Application of the Pathloss Software

Contents
 Overview  Importing the Data  Pre-Planning Routes  Outputting the Information

Overview
• Purpose 1. Masters the basic operations of the Pathloss. 2. Pre-plans the microwave routes by using the Pathloss. • Studied Case Area: Mauritius, which is located in the east longitude and south latitude, Southern Hemisphere Basic information of the site: High- accuracy electronic map (in the Planet_UTM format):

Overview
• The Pathloss software is a comprehensive path design tool based on the radio links. The Pathloss software operates at frequencies ranging from 30 MHz to 100 GHz. Currently, Pathloss 4.0 is commonly used. • Generally, electronic maps in three formats are used for the Pathloss software. They are described as follows: 1. Electronic map released with the software
 The accuracy of this map is 900 meters. The map is carried in two disks as follows: Disk 1-map covering the North and South America Disk 2-map covering the Europe, Africa and Asia 2. Electronic map in the SRTM format
 This kind of map is classified into the following three categories: SRTM 1': The accuracy of this map is 30 meters. Only the electronic map covering part of the North America is available. SRTM 3':The accuracy of this map is 90 meters. The high-accuracy electronic map covering the entire globe is available. It is commonly used. SRTM 30': The accuracy of this map is 900 meters. The high-accuracy electronic map covering the entire globe is available. 3. Electronic map in the Planet_UTM format
 This kind of map has high accuracy, which ranges from several meters to tens of meters. You can obtain it form the Radio Network Planning Dept.

Overview
Four versions of the Pathloss Software • PL4B: basic design software for microwave transmission • PL4C: basic design software for microwave transmission + coverage calculation • PL4I: basic design software for microwave transmission + interference analysis • PL4CI: basic design software for microwave transmission + coverage calculation + interference analysis

More database engines and various data files will increase the requirement for the hard disk space to 25 Mbytes.pathloss. • The authentication of license (in a floppy disk or in a dongle) is required. • The Pathloss software (with few database engines) requires a minimum of 6-Mbyte hard disk space.0 (or a later version) operating system.Overview Requirements for Installing the Pathloss Software • The computer should be of the Pentium series. • A memory with a capacity of more than 64 Mbytes is required when the computer runs in the Windows 95/98 operating system. or a memory with a capacity of more than 128 Mbytes is required when the computer runs in the Windows NE operating system. and should run in the Windows 95/98 (or a later version) or Windows NT 4.com . • You can obtain these contents at the website of CTE: www.

and select Control Panel. choose Add or Remove Programs > Change or Remove Programs > Pathloss 4. License in a USB • Click Start.Overview Uninstallation of the Pathloss License in a floppy disk: • • Choose Configure > Program > Uninitialize Program from the menu in the Pathloss. In the displayed window. In the displayed window. and select Control Panel.0. Click Start. .0. choose Add or Remove Programs > Change or Remove Programs > Pathloss 4.

Contents  Overview  Importing the Data  Pre-Planning Routes  Outputting the Information .

Importing the electronic map released with the software • Click Start. GTopo30 Global 30 sec under Primary is generally selected.Importing the Data • Processing the Data • Importing the Electronic Map 1.0 to run the software. according to the format of the map released with the software.) . • Choose Configure > Terrain Database from the menu of the Pathloss. (In the displayed dialog box. and choose Program > Pathloss 4.

and then click Set Directory in the Gtopo30 Global 30 sec dialog box to set the directory that contains the information of the map to be used in the network planning. Click Close in the GTopo30 Global 30 sec dialog box. When the directory setting is complete.Importing the Data • Click Setup Primary. and then click OK in the Configure Terrain Database dialog box. click OK. .

Importing the Data 2. and the SRTM window is displayed. Importing the electronic map in the SRTM format • • Run the Pathloss software. In the displayed dialog box. Choose Files > BILHDR-BLW to select the proper map (in the format of *. select SRTM under Primary. .hgt). and choose Configure > Terrain Database from the menu of the Pathloss. Click Setup Primary.

Mauritius is located in the east longitude and south latitude. Under Grid Coordinate System. modify the values in Datum and Ellipsoid to the formats specified in the Projection file. select Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). In the displayed Geographic Defaults dialog box. Importing the electronic map in the Planet_UTM format Run the Pathloss software. Southern Hemisphere.Importing the Data 3. (In the studied case.) . and choose Configure > Geographic Defaults from the menu of the Pathloss. Modify other items according to the actual situation. Select the proper items under Latitude. Longitude and Use as required.

