Human Brain Facts

• Weight: ? • Water __ %, fat ___ %, protein __% ? • less than 2.5% of body’s weight • uses ____% of body’s energy • ~ ______ of blood / hr • needs 8-12 glasses of water / day

Amazing Brain Numbers
• neurons = ? • glial cells = ? • synaptic connection points = ? • memories = ?
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6 yr

2 yr

Brain = largest NS organ in the body – integration center

Source of mind and self

intellect, emotions, behavior, and memory

major parts
1. BRAIN STEM • ____________, _________, _______ 2. DIENCEPHALON • ___________, __________ 3. CEREBRUM 4. CEREBELLUM
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Brain development

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MAKING THE MOST OF LIMITED SPACE Cells in Cortex Fold into Sulci & Gyri During Development Major Folds are Same in All Healthy People Certain Folding Patterns May Relate to Intelligence Do you think that More Folds is Necessarily Better? (some studies show unusually many folds in autistic individuals) 4/17/2011 5 PROTECTIVE COVERINGS OF THE BRAIN • cranial bones + CSF + cranial meninges • Cranial meninges: P meninges: A D [two layers] Bl oo d & • Sub-dural space. sub-arachnoid space Subsub– No epidural space CS F 4/17/2011 6 3 .

or death of brain cells min: – Interruption during childbirth • paralysis. 20 % O2] • limited glucose storage capacity – interruption – 1 – 2 min: impair neuronal functions. mental confusion. dizzyness min: – 4 min: permanent damage.Brain Blood Flow & Blood Brain Barrier • your Brain is HUNGRY: metabolically active [2% of BW. toxin] What should be the characteristics features of a drug for treatment of brain tumor? treatment 4/17/2011 7 What is this condition? 4/17/2011 8 4 . mental retardation. epilepsy. or death of the baby • Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Blood– protects cells from some toxins and pathogens • proteins & antibiotics cannot pass but alcohol & anesthetics do • brain injury [trauma. toxin] may break the barrier [trauma. inflammation.

Clear colorless ultrafiltrate of plasma 1.Clear 2.CSF 1.Cerebrospinal Fluid . separated by septum pellucidum – 3rd ventricle: midline superior to the hypothalamus and between ventricle: the right and left halves of the thalamus – 4th ventricle is between the brain stem and the cerebellum 4/17/2011 10 5 .What does it do? 2.What Choroid Plexus Specialized ependymal cells & capillaries • secrete CSF into ventricles • ~ 500 ml of CSF/day • at a given time only 80 – 150 ml 4/17/2011 9 Four Ventricles for storage and recirculation of CSF • four CSF filled cavities within the brain: ventricles – two lateral ventricles.

inflammation. developmental malformation.Formation. meningitis. hemorrhage or injury) – In newborn or fetus increase in pressure bulging of fontanels expansion of the skull hydrocephalus brain damage • Neurosurgeon removes obstruction or implants a drain shunting the CSF to the veins of the neck or the abdomen • In adult? 4/17/2011 Hydrocephalous ventricles 12 Normal ventricles 6 . circulation and absorption of CSF Reabsorbed through arachnoid villi 20 ml / hour reabsorption rate = same as production rate 4/17/2011 11 Hydrocephalus = water in the brain • Blockage of drainage of CSF (tumor.

cerebrum. 2 ridges [medullary pyramids] are visible – decussation of most fibers • left cortex controls right muscles & vice versa • Regulates autonomic functions Examples: _____________________________________________ • Reflex centers Examples: _____________________________________ Injury fatal 13 Contains sensory & motor nuclei of 5 cranial nerves: VIII to XII 4/17/2011 Pons = “bridge” bridge” • Somatic & visceral motor control. white fiber tracts ascend & descend descend • contains the pneumotaxic and apneustic areas help control respiration • Nuclei & tracts linking the cerebellum with brain stem.Medulla Oblongata Most inferior region of the brain stem • Pathway for sensory & motor tracts • Ventrally. spinal cord cerebrum. contains nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII vestibular 4/17/2011 14 7 .

