TEMPERATURE CONTROL

A PROJECT REPORT ON TEMPERATURE SENSOR

Guided by:
Mr. NIRAV MAKWANA

Prepared by:
PARMAR NIKHIL .N. PATEL KAJAL .P. (Roll no :) 35 (Roll no :) 41

THAKKAR NIRZAR .A. (Roll no :) 60

DEPARTMENT OF BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING GOVT. POLYTECHNIC, GANDHINAGAR SEC-26
Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar

1

TEMPERATURE CONTROL

GOVT. POLYTECHNIC, GANDHINAGAR SECTOR-26

CERTIFICATE

TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN
This is to certify that Mr. / Ms. PARMAR NIKHIL NARENDRABHAI of semester VI (Biomedical Engg.) has satisfactorily completed his/her seminar work titled “TEMPERATURE SENSOR” in partial fulfillment of requirement of Diploma in biomedical Engineering from Gujarat technological university , in the year 2011.

Guided by: Mr. NIRAV MAKWANA

H.O.D BIOMEDICAL DEPT.

Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar

2

TEMPERATURE CONTROL

GOVT. POLYTECHNIC, GANDHINAGAR SECTOR-26

CERTIFICATE

TO WHOM SO EVER IT

MAY CONCERN

This is to certify that Mr. / Ms. PATEL KAJAL PRAVINBHAI of semester VI (Biomedical Engg.) has satisfactorily completed his / her seminar work titled “TEMPERATURE SENSOR” in partial fulfillment of requirement of Diploma in Biomedical Engineering from Gujarat technological university, in the year 2011.

Guided by: Mr. NIRAV MAKWANA

H.O.D BIOMEDICAL DEPT.

Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar

3

in the year 2011. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 4 . / Ms. NIRAV MAKWANA H.) has satisfactorily completed his / her seminar work titled “TEMPERATURE SENSOR” in partial fulfillment of requirement of Diploma in Biomedical Engineering from Gujarat technological university. GANDHINAGAR SECTOR-26 CERTIFICATE TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that Mr. Guided by: Mr.O.TEMPERATURE CONTROL GOVT. POLYTECHNIC. THAKKAR NIRZAR ARAVIND of semester IV (Biomedical Engg.D BIOMEDICAL DEPT.

Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 5 . to do the desire task according to the application. LM 35 temperature sensor has ability to detect the temperature from outside world without any programmable resistor. fans heaters etc. a regulator IC 7805 is used to regulate the voltage between 7V-35V. It can be interfaced with various devices like Air conditioners. By measuring this parameter and manipulating the same adds various advantages to our day to day life.TEMPERATURE CONTROL ABSTRACT Temperature is most important parameter in these world everything emit heat in the form of infrared. to display the temperature in user defined values it need to be processed in microcontroller which needs digital signals which is achieved by ADC0804.

We are thankful to Ms. N. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 6 . It was their kindness that they give us their time and provides us the necessary information which was very important for the completions of project. We are thankful to all our facilities that were always helpful to us during the project development. Maitri Dave without whom the application was virtually impossible. Once again we would like to thank those entire people for their invaluable support to us in our project. We hearty thank our all friends for their valuable support to us.D Makwana who motivated us for facing the problems and helped in uncovering the problem. And amongst them we are especially thankful to Mr.TEMPERATURE CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This is humble attempt to thank all those who have supported us all the way through our project directly or indirectly.

NO.TEMPERATURE CONTROL INDEX SR. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 HISTORY INTRODUCTION BLOCK DIAGRAM PRINCIPLE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION PARTS DESCRIPTION WORKING CODING (8051 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE) ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES APPLICATION CONCLUSION TOPIC PAGE 8 13 20 21 23 24 36 37 38 58 59 60 62 Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 7 .

Early temperature measurement: Galileo Until about 260 years ago temperature measurement was very subjective. For example does the temperature melt sulphur. Galileo invented the first documented thermometer in about 1592. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 8 . Assyrians. Greater knowledge was gained as man attempted to work with metals through the bronze and iron ages. the impact on various materials could be determined. For hot metals the color of the glow was a good indicator. It impacts the physical. but to control temperature you need to be able to measure what you are controlling.TEMPERATURE CONTROL HISTORY A Brief History of Temperature Temperature is by far the most measured parameter. however possible that there is a gap in the recorded history of technology in this regard as it is difficult to believe that the Egyptians. It is. a full appreciation of the complexities of temperature and its measurement has been relatively slow to develop. Yet. but there was no scale or any way to measure the temperature between these points. For intermediate temperatures. or boil water? In other words a number of fixed points could be defined. Greeks. Romans or Chinese did not measure temperatures in some way. people have known about temperature for a long time: fire is hot and snow is cold. chemical and biological world in numerous ways. Some of the technological processes required a degree of control over temperature. lead or wax. Intuitively. It was an air thermometer consisting of a glass bulb with a long tube attached.