Nearest 0. Seconds Format: Generally. according to the attribute of the map that is used. Select the proper item in the drop-down list after Datum. 6. Select the proper item in the drop-down list after Ellipsoid.01 Second is selected. (This item does not affect the calculation and the final result. Latitude 5. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) is selected. Longitude 4. Allow Non Standard UTM Zones . 3. 2. 7. Use: Select Datum or Ellipsoid.Importing the Data Descriptions of the options: 1. Grid Coordinate System: Generally. Datum: You should make a selection in the drop-down list after Datum if Datum is selected. according to the attribute of the map that is used.) 8. Ellipsoid: You should make a selection in the drop-down list after Ellipsoid if Ellipsoid is selected.

Airy1983. . Gauss Conformal (south Africa). GRS80. Gausss Kruger. Massawa.Importing the Data The Pathloss software supports various ellipsoid definitions and projection modes. such as WGS1984. WGS1972. Ellipsoid definitions: More than 100 ellipsoid definitions. Projection modes: Approximately 10 projection modes. such as UTM. are supported. and Mahe19871. New Zealand Gird. Voirol1960. are supported.

For example GRS-1980: ellipsoid definition 29: time zone information of the digital map. . Time Zone 29 UTM: projection mode of the map 0. clutter.0 500000.txt file in the heights folder includes the information of the digital map. and the UTM projection mode. that is.Importing the Data The maps used in the radio network planning all adopt the UTM projection mode. The basic contents of the UTM are as follows: heights. projection mode and range. vectors.0: range of the map The maps used in the radio network planning mostly adopt the ellipsoid definitions WGS1984 and GRS1980. time zone.0-9. such as the ellipsoid.0 0. The projection.

such as GRS80. According to the shape of the projection plane. the map projection is classified into conformal projection. According to the projection distortion property. and WGS84. cylindrical projection. and conical projection. and thus establish mapping relations between the points on the earth surface and the points on the flat surface. In this case. . The ellipsoid is the basis for measurement and map drawing. a rotating ellipsoid that is similar to the earth is usually selected and is expressed in the mathematical way to replace the datum. The rotating ellipsoid that is in best accordance with the datum of the local area (a nation or several nations) is called the reference ellipsoids. the datum cannot be used as the calculation plane of the measurement result. according to a certain algorithm. and equidistant projection. Krassovsky. the map projection is classified into azimuth projection. the distortion will occur. equivalent projection.Importing the Data Map Projection The map projection can exhibit the curved earth surface on a flat surface by using the specific mathematics method. When the ellipsoid of the earth is projected on a flat surface. Reference Ellipsoid As the internal substances of the earth are distributed unevenly and the earth surface rolls.

and cylindrical projection. UTM is a widely used projection mode. The projection azimuth is not distorted.9996. the U. The satellite image of China often adopts the UTM projection mode. After the projection. The ratio of the two longitudes to the central meridian is 0. earth is divided into 60 zones limited by west longitude 180 degrees. The UTM projection is created for the world war. In UTM.A completed the calculation of this universe projection system. secant. spanning six degrees of longitude each from the west to the east. distortion does not occur to the two intersected longitudes.S. The cylinder intersects the earth at the two circles of equal altitudes: south altitude 80 degrees and north altitude 84 degrees. .Importing MercatorData the (UTM) Universal Transverse UTM projection is a conformal. In 1948. the central meridian is a straight line and is the symmetry axis of the projection.

In the displayed Configure Terrain Database dialog box.UTM under Primary.Importing the Data  Choose Configure > Terrain Database from the menu of the Pathloss. . select Odyssey .

If you do not enter N or S. In the case of Mauritius. ("N" represents the Northern Hemisphere.Importing the Data • Click Setup Primary. it is set to N by default. you should enter 40S. you can select Use standard UTM zones in index.UTM dialog box. select Use special UTM zone. . and enter the time zone number plus N or S in the box. In the displayed Odyssey . select Embedded building data. If the map covers regions that are located in several time zones. and "S" represents the Southern Hemisphere.) If the map contains the information of buildings.

3. you can select this item. Use standard UTM zones in index: When the map covers regions that are located in several time zones. for example. enter the accurate time zone number and the letter that indicates the hemisphere where the region is located. you should select this item. In this case. select this item. 2. Use specified index file: When the time zone file is available. 40S 4. you should specify the index file that contains the data of the time zone.Importing the Data Descriptions of the options: 1. this item has a great impact. . Embedded building data: When the map contains the information of buildings. When the planned links are located in cities. Use specified UTM zone: When you select this item.

In the example. Click Index.Importing the Data  Click Set Directory to specify the directory of the map. and choose Files > Import List in the displayed Odyssey . the path is as follows: D:\Microwave Planning Design Software Training\20-new Mauritius\height. Note that you should select the Heights folder in the directory of the digital map.UTM window. The Define Fields dialog box is displayed as follows: .

