Window Performance for Human Thermal Comfort Final Report – November 2005

Charlie Huizenga Hui Zhang Pieter Mattelaer Tiefeng Yu Edward Arens University of California, Berkeley

Peter Lyons
Arup Façade Engineering Melbourne, Australia

CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT NOVEMBER 2005

Center for the Built Environment (CBE)
Our Mission: To improve the design, operation, and environmental quality of buildings by providing timely, unbiased information on building technologies and design techniques

CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

November 2005

CBE Industry Partners
Armstrong World Industries Arup* California Department of General Services (DGS) California Energy Commission Charles M. Salter Associates Flack + Kurtz HOK Pacific Gas & Electric Co. Price Industries RTKL Skidmore Owings and Merrill Stantec Steelcase Syska Hennessy Group Tate Access Floors* Taylor Engineering Team: • Taylor Engineering • The Electrical Enterprise • Guttmann & Blaevoet • Southland Industries • Swinerton Builders Trane U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)* U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)* Webcor* York International Corporation *founding partner

CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

November 2005

CBE research programs Indoor Environmental Quality Envelope and Façade Systems Workplace Design Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Building Information Technology CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

Phase II CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . Develop the technical basis and propose a rating method.National Fenestration Rating Council Study Objective: Develop a technical basis for a method to rate the thermal comfort performance of windows. Phase I Literature review of thermal comfort studies related to windows. and draft. asymmetrical thermal environments.

Literature review 20 page overview of the literature ~175 relevant papers identified ~40 papers summarize CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

A cold inside surface temperature can induce a convective draft in a room. Solar radiation absorbed by the window increases the interior window surface temperature. Transmitted solar radiation that reaches the body has a significant impact on comfort.How windows influence comfort Long wave radiation exchange is the dominant mechanism by which windows influence thermal comfort. CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

However. 1970) is the standard method used to evaluate comfort in buildings. it was based on data from uniform thermal environments (comfort chambers) rather than typical office environments CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) comfort model The PMV model (Fanger.

Local discomfort Most thermal comfort complaints are a result of local discomfort rather than overall comfort Windows often cause local discomfort because they affect one side of the body PMV predicts overall comfort but is not able to assess local discomfort The CBE model comfort model is able to predict local discomfort My hands are cold CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

16 body segments. and skin) Transient Blood flow model Heat loss by evaporation(sweat). and conduction Clothing model (including heat and moisture transfer) CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . radiation. fat.UC Berkeley Comfort Model The UCB Comfort Model is a much more sophisticated model that considers non-uniform thermal environments. convection. muscle. 4 layers (core.

UCB Comfort Model interface The UCB model allows the The UCB model allows the user to define the 3-D user to define the 3-D geometry of aaroom. CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . specify geometry of room. and simulate dynamic comfort simulate dynamic comfort response. define window locations and types. and locations and types. response. define window conditions. specify the thermal and solar the thermal and solar conditions.

CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .View factor The view factor is a function of window size. View factor is increased with a larger window. View factor is increased by moving closer to the window. and occupant location View factor is used to quantify the amount of radiation energy leaving the body that reaches the window. room geometry.

Sample window simulations Window to wall ratio (WWR) WWR=20% WWR=40% WWR=100% CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

Example simulation geometry •100% Window to wall ratio (WWR) •Occupant sitting 1 meter from the window •6m x 6m x 3m room •Corner office CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

Center of glass Edge of glass Frame CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .Window temperature distribution Idealized uniform window temperature (area-weighted) Comfort results from areaweighted window temperature are very close to those using actual temperature distribution.

neutral air temperature. neutral air temperature.Comparison of PMV and UCB Comfort Model Sedentary. 1m away from window 100% WWR. summer clothing. 100% WWR. 1m away from window • • UCB model more UCB model more sensitive to warm or cold sensitive to warm or cold glass than PMV model glass than PMV model • • Can predict local Can predict local discomfort caused by discomfort caused by window window UC Berkeley Comfort Model very hot very hot 44 33 22 11 Thermal Sensation Scale Thermal Sensation Scale neutral neutral 00 -1 -1 PMV PMV -2 -2 -3 -3 very cold -4 very cold -4 ºC ºC ºF ºF -15 -15 55 -5 -5 23 23 5 5 41 41 15 15 59 59 25 25 77 77 35 35 95 95 45 45 113 113 55 55 131 131 65 65 149 149 Inside Window Surface Temperature Inside Window Surface Temperature CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . clothing.

Spatial distribution of comfort 24°C (75°F) inside air temperature 40°C (104°F) inside window surface temperature. ASHRAE summer condition WWR = 100% WWR = 40% WWR = 20% Comfortable Just comfortable Uncomfortable CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . single tinted glass.

Possible indices of window thermal comfort Point-in-time indices (NFRC winter and summer conditions) • Thermal comfort index • Required indoor air temperature conditions to achieve comfort • Minimum distance from the window that is comfortable • Minimum outside temperature that remains comfortable Annual indices • Annual average comfort index • Number of hours outside the comfort zone • Annual energy required to maintain comfort • Percent of floor area that remains comfortable CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

summer clothing Tglass=30°C 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 ºC ºF Comfort 18 64 19 66 20 68 21 70 22 72 23 73 24 75 25 77 26 79 27 81 28 82 29 84 30 86 Interior air temperature CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . office work activity. interior air temperature 100% WWR.Comfort vs.

office work activity. summer clothing Tglass=30°C Tglass=10°C 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 ºC ºF Comfort 18 64 19 66 20 68 21 70 22 72 23 73 24 75 25 77 26 79 27 81 28 82 29 84 30 86 Interior air temperature CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . interior air temperature 100% WWR.Comfort vs.

Example winter comfort ratings -22 -4 14 32 (°F) 50 68 CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

3° F − U − factor 2 CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .Winter rating Tmin 8 Btu / hr − ft = 74.

46 0.40 <0.31 to 0.28 0.14 to 0.35 <0.23 0.20 to 0.26 to 0.83 Northern North/ Central South/ Central Southern U-factors in Btu/h-ft2-F CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .65 Present study (2.5% design DB) 0.40 <0.Recommended U-factors Zone Energy Star <0.

U-factor for Minneapolis (1m from 100% glazed façade) 70% 60% 50% 40% Mpls 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 0.Winter rating: Annual comfort analysis Percentage of uncomfortably cool hours vs.8 1 1.4 0.6 U-factor (Btu/ft2-h-°F) 0.2 0.2 CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

6 0.4 0.8 1 1.Winter rating: Annual comfort analysis Percentage of uncomfortably cool hours vs.2 0. U-factor (1m from 100% glazed façade) 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 0.2 U-factor (Btu/ft2-h-°F) Mpls Denver Boston Seattle Atlanta SF Houston Miami CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

Summer rating Two major impacts: 1. Transmitted solar radiation (we are assuming no direct solar on the body) U-factor is relatively unimportant in most cases CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . Inside window surface temperature 2.

Id I DH Id β CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .Impact of diffuse solar radiation Some amount of the diffuse radiation incident on the window is transmitted and a portion of that is absorbed by the person. increasing their thermal sensation.

Apparent window temperature Apparent window temperature: • The temperature of a window in the same environment but without the transmitted solar radiation that would result in the same thermal comfort as the actual window. CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

Summer solar rating Outdoor temperature = 89°F. Solar radiation = 783 W/m2 CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

Inside surface temperature… Can be predicted using SHGC and Tsol: Qtotal = Qdirect + Qindirect Direct component of SHGC is Tsol Indirect component is (SHGC – Tsol) or SHGCindirect Qindirect = Qsolar*SHGCindirect = hi * (Tinside surface – Tinside air) Tinside surface = Qsolar* SHGCindirect/ hi + Tinside air CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .

low-e double G5 Selective. G3 double G4 Clear. low-e triple CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 . G2 single Clear. low-e triple G8 Selective.Maximum allowable solar radiation 1200 1070 Maximum allowable solar radiation [W/m²] 1008 1000 800 611 600 517 433 470 455 400 295 200 0 G1 Clear. single Bronze. triple G7 Clear. low-e double G6 Clear.

3*SHGCindirect) CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .Regression of maximum allowable solar 1200 1000 Comfort model result 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Tsol.75*Tsol – 3. SHGC based regression Maximum solar = 1600 W/m2 * (1 – 0.

Solar Comfort Coefficient SCC = Tsol + ~5 * (SHGC – Tsol) Tsol clear.31 SCC 1. double 0.77 bronze. selective. triple 0. double 0.07 0.06 1. selective.59 0. triple 0. single 0.25 SHGC 0.34 low-e.89 0.56 1.36 0.49 low-e.70 0. double 0.55 CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .64 1.61 low-e. single 0.49 clear. triple 0.02 1.31 clear.14 0.82 0.47 low-e.72 0.62 0.45 0.

Questions? Charlie Huizenga huizenga@berkeley.edu CENTER FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT November 2005 .