Midbrain (= bridge) bridge) • pons to diencephalon • motor impulses from cerebrum cerebellum & spinal cord Corpora quadrigemina SUPERIOR COLLICULUS visual. auditory & somatosensory stimuli Cerebral peduncles---clusters of motor & peduncles.--clusters sensory fibers INFERIOR COLLICULUS Substantia nigra ---helps controls ---helps PROCESSING auditory information subconscious muscle activity 4/17/2011 15 Diencephalon Surrounds 3rd Ventricle • Surrounds 3rd ventricle • Superior part of walls is thalamus • Inferior part of walls & floor is hypothalamus 4/17/2011 16 8 .

mammillary bodies are relay station for olfactory reflexes. form part of the limbic system [processing of recognition memory] infundibulum suspends the pituitary gland Functions 1. 2. regulates emotional & behavioral patterns 4.Thalamus superior to the midbrain relay stations for all sensory impulses. produces hormones. and thirst center 1. aids in controlling body temperature 6. to the cerebral cortex – registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of light touch and pressure . one of the major regulators of homeostasis 1. except smell. satiety center. houses feeding center.plays an essential role in awareness and the acquisition of knowledge knowledge 4/17/2011 17 Hypothalamus [neuro-endocrine function] inferior to the thalamus. controls autonomic nervous system [ANS] 2. regulates eating & drinking 5. regulates circadian rhythms and states of consciousness 4/17/2011 18 9 . part of the neuro-endocrine system neuro3.

•promotes sleepiness & sets biological clock subthalamus • lies directly above midbrain – regulating movements produced by skeletal muscles 4/17/2011 19 Cerebellum • compares intended movements to actual movements to smooth and coordinate complex.Epithalamus • lies superior and posterior to the thalamus • contains pineal gland • secretes melatonin during darkness. skilled movements • regulates posture and balance • cognition and language processing & problem solving Arbor vitae = tree of life = white matter 4/17/2011 20 10 .

attention. memory. thought. language. consciousness • voluntary motor commands • abstract thought occurs • CORPUS CALLOSUM – large collection of axons – connects R & L hemispheres • gyrus • sulcus • fissure 4/17/2011 21 4/17/2011 22 11 . awareness.CEREBRUM [83% of brain mass] • conscious perception.

brain. Parietal. and Insula – why/How are the 1st 4 named? – what does “insular” mean? insular” 4/17/2011 23 Three dural septa extend inward and limit excessive movement of the brain BETWEEN CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES SEPARATES CEREBRUM FROM CEREBELLUM SEPARATES TWO CEREBELAR HEMISPHERES 4/17/2011 24 12 . Occipital. – the median longitudinal fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres – the transverse fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below • Deep sulci divide each hemisphere into 5 lobes: lobes: – Frontal. Temporal.• Deeper grooves called fissures separate large regions of the brain.

2-4 mm thick outermost layer of gray matter making up the superficial aspect of the cerebrum Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex corpus callosum 4/17/2011 25 Cerebral White Matter • Association fibers between gyri in same hemisphere • Commissural fibers from one hemisphere to other [ex. callosum] • Projection fibers form descending & ascending tracts 4/17/2011 26 13 .Cerebral Cortex . Corpus callosum] [ex.

Brain Functions by parts .summary 4/17/2011 27 PET scans Positron Emission Tomography 4/17/2011 28 14 .

particularly the left the prefrontal cortex Sensory Areas of Cerebral Cortex Voluntary Primary somatosensory [1. Gustatory cortex [43] 4/17/2011 30 15 . she was well. taste. Auditory cortex [41. pain. pressure.old yearwoman with recurrent depression 1. Scan on the right = several months later. after medication had medication treated her depression 3. Scan on the left = the patient was on no medications & very depressed depressed 2. temperature) •Visual cortex [17]. vibration.2. 42] . Note: her entire brain is more active when well.3] receives somatic sensory input (touch.This image shows different PET scans of a 45 -year.