Then click OK. . Choose Files > Close in the Odyssey . enter the time zone number plus N or S.UTM window.Importing the Data • Click Planet. • Descriptions of the preceding parameters: Edge units: generally expressed in meters Byte order: SPARC or INTEL Bottom up: This item determines whether the map starts from the southwestern corner or from the northwestern corner. If the imported map is upside down.txt file. Click Close and then click OK. and click OK. and the format of the imported data is changed to Planet. The map information list is imported. In UTM zone. you need to adjust this item. select the Index.

click Open. Click Close when the process is complete. After you determine the related items in the Import Text File dialog box.Importing the Data • Importing the Data in the Format of CSV Importing the data of a single layer Choose Module > Network > Site Data > Site List > Import > Site Text File from the menu of the Pathloss.  . Select the data to be imported (final data format: *.CSV). and then click Import. click Import. and the Import Text File dialog box is displayed.

Importing the Data • Choose Files > Save (in the format of *.gr4) > Site Data > Create Background. . The background file is created.

you should choose Files > Save to save the file in the format of *. The geographical location is incorrectly set.gr4. 3. . 4. that is. The table heading in the saved *. 2. The possible causes are as follows: 1. The path of the map is incorrectly set.CSV file is not deleted. The file is not saved as required.Importing the Data • The background files may not be created when the Pathloss is used.

Importing the Data Importing the data of multiple layers • Click Start. • Choose Module > Network > Configure > Terrain Database. Click Import. • Choose Site Data > Site List > Import > Site Text File. • Modifying the legends of sites in batches: Choose Defaults > Site Legend.CSV). • Setting the layers: Select Layers to determine the layer where the site is located. . and the Configure Terrain Database dialog box is displayed. and the Import Text File dialog box is displayed. click Import to select the data to be imported (in the format of *. After you set the attributes of the site in the dialog box. and then click Close when the process is complete. and choose Program > Pathloss 4. and then click OK.0 to run the software.

Contents  Overview  Importing the Data  Pre-Planning Routes  Outputting the Information .

the conclusion reached after the communication with the project team. 4. Determine the required conditions for pre-planning the microwave transmission routes. and the output of the radio network planning. communicate with the operator and clarify the doubts. Fully understand the bidding strategies of the project team.Pre-Planning Routes 1. Read through the contents on network. 3. transmission and line construction in the tender document and digest these contents. 2. based on the requirements of the tender document. Sort out the required information. If the clauses that are required for the network planning but are not specified in the tender document. These required conditions are described as follows: • Bidding strategies of the project team • KPIs • Transmission modes of the backbone network (network between cities) • Selected microwave products • Maximum antenna heights • Adopted protection modes .

• • • . and access layer. convergence layer. backbone layer. choosing curved profiles. longitude. and capitalizing on the local terrain condition. • Location of each BTS and the requirement of each BTS for the transmission capacity • Location of each BSC and the requirement of each BSC for the transmission capacity • Subordinating relations between BSCs and BTSs 5. the hemisphere. that is. that is. and latitude where the nation is located. • Determine the graphic example of the project-level microwave planning and design and outputting the format.Pre-Planning Routes Risk factor of the microwave BOQ Frequencies Geographical location of the nation. • Determine the microwave network topology to design the network at different layers. the following aspects are involved: • Divide the work of personnel involved in the project microwave planning and design and making out the plan. Increase the distance of routes in the SDH backbone network to a proper length to decrease the number of SDH microwave hops. • Produce the project-level microwave transmission distance calculation table. When the Pathloss software is used to pre-plan the microwave transmission routes.

Pre-Planning Routes • Network Configuration SDH (large-capacity microwave: STM-1) PDH (small-capacity microwave: 4xE1. 16xE1) 2xE 1 1E1 4xE1 BSC 1+1 16xE1 4xE1 4xE1 4xE1 2xE1 1xE1 1xE1 2xE1 . 8xE1.

Pre-Planning Routes Start Connecting the BSC at the root node to the nearest site (1) Check if there is the site with no link configured NO YES Click on the connection line Terrain Data Operations Generate Profile Close Adding a Relay Site Module Antenna Heights Calculate to adjust the antenna heights at two ends Check if the line-ofsight Transmissions Between two sites is available YES Network NO Flow chart 1 YES END .

 In the displayed Generate Profile dialog box. . click Generate and then click Close.Pre-Planning Routes Procedures for Configuring a Link  Connect the BSC to a nearest site. Choose Terrain Data > Operations > Generate Profile.  Choose Module > Network. and click on the connection line. and then click Yes. and click Calculate (check if the line-of-sight transmission between the two sites is available). Choose Module > Antenna Heights.

and select Summary. enter the proper value in Frequency. Based on the data in Calculated Distance (km). This hop of link adopts the central frequency point 12996 MHz of the 13 GHz frequency band. . Click on the connection line.Pre-Planning Routes • Drag the mouse to connect Site38 and Site40.