The Eighteenth Century: Celsius and Fahrenheit By the early 18th century. As the air continued to expand. When the heat was removed. but is affected by changes in atmospheric pressure. as many as 35 different temperature scales had been devised. This type of thermometer is sensitive. expanding the air inside. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 9 . the remaining air contracted causing the liquid to rise in the tube and indicating a change in temperature. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invented both the mercury and the alcohol thermometer.TEMPERATURE CONTROL GALILEO’S THERMOMETER The tube was dipped into a cooled liquid and the bulb was warmed. Fahrenheit's mercury thermometer consists of a capillary tube which after being filled with mercury is heated to expand the mercury and expel the air from the tube. some of it escaped. In 1714.

Thermometers increasingly use electronic means to provide a digital display or input to a computer. "to measure") is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient using a variety of different principles. so it cannot be used to measure temperature below this point. by being sealed it is not affected by the atmospheric pressure. leaving the mercury free to expand and contract with temperature changes. freezes at -113° Celsius. Mercury freezes at -39° Celsius.g. the bulb on a mercury thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature.g. plus some means of converting this physical change into a value (e. A thermometer has two important elements: The temperature sensor (e. allowing much lower temperatures to be measured. the scale on a mercury thermometer). Alcohol. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 10 . The tube is then sealed. on the other hand. Although the mercury thermometer is not as sensitive as the air thermometer.TEMPERATURE CONTROL Thermometer A thermometer (from the Greek θερμός (thermo) meaning "warm" and meter.

See beck assigned constants to each type of metal and used these constants to compute total amount of current flowing. Also in 1821. (In fact there appeared to have been between 15 and 20 different temperature scales at this time. The common Flemish thermometers of the day divided this range into twelve points. Anders Celsius realized that it would be advantageous to use more common calibration references and to divide the scale into 100 increments instead of 96. However it was not until well into the following century that this knowledge was exploited to measure temperature. the thermocouple effect. In 1821 T J See beck discovered that a current could be produced by unequally heating two junctions of two dissimilar metals. giving his thermometers more resolution and a temperature scale very close to today's Fahrenheit scale. William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) postulated the existence of an absolute zero. For this purpose he developed what is now known as the Stevenson Screen. Fahrenheit further subdivided this range into ninety-six points. He measured radiation effects from fires. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 11 . he could detect an increase in temperature when moving a blackened thermometer across the spectrum of colors. candles and stoves.TEMPERATURE CONTROL At the time. thermometers were calibrated between the freezing point of salted water and the human body temperature. determined by nationality and application. It is still in wide use. Gradually the scientific community learnt how to measure temperature with greater precision.) Later in the 18th century. (Salt added to crush wet ice produced the lowest artificially created temperatures at the time). Hershel found that the heating effect increased toward and beyond the red in the region we now call 'infrared'. Sir William Hershel discovered that when sunlight was spread into a color swath using a prism. For example it was realised by Thomas Stevenson (civil engineer and father of Robert Louis Stevenson) that air temperature measurement needed to occur in a space shielded from the sun's radiation and rain. Sir Humphrey Davy discovered that all metals have a positive temperature coefficient of resistance and that platinum could be used as an excellent temperature detector (RTD). He chose to use one hundred degrees as the freezing point and zero degrees as the boiling point of water. The Nineteenth Century: A productive era The early 1800's were very productive in the area of temperature measurement and understanding. Sensibly the scale was later reversed and the Centigrade scale was born. These two discoveries marked the beginning of serious electrical sensors. and deduced the similarity of light and radiant heat.

making them ideal for many industrial applications. will bend in one direction when heated and will bend in the opposite direction when cooled (hence the term Bimetallic Thermometer or BiMets). although it is not a simple task. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 12 . The most recent change occurred with the updating of the International Temperature Scale in 1990 to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Although not as accurate as liquid in glass thermometers. Lord Kelvin was finally rewarded for his early work in temperature measurement. The 20th Century: Further discovery. This document also covers the recent history of temperature standards. such as: the thermistor. BiMets are hardier. The "Centigrade" scale was changed to the "Celsius" scale. to a pointer that moves across a calibrated scale." we instead say "one-hundred Kelvin’s". Temperatures can now be measured to within about 0.001°C over a wide range. by a suitable mechanical linkage. one metal that is bonded to another. refinement and recognition The 20th century has seen the discovery of semiconductor devices. a range of non-contact sensors and also fiberoptic temperature sensors. This bending motion is transmitted. These thermometers contain no liquid but operate on the principle of unequal expansion between two metals.TEMPERATURE CONTROL The late 19th century saw the introduction of bimetallic temperature sensor. in honour of Anders Celsius. The 20th century also saw the refinement of the temperature scale. Also. the integrated circuit sensor. Now we no longer say "one-hundred degrees Kelvin. easy to read and have a wider span. The increments of the Kelvin scale were changed from degrees to Kelvin’s. Since different metals expand at different rates.

