Renewable Energy Market Needs:
A perspective from Europe and Latin America
Authors Bolivia Horacio Villegas Javier Aliaga Lordemann Lea Franziska Buch Brazil André Luis Silva Leite João Luiz Alkaim José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra Mariana Eliza Ferrari Mariana Dalla Barba Wendt Rodrigo Antonio Martins Youssef Ahmad Youssef Chile Francisca López Robinovich Guillermo Jiménez Estévez Luis Vargas Díaz Manuel Díaz Romero Natalia Garrido Echeverría Germany Gabriela Espinosa Julia Gottwald Walter Leal Guatemala Cyrano Ruiz Ericka Tuquer Lourdes Socarrás Nelson Amaro Robert Guzmán Latvia Aleksejs Zorins Gotfrids Noviks
Organizers (Brazil) José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra Youssef Ahmad Youssef Instructional Design Marina Cabeda Egger Moellwald Revision Andrzej Korzeniowski (transLEEtion) Sarah Jauncey (transLEEtion) Graphic Design Edison Rodrigo Valim R32 Assessoria de Comunicação e Marketing - C&M Assessor Laudelino José Sardá Director Maria do Rosário Stotz Editorial Manager Alessandra Turnes
Renewable energy market needs : a perspective from Europe and Latin America. / José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra, Youssef Ahmad Youssef organizers– Palhoça : Ed. Unisul, 2010. 286 p. ; 21 cm ISBN 978-85-86870-48-X Bibliography: p. 279-285 1. Renewable energy sources. 2. Environment. 3. Sustainable development. 4. Jelare. I. Guerra, José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra, 1968-. II. Youssef, Youssef Ahmad, 1967-. CDD – 333.794
This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The content of this publication is the sole responsibility of the JELARE project consortium and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Chapter 1 – Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Chapter 2 – Bolivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Chapter 3 – Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Chapter 4 – Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Chapter 5 – Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Chapter 6 – Guatemala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Chapter 7 – Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 Chapter 8 – JELARE survey reports: main variables . . .177 Chapter 9 – Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
Chile. the use of locally available renewable energy resources may allow them to improve quality of life as well as contribute to their economic development. Consistent with this approach. technology is now available to allow us to realize the potential the field of renewable energy offers. In the context of the Joint European-Latin American Universities Renewable Energy Project ( JELARE). From the production of biogas from wastes to the use of biomass to generate energy for households. a number of surveys have been undertaken in the participant countries as part of
. JELARE tries to address the problems posed by lack of expertise and lack of training in this important field. last but not least. But in order to yield the expected benefits. the limited technological means to do so have largely hindered developments in this field in the past. Brazil.Preface
The search for global solutions to environmental and climate problems associated with the consumption of fossil fuels has led to the development of a new field. namely the field of renewable energy. Latvia) in both Europe and in South America. Some of these are the lack of institutional policies and frameworks. there is a pressing need to address many of the deficiencies seen today in respect of the development and use of renewable energy. various initiatives are being undertaken to develop the renewable energy sector in the participant countries (Bolivia. In particular. In poor countries such as those in Latin America. lack of training. Even though it has always been possible to harness the sun or winds as energy sources. restricted access to financing. undertaken as part of the ALFA III Programme of the European Commission. Guatemala. Germany. limited access to technology. the possibilities of using renewable energy are manifold. Nowadays. unsuitability of local infrastructures and.
from UNISUL in Brazil.JELARE. A special thanks goes to Prof. Walter Leal (BSc. These involved university personnel on the one hand. All in all. Youssef Ahmad Youssef. and employers. DSc. Enjoy the book! Prof. they can more easily take advantage of the various economic opportunities the field of renewable energy may offer. local authorities and ministries on the other. since they provide a sound basis upon which concrete action in respect of education. DLitt) JELARE Project Coordinator
. training and extension works can be undertaken. Readers will therefore find this book useful both in respect of the provision of background information and in terms of gaining knowledge of the specific circumstances in each country. It is hoped that this ground-breaking publication will facilitate a better understanding of the current situation in the field of renewable energy and its development in each country and. Baltazar de Andrade Guerra and Prof. vis-à-vis addressing the problems they have identified. PhD. DEd. This book presents the results of the various surveys undertaken in the participant countries. DL. DPhil. thus building up a profile of the current and future needs. inter alia. for their efforts in compiling this publication. who performed the surveys in their countries and supplied the data which is compiled here. Thanks are also due to the JELARE project partners. if countries are able to adequately train human resources. The results of these surveys are very useful. focusing on the market needs seen in the field of renewable energy. across the Latin American region.
Chapter 1 . and Rēzeknes Augstskola (Latvia). Germany. Universidad Galileo (Guatemala). Brazil. a European Union programme for co-operation between the European Union (EU) and Latin America (LA). Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (Brazil).1 . The project is funded by ALFA III. in the higher education and training framework. Universidad de Chile (Chile). Chile. Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (Germany). The JELARE project partners are:
Universidad Católica Boliviana (Bolivia). Guatemala and Latvia with the aim of fostering innovative labour market-oriented educational and research approaches in the field of renewable energies (RE) at Latin American and European institutes of higher education.
.The Joint European-Latin American Universities Renewable Energy (JELARE) project: ‘Fostering innovative labour market-oriented educational & research approaches in the field of renewable energies at Latin American and European institutes of higher education’
The JELARE project is a co-operation scheme involving universities from Bolivia.Introduction
Other universities may therefore also take part in its activities and benefit from the project information and experience. pilot modules. NGOs.These universities have been chosen based on their academic competence and interest in international cooperation in the field of RE as well as in the modernization and improvement of their current research and teaching activities. Germany. In this sense. The JELARE network aims to enhance the role of the universities in the context of renewable energy sector dynamics. concepts. as well as carrying on with their respective local activities. while Latvia. Bolivia and Guatemala are less developed in this field. ministries.
Each partner takes on one work package and also actively contributes to the transnational elements of the other work packages. the project also seeks to increase the capacity of HEIs to modernize their research and teaching programmes in the renewable energy sector and to strengthen the link between the HEIs and businesses that operate on renewable energy.
as enterprises. The purpose of the JELARE Network is to promote European–Latin American networking and exchange of experience in employment. local authorities. all surveys. but also to strengthen their role so as to contribute to local economic development and social cohesion. Accordingly. but also are EU and LA organizations such the intracontinental exchanges that may take place. Chile and Brazil represent comparatively experienced and advanced organizations and countries in the field of renewable energies. evaluations and recommendation reports. universities and other institutions working in the field of education. research and employment in the renewable energies sector. Hopefully this combination Network members not only anticipates future knowledge transfers between the European Union (EU) and Latin America (LA). networking and dissemination activities will also be carried out locally with each partner following a joint transnational methodology. research and education in the field of renewable energies within and also beyond the JELARE project partnership. The purpose of the project is not only to improve the academic quality of European and Latin American Higher Education Institutions (HEIs).
For developing countries in particular. Due to the current global situation of scarce energy resources. the specific objectives of the JELARE project are:
to develop and implement labour market-oriented research and educational approaches in the field of renewable energies. having a positive impact on socio-economic development. rapidly rising prices for fossil fuels and the impact of climate change. In this context. local energy generation has great potential for local economic development. through research and technology transfer – and. to strengthen the role of HEIs in socio-economic development. develops and implements practical transnational pilot modules and long-term concepts. practical recommendations are offered
. Moreover. based on JELARE’s experiences and evaluation.
In order to contribute to its overall objectives. Therefore. an area widely acknowledged as being very important. Lack of expertise is a major impediment to the broader use of renewable energies in Latin America. first of all. LA HEIs play a very important role in training people – through education. thereby. the promotion of renewable energies is of vital importance for sustainable socio-economic development in Latin America as well as in Europe.The overall objectives of the JELARE project are:
to improve the quality of research and teaching in LA and EU universities. and to foster sustainable cooperation between HEIs in LA and EU. providing expert advice. JELARE identifies the needs of the labour market. the JELARE project focuses on the thematic sector of renewable energy.