.Pre-Planning Routes • Choose Module > Terrain Data > Operations > Generate Profile.

distance. Set the height of the structure (in the example. and then click Close. . and you can modify the related parameters.  Select any point on the profile. elevation. a tree of 15 meters). Double-click the blank area under Structure. and then select Range of Structures. for example. structure. scale and ground.Pre-Planning Routes • Click Generate in the Generate Profile dialog box.

Pre-Planning Routes • Choose Module > Antenna Heights. and then click . .

11 km) Site38 Latitude 20 11 15.93 Elevation 170 m ASL Antenna CL 29.36 S Longitude 057 43 03.08 S Longitude 057 38 28.Pre-Planning Routes • Choose Module > Print Profile. 0. 60.67 %F1 = 100.8 m AGL 十月18 07 5 6 7 8 9 .68 E Azi muth 118.00.5 m AGL Frequency (MHz) = 12996.0 K = 1.33.36 E Azi muth 298.00 Site40 Latitude 20 08 52. 220 200 180 160 Elevation (m) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 Path length (9.90 Elevation 40 m ASL Antenna CL 28.

Pre-Planning Routes Operations for the Sites Between Which the Line-of-Sight Transmission Is not Available: Adding a Relay Site Determine the location of the relay site to be added Site Data Add Site Click on the location of the relay site to be added Add Site Enter the name of the relay site OK Flow chart 2 Flow chart 1-(1) Flow chart 2 chart 2 Flow .

You can also adjust the font size and position of the characters. After the process is complete. click OK. and the Label dialog box is displayed. and deselect Do not draw. and select the site to be deleted. After the process is complete. Labeling a link in a customized way (labeling any information on the link) Right-click on a link and select Label. click OK. Select Distance. . Deselect Do not draw. Enter the information of the link in the blank of the dialog box. You can also adjust the font size and position of the characters. Enter the information of the link in the blank of the dialog box. Choose Edit > Delete > Import > Close. and the Label dialog box is displayed.Pre-Planning Routes • Deleting a Relay Site Choose Site Data > Site List. • Labeling a Link Labeling a link by default (labeling the site distance only) Right-click on a link and select Label.

Pre-Planning Routes • Labeling a Link by Default (Labeling the Site Distance Only) .

Pre-Planning Routes • Labeling a Link in a Customized Way (Labeling Any Information on the Link) .

Contents  Overview  Importing the Data  Pre-Planning Routes  Outputting the Information .

Outputting the Information Outputting the terrain diagram Outputting the profile diagram between sites Outputting the antenna height and site distance Outputting the networking diagram as a PDF document .

Paste the terrain diagram in the Word and save it in the format of *.Outputting the Information • Choose Module > Network > Print > Copy from the menu of the Pathloss.doc. .

8 m AGL 十月18 07 5 6 7 8 9 .36 E Azi muth 298. 0.90 Elevation 40 m ASL Antenna CL 28.doc.08 S Long itude 057 38 28.00 Site40 Latitude 20 08 52. 220 200 180 160 Elevation (m) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 Path leng th (9.36 S Long itude 057 43 03.5 m AGL Freq uency (MHz) = 12996.68 E Azi muth 118.00. and choose Terrain Data > Module > Print Profile > Print > Copy from the menu of the Pathloss. 60.11 km) Site38 Latitude 20 11 15.93 Elevation 170 m ASL Antenna CL 29.67 %F1 = 100. Paste the profile diagram in the Word and save it in the format of *.Outputting the Information • Outputting the Profile Diagram of a Single Link Click on the link whose profile diagram is to be output between two sites.33.0 K = 1.

and then click on a certain link. Press Ctrl+A to select all links. the PDF documents containing the profile diagrams are generated in batches. and save them in the format of *. Enter the names of these files. In this case. Choose Module > Print Profile > Batch Print.  Double-click Pathloss 4.Outputting the Information • Outputting the Profile Diagrams of Multiple Links in Batches  Two software programs should be installed: Adobe Acrobat 5.0.0 and pdfprinter.PDF. and then click Open. (The number of files is determined by the number of links.)  Double-click on a certain link whose PDF document containing the profile diagram was .

. In this case. Select the site information to be output.Outputting the Information • Outputting the Antenna Height and Site Distance Choose Site Data > Site List > Reports > CSV link list-microwave. the report is saved as a CSV file. and then click OK. You should open it in the Excel and save it in the format of *xls.

Outputting the Information .

Do as follows: Click Printer Setup. and select Acrobat PDFWrite in the Printer Setup dialog box. . Set the size of the paper.Outputting the Information • The networking diagram is output as a PDF document. and then click Properties.

Outputting the Information .

Outputting the Information  Choose Print > Print to save the file in the format of *. and then click Save. .pdf.

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