Temperature sensors are categorized into two types: (i) Contact type sensors (ii) Non-Contact type sensors 1.accuracy. The voltage developed between two junctions is called See beck voltage. These sensors sense the temperature and generate output signals in one of the two forms: change in voltage or change in resistance. range of temperature. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 13 . Contact type sensors: These measure their own temperature i. They are available in bead type or probe type construction. response time and environment are considered. they are in contact with the metal and will be in thermal equilibrium. Thermocouples Resistive temperature devices Thermocouple Temperature Measurement Sensors: Thermocouple Temperature Measurement Sensors Principle of operation: Thermocouples work on the principle of See beck effect.e. They consist of two junctions: cold junction and hot junction. They generate energy in the order of microwatts-mill watts. Voltage is in the order of mill volts.. In order to select a sensor for a particular application .TEMPERATURE CONTROL INRODUCTION Temperature sensors: Temperature Sensors are the devices which are used to measure the temperature of an object.

these measure the temperature by detecting the infrared energy emitted by the material.TEMPERATURE CONTROL 2. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 14 . Non-Contact type Sensors: These infer temperature by measuring the thermal radiations emitted by the material. IR thermometers is the example of Non-contact type temperature sensor. surrounded by EM field or when a fast response is required. Temperature sensing can also be done through special type of sensors just like LM 35 this sensor is interface with 8051 microcontroller to sense the temperature and also control the process. -This consists of a lens which senses the IR signal and converts it into electrical signal which is displayed in temperature units. -These are applied when the object is moving.

and Texas instruments. Philips. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±1⁄4°C at room temperature and ±3⁄4°C over a full −55 to +150°C temperature range. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 15 . LM 35 sensor consist of 3 pins that is one for power supply. As it draws only 60 μA from its supply. or with plus and minus supplies. The LM35 series is available pack packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in° Kelvin. The 8051 microcontroller is one of the most popular general purpose microcontrollers in use today. which includes chips from vendors such as Atmel. The LM35 is rated to operate over a −55° to +150°C temperature range. while the LM35C is rated for a −40° to +110°C range (−10° with improved accuracy). whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors. while the LM35C. less than 0.1°C in still air. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package. The LM35’s low output impedance. linear output. one for output and one for ground. and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. Infineon. it has very low self-heating. The success of the 8051 spawned a number of clones which are collectively referred to as the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level.TEMPERATURE CONTROL LM 35 has capability of sensing -55° to +150°C which is really applicable in bio-medical field. LM35CA. It can be used with single power supplies. as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling.

-Low impedance output. 0. -Low cost due to wafer level trimming 7. -Suitable for remote applications.08°C in still air 10.5°C accuracy guarantee (at +25°C). -Linear + 10.TEMPERATURE CONTROL ABOUT LM35 SENSOR The LM 35 series are precision integrated circuit temperature sensors whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius temperature. -Rated for full -55°C to 150°C range. -Operates from 4-30Volts 8.10 nm for 1mA load Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 16 .0 mV/°C scale factor. -0. -Nonlinearity only +-1/4° C typical 11. -Low self-heating 0. LM 35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of +-1/4°C at room temperature and +-1/4°C over a full -55°C to +150°C. -Less than 60 micro Ampere current drain 9. 4. 6. LM 35 FEATURES 1. 5. 3. 2. -Calibrated directly in Celsius.

128 bytes on chip data memory (RAM) 3. 12. but the extended 8051 model often have a different form factor. ADC. Bit as well as byte addressable RAM area of 16 bytes. By some estimates. 32 general purpose register each of 8 bits 8. 4 register banks 4. 16-bit address bus 7. 1. Four 8-bit ports. or less) 9. There are 3 basic “sizes” of the 8051: short. The short and standard chips are often available in DIP (dual in package) form. All these thongs are called 8051 because they can all be programmed using 8051 assembly language. standard. and they can all share certain features (although the different models all have their own special features) Some of the features that have made the 8051 popular are: 1. but may have more. 16 bit timers (usually 2. 11. Robotics 3. TYPICAL APPLICATION 8051 chips are used in a wide variety of control systems. 128 user defined software flags 5. 8051 models may also have a number of special. 64 bits on chip program memory 2. and extended. and are not “drop in compatible”. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 17 . etc. 3 internal and d2 external interrupts 10.TEMPERATURE CONTROL ABOUT THE MICROCONTROLLER The 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8-bits. 1 microsecond instruction cycle with 12 MHz crystal. model-specific features such as UARTs. Telecom application 2. 8-bit data bus 6.(short models have two-8 bit ports). The automotive industry. opAmps. 13. 8051 family chips make up over 50% of the embedded chip market. 16-bit program counter and data pointer.

serial transmit and receive pins. Pin 40 & 20:-pins 40 & 20 are Vcc and ground respectively. Pins 29. This is “program store enable”. (Pin should be held high for 2 machine cycles.pin 9 is the reset pin which is used to reset the microcontroller’s internal registers and ports upon starting up. but if external memory access is required then port P0 acts as a multiplexed address and data bus that can be used to access external memory in conjunction with port P2.(pins 21 to 28) port P2 can also be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no external memory is present. Pin P0:-(pins 32 to 39)port P0 can be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no external memory is present. The other ports P0. read and write pins for memory access. 2 external counter inputs. should be connected to ground to indicate the presence of external memory. but portP3 has additional functions such as. Pin 30 is called ALE (address latch enable). PORTS There are 4 8-bit ports P0. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 18 . although there are lower powered versions like the Atmel 2051which is a scaled down version of the 8051 which runs on +3V. but if external memory access is required then port P2 will act as an address bus in conjunction with port P0 to access external memory. In order to program this we need to supply a voltage of +12V at pin 31. Port P3 :-(pins 10-17)port P3 acts as a normal io port. P3 have dual roles or additional functions associated with them based upon the context of their usage. also called EA/UVP. P2 and P3. Port P2:.TEMPERATURE CONTROL BASIC PINS Pin 9:. P1. In order to use the external memory it is required to provide the low voltage (0) on both PSEN and EA pins. 30 & 31:-as described in the features of the 8051. Port P2 acts as A8-A15. Pin 29 is called PSEN. P2. this chip contains a built in flash memory. which is used when multiple memory chips are connected to the controller and only one of them needs to be selected. P0 acts as a AD0-AD7. Port P1 :-( pins 1 to 8) the port P1 is a general purpose input/output port which can be used for variety of interfacing tasks. 2 external interrupt pins. if external memory is connected then pin 31.) Pin 18 & 19:-the 8051 has a built-in oscillator amplifier hence we need to connect a crystal at these pins to provide clock pulses to the circuit. The 8051 chip needs +5V 500mA to function properly.

