanger is Rs. 8. 5.Butterworth Heinemann Bureau of Energy Efficiency 146 .75.30 lakhs.15. What are the advantages of simple pay back method? What do you understand by the term " present value of money"? Define ROI. The bank gives 10% interest per year for two years. Calculate simple pay back period considering annual saving potential of Rs.and annual operating cost of Rs.00 lakhs. .
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