JELARE supports decisionmaking processes by providing detailed information and concepts on current needs and potential.to the participating HEIs. Local businesses and public institutions will benefit from locally available expertise and highly qualified staff. Private enterprises can benefit from technology transfer. to strengthen the link between HEIs and the labour market. This close co-operation helps HEIs to focus their activities on the actual needs of the labour market and also strengthens the impact HEIs have on local economic development. as well as other HEIs in the EU–LA regions. in the area of education. Moreover. study visits and exchange of experience between JELARE partners and other network members. HEIs benefit from new clients and project partners’ research.
to increase the capacity of HEI staff so as to modernize their educational and research programmes and activities: this is a precondition for the long-term competitiveness of HEIs and will be achieved by capacity-building seminars. graduates will benefit with better job opportunities. and public and governmental bodies can obtain valuable support for decision-making. As a consequence. business and public sector in the field of renewable energies: a closer link between HEIs and the private and public sectors offers multiple opportunities for both sides.
. while HEIs and their staff will gain new business opportunities in the research and technology transfer field.
The JELARE project is basically regarded as a starting point for more cooperation between the JELARE partners and beyond.
to establish a long-term partnership and network between European and Latin American universities: in the RE field much needs to be done in terms of research and education. natural and economic conditions. recommendation report for European and Latin American universities.
During the 3-year project (2009-2011). Guatemala and Latvia. the following outputs are expected:
energy labour market survey for Bolivia. Brazil.
. Chile. On the other hand. all EU and LA countries can benefit from the exchange of know-how and cooperation. Germany. teaching and research concepts for renewable energies. both in LA and the EU. with local subgroups in the partner countries. due to different climatic. university staff capacity building program. teaching and research pilot modules for renewable energies. and international JELARE network.
According to the IEA (2006).
In recent decades. aiming at reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. Chile. for the first time and in a collective way. many countries have expressed serious concerns regarding the need to restructure their production matrix.2 – The JELARE Survey: Labour market-oriented research and teaching approaches at Higher Education Institutions in Bolivia.6% until 2030. the development of renewable energy sources requires major government participation (YI-CHONG. world demand for energy will grow at an average annual rate of 1. a call for an efficient energy matrix that.1. promotes environmental preservation. intended to be less harmful to the environment. and contributes to the reduction of the greenhouse effect. At the same time. we have observed some movement towards a cleaner energy matrix. there are some 12
. although contrary to the liberalizing reforms of the 1990s. Such discussion has revealed that. simultaneously:
meets the demand for energy worldwide. To this end. The Kyoto Protocol and specific researches on global warming have raised a number of issues related to the role of the current model of energy generation and its harmful effects on the environment. Germany. 2006). the issue of increasing renewable energy sources has been discussed in tandem with environmental issues. Guatemala and Latvia
Over the last few decades. leveraged by the exponential growth of energy consumption in developing countries. Consequently there has been. Brazil.
especially in the early 1960s. In the past. 13
. this step forward experienced a setback when OPEC was founded and began to intervene in the international market by fixing quotas that made the price go up or down according to the criteria of the producing countries. The 1960s marked the beginning of Brazil’s effort in that direction. 2008a). which is of significant importance both for the transport and electrical generation sectors. mainly Arab. CASTRO. The best available method for increasing energy supply lies in improving energy efficiency and promoting greater participation of RE in the world energy matrix. Petrol also reached unexpected retail prices. a product derived mainly from sugarcane. including bio-energy. efforts to use RE became a priority for many countries. leading to the urgent need for climate change mitigation (DANTAS. of US$4 per gallon. This is especially true regarding Brazil’s substitution choice: petrol for bio-ethanol. in major importing countries. Real progress has been made over the years.
the price of the dollar. This trend requires a well-defined energy policy and a greater role for renewable energies in a matrix that must be supported on a tripod comprised by the state. However. annual inflation. corporations and universities. which reached its highest point in the middle of 2008: a price of US$147 per barrel of crude oil.doubts about the influence that human activity has had on global warming. The main factors taken into account were:
the world’s oil reserves. and Brazil now holds a leading position in the field. The driving force behind the recent quest for RE is the oil crisis. when a similar phenomenon took place.
based on “Energías Renovables de Guatemala” (Renewable Energies in Guatemala). most countries lost interest in the development of alternative RE sources as soon as prices started to fall. unlike Brazil. consult: <http://www. com/tools/quotes/intTable. All of these trends. for the period of January 2007 – January 2009. This control continued to be affected in periods of advances in renewable energies researches. This can be seen in the following graphic:
160 140 120
US $/ bl
100 80 60 40 20 0
Jan/98 Jul/98 Jan/99 Jul/99 Jan/00 Jul/00 Jan/01 Jul/01 Jan/02 Jul/02 Jan/03 Jul/03 Jan/04 Jul/04 Jan/05 Jul/05 Jan/06 Jul/06 Jan/07 Jul/07 Jan/08 Jul/08 Jan/09 Jul/09
Graphic 1. which regarded the production of alternative energy sources as a priority. which was caused by the discovery of new oil reserves in areas that were more politically sympathetic to principal oil customers.
. diminished OPEC’s control of the situation.
global economic growth.1 – International oil prices. Source: the Technical Team. especially when there were price increases that threatened the economies of non-oil producing countries.marketwatch. February 2007. Victor Araujo. for the period of January 1998 – July 2006. and the production capacity of OPEC countries. in addition to the movement towards RE development.
The crisis has now reached unprecedented proportions. which are signs of global warming.
. as well as the renewed efforts for the economic growth of other emerging countries. climate change. cease to exist. The consequences of an industrial society developed to its full extent. we are coming to terms with the fact that oil is a non-renewable resource and that in the near future it will start to dwindle and. among other threats. oversights in waste and fertilizer disposal. have been:
atmosphere contamination. deforestation. The consistent growth of China and the more recent rise of India. and resulting impact for water usage and for the environment. which has lead to an astronomical ‘world oil bill’. has brought about an increase in demand.
On the other hand. among others. the melting of polar masses and sea level rise. The idea of sustainable development started to impose itself at the end of the 1980s. Existing reserves are limited and even the discovery and exploitation of new oilfields will only serve to delay this inexorable end. as well as emerging countries viewing oil as a fundamental strategic factor since the 1970s. dating from the late 1970s. At the same time. ultimately. are starting to attract the world’s attention. highlighting the need for economic growth within some limits which would not threaten the survival of future generations.
but this source also has its limits as far as preservation of forests and natural reserves are concerned. this situation is evident. Poverty forces most populations. in the less industrialized countries. This clearly shows how close is the relationship between RE and the protection of the environment. A quick look tells us that these effects can also be seen in more populated and exhausted lands on the eastern side. to use wood as a renewable energy. it represents a latent threat that could become a permanent scourge for the most impoverished populations. This massive change in food products affects the prices of basic products and impacts negatively on the income of poor families who no longer have access to products of their basic diet. Historical documents show that the area used to be rich and crossed by fast-flowing rivers. poverty poses yet another threat that also limits the unmeasured search for other sources of energy. transferring the benefits of water to distant lower lands. which means using cultivable fields for non-food purposes. Today.The complexity of the crisis that has attracted attention to the topic of RE shows the interrelation between this problem and macro social factors that affect the most basic development matrix of developing countries. In the Petén area of Guatemala. such as corn and sugar. among the raw materials to generate biofuels. one aspect is clear: any effort towards institutional strengthening of the RE sector calling for better personnel skills required in public and private companies 16
. threaten vast zones – once full of vegetation – with desertification. It consists of including staple food. Even when this situation seems to have been temporary. Agricultural practices of burning and sowing that widen the limits of crop production. These areas were used to generate rain that fed rivers. where vast territories already show signs of desertification. which represents 30% of the country’s territory but is home to only about 1% of its population. In summary.
This multidisciplinary approach will be considered the core of the questionnaires to be applied to the key populations during this study.and in universities entails a multidisciplinary approach. anthropological. Renewable energy is of great relevance for socio-economic development in Latin America as well as in Europe. the HEIs are very important actors. indeed. However. although the topic is of crucial value. The 2007 Lisbon Summit. especially in countries such as Bolivia and Guatemala. e. The aim of the JELARE project in its Work Package Two (WP2) is precisely to fill that gap. This approach refers not only to the inclusion of environmental aspects into the objectives of RE related policies and strategies. the renewable energy sector cannot develop appropriately where there is a lack in expertise. Public and private universities need greater interaction in order to be able to meet the demands of the labour market for skilled staff in the RE area. Apart from the environmental benefits. foster local investments and the reduction of the need for importing. Due to the innovative nature of this field. but also to the connection of any renewable energy action with economic.
A wide range of local job opportunities (from high-skill to low-skill.