although the 8051 (depending on which specific model) is capable of running at a maximum of 40MHz. The oscillator circuit usually runs around 12MHz. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 19 .TEMPERATURE CONTROL OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS The 8051 requires the existence of an external oscillating circuit. giving an effective cycle rate at 1MHz (for a 12MHz clock) to 3.33MHz (for the maximum 40 MHz clock). Each machine cycle in the 8051 is 12 clock cycles.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL BLOCK DIAGRAM Here LM 35 temperature works as transducer which senses the temperature and transmits the analog signal into The analog to digital converter converts the analog signals that transmited by LM 35 sensor which is then transmited into microcontroller for further processing The processed signals are are then displayed as output. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 20 . Or this signals are manipulated as devices driving signals for the devices of interest.

the sensor is connected with microcontroller which in turns display the temperature on display as well as detect the preset values which is predefined as threshold for microcontroller which warns the observer if the same goes beyond the threshold values. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 21 . • The ADC804 has 8-bit resolution with a maximum of 256 steps and the LM35 produces 10mV for every degree of temperature change.TEMPERATURE CONTROL PRINCIPLE The temperature sensing in incubator works on the principle of non contact type temperature sensing as it includes LM35 temperature sensor which works on the same principle. R5 and C3 are used for capacitive load compensation.

Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 22 .TEMPERATURE CONTROL •We will do calibration such that.28Vso step size will be 2560mv/256 = 10mval so for every degree change in temp. for temperature range of 0 to 100°C.so every degree change in temp.56 v. voltage in at the input of ADC will be 0 to 2. •we need to set Vref/2 = 1. LM35 output changes by 10mv . which is smallest temperature that we can measure with this system. will produce 1 unit change in digital out of ADC •Thus resolution of our system will be 1deg C°.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 23 .

Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 24 . A 12V AC from transformer is connected to bridge rectifier (D1-D4). A 12V ac is rectified and filtered by using a bridge rectifier and filter capacitor. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density non volatile memory technology and compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. All ICs are supplied with a regulated 5V from a LM 7805 fixed voltage regulator. The unregulated voltage of approximately 12V is required for the relay driving circuit. Two supply voltages are required for the circuit.TEMPERATURE CONTROL CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION POWER SUPPLY:The circuit operates off a simple power supply using an IC 7805 regulator. high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 4K bytes of flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The on chip flash allows the programmer. On the +12V rail. a 7805 regulator is used to regulate the output to a stable 5V. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with flash on a monolithic chip the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control application. AT89C51 MICRO CONTROLLER:The AT89C51 is a low power. Bridge rectifier is use to convert 12 AC into 12 DC voltages.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL PIN CONFIGURATION Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 25 .

6. 3. 32 programmable IN/OUT lines. Programmable serial channel. Two16-bit time/counter. Three-level program memory lock. Fully static operation: 0 Hz to 24MHz. Compatible with MCS-51 products. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 26 . Six interrupt sources. 4K bytes of in-system reprogrammable flash memory. 128*8 bit internal RAM.TEMPERATURE CONTROL FEATURES: 1. 2. 4. 5. 8. 7. 10. Low-power idle and power down modes. 9.

for instance. The 7805 also has a built-in current limiter as a safety feature. The last two digits represent the voltage. Its output voltage is fixed at 5. These are usually packaged in TO220 chip carriers. The 78xx series of regulators is designed to work in complement with the 79xx series of negative voltage regulators in systems that provide both positive and negative regulated voltages. since the 78xx series can't regulate negative voltages in such a system. the 7812 is a 12-volt regulator. It belongs to a family of three-terminal positive fixed regulators with similar specifications and differing fixed voltages from 8 to 15 volts. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 27 .0V. The 7805 will automatically reduce output current if it gets too hot.TEMPERATURE CONTROL INTEGARTED CIRCUIT 7805:- 7805 is an integrated three-terminal positive fixed linear voltage regulator. It typically has a current rating of 1 amp although both higher and lower current models are available. but smaller surface-mount and larger TO3 packages are also available. It supports an input voltage of 7 volts to 35 volts and output voltage of 5 volts. The 7805 is one of the most common and well-known of the 78xx series regulators. as its small component count and medium-power regulated 5V make it useful for powering TTL.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL RESISTOR: A resistor is a two-terminal electrical or electronic component that opposes an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in accordance with Ohm's law: The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor divided by the current through he resistor while the temperature remains the same. every matter has its own resistance which varies material to material. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 28 . Resistance is a property of a material that opposes the flow of electrons in a conducting material. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. Resistors work on the principle called resistance.

Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency signals. This is considered an antiquated term in English. building up on each plate. Capacitors are often used in electrical circuit and electronic circuits as energy-storage devices. and involves electric charges of equal magnitude. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 29 . This property makes them useful in electronic filters.TEMPERATURE CONTROL CAPACITOR: A capacitor is an electrical/electronic device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of conductors (called "plates"). The process of storing energy in the capacitor is known as "charging". like "Kondensator" in German or "Condensador" in Spanish. but opposite polarity. but most other languages use an equivalent.

When the current to the coil is switched off. a form of an electrical amplifier. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit. In the original form. The movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. this is to reduce arcing. Usually this is a spring. the armature is returned by a force approximately half as strong as the magnetic force to its relaxed position.TEMPERATURE CONTROL RELAY: A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. the resulting magnetic field attracts an armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact. the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. it can be considered to be. this is to reduce noise. When a current flows through the coil. In a low voltage application. In a high voltage or high current application. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 30 . in a broad sense.

a diode is frequently installed across the coil. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC. to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation. which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. which would otherwise generate a spike of voltage and might cause damage to circuit components. a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device. may absorb the surge. To achieve electrical isolation an optocoupler can be used which is a light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 31 . Alternatively a contact protection network. This "shading ring" creates a small out-of-phase current.TEMPERATURE CONTROL If the coil is energized with DC. consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series. a solid-state relay is made with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. Some automotive relays already include that diode inside the relay case.

Already a leading light source for exit signs and developing as a popular source for traffic signals. more efficacious. with plenty of opportunity for expansion. LED "cold" generation of light leads to high efficacy because most of the energy radiates in the visible spectrum. and to a lesser extent fluorescent. Small. lamps radiate much energy in the non-visible spectrum. Incandescent. with efficacies grater that incandescent lamps. including white light. generating heat as well as light. and with long life. lightweight. LEDs have the long-term potential to be the source of choice in many applications. These brighter. and colorful LEDs move LED technology into a wider range of lighting applications. and transportation applications. from automotive brake lights to task lights. decorative. New LED materials and improved production processes have produced bright LEDs in colors throughout the visible spectrum. durable. What are LEDs and how do they work? LEDs are solid-state semiconductor devices that convert electrical energy directly into light.TEMPERATURE CONTROL LED: Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Everyone is familiar with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) from their use as indicator lights and numeric displays on consumer electronics devices. LEDs also appear in display. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 32 .

Com. The plastic encapsulate and lead frame occupy most of the volume. when current flows across the junction of the different materials. Anode 9. typically 0. Cathode C 5. Presently. SEVEN SEGMENT LCD DISPLAY: As shown in above figure LCD contains ten pins namely 1. These modules are preferred over seven segments. Cathode B 7. Cathode DP 6. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 33 . A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits. Cathode F 10. Cathode E 2. Cathode A 8.TEMPERATURE CONTROL Light is generated inside the chip. Anode 4. the most commonly used LEDs are the 5 mm LED package. The light-generating chip is quite small. Com. Cathode G LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications.25 millimeters square. Cathode D 3. a solid crystal material.

air core transformers being a notable exception. the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or “voltage” in the secondary winding. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the Transformer to the load.TEMPERATURE CONTROL TRANSFORMER: Transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer’s core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 34 . in an ideal transformer. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follow:Vs⁄Vp = Ns⁄Np By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp). Conductors -the transformer’s coils. If a load is connected to the secondary. In the vast majority of transformer. a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be “stepped up” by making Ns greater than Np or “stepped down” by making Ns less than Np. This effect is called mutual induction.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL TWO PIN PLUG: Two pin plug is connected with transformer which supply power to transformer which is connected with circuit and thus power supply is given to circuit via two pin plug. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 35 . the two pin plug has one pin for phase and other for neutral.

33 PF-Disc Capacitor. --. 20 Pin-1 0-12V/500 ma Transformer 2-Pins Main Cord 3-Pin Reliment Connector for LM35 Sensor Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 36 . R20 R9.0592 MHz Crystal --.ADC0804-Anlog To Digital Converter --.220 ohm-Red Red Brown Golden --.7 Segment Common Anode Display ---11.470 ohm –Yellow Violet Brown Golden --. --.LM7805-+5V Regulator IC --. Q3 Q4.1000 micro farad / 25V-Electrolytic Capacitor.1 Kilo ohm-Brown Black Red Golden --. --.TEMPERATURE CONTROL PARTS DESCRIPTION REGISTERS:R1-R7.100 micro farad/16V.BC557 – PNP Transistor --.40 Pin-1. SEMICONDUCTOR:U1 U3 U4 D1 D5-D8 Q1.8. R17 R8 R18 R21 R22 RN1 P1 --.0. Q5 DS1-DS4 X1 LB --.12V/1CO-Mni Sugar Cube PCB Mount Relay IC Socket --.2 Kilo ohm-202-Timer Type Preset CAPACITOR:C1.BC547 – NPN Transistor --. Red Golden --. R12-R15.10 Kilo ohm-Brown Black Orange Golden --.LT542.1 micro farad-104-100KPF-Disc capacitors.3V-Zenor Diode ---1N4007-Rectifier Diode --.Electrolytic Capacitor. Q2.10 Kilo ohm-103J-Resistor Network Array --.330 ohm-Orange Orange Brown Golden --. --.AT89C51-Pre Programmed Microcontroller --. R10. C10 C2 C3 C4 CE1 CD1.Tact tile Micro Switch RL3 --.10 micro farad / 25V-Electrolytic Capacitor --. R19. R16.150 PF-Disc Capacitor.LED Any Colour MISCELLANEOUS:SW2-SW5 --.2 Kilo ohm-Grey Red. CD2 --. R11.

