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1.
For air near atmospheric conditions flowing over a flat plate the laminar thermal
boundary layer in thicker the hydraulic boundary layer.
(a) Ture (b) False
2. Heat transfer coefficients for free convection is gases, forced convection in gases and
vaporous and boiling water lie respectively, in the range of
(a) 515, 2002000 and 300050000 W/m
2
K
(b) 2050, 200500 and 5000010
5
W/m
2
K
(c) 50100, 2001000 and 10
5
10
6
W/m
2
K
(d) 20100, 2001000 and a constant
3. A constant sphere, 1 cm in diameter, falls at its terminal velocity in still air which is
at 20
0
C. Initially the sphere has a surface temperature of 200
0
C and this time the
sphere has a convective heat loss of 300 W. The convective heat loss for the
sphere under the same terminal velocity conditions except the surface is at 180
0
C
and air at 36
0
C is closest to :
(a) 180 W (b) 333 W (c) 240 W (d) 280W
L
0
4. The ratio of thickness of thermal boundary layer to the thickness of
hydrodynamic boundary layer is equal to (Prandtl No.)
n
, where n is
(a) 1/3 (b) 2/3 (c) 1 and (d) –1
5. (a) Differentiate clearly between the mechanism of heat transfer by free and
forced convection.
(b) A vertical plate is heated from one side is maintained at 75
0
C. On the
other side the air is flowing at atmospheric pressure and at 25
0
C. Estimate
the local heat transfer coefficient at 25 cm from the lower edge and the
average value over 25 cm length. Take γ = 17.95 x 10
3
m
2
/s, K = 2.43 x 10
2 Kcal/hr m
0
C. β = 1/(273+50)/K, Pr = 0.698. Following relation may be
used :
Institute of Technology and Management
Department:Mechanical Engineering Tutorial Sheet No. 5
Subject Name : Heat transfer
Subject Code : ME 306E
Issue Date:March 29,
2010 Pages : 4
Unit/Title: Convection
Faculty : O.P.Chawla Semester:
6th
2009
2010
1
0.25
Nux = 0.51 Pr (Gr Pr)
1/4
(1990)
0.95+Pr
7. (a) Define the dimensionless numbers associated free and forced convection
giving their physical significance.
(b) Explain the mechanism of free and forced convection. (1993)
8. (a) What do you understand by the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary
layers? Illustrate your answer with reference to flow over a flat heated plate.
(b) A horizontal heated plate at 200
0
C facing upwards has been placed in still
air t 20
0
C. If the area of the plate is 1.25 m
2
, calculate heat loss by natural
convection. The convective film coefficient for free convection is given by
the following equation :
h = 0.32 ( θ )
0.25
9. Establish the following relations in the context of thermal boundary layer on a
flat plate
Nux = 0.332 Pr
1/3
Rex
1/2
and δ = 4.64
x √Rex
The symbols have theirusual meanings. (1997)
10. Show that the energy equation for the thermal boundary layer is given by :
Vx ∂ t + Vy ∂ t = α ∂
2
t
∂x ∂y ∂y
2
11 Engine oil at 20
0
C is forced over a 4 m square plate at a velocity of 1.2 m/s.
The plate is heated to a uniform temperature of 60
0
C. Calculate the heat lost
by the plate. The properties for engine oil at 40
0
C are
ρ = 876 Kg/m
3
, γ = 0.00024 m
2
/s, K = 0.144 W/mK, Pr = 2870. you may
use
12 Derive an expression
2
3
1
2
1
664 . 0
r eL L
P R Nu ·
4 / 1
3 / 2
3
1
5
4
Pr
0465 . 0
1
2687 . 0
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

+
·
r e
P R
Nu
for thermal boundary layer (Laminar flow) (1997)
14 (a) With suitable example differentiate free convection from forced onvection.
(1994)
(b) Discuss boundary theory of convective heat transfer. (1994)
(c) Name different dimension less numbers encountered in free and forced
convection and various forces connected with these numbers. (1994)
15. Air at 27
0
C and1 atmosphere flows over a flat plate at a speed of 2 m/s.The
plate is 0.2 m long and 1 m wide. The surface of the plate is maintained at
a temperature f 60
0
C. Calculate:
(a) Hydrodynamic boundary layer at x = 0.2 m (6.02 mm)
(b) Heat transfer from the surface (37.5 kcal/hr)
16 Air at 20
0
C and I atmosphere flows over a flat plate at 35 m/s. The plate is
75 cm long and 1 m in width. The plate is maintained at a temperature of 60
0
C. Calculate the rate of heat transfer from the plate surface to the
surrounding air.
17 Determine rate of heat loss from a vertical steam pipe whose diameter is 10
cm and the length is 4 m. The wall temperature and surrounding air
temperature are respectively 170
0
C and 30
0
C.