. as well as in the education of the future labour force in RE. as it should be. since both regions depend heavily on (imported) fossil fuels to meet their energy needs. drafting a survey that finds the needs of the labour market according to the availability of the Higher Education Institutions. identified the environment sector as one of the priority areas where cooperation is particularly needed. especially in terms of research. However. social.g. the local generation and use of renewable energies offer great potential for local economic development. renewable energy is not yet prominently positioned in the curriculum of LA or EU universities as it could have been or. political and populational studies that make the required employees’ profiles be the base for an academic contribution capable of satisfying such need. from high-tech to agriculture). which also gathered representatives from HEIs of EU and LA.
Moreover. all practices that promote compliance with the renewable energy objectives in the short.
. technology transfer. On the other hand.
This study will be the basis for those changes. contact with HEIs in other countries participating in the JELARE project will affect the implementation of innovations. the training of teaching and administrative staff in energy-related subjects.The study of the challenges in the renewable energy field demands the strengthening of practices in the private sector.1. This demand will affect:
graduate profiles. similar to what already happens to the public sector initiative in the field of energy production. this situation will force universities to review current curricula and all contents that are taught to future graduates who eventually will be required to apply their knowledge in the market. and. curriculum improvement. in general. medium and long term. as presented in the interrelationships in Figure 1.
In short.Figure 1.1 – Agroenergy: New paradigm of matrix energy. where the design of this package was discussed. the agreements were as follows:
Objectives of the JELARE Survey
Work Package Two (WP2) of the JELARE project aimed to carry out a survey from 1 February to 21 July. Source: COGEN – SP. 2009 on this report’s title subject. The reader should take into account all agreements from the Hamburg JELARE meeting that took place from 17 to 20 February 2009.
professors and administrative personnel of the universities involved as partners in the JELARE project. The general objectives of the surveys are:
to identify which topics and institutional situations are deemed necessary in order to include the subject of RE in the curriculum and as a part of the research program. and the third. for the last questionnaire. departments for institutes involved in RE in other national universities. and. for the second questionnaire.
As there were restrictions regarding time and resources which could distract the researchers’ attention from theoretical or purely academic elements. and three questionnaires served as tools to analyse: public and private companies. for the first questionnaire. another aimed at professors and university staff. as well as to develop curriculum and technology transfer activities. at university bodies involved in the renewable energy field. three
surveys have been carried out: one aimed at either public or private companies participating in the market. the establishment of a strict methodological basis was required for the analysis of the gathered information.
. aiming at identifying the needs of the labour market regarding education and research in the RE sector. identifying university staff training needs in the RE sector. in order to avoid unsound generalization. the units. aiming to achieve sustainable cooperation among European and Latin American universities in search of socio-economic development. and benchmarking RE activities in Higher Education Institutions (HEI). the three surveys were to be carried out in JELARE partner countries.
local authorities and ministers from the countries involved. use the survey experience as a teaching-learning tool for the RE situation in the relevant country and use its results as educational and training content for key personnel in the area. in particular. in turn. as well as advance research and technology transfer in general. in order to place emphasis on project improvements. identify the need to build on administrative. in the renewable energy field. as well as students. aiming towards project selfsustainability at the end of the third year. and. given possible deviations. in addition to identifying support requirements for research institutions. take Work Package Two as a first measurement instrument before the implementation of the project. conceptually develop a strategic approximation of the needed changes and the implementation of innovative pilot modules. in order to identify current personnel employment requirements and the need for expertise. and. when the project winds down.The specific objectives of the surveys are to:
consult potential employers and researchers. teaching and research personnel’s capacity in the Higher Education Institutions in order to increase their skills and develop high-quality education. so as to evaluate two distinct points comparatively at a later stage: over the second year. and
research and technology transfer. trying to promote future initiatives in academic practices of teaching. It is estimated that HEIs will play a key role both in research and development in the RE field. the JELARE network intends to address the relationship between HEIs and businesses operating in the renewable energy field. and the main variables involved.
The following section will describe the:
addressed population encompassed in this study. etc. as well as in the qualification of a new labour force.
It was established that this study would be directed through three different questionnaires – in which the main variables could be found – applied to three specific populations: 22
. pamphlets. HEIs are responsible for meeting future demands for skilled labour in the RE sector. we find that little is being done by the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in this new scenario.) as well as the establishment of networks in the renewable energy field.
Despite the progress achieved in our society in relation to the global warming debate and the increasing need for the usage of clean and renewable energy sources. In other words.
carry out survey activities as an integral part of the project publicity material (posters. In this context. all gaps that may emerge in terms of skilled labour force and applied research in this sector will be filled. capable of operating and managing the emerging technologies in this new business environment. As a result.
Problems faced to select the right RE personnel
continues. Total number of permanent employees in the organization b.
. RE-related activities where employees work
e...) c. Area in the value chain in which it works or plans to work f. General information about the organization. RE income of the organization in 2008 (in national currency) 2. etc. Number of employees in RE c. Mechanism of employment applied to RE personnel g.) b. Employee training and qualifications a. Business sector of organization (renewable and non-renewable energy. Sector in which it is active e. communications.Questionnaire 1 Public and private companies in the RE field
1. Total income of the organization in 2008 (in the national currency of each country but converting into euros in the final analysis) h. Educational background of the personnel employed in RE
f. company or entity a. public. NGO. Way of taking part in RE development g. etc. Interest in developing renewable energy d. Attitudes towards the availability of qualified personnel in RE d. Nature of organization (private.
Suggestions regarding issues not mentioned in the questionnaire
Questionnaire 1 – Public and private companies in the field of RE.
. Qualification requirements and market needs a. Perception of the biggest challenges for an increase in the use of RE in the country b. In medium term (next 5 years) 3. In short term (next 2 years) iii. General suggestions a. Expectations about provided services c. General ii. Perception of the forces that move these qualifications d. Attitudes towards the future in the RE employment trend: i.h. Necessary qualifications that universities have to develop according to the people interviewed 4. New qualifications for the personnel required for RE in the future c. The role of Higher Education Institutions a. Perception of the need for new courses and RE qualifications developed by universities e. Perception of how well HEIs are updating their understanding with respect to labour needs 5. Expectations in RE innovations b. Opportunity of more training in RE b.
Whether there is a tenure appointment or some other system (some countries use other variables due to a different teaching system) 2. Area that best describes their current academic/professional involvement in RE 4. Administrative personnel v. Training needs a. For teachers: whether they perform a direction or coordination role iv. Master’s degree in Energy Efficiency. Number of years of experience in curriculum development 7. In RE technologies
continues. Rank of the professor. Number of years of experience in research management 8. Number of years working in the university ii. research or teaching b. Dedication to management. other) 3.Questionnaire 2 Teaching and administrative staff in RE courses and degrees
1... Kind of department at their current appointment in terms of courses (Master’s degree in Renewable Energy. For teachers: number of courses currently given iii. Others (specify) c. Sector in RE in which they work or are interested in working in 5. specialization in Energy Engineering. Kind of appointment i.
. Profile of the unit or department a. Number of years of experience in RE 6.
Cooperation between the university and RE industry g. In curriculum development c. Better laboratories and equipment infrastructure and access to a scientific RE database e. Exchange programs d. Technical change updating c. In teaching modules d.b. Learning abilities in curriculum development about RE d. In research management 9.) f. Associations with HEI for sharing knowledge e. Strengthening RE a. Same as previous. Detection of priority individual training needs (quote 3 topics in order) 10. visits to companies.. RE applied technological research carried out by universities and financed by the RE market f.. Participation in events related to a RE network (workshops. Need for change in market-oriented academic programs c. Perception of the need for strengthening RE (only for those who answered YES in the previous question) b. but financed by government agencies
continues. etc. seminars. Requirements of RE training and qualifications a. Technical/vocational knowledge updating b.
) b..Teaching and administrative staff in RE courses and degrees. More student internships in the RE industry h.
. Policies and strategies introduced d. Specification of other initiatives 11. RE in the university a. Suggestions regarding other necessary strengthening actions not mentioned above
Questionnaire 2 . Introduction of past. present and future RE practices b. RE sector in which the university carries out research or teaching activities a. etc. biomass. General Suggestions a. Name of the aforementioned teaching program
continues.g. RE courses as part of already implemented programs or of future programs c. Constant analysis of the design of RE occupational plans in relation to economic behaviour and economic change i.