.Decreased Aggression .Poor Emotional Responses .Diminished Rage . repetitive actions. and language Broca’ comprehension. gestures. but the Broca’ decreased motor ability (or inability) to speak and form words 4/17/2011 32 16 .."tan.Frontal Lobe .. or words • Olfactory Bulb . Paul Broca described a patient who could say only one word.." • Broca’s Area – controls facial neurons. speech.Epilepsy . • Orbitofrontal Cortex – Site of Frontal Lobotomies * Desired Effects: .Cortical Regions • Primary Motor Cortex (Pre-central Gyrus) – Cortical site involved with controlling movements of the body.Uncontrolled. Located on Left Frontal Lobe – Broca’s Aphasia – retains ability to comprehend speech.. Responsible for sensation of Smell 4/17/2011 31 Motor Areas of Cerebral Cortex In 1861.Cranial Nerve I..Poor Emotional Responses * Possible Side Effects: ..

7] – monitor and interpret arriving information at sensory areas of cortex • Visual association area = 18 & 19 (recognize & evaluate) • Somatic motor association area (premotor cortex) – coordinates motor responses (learned movements) 4/17/2011 33 Temporal Lobe – Cortical Regions Wernicke’s Area – Language comprehension. Words and sentences are not clearly understood.Wernicke’s Aphasia – Language comprehension is inhibited. @ the Left Temporal Lobe Primary Auditory Cortex Wernike’s Area . 4/17/2011 34 17 .Association Areas of Cerebral Cortex Scanning eye movement Recognize & evaluate Words become speech • Sensory association areas [5. and sentence formation may be inhibited or non-sensical.

Putamen = corpus striatum .Caudate nucleus. symbols. awareness of time. Globus pallidus. understanding relationships • Art & Music – Putting pieces together to form “wholes” 35 Basal Ganglia / Basal nuclei • collection of nuclei deep to the white matter of cerebral cortex .substantia nigra.Left / Right Hemisphere Specialization LEFT • Analytic thought – Step by step process • Logic – Conclusions based upon a logical or consecutive order • Language – Using words to name/describe/define • Math & Science – Number use. facts & linear reasoning 4/17/2011 RIGHT • Holistic thought – Seeing “big” picture before understanding details • Intuition – Insight based upon incomplete patterns or “hunches” • Creativity – Demonstrative with minimal word use. rigidity. •control autonomic movements of skeletal muscles & help regulate muscle tone •Damage to the basal ganglia – tremor. and involuntary muscle movements [Parkinson’s disease] 4/17/2011 36 18 . and subthalamic nucleus nigra.

motivation. skin and muscles • Motor function = maintaining muscle tone 4/17/2011 37 Limbic System A functional group involved in emotion. cognitive • Hippocampus: long term memories • Hypothalamus: ANS [hormone] • Mammillary body: formation of memory • Orbitofrontal cortex: decision making 4/17/2011 38 19 . smoke or intruder) to awaken from sleep – maintains consciousness & helps keep one awake with stimuli from ears. & emotional association with memory emotion. pons & midbrain • Reticular activating system [RAS] – alerts cerebral cortex to sensory signals (sound of alarm. • links conscious functions of cerebral cortex with autonomic functions of brain stem functions –facilitates memory storage and retrieval • Amygdala: aggression and fear • Cingulate gyrus: heart rate. BP. flash light.Reticular Formation • Scattered nuclei in medulla. eyes.

Monitoring Brain Activity Electroencephalogram (EEG) Alpha waves – regular and rhythmic. • healthy. drowsiness.--temporary – headache. lack of concentration • Contusion--bruising of brain (less than 5 min Contusionunconsciousness but blood in CSF) • Laceration--tearing of brain (fracture or bullet) Laceration– increased intracranial pressure from hematoma 4/17/2011 40 20 . confusion. “idling” brain Beta waves – more irregular than alpha • adults concentrating / mentally stressed Theta waves – more irregular than alpha • common in children • emotional stress in adults Delta waves – high-amplitude waves streess • deep sleep – awake adults with brain damage 4/17/2011 39 Brain Injuries • Causes of damage – displacement or distortion of tissue at impact – increased intracranial pressure – infections – free radical damage after ischemia • Concussion---temporary loss of consciousness Concussion. awake.

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