18 Calculate the heat transfer to air at 1 atmosphere and 40
0
C flowing at 1.3 m/s
in side a round tube 25 cm diameter and 12 cm long with a uniform tube wall
temperature of 95
0
C.
19 Ethylene glycol at 700C flows , over a flat plate with a velocity of 1 m/s. The
plate ha s a temperature of 1000C. Where does the thermal boundary layer
reach a thickness of 0.002 mm? (2004)
20 Engine oil flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 1 m/s. The
temperature of oil is 50
0
C and temperature of plate is maintained at 110
0
C.
Find the thickness of hydrodynamics and thermal boundary layers at a
distance of 1 m from the leading edge if heating begins only at 0.5 m from
the leading edge. (2004)
21 The temperature and velocity distribution of air flowing steadily in a pipe of
diameter of 30 cm are given by the relation:
U = 50 r – 60 r
2
in m /min and
T = 130 – 180 r, in
0
C
Respectively. When air flows through the pipe, the distance is being
measured from the wall towards the axis. Find the convective heat transfer
coefficient on the basis of bulk mean temperature of the fluid at that section if
heat transferred/area is 450Kcal/hr. (2004)
3
22. Explain the concept of velocity and thermal boundary layer. (2005)
23. Air at 20
0
C is flowing along a heated plate at 134
0
C at the velocity of 3 m/s.
The plate is 2 m long and 1.5 m wide. Calculate the thickness of
hydrodynamics boundary later and skin friction coefficient at 40 cm from the
leading edge of the plate . The kinematic viscosity of air at 20
0
C may be taken
as 15.06 X 10
6
m
2
/s. (2005)
24. Define Grashof Number and define its significance in free convection, (2005)
25. Develop an expression for momentum equation. (2007)
26. The crank case of enginering 80 cm X 20 cm may be taken as a flat plate.
The engine runs at 25 m/s. Calculate the heat loss from the crank surface
maintained at 85
0
C to ambient air at 15
0
C. At film temperature K = 0.02824
W/mK, γ = 17.95 10
6
m
2
/s and Pr = 0.7. Use appropriate formula out of:
Nu = o.0375 Re
0.8
Pr
1/3
Nu = 0.0375 ( Re
0.8
– 23200 ) Pr
1/3
(2007)
27. Obtain the correlation between Nusselt number, Groshof numberand
Prandtl number for a flat plate losing heat to the surrounding air in natural
convection using dimensional analysis. (2008)
28. Using boundary layer theory, derive the governing equation for boundary
layer flow over a flat plate at zero angle of incidence. (2008)
29. Consider a cube of each dimension of 10 cm and suspended in still air at
20
0
C. All surfaces of the cube are maintained at 160
0
C and of its surface
lies in the horizontal position. Determine the total heat loss. (Dec.,2009)
30. In a certain pharmaceutical process, castor oil at 35
0
C flows over a flat
plate at 6 m/s. The plate is 6 m long, is heated uniformly and maintained
at surface temperature of 95
0
C. make calculations for:
(a) Hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer thickness at the trailing
edge of the plate.
(b) Local heat transfer coefficient at the end of the plate.
(c) Total drag per unit width on one side of the plate.
(d) Total heat flux from the surface per unit width.
At the mean film temperature tf = 60
0
C, the properties are
) 2009 , ( . / 8 . 956 / 10 65 . 0
cos , / 213 . 0 , / 10 2 . 7
3 2 4
2 3
May m kg density and s m x
ity vis kinematic mK W ductivityK thermalcon s m x
· ·
· ·
−
−
ρ υ
α
4
5
144 W/mK.0465 2 / 3 1 + Pr use 12 Derive an expression 1 1 Nu L 2 = 0.332 Pr1/3 Rex1/2 δ = 4. K = 0. (b) A horizontal heated plate at 200 0C facing upwards has been placed in still air t 20 0C.32 ( θ )0.2687 R Pr 4 5 e 1 3 1/ 4 0.64 x √Rex The symbols have theirusual meanings. calculate heat loss by natural convection. The convective film coefficient for free convection is given by the following equation : h = 0. Pr = 2870. and (1997) 10. (a) Define the dimensionless numbers associated free and forced convection giving their physical significance.00024 m2/s. (a) What do you understand by the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers? Illustrate your answer with reference to flow over a flat heated plate. (1993) 8.0. γ = 0.25 m2.51 Pr 0. If the area of the plate is 1. (b) Explain the mechanism of free and forced convection.95+Pr (Gr Pr)1/4 (1990) 7. you may Nu = 0.2 m/s.25 Nux = 0. The properties for engine oil at 40 0C are ρ = 876 Kg/m3. Show that the energy equation for the thermal boundary layer is given by : Vx ∂ t + V y ∂ t = α ∂ 2 t ∂x ∂y ∂y2 11 Engine oil at 20 0C is forced over a 4 m square plate at a velocity of 1. The plate is heated to a uniform temperature of 60 0C. Establish the following relations in the context of thermal boundary layer on a flat plate Nux = 0. Calculate the heat lost by the plate.25 9.664 ReL Pr3 2 .