Questionnaire 3 HEIs’ departments. Other practices not included in these variables 2. Type of energy (wind.. institutes or units involved with RE
1. Type of knowledge aquisition that the university regularly employs e.
. Departments. institutes or units involved with RE. institutes or units specifically working in the RE field a.
The following chapters are articles that demonstrate the results of the questionnaires applied in each country of the JELARE project.3. Name of the department. institute or unit that is working in RE b. Name the products that the university uses for RE teaching/ research and RE investments
Questionnaire 3 – HEIs’ departments.
liquefied petroleum gas.Bolivia
1 – Renewable energy market in Bolivia
The Bolivian energy mix
The primary energy production in Bolivia is composed mainly of four sources:
natural gas. oil. biomass. The energy carriers with major production volumes are:
diesel oil. The secondary energy production has increased from 14.
. and hydropower. and petrol.
electricity.Chapter 2 .
In the generation of hydropower. which constitutes the most important renewable energy source. the major part of which (86. It is estimated that less than 1% of the primary energy production can be attributed to renewable energies. without considering the large-scale hydropower production.451 kilo barrels of oil equivalent (kBOE).420 kBOE) corresponds to the production of natural gas.398 kBOE in the year 2000 to 23. a very slow growth can be highlighted.295 kBOE in 2007.
Production maintained a growing trend between 2000 and 2007 up to a level of 111. Bolivia’s main export product.
Bolivia does not have final studies about renewable energies. In summary.000 metres inferior to the recorded at sea level. Bolivia is a net exporter of primary energy.
The potential of renewable energies
To date. The energy balance does not include electricity exports. Solar energy: the potential is not estimated. However.000 metres above sea level and an air mass of 4. Energy imports in the same period consisted basically in diesel oil and in a lower level of petrol imports.500 MW based on the record of water sources of the country. as the following balance illustrates in a summarized form:
Hydropower: the main generator of renewable energy in the country.802–2. The secondary energy production accounts for an important part of the effective production. whereby its internal supply only reaches 39% of the effective production.During the 2000–2007 period. natural gas exports to Brazil made up 90% of energy exports. it is known that Bolivia is located inside the geographical band with the highest solar radiation of the continent. especially due to the particular characteristics of the territory regarding the diversity of its ecologic floors. during most of the year there is a solar radiation about of 550-650 langleys/day. There is a strong internal dependence regarding the primary energy sources and a low participation of renewable energies in the energy mix. the initial investigations show a huge generation potential. with an estimated potential of 1. however. At almost 4.
but still around 36% of the Bolivian population resides in rural areas. In the last three decades the country has experienced an urbanization process and since the mid-80s the urban population has begun to outpace the rural population.
Wind energy: the effective potential is not estimated. with a rural electricity coverage of 33% in absolute terms. It is estimated that more than 700. Around 27% of the rural households have access to basic services in general. (3) in the south corridor between the cities of Santa Cruz and La Paz and (4) in the north-south corridor between the city of Oruro and the city of Potosí. therefore 90.000 inhabitants) do not have access to this service. values that allow the production of electricity of at least 120 MW for 25 years. the Bolivian electricity sector covered 67% of its population. Thereby 28.4% in communities with 60 or fewer households.000 urban households (concentrated in cities with more than 5. There is a high correlation between the number of rural households in conditions of extreme poverty and the number of households that do not have electricity. Geothermal energy: it is estimated that the potential of generation in Laguna Colorada (the only explored zone) is between 280 and 370 MW.000 rural and about 70.6% of the rural population is concentrated in communities with between 61 and 120 households and the remaining 71.17% of homes without electricity of the rural area correspond to 31
In 2006. (2) in the southwest frontier of Bolivia with Chile and Argentina in the Department of Potosí. but it is known that wind energy has a huge potential in four regions: (1) around the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
ensuring universal access to this service in a sustainable form and with social equity. Policy 4: Consolidate State participation in the development of the electricity sector with sovereignty and social equity.
Strategic Framework of the Energy Sector
According to the National Development Plan (NDP) of the Bolivian government.
. Due to the dispersion of the rural population. renewable energies are of great importance for the electrification needs of these households due to their decentralized character.households in extreme poverty. To achieve this goal. four policies and strategies are proposed:
Policy 1: Develop electricity infrastructure able to satisfy the internal needs and generate surplus for electricity exportation. Policy 3: Independence and sovereignty of the energy system through the state´s declaration as the proprietor of all the natural resources and the use of the renewable energies. the electricity sector must reestablish its leading and strategic role in order to guarantee the electricity supply. Policy 2: Increase the coverage of the electricity service in the urban and rural area in order to achieve the universalization of electricity.
however. there is not a big number of companies that operate in the value chain of research. The opportunities faced by renewable energy companies are mainly related to the fact that there are wide rural zones with low levels of electricity coverage. Therefore there is a lack of formal market structures and there is a trend leading to the association between NGOs and companies.
. distortions introduced through subsidies that create unfair prices between renewable and conventional energies. An important share of the market is concentrated in the hydropower sector. with the exception of solar energy.The renewable energy business
The renewable energy sector has great potential in Bolivia. the low profitability and high technological costs. destined to electricity supply in the urban and rural areas of the country. The challenges faced by the companies can be categorized as follows:
lack of an energy policy and regulation that promotes the use of renewable energies. The business activities in other renewable energy sectors are marginal. renewable energy enters the market with international cooperation financing. The companies operating in this sector are mainly medium and large. Decentralized renewable energy systems can give a solution to the electrification needs of about 90% of the households in remote areas. due to the lack of a policy frame. In many cases. which has a moderate penetration in the rural areas of the country. development and production of these type of energies.
solar and geothermal energy. there are related activities in the Institute of Socio-Economic Studies (IISEC) that works topics in Energy Economics. In the Faculty of Architecture research on solar architecture has been realized. The Faculty of Engineering includes renewable energy topics in the programs of Chemical Engineering. In turn. which include the subjects of Energy Economics and Economics of Environment and Natural Resources. and deficit of qualified human resources and delays in the technological adaptation. Subjects offered in the Bachelor degree are Introduction to Energy and Natural Resources. emphasizing windpower.
. Currently. Environmental Economics and Natural Resources and Environmental Impact.
Research and teaching of renewable energies at the Bolivian Catholic University
Research and teaching about renewable energies is not yet fully established in the Bolivian Catholic University. the recently founded Institute of Applied Research (IIA) of the Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering carries out research in solar energy and biofuels from non-edible materials. At postgraduate level.
lack of financing mechanisms for the implementation of renewable energies to cope with the low payment capacity for energy of the rural population. founded in co-operation with the Harvard Institute for Economic Development. the Masters for Development program. Regarding the academic program. Environmental Engineering and Industrial Engineering. offers a Diploma course in Energy Planning and Management of Energy Systems that includes RE topics. the Faculty of Economics offers individual courses as part of its Bachelor and Master’s degree programs. The topic has a general approach in all specializations.
Companies from other sectors that operate or could be interested in working in the field of renewable energy (communications. mining. After confirmation by phone that there are activities in the field of renewable energies. etc. out of ten universities. the university programs that could include renewable energy topics were identified. industry. A total of thirty companies. the director of each relevant degree program was asked to provide a list of professors who work in or could be interested in working with the topic.) were also identified and contacted. Next.
. Benchmarking survey: for this survey the homepages of universities of Bolivia’s four largest cities were reviewed to identify those with programs that could include renewable energy topics. five. in addition to the general methodology description in Chapter 1:
Renewable energy market survey: the initial list of companies was obtained from the Vice Ministry of Electricity and Alternative Energies (VMEAE). Finally. the questionnaire was applied to nine people who were interested in participating. NGOs and public institutions were interviewed. 80% of the companies were interest in participating in the survey.2 – The JELARE surveys in Bolivia
The aspects related to the sample design for the surveys are briefly explained below. Staff survey: first. participated in the survey.
two focus groups were carried out.
In addition to the surveys.3% operate in the country as international cooperation organizations. 36
. The main purpose was to obtain qualitative information from some of the actors previously interviewed to complement the quantitative data of the survey. There are also.