The external devices like Air-conditioners Fans etc. All the 8 pins of port 2 and 4 pins of port3 is used that is write. Now the digitized signal is processed and given as the input to LCD display which generates the output.38. diode. read.11. TXD. The output is displayed as numeric image which continuously gets on/off but human eye cannot detect that and it seems like lighted number continuously displayed. INT0 and INT1respectively. microcontroller. integrated circuits etc. The input in analog to digital converter is the output generated by LM35Dz temperature sensor.39 pins. The LCD display is grounded with resistors Power supply is also applied to integrated circuit or can say vertical circuit LM7805 The temperature is sensed by LM35Dz temperature sensor which is in analog form that is to be converted into digital form For such task ADC0804 analog to digital converter is used.37.13 RXD. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 37 . This analog to digital converter is controlled by microcontroller it controls the conversion of signal supplied by temperature sensor in to digital form. timer are connected with analog to digital converter.TEMPERATURE CONTROL WORKING The power supply circuit is used to apply 5V of current supply to components like capacitor. is drive through pin number 14 of microcontroller which is connected with Relay via two transistors.12. The power supply is given to microcontroller through port 0 the switching is provide to port 0 on 36. This power supply is apply to LCD display This power supply which is applied to LCD display is controlled by microcontroller through port 3 say pin number 10.

globl_convert globl_main globl_timer_isr globl_count1 globl_delay globl_key globl_time globl_pro globl_opto globl_v globl_chipE globl_buffer globl_digit globl_i globl_chek globl_rm globl_ch globl_x Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 38 .TEMPERATURE CONTROL CODING (8051 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE) The program for displaying the temperature which is sensed by LM35Dz temperature sensor is necessary to be processed in microcontroller as temperature sensor detects the analog signal which is to be converted into degree Celsius for that calculation process is done in microcontroller for that the coding is shown bellow.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL globl_j globl_h globl_g globl_f globl_e globl_d globl_c globl_b globl_a globl_z globl_qz globl_temp globl_command globl_flag1 globl_temperature globl_water globl_scanLED globl_chip globl_distemp globl_check_temp globl_keyexe globl_checkdata Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 39 .

TEMPERATURE CONTROL globl_setup globl_setdown globl_save globl_manualOnOff globl_showOnce globl_comp globl_keydelay globl_pause P0 = 0x0080 SP =0x0081 _DPL =0x0082 _DPH =0x0083 _PCON =0x0087 _TCON =0x0088 _TMOD =0x0089 _TL0 =0x008a _TL1 =0x008b _TH0 =0x008c _TH1 =0x008d _P1 =0x0090 _SCON =0x0098 _SBUF =0x0099 Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 40 .

TEMPERATURE CONTROL _P2 =0x00a0 _IE =0x00a8 _P3 =0x00b0 _IP =0x00b8 _PSW =0x00d0 _ACC =0x00E0 _A =0x00e0 _B =0x00f0 _P0_0 =0x0080 _P0_1 =0x0081 _P0_2 =0x0082 _P0_3 =0x0083 _P0_4 =0x0084 _P0_5 =0x0085 _P0_6 =0x0086 _P0_7 =0x0087 _IT0 =0x0088 _IE0 =0x0089 _ITI =0x008a _IEI =0x008b _TR0 =0x008c _TF0 =0x008d Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 41 .

TEMPERATURE CONTROL _TRI =0x008e _TFI =0x008f _P1_0 =0x0090 _P1_1 =0x0091 _P1_2 =00x092 _P1_3=0x0093 _P1_4 =0x0094 _P1_5 =0x0095 _P1_6 =0x0096 _P1_7 =0x0097 _RI =0x0098 _TI =0x0099 _RB8 =0x009a _TB8 = 0x009b _REN = 0x009c _SM2=0x009d _SM1 = 0x009c _SM3 = 0x009f _P2_0 = 0x00a0 _P2_1 = 0x00a1 _P2_2 = 0x00a2 _P2_3 = 0x00a3 Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 42 .

TEMPERATURE CONTROL _P2_4 = 0x00a4 _P2_5 = 0x00a5 _P2_6 = 0x00a6 _P2_7 = 0x00a7 _EX0 = 0x00a8 _ET0 = 0x00a9 _EX1 = 0x00aa _ET1 = 0x00ab _ES = 0x00ac _EA = 0x00af _P3_0 = 0x00b0 _P3_1 = 0x00b1 _P3_2 = 0x00b2 _P3_3 = 0x00b3 _P3_4 = 0x00b4 _P3_5 = 0x00b5 _P3_6 = 0x00b6 _P3_7 = 0x00b7 _RXD = 0x00b0 _TXD = 0x00b1 _INT0 = 0x00b2 _INT1 = 0x00b3 Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 43 .

#(l_XINIT>>8) Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 44 .dpl ljump mov rl.l orl a.#l_XINIT mov a.r.TEMPERATURE CONTROL _T0 = 0x00b4 _T1 = 0x00b5 _WR = 0x00b6 _RD = 0x00b7 _PX0 = 0x00b8 _PT0 = 0x00b9 _PX0 = 0x00ba _PT1 = 0x00bb _PS = 0x00bc _P = 0x00d0 _FL = 0x00d1 _OV = 0x00d2 _RS0 = 0x00d3 _RS1 = 0x00d4 _F0 = 0x00d5 _AC = 0x00d6 _CY = 0x00D7 mov sp#_start_stack-1 lcall mov a.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL mov r2.#0x00 ar2 = 0x0a ar3 = 0x0b ar4 = 0x0c ar5 = 0x0d ar6 = 0x0e Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 45 .#s_XISEG mov p2.a mov p2.#0xFF mov r0.#(1_XSEG>>8) mov r1.#s_XINIT mov r0.r0 orl a.a inc dptr mov @r0.#(s_XISEG>>8) movc a.#I_XSEG mov a.#((l_XINIT>>+225)>>8) mov dptr.a mov _z.@a+dptr movx @r0.#s_XSEG clr a movx @dptr.#((l_XSEG + 225)>>8) mov dptr.

#0x01 mov _rm.#0x32 Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 46 .#0x08 orl _TH0.#0xx01 mov _temp.#0xDC pop psw pop dph pop b pop acc reti _main: ar2 = 0x02 ar3 = 0x03 ar4 = 0x04 ar5 = 0x05 ar6 = 0x06 ar7 = 0x07 ar0 = 0x00 ar1 = 0x01 mov _pro.TEMPERATURE CONTROL ar7 = 0x0f ar0 = 0x08 ar1 = 0x09 push b mov psw.

#0x01 mov a.#0x01 mov a.#0x00 mov _buffer.#0x00 mov (_buffer + 0x0001)._pro cjne a.#0x03 mov _pro.pro mov _buffer.#0x00 mov (_buffer + 0x0001).#0x00 mov _buffer.#0xFF mov _ch.#0x00 mov _chipE.#0x00 mov (_buffer + 0x0001).#0x8F mov _P0.#0x6D mov (_buffer + 0x0002).#0x31 mov (_buffer + 0x0002).#0x73 mov (_buffer + 0x0002).#0x00 slr c mov a_pro sub a.#0x00 mov (_buffer + 0x0001).#0x00 mov _buffer.TEMPERATURE CONTROL mov _count1.#0x6F Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 47 .

TEMPERATURE CONTROL

mov (_buffer + 0x0002),#0x00 mov _buffer,#0x00 mov (_buffer + 0x0001),#0x63 mov (_buffer + 0x0002),#0x00 mov _digit,#0x04 mov r2,#0x00 mov r3,#0x00 clr c mov a,r2 sub a,#0x03 mov a,r3 xrl a,#0x80 sub a,#0x80 mov a_digit mov r4,a mov a,_chipE anl a,r4 anl a,_opto mov _P3,a mov a,r2 add a,#_buffer mov r0,a

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TEMPERATURE CONTROL

mov ar4,@r0 mov a,r4 cpl a mov _P1,a mov dptr,#0x0005 mov _Pl,#0xFF mov a,_digit clr c mov _digit,a inc r2 inc r3 inc _time clr a inc (_time + 1) clr c mov a,_time subb a,#0xF4 mov a,(_time + 1) sub a,#0x01 clr a mov (_time + 1) mov _time,a

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TEMPERATURE CONTROL

inc _chek clr c mov a,_chek sub a,#0x03 mov _chek,#0x01 mov a,_chek cjne a,#0x01,00106$ mov _chipE,#0x9F mov a,_chek cjne a,#0x02,00109$ mov _chipE,#0x01F :mov b,#0x0A mov a,_z div ab mov r2,b mov a,r2 mov dptr,#_convert movc a,@a+dptr mov r2,a mov _buffer,r2 mov b_#0x0A mov a_z

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a mov a.dpl mov r3.r2 mov dph.#0x64 mov a.TEMPERATURE CONTROL mov r2.a mov (_buffer + 0x0001).a clr a mov r3.a clr a movc a.r3 addc a.#(_convert>>8) mov dph.dph mov a.r2 add a.#0X0A mov dpl.#_convert mov dpl.@a+dptr mov r2._z div ab Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 51 .r2 mov b.r3 mov r2.a mov (_modsint_PARM_2 + 1) mov _modsint_PARM_2.

r3 addc a.dph mov a.@a+dptr mov r2.a mov (_buffer : 0x0002).#0x01 Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 52 .a clr a mov r3.a mov a.r2 add a.r3 lcall _modsint mov r2.#_convert mov dpl.a clr a movc a.r2 _check_temp: mov _a.a mov _modsint_PARM_2.dpl mov r3.#(_convert>>8) mov dph.#0x0A mov dpl.TEMPERATURE CONTROL mov r2.r2 mov dph.a mov (_modsint_PARM_2 + 1).

TEMPERATURE CONTROL mov _a.#0x00 mov _c.#0x00 mov _b._b add a._a add a.#0x40 mov _g._ch mov a.#0x04 mov _c.#0x00 mov _h.#0x00 mov a.#0x20 mov _f._d add a.#0x02 mov _b.#0x80 mov _h.#0x00 mov _d._e add a.#0x00 mov _f.#0x00 mov _e._c add a.#0x08 mov _d._f Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 53 .#0x10 mov _e.#0x00 mov _g.

a orl _flag1.#0xc8 lcall _setup lcall _setdown mov _ch.mov a.a _keyexe.#0x80 Anl a._z subb a.TEMPERATURE CONTROL add a._qz mov _z.#0x01 lcall _checkdata mov _temp.flag l mov r2._g add a.#0x80 mov _delay.#0x00 clr c clr a Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 54 ._temp mov _rm.#0x97 mov _z._h mov _z.#0x00 clr c mov a.#0x00 mov _ch.

00108$ dec r3 mov a._ch mov _qz.#0xB0 mov r3._z mov _z.r3 -comp._z subb a.#0x90 mov _temp._z mov a._temp mov _rm._qz Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 55 .#0xff.#0x04 push ar2 push ar3 lcall _scanLED pop ar3 pop ar2 dcc r2 cjne r2.r2 orl a.#0x01 _showOnce: mov r2. clr c mov a.TEMPERATURE CONTROL subb a.

a _pause: mov r2._flag 1 mov r2.a dec _delay mov a._delay mov r2.#0x7F anl a.#0x80 anl a.#0x00 mov r5._flag 1 mov a.r2 mov _flag 1.r4 subb a.#0x80 mov b.#0x00 clr c mov a.#0xFF _keydelay: mov a.r5 xrl a.r2 mov a.TEMPERATURE CONTROL mov _opto.r3 Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 56 .#0xFF mov _opto.dpl mov r3.dph mov r4.

db #0x5F .area CSEG (CODE) _convert .db #0x5E .db #0x3F .db #0x4D .b inc r4 inc r5 .db #0x0E .db #0x5D .TEMPERATURE CONTROL xrl b.db #0x0C .db #0x7B .db #0x7F .db #0x76 .#0x80 subb a.area XINIT (CODE) PROGRAM END Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 57 .

fans. Good sensing range due to the use of LM35Dz temperature sensor that is (0150) Less bulky because the transformer used is of 12/500mA which is small in size and less in weight. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 58 . and heaters can be interface with this device.TEMPERATURE CONTROL ADVANTAGES        Highly accurate due to the use of microcontroller. The device is small and easy to interface as well as easy to operate. External devices like air conditioners. Digital output which in turns result in accurate threshold settings that results into accurate driving of peripheral devices. It displays the real tome temperature.

Though there is a option to write another microcontroller program to convert temperature in degree Celsius to Fahrenheit but that is not viable for the project. We have to manually convert it into Fahrenheit equivalent.TEMPERATURE CONTROL DISADVANTAGES The only disadvantage I have found in this project is that the temperature is available in degree Celsius only. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 59 .

Incubator is used for pre-mature infants who suffers problems of maintaining the body temperature and thus losses body temperature which results into difficulty in breathing specially asthama prone patient. Temperature sensing and maintaining in I. ward I.U.TEMPERATURE CONTROL APPLICATIONS 1. Temperature sensing and maintaining in INCUBATOR. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 60 .C.C.U needs continous cool temperature as to avoid the growth of bacteria in I.C.U. Incubator is used to provide heat to baby and thus maintain the body temperature 2. ward and maintain the humity of the room thus for that continous monitoring is necessry which is fulfilled by this device.

Some medicines as well as vacines needs to be kept at very low temperature othervise it may get contaminated for that purpose continous monitoring is required to maintain the desire temperature by seeting the value to be sensed and do the desire task as recommended. 4. Temperature sensing and maintaining in blood bank. In blood banks the blood which is stored should be kept at as low as 4°C temperature the temperature continously changes due to outdor environment equilibrium this need continous monitoring and maintaing the temperature which is achieved through this device. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 61 . this task is achieved through this device.TEMPERATURE CONTROL As the relatives of patient visit to watch ther relative patient in the ward results into temperature increase in the room which needs to be sensed and start the device which cools the room (Air conditioners). Temperature sensing and maintaining in Cold Storage. Medicines should be kept at constant recommended temperature which is achieved through this device. 3.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL CONCLUSION From this project we could conclude that measuring of temperature which is analog signal and it is converted into digital signal through analog to digital converter which is process in microcontroller to display in digital form is possible to run devices like air conditioners. And thus maintain the room or the place of interest’s temperature. Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 62 . fans. and heaters.

2.COM Nikhil Parmar Kajal Patel Nirzar Thakkar 63 .NATIONAL.COM WWW.WIKEPIDIA. 3.GOOGLE.COM WWW. 4. WWW.HOWSTUFFWORKS. 5.COM WWW.INSTRUCTABLES.TEMPERATURE CONTROL REFERENCES 1.COM WWW.

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