(2004) 3 . 19 Ethylene glycol at 700C flows .2 m long and 1 m wide. 17 Determine rate of heat loss from a vertical steam pipe whose diameter is 10 cm and the length is 4 m. Find the thickness of hydrodynamics and thermal boundary layers at a distance of 1 m from the leading edge if heating begins only at 0. Calculate: (a) Hydrodynamic boundary layer at x = 0.5 kcal/hr) 16 Air at 20 0C and I atmosphere flows over a flat plate at 35 m/s. The temperature of oil is 500C and temperature of plate is maintained at 1100C. Calculate the rate of heat transfer from the plate surface to the surrounding air.2 m (6.002 mm? (2004) 20 Engine oil flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 1 m/s.The plate is 0. The wall temperature and surrounding air temperature are respectively 170 0C and 30 0C. The plate is 75 cm long and 1 m in width.5 m from the leading edge.3 m/s in side a round tube 25 cm diameter and 12 cm long with a uniform tube wall temperature of 95 0C. 18 Calculate the heat transfer to air at 1 atmosphere and 400C flowing at 1. Where does the thermal boundary layer reach a thickness of 0. Air at 27 0C and1 atmosphere flows over a flat plate at a speed of 2 m/s. Find the convective heat transfer coefficient on the basis of bulk mean temperature of the fluid at that section if heat transferred/area is 450Kcal/hr. (1994) 15. (1994) (b) Discuss boundary theory of convective heat transfer. The surface of the plate is maintained at a temperature f 60 0C. in 0C Respectively. When air flows through the pipe. (1994) (c) Name different dimension less numbers encountered in free and forced convection and various forces connected with these numbers. over a flat plate with a velocity of 1 m/s. The plate ha s a temperature of 1000C. (2004) 21 The temperature and velocity distribution of air flowing steadily in a pipe of diameter of 30 cm are given by the relation: U = 50 r – 60 r2 in m /min and T = 130 – 180 r. The plate is maintained at a temperature of 60 0 C.02 mm) (b) Heat transfer from the surface (37.for thermal boundary layer (Laminar flow) (1997) 14 (a) With suitable example differentiate free convection from forced onvection. the distance is being measured from the wall towards the axis.
95 106 m2/s and Pr = 0. (2007) 26.213 W / mK . In a certain pharmaceutical process. At film temperature K = 0. (c) Total drag per unit width on one side of the plate. The kinematic viscosity of air at 20 0C may be taken as 15.kinematic υ =0. The engine runs at 25 m/s. Explain the concept of velocity and thermal boundary layer.06 X 106 m2/s. (2008) 28. Determine the total heat loss.2009) 30. (2005) 23. The plate is 2 m long and 1.02824 W/mK. Calculate the thickness of hydrodynamics boundary later and skin friction coefficient at 40 cm from the leading edge of the plate . (2005) 25. The plate is 6 m long.65 x 10 −4 m 2 / s and density ρ =956 .8 kg / m 3 . Use appropriate formula out of: Nu = o. castor oil at 350C flows over a flat plate at 6 m/s. derive the governing equation for boundary layer flow over a flat plate at zero angle of incidence.0375 Re0. (2005) 24. thermalcon ductivityK =0. (d) Total heat flux from the surface per unit width.2 x 10 −3 m 2 / s.8 Pr1/3 Nu = 0. At the mean film temperature tf = 600C. Define Grashof Number and define its significance in free convection. γ = 17.7. (Dec. Using boundary layer theory. 29. the properties are α =7. All surfaces of the cube are maintained at 1600C and of its surface lies in the horizontal position. make calculations for: (a) Hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge of the plate. The crank case of enginering 80 cm X 20 cm may be taken as a flat plate. Groshof numberand Prandtl number for a flat plate losing heat to the surrounding air in natural convection using dimensional analysis. Obtain the correlation between Nusselt number. vis cos ity ( M .8 – 23200 ) Pr1/3 (2007) 27.22. Air at 200C is flowing along a heated plate at 1340C at the velocity of 3 m/s. Calculate the heat loss from the crank surface maintained at 850C to ambient air at 150C.5 m wide..2009 ) ay 4 . (2008) Consider a cube of each dimension of 10 cm and suspended in still air at 200C. is heated uniformly and maintained at surface temperature of 950C. Develop an expression for momentum equation. (b) Local heat transfer coefficient at the end of the plate.0375 ( Re0.
5 .