2..Market survey results Characteristics of the renewable energy organizations
From the thirty interviewed organizations. experts on the topic. The second focus group was held by four professors. The rest of the surveys were done by fax or email. activities in the rural windpower generation.Surveys with people or entities located in La Paz were done personally by previously trained interviewers. 73.e. and two representatives of government entities and international cooperation working with renewable energy. Results show i. One focus group was conducted with three professors working in the field of renewable energies and three representatives of the market.3% are non-governmental organizations. solar thermal that most of the companies and organizations work in the and photovoltaic. It is worth mentioning that the sample for this survey is highly significant and the typology of the surveyed organizations reflects the weigh of actors in the market. 13. in a lower scale. biomass and biogas. The participants’ contributions were later transcribed to add key quotations to the survey results.1 . sectors of hydropower and solar energy. The discussion was guided through a compendium of key questions. 10% are government entities and 3. For the evaluation of all the surveys the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used.3% are private companies.
it is highlighted that the companies plan to operate in the short and medium term in the sectors of windpower. electrical engineering (33%). whereas a small number works in research and development. 2 . Most of the private corporations are small companies with a total income not higher than 50. project management and marketing (63%).i. according to the survey. in the project development2 itself . planning.e. from one to five or from six to nineteen employees. project management. service. the market size is still very small. However. mechanical engineering and plant construction. three-quarters of the companies employ fewer than twenty people. In functional terms most of the companies operate in the following areas of the value chain:
planning. Considering the specific employment in the field of renewable energy. where more than half of the interviewed institutions range in two ranks. and research and development (27%).000 euros in 2008.It is interesting to observe that most of the companies are engaged in planning activities. This is reflected in the organizational structure.i.
. thus most of the institutions have planned to work in consulting areas1 and.
Regarding the future perspectives of the RE market. This situation reflects the huge market set-back regarding its capacity of technological adaptation. marketing. education and training (47%). certification. on a smaller scale. operation and administration (37%).e.
1 . hydropower. biofuels and biomass. evaluation. maintenance and repair (37%).
However. government entities use public calls.’ The renewable energy market in Bolivia does not function in a regular way regarding price-fixing and conditions of competition. everything is subsidized by the international co-operation. Costs of technological development are very high considering the size of the renewable energy market. So the problems of the sector are clearly related to the requirement of specialized technical qualifications. The bigger part of the organizations employs technicians as well as university graduates. sales. The survey results confirm that the main areas of activity in the renewable energy sector are related to services. assembly and installation. you have to associate with an NGO to stay in the market.e. the majority rates the availability as scarce or insufficient. not through external agencies. as another businessman states: ‘You cannot give the final client your real price. not producers. with a slightly higher percentage of technicians. and. production and manufacturing are carried out on a smaller scale and research and development activities are not significant. the lack of specialized technical qualifications. Only a small part employs people with business competences. The problems the organizations deal with when hiring new professionals are. the manager of a small solar energy company said: ‘Imported Chinese equipment is cheaper.
. Nearly all companies hire their employees directly. We just adapt the systems to the local reality and sell them for a slightly higher price.’
Qualification of professionals in renewable energy
Only one-third of the organizations declare that there are university graduates and technicians available in the field of renewable energies. in almost every case.Bolivian companies are generally technology suppliers. On this subject. manufacturing is a waste of time for me. 38
One businessman who took part in the focus group highlighted this:
We look for people who studied sciences. physics and chemistry.. we do not need people trained to read a catalog or import certain equipment. Less important are programs of e-learning and blended learning. but people who can develop technology. while another important part envisages at least a constant trend.
.e. around half of the organizations forecast a positive tendency in employment.
Training of the companies’ staff in renewable energy
As expected. Since we are a company that develops technology. who know about math. The strengthening of existing basic competences is also given great importance. lack of multidisciplinary qualifications or lack of applicants (33%).in a smaller percentage (40%). the highest requirement is oriented to programs of coaching and learning on the job. as well as in the medium term. First of all. Only one out of thirty organizations declared not to have problems in finding adequate personnel. According to the survey. not technology. because in the short. This situation could worsen in the future. all interviewed organizations confirmed their need for some kind of training for their staff. This result is coherent with the need to increase the specific technical qualifications of their personnel. I think the quality of competences in these basic subjects is one of the main deficiencies. intensive seminars and certificate courses.
i. Also considered as important by the participants are the measures of in-house training with external support and training at further education and research institutions. new specialized technical competences are required.
1 shows the drivers for the required new qualifications in the field of renewable energies and their relevance according to the surveyed organizations (multiple answers were possible).
Graphic 2.1. They could acquire social competences and communication skills that are very important.
As can be observed in Graphic 2. 40
. the main motivations for the development of the mentioned competences are product and process innovations.1 – Drivers for new qualifications in renewable energy. 2009. market needs and government policies and incentives are important reasons for the development of qualifications by the staff.
Graphic 2. Nevertheless this perception can be contrasted with the opinion of a representative of a company in a focus group:
It would be useful to grant scholarships to students to give them the opportunity to go abroad. foreign languages and social competences. Source: JELARE Survey. Likewise.Less importance is granted to the acquisition of multidisciplinary competences such as communication skills.
However. that hinders a fruitful cooperation.The representatives of the organizations agree that the universities have to develop new courses and competences in the field of renewable energies. it is not as important to create new professions and/or occupational profiles in the area (only 23% of the interviewed companies are in favour). as to develop additional qualifications that complement the initial vocational education (70% of the interviewed organizations). but developed by national universities.
Interface between the renewable energy market and the universities
So far. The manager of a renewable energy company also mentions
[t]he lack of credibility of the universities in other parts of the system like insurance companies – they do not accept technologies that are not internationally recognized. There is a mutual distrust. The universities research and build prototypes that are not capitalized by the market. the contact and cooperation between companies and universities is marginal. as a professor of the Faculty of Engineering in a focus group says. This is one of the reasons of the poor cooperation between the private sector and the universities. because often engineers develop solutions lacking economic viability. There should be cooperation between the Faculty of Engineering and the Faculty of Economics. One participant of the focus group proposed:
Universities should focus on the topic of Energy Economics.
. a bigger contribution in basic research and development.2. the services the companies require from universities are mainly related to joint research and development and technology transfer. 93% of the survey participants maintain that the current state of the universities regarding renewable energies is behind the market needs. such as new procedures.The interviewed organizations expect from the universities a contribution at two levels: on the one hand a reform in education and training and. However. evaluation Providing access to latest knowlegde Linking with business or research partners Others
25% 22% 11% 8% 17% 12% 5%
Graphic 2. A considerable part of the companies also expect the universities to provide linking with business and research partners and consultancy and advisory service. 2009. When asked what types of services offered by Higher Education Institutes they would be interested in. the organizations expressed interest in many different services. advisory service Monitoring. followed by obtaining access to the latest knowledge through universities.2 shows the different services and the participant’s level of interest for each one of them (multiple answers were possible).2 – Interest in services offered by universities.
Joint research and development Technology transfer Consultancy. Source: JELARE Survey. and a third part expect them to work on product innovations (new products and materials). Graphic 2. Almost half of the participants also hold that the universities should work in process innovations. on the other.
As seen in Graphic 2.
intensive information campaigns and a new vision of university education have also been demanded by the surveyed organizations. there is an obvious emphasis on education and administration.2% of the staff has senior experience (10 years) in topics related to renewable energies. For the development of a competitive market of renewable energy systems. The universities could play a role in the development of regulation standards and consultancy services for the government.
2. there seems to be a contradiction in the description of the working areas as onethird of the interviewed staff declared. the implementation of supporting policies and regulation standards stand out. the practice of international cooperation organizations not to resort to the national market but to import the equipment for their projects is considered harmful.Main challenges for a wider application of renewable energies in Bolivia
Among the major challenges to extend the use of renewable energies. Equally important is the development of financing mechanisms and the introduction of subsidies for renewable energy technologies or at least the elimination of subsidies for fuel energy sources. But in the focus groups conducted later. the participating professors highlighted the incipient activity in research and development in the universities. However. whereas research is not the main focus of their activities. to work in research and development as well as in education and training. Finally. in the following section of the survey.2 – Staff survey results Profile of the interviewed university staff
Analysing the description of the positions of the Bolivian Catholic University (BCU) staff. which confirms the huge quantitative and qualitative set-back in this
. Only 22.
Interests and training needs of the staff
The professors’ intention to strengthen the topic of renewable energy at the BCU is reflected in their high interest to receive training in renewable energy technologies as well as in curriculum design. Both express their intention to operate in the sectors of windpower. The combination of these results allows assessing initially the huge difficulty implied when implementing renewable energy subjects in the university.
Graphic 2. At the same time.
. development of teaching modules and research management. biomass and hydropower. this apparent concordance is not reflected in reality. 2009. However.3 – Training interest in RE technologies. considering the insignificant number of joint projects.11% of the professors have experience in curriculum design and research management.3 shows the sectors of renewable energy technologies and the level of interest of the university staff to receive capacity building in each area. results show that only 11. Graphic 2. 44
Source: JELARE Survey.area. The survey also shows a clear relationship between the working or interest fields of the BCU staff in renewable energies and the planned activities of the companies.
The graphic shows a clear preference for training in the areas of biomass, hydropower and windpower technologies, followed by photovoltaic and solar thermal energy, geothermal energy and hydrogen/fuel cells in equal terms. Concerning training in curriculum design, most participants have a clear preference for Master’s degree programs, but there is also interest in PhD and joint international programs. Regarding training in research management, a major interest in funding opportunities and research managerial capacities is specified. Only one-third is interested in training in research fund management. In general, most of the participants consider it as a major need to improve their technical/vocational knowledge and their skills in their area of teaching or research. The same applies to their need to keep up to date with major technological changes in renewable energies and to acquire skills of renewable energy curriculum development. Moreover, the majority describes it as a very important need to have better research infrastructure, such as laboratories and equipment. The same applies to the need for access to a scientific database in renewable energies and the need to participate in networking events in renewable energy such as workshops, seminars, conferences and/or field visits to industries. Finally, the need for more collaboration between the BCU and the renewable energy industry is seen as a major or very important need by nearly all participants. A participant of the focus group affirmed: “What we need are agreements between the private sector and the universities with clear terms of reference, rights and obligations for both parties – agreements of mutual interests”.
Strengthening of the renewable energy topic at the university
All measures proposed in the survey, focused on the introduction or strengthening of renewable energies at the BCU, were qualified as important or very important by most of the participants. The following table shows the percentages: Options A – Academic programs devoted to market needs B – Exchange programs between HEIs and RE Market C – HEI’s partnership with RE market D – Applied technological researches funded by the market E – Applied technological researches funded by the government F – Internships for students in RE companies G – Constant analysis and design of occupational plans in RE No Need 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% Minor Need 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 11.11% Definite Need 0.00% 0.00% 00.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Major Need 55.56% 44.45% 44.44% 33.33% 33.33% 44.44% 11.11% Very Important Need 22.22% 33.33% 44.44% 44.45% 44.45% 44.44% 66.67%
Table 2.1 – Percentage received by participants for each option and need level. Source: JELARE Survey, 2009.
An important deficit was found in all the consulted fields in the university, especially in the aspects related to collaboration with the market. 46
Therefore, the following measures are the most important to strengthen:
partnership between the university and the renewable energy market; and internships for students in RE companies.
2.3 – Benchmark survey results Renewable energy activities at other universities
The purpose of the benchmark survey is to compare the state of the art of renewable energy at other universities in the Bolivian system with the results of the UCB. A first approximation can be done based on the balance of activities in renewable energies and the universities’ degree of insertion in the field of renewable energies, illustrated in Graphic 2.4.
Graphic 2.4 – Profile of universities regarding renewable energies. Source: JELARE Survey, 2009.
It can be observed, on the one hand, that a great part of the universities have offered undergraduate and postgraduate programs on topics related to renewable energies before 2007. On the other hand, most of the institutions do not have research programs with foreign investment in the field. This shows that the coherence of the technology development chain is incipient. Most of the activities financed with external funds in renewable energies are destined for the rural area, through technology transfer at low scale and in many cases with obsolete technology. In this current situation, the set-back of the technological adaptation and innovation processes in the country is evident. More than half of the universities have conducted some kind of research in renewable energies before 2007, usually exploratory. Regrettably, in none of the surveyed institutions are these activities sustained constantly over time, despite many of them having partnerships with national and/ or international research networks. It is important to remark that the current conditions for the conduction of research projects are not adequate. For instance, none of the universities has research laboratories financed by the productive sector. It can be established that cooperation between the universities and the renewable energy market in general does not exist and that the quality of research is deficient. This is illustrated by the fact that 80% of the universities do not have registered patents or newly developed technologies in the last few years. Nearly 60% of the participants declared that their university has policies in renewable energy as well as a value system that promotes commitment in this area. 80% of the universities also confirm that they have a strategy in the field of renewable energy. However, it is recommended to be careful with these results, as it is evident that there cannot be a strategy without a policy; therefore it is incoherent that this last percentage is higher than the first one. 48
More than 80% of the participating universities work in cooperation with public or private organizations and 60% also have interdisciplinary programs about renewable energy in their institutions. The level of market connection of the universities in renewable energies seems interesting; however the extension and frequency of the relationships cannot be concluded from this information. The survey shows that 40% of the participants use formal practices of mentoring or coaching and the same percentage let experienced staff from different areas of knowledge transfer their know-how to students and teaching staff. It is interesting that another 60% are planning to introduce this last measure in the next two years. To receive external training to keep up to date with the technological changes in renewable energies is less common, which might be caused by the fact that there is not of this kind of capacity building on offer. Finally, none of the universities grants scholarships in renewable energy. The most common practice of knowledge acquirement is to use knowledge on renewable energy obtained from other market sources as companies and organizations, which is applied by all participants. Another frequent practice is to acquire knowledge from research institutions, done by 60% of the universities before 2007 and planned by the rest of the participants. This result demonstrates that the universities do not have the budget to generate knowledge and therefore need to choose, almost exclusively, mechanisms that reduce their transaction costs (by the use of Internet sources).
Source: JELARE Survey.
Graphic 2. solar thermal and photovoltaic energy. Graphic 2.5 – Research/teaching activities in renewable energy. Most educational activities are concentrated in the sectors of hydropower. followed by windpower and biogas. but only 20% of the participants research in each sector. There are research activities in all renewable energy sectors except for geothermal and hydrogen/fuel cells.
. education prevails over research activities in all the interviewed universities.5 shows what the research/teaching ratio looks like for each type of renewable energy.Education and research in renewable energy at other universities
The survey results show that in the area of renewable energies. 2009.
Finally. Half of them are exclusively dedicated to renewable energies. we must emphasize that none of the participant universities have a multi-year investment budget dedicated exclusively to research in renewable energies and therefore there is a lack of sustainable long-term research programs.All the universities have specific programs or courses in renewable energy. Only one of the institutions has a Master’s degree exclusively dedicated to renewable energies. whereby 70% correspond to courses of initial formation in the frame of a Bachelor’s degree and only 30% have a higher level of specialization. whereas the other half includes topics of renewable energy.
. Likewise. This shows the structural limitations and the poor financial conditions of the higher education system in this country. institute or research group in the field of renewable energy. 80% of the universities have a department.
although a considerable number of them are planning to extend their range of products. because most of the companies forecast a positive or at least constant trend in their staff requirements. the organizations can also train their current staff instead of recruiting new employees.Conclusions
Conclusions of the renewable energy market survey
The RE market in Bolivia is concentrated in the areas of hydropower. the sector operates – except for the hydropower sector – with small companies or micro companies. Therefore. To cover the increasing requirements of RE specialists. which act almost exclusively as technology suppliers.g. Among the planned capacity building opportunities.
e. Most of the companies currently work in planning and training. The demand for technicians and university graduates in RE is considerably higher than the supply. electric engineering or plant construction. photovoltaic and solar thermal energy. The main motivations for these measures are product and process innovations and. low generation hydropower and biomass and/ or biofuels.3 . This situation can worsen in the mid term. market needs.
. The lack of specialized technical qualifications is the most common problem for the companies when hiring staff. to a smaller extent. especially in the areas of windpower. as well as government policies and incentives. This is mainly due to the lack of government policies or incentives and the reduced market size. Most of the private and public organizations operate only in one sector. whereas only a small number carries out research and development activities or project development. training and learning on the job is the most common.
private and public organizations expect the universities to contribute with more and better education and training and to encourage research and basic development. the huge quantitative and qualitative set-back in the field of renewable energy. In addition. The set-back regarding renewable energies has similar causes. there is a clear lack of capacities in fundraising and management and in the development of a sustained strategy for research.
The low number of research projects is related to the reduced budget destined for this purpose. The professors do not have financial resources at 53
Conclusions of the staff survey
The most important results of the staff survey are:
the insufficient research and development activity at the university. However.According to the surveyed companies. There is no integral strategy for renewable energies in any particular institute. the current state of the Higher Education Institutions regarding renewable energies is far behind the market needs. the university staff does not have the appropriate infrastructure for research activities at their disposal and their access to information sources is very limited. whereas the quality responds more to the lack of long-term planning and the deficit of human resources. and the lack of cooperation with the RE market. On the other. nor formal cooperation mechanisms between different institutes or faculties of the university. On the one hand. a strengthening of technology transfer activities as well as the joint development of research projects is required. Cooperation between universities and the market is minimal.
A clear correspondence between the staff ’s training interests and the development plans of the companies can be highlighted. their activities in most cases are not constantly maintained. Furthermore.
Conclusions of the benchmarking survey
The survey conducted with other Bolivian universities has fully confirmed the results obtained at the BCU. biomass and hydropower. a lack of mechanisms to detect market developments and to adjust the study programs to their needs has to be added. This happens because none of the participant universities has a multi-year budget exclusively dedicated to research in renewable energies and therefore cannot often sustain longterm research programs. There is also a greater emphasis in education than in research in the renewable energy field. The university staff highlights the need to receive training that allows improving the support to the market through the building of capacities and through required services in the field of research. Although a high percentage of the universities claim to have done research before 2007. infrastructure conditions and access to information sources are also very limited. At the same time. nor do they have easy access to specialized information sources or infrastructure.their disposal to promote a greater inclusion of renewable energy topics.
. Both actors manifested their intention to operate more intensively in the sectors of windpower. It is consequently very important to design institutional mechanisms that permit a stronger association among Higher Education Institutions and companies.
the results show that most of the professors have not recently received any kind of training in renewable energies. Therefore the universities offer insufficient study programs and develop technological prototypes which do not get exploited by the market. however. This is reflected in very low levels of technology transfer. 55
.Finally. three important lessons were learned which reflect the global interaction of the sector as well as its structural aspects:
the technological cycle is not linked to the higher education system. training and research services. There is. and education and research are not sustainable because the Higher Education Institutions lack an integral strategy and financing mechanisms for planned and structured activities in long-term programs. as well as with the electrification needs of rural population. This situation is directly related to the low quality and poor sustainability of education and research. and the companies do not have clear incentives for the use of education. great interest in starting integrated activities related with the RE market needs. education and research are not fitted for the market needs because there are no linking and feedback mechanisms with the renewable energy market.
The survey conducted by the JELARE Project with the Higher Education Institutions and market actors in the field of renewable energies has permitted an analysis of this segment at different levels of interaction. In this sense. technological adaptation and innovation and in the lack of technicians and specialized engineers in the country.
41 1.007.300 MW from Itaipu.673. due to criteria which favour sources that cost less.16 0. Although the thermoelectric power plants account for 23. and is complemented with hydrothermal output.00
1 – Taking into account 6. 57
.02 2.372.2 presents an appraisal of Brazilian electrical source competitiveness at an installed capacity of 1. approximately 89% of Brazilian electrical energy comes from renewable sources.294.
Table 3. they are responsible for less than 10% of the energy produced3 because of their higher production cost.
In practice. Note that hydropower is more competitive (in R$/MWh).13 236.24% of the installed capacity.78 1. Table 3. Source: Aneel Report. Source Hydroelectric power plants (HEP)1 Small Hydroelectric Central (SHC) Thermoelectric power plants (TPP) Wind generator Photovoltaic generator Thermonuclear power plants Total2 Capacity (MW) 72.25 0.08 100. 2 – Not considering imported energy.000 MW. 3 – This fact depends essentially on the degree of flexibility or inflexibility of each plant. 2006. It is important to note that.47 (%) 74.1 shows the installed capacity of electrical power generation in Brazil in 2006.005.Chapter 3 – Brazil
1 – Renewable energy market in Brazil
The Brazilian electrical industry is now predominantly hydroelectric.1 – Installed capacity of energy generation at SIN (2006). Table 3. unlike many countries.85 0.00 96.00 2.06 20. HEP accounts for more than 90% of the electricity generated in Brazil. however it takes longer to build – approximately 5 years – and has greater environmental restrictions.74 21.
3 1.000 1.2 138.7 46.4 Biomass 1. Variable Unit Cost Fixed cost Investment Rate of equilibrium MW R$/ Mwh R$/Kw year US$/KW R$/ MWh Imported coal 1.000 108.5 900 175.0 2.0 2.000 151.000 297.0 1.100 121. Source: Moreira. This is because the auction and therefore the sources are defined in advance by Aneel and EPE.0 Wind 1.000 54. Unit.6
Table 3.8 1.9 Diesel 1.3 57.000 25.0 Fuel oil 1. 2008.5 11.5 57.0 600 602. Disp.500 152.6 57.000 14.Although the costs of production are extremely important for defining dispatch criteria for distribution.000 4.2
Table 3. Variable Unit Cost Fixed cost Investment Rate of equilibrium MW R$/Mwh R$/Kw year US$/KW R$/ MWh Hydroelectric 1. 2008.000 300 28. Source: Moreira.0 800 382.4 Natural gas 1.500 133.8 1.1 National coal 1.5 4.250 116.2 (part 1) – Competitiveness among electricity sources. they are not per se investment constraints.3 Nuclear 1.000 500 25.
.000 37.2 (part 2) – Competitiveness among electricity sources. Disp.
000 MW ). but the interests of various stakeholders as well. we must not only consider its multiples uses. essentially focused on the consequences of flooding. distributed among 13 sub59
while dry periods
. security of the system. animal supply. total. Industries have been developed strongly based on complementarities Which means that among different water areas by means of the construction of wet periods occur large reservoirs and long transmission lines. Transmission lines have allowed the optimization of water resources and helped take advantage of rainfall regime diversity among regions. leading to a reduction in major new reservoir construction. irrigation. rivers surrounded by floodplains predominate and large reservoir construction is impossible. in one region Large reservoirs have been used primarily to maintain the in others.Growth trends in renewable energy
Historically. the 1988 Constitution generated greater concern about environmental issues. tapped in the country is approximately 126 GW. so hydropower will have to take the form of run-of-the-river plants. However. approximately 70% is in the Amazon basin. and expansion was made possible due to the large number of rivers. and to offer better control of electricity production in the dry season. Fortunately. etc. the Brazilian electrical sector was developed based on the country’s great hydroelectric potential. It is estimated that the hydroelectric potential yet to be industrial. Moreover. the potential in the basin is estimated at 77. there are now significant barriers to the Human and construction of major new reservoirs in Brazil. Without adding the remaining non-individualized potential (28. where recreation. lakes and other hydrological regimes. From this fisheries. when it comes to water.058 MW.
‘the chance of nonviability of some projects has to be present. p. 2002). according to PNE data. Besides. due to social. by 2030 (EPE) only 38% of the potential could be classified as exploitable without easing significant environmental restrictions. especially sugar-alcohol. there are significant restrictions to the use of this potential.Tapajós.
basins. Madeira and Trombetas. As Dias Leite states (2007. thermal flexible. entrepreneurs from the sugar-alcohol sector are investing in more efficient co-generation technology to
. it will require more installed capacity for backup power plants. According to Souza e Azevedo (2006). Such restrictions indicate that there is a growing urgent need for a diverse energy matrix.
However. since there are strong disagreements of environmental.
With regard to new renewable resources to generate electricity. Moreover. especially in periods of adverse hydrology. The Brazilian sugaralcohol sector is traditionally self-sufficient in terms of energy (Castro and Dantas. with four of them concentrating almost 90% of the potential.
New renewable resources
Biomass. 549). The use of waste as fuel accounts for 98% of the energy needs of the factories (Corrêa and Ramon.
i. wind energy and solar energy. environmental and technological issues.’ Take as an example that more than 44% of the potential is directly related to indigenous land. social and political nature. which do not require seasonal regulation. will reduce the capacity of the system’s strategic reserve and will also require major operational flexibility from existing reservoirs. emphasis should be given to energy generated from biomass. 2008a). The increased use of run-of-the-river plants.. Still. Xingu. it is important to notice the need for more in depth studies on the aptitude of this potential. especially the former.e.
60 MW was available during the project. the coastlands of the states Rio Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro (northern coast) of are
1 – Fixing a higher ceiling price and resolving problems regarding collecting stations. rice straw. where around 70% of Brazilian reservoirs are concentrated. These results. the emerging possibility of marketing the electricity produced from sugar-alcohol biomass can generate a third product offered by this sector. br/ >
. cresesb. majorly situated in the northeast. It is of note that the complementary nature of the wet season and sugar-alcohol production allows bioelectrical production to mitigate hydrological risk (Castro and Dantas. available at <http://www. which is normally the dry season in the southeast region. Apart from this region. origin and technology available for conversion.cepel. 2 – According to the Atlas do Potencial Eólico Brasileiro (2001).guarantee its provision in a streamlined manner. Brazil has significant competitive advantages due to its vast territory. When it comes to wind and photovoltaic (solar) energy. 2008b) was actually contracted. due to solutions1 that had been impairing development of this business model. according to the authors. 2008a). especially of coastline. which is conducive for wind energy. stalks and leaves). In an effort to promote the economic viability of this energy source. using biomass exclusively. and an average of 548 MW (Castro and Dantas. and sugarcane crop residue. Thus. the first reserve energy project was conducted in August 2008. The estimated wind energy potential for the country is around 143. indicate a new scenario for this RE source.5 GW2. An average of 2101. The main sources of energy from biomass are: soybean straw. The production of electricity from sugaralcohol plants occurs between April and November. Biomass as a source for generating electricity is among the renewable sources with more possibilities in terms of nature. corn (cobs.
3. The instantaneous power incident on the Earth’s surface can reach values above 1. visual impact. while the north is the least favoured in relation to windpower energy. Furthermore. as intermittent. the operation of solar plants may cause:
thermal and chemical pollution to water resources. It is characterized. like windpower. the evolutionary forecast is described in Table 3. planning and construction of new windpower plants have been intensified. as well as their visual impact.considered quite favourable. Mountainous areas of the hinterland also contain several propitious sites. curtailing the possible exploitation of this potential. especially 62
. With its territory located mostly in latitudes between the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. Study. The annual average energy incidence in most of Brazil’s territory varies between 4 kWh/m2. Auction results of new energy produced by 2008 show a significant trend towards gas and coal sources.day.day and 5 kWh/m2.
The first two are considered the most important. With respect to solar energy. loss of habitat due to land use. noise and damage to the ecosystem. because of the significant variation in solar incidence over the year. The restrictions and environmental impact of wind farms are mainly related to noise from the aerogenerators’ motion and drive mechanics. There is a noticeable trend towards greater use of the sources that make up the Brazilian electric matrix. Regarding natural resources and the consequent diversification of the electrical matrix.000 W/m2. the country has a favourable incidence of solar energy. Brazil is also well situated.
567 7.260 2.007 268 489 218 2.
2 – The JELARE Surveys in Brazil
Qualitative approach methodology.017 107.764 2.495
Table 3.293 2011 70.007 1.776 16.007 1. The audience is made up of Brazilian companies and universities. which require lower investments in long distance transmission lines. The research was conducted through semi-structured questionnaires designed by Unisul and adapted and approved by JELARE aiming to target the wide audience of the JELARE Project.126 509 720 4.126 509 720 4.
.126 509 720 4.735 2. A significant tendency can be observed towards smaller plants (PCHs and PCTs14) built closer to load centres.org.
1 – Includes natural gas.000 5.000 6. http:www.637 7.000 6.ons.368 2009 67.000 6.007 1.425 12. Source Hydroelectric Thermal 1 Nuclear PCHs PCTs Windpower Others Itaipu (BR) Purchase Itaipu (PY) Total 2007 66.3 – Projected evolution of installed power SIN Grid (MW).007 1.126 509 720 4.br.055 102. Source: ONS.105 13. was used in this research project. coal and biomass.578 2010 69.295 11.000 6.425 7.937 110.243 2008 66.000 5.247 16.978 109.007 934 509 487 3.the latter. which.100 2. which is imported.115 2.292 7.481 7.637 7. allows a wide range of readings about the subject of study.086 2.455 96. according to Oliveira (1998).410 99.013 2012 70.824 17.
The questionnaire results and statistics analysis were done by Sphinx software.A.. we have applied the qualitative approach aiming to gain a deep understanding about the gap between the market needs and what the universities have to offer in terms of research and education by interpreting primary and secondary data. according to Ghauri and Gronhaug (2005). attempting to understand RE market requirements for university graduates. from the Engevix Group. values and attitudes. Tractebel Energia S. The surveyed companies were:
Desenvix. there were two types of questionnaires:
one directed to firms. Komlog. Based on these distinctions. CELESC – Centrais Elétricas de Santa Catarina S. the other aimed to assess employees training needs at the universities that offer RE programs..A. provides a better understanding of a given context and underlying motivations.As a research methodology we chose qualitative research that. SC Parcerias S.. from the Komeco Group. as well as analysing the benchmarking results. mainly process-oriented rather than result-oriented.
.A. In this sense.
Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina – UNISUL. 65
.. Dedini S. Sapiens Parque S..A. with the special collaboration of the Laboratory of Engineering Processes and Technology for Energy Conversion (LEPTEN) of the Mechanical Engineering Department.A. SC Gás S. and Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – UFSC.A.
Enercam. and Progetti Pesquisa e Gestão Tecnológica S. Instituto Ideal. Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina – UDESC. mainly covering those industries and organizations capable of influencing the supply and/or demand of qualified personnel.
The universities involved were:
The three surveys focused on the labour market. Indústria de Base. Haztec Soluções Integradas em Sustentabilidade. Canasvieiras Transportes.. A. Fundação CERTI – Fundação Centros de Referência em Tecnologias Inovadoras.A. Petrobras Distribuidora S.
In relation to corporate membership.1 – Market survey results
The sample comprised fifteen responding companies.
the staff survey.
the market survey. 73.3%.33% of the interviewed firms have some kind of interest in the development of projects related to renewable energy. On the other hand.The analysis that follows. The research also demonstrates that the majority of the surveyed companies (60%) develop projects in RE through some form of partnership or strategic alliance. were divided between government and NGOs.
. of which thirteen are in Florianopolis and two in Rio de Janeiro.3% were private enterprises. based on the samples. 20% stated that they develop autonomous projects. while another 10% outsource the development of such projects. and the universities that offer programs in the field of RE. and the remaining 26. development and innovation activities through a partnership or outsourcing to the productive sector. It is very clear that there is an opportunity to join the universities and their research groups. The following characteristics drawn from the collected data should be highlighted:
the Brazilian market is mainly oriented towards hydroelectric energy generation: 93.
6%. It is possible to observe that the demand for skilled workers goes beyond the technical area to cover virtually all areas of knowledge. Another aspect underscored by the results is the need for major integration between HEIs and public and private companies in the RE field. there is an urgent need for an objective approach by HEIs in response to the demands for future qualified labour.
. Thus.7%. 15.6%.6% of the firms have difficulties in finding skilled professionals to work in the RE area. HEIs are outdated when it comes to RE. from the standpoint of the surveyed companies. characteristic of the mission of most institutions of higher education.8%.3%. This means the promotion of a comprehensive reform in current course offerings by HEIs. there is a significant gap between supply and availability of vacancies for professionals in this area. 17. innovation in products. From the results presented above we ascertained that there is a great distance between the universities and the market in all the elements of the RE production chain. 9. 17.
there is a lack of skilled workers in Brazilian RE market: 86. results show a scarcity of skilled professionals: on the determinants of new skills.
Basic innovations. Thus. and management and market studies. It is also evident that. several items were identified. regulation of industry and relevant laws. with emphasis on innovation in processes. 37. especially management.
2.Regarding the subjective answers. in order to rank them in the RE market. this need is both technical and managerial. That is to say that this issue will be resolved by means of an energy policy focused on increasing RE participation in the Brazilian energy matrix. and two from UFSC. one from UDESC/ESAG. 68
. many companies state that the cost of production and market price of electricity from renewable sources is not very competitive. Regarding the professional development of the professors. Seven respondents participated:
four from UNISUL. it is clear that the universities and their research departments still require massive training/qualification in the RE area.2 – Staff survey results
The questionnaire was applied to the universities. respondents were asked about the biggest challenge for a wide application and use of RE in Brazil. a greater governmental incentive is needed. 87. the respondents emphasized both resource and research management in RE.
All the respondents are professors or researchers. Two issues were made clear from the replies:
for greater investment in RE. In the latter. According to the respondents.5% of them work in engineering departments while the others work in administration. and regarding the former question.
HEIs must offer more academic programs directed towards the RE sector. and utilization of expertise from many different scientific areas for teaching students and training young employees. since universities are interested in training and courses. Regarding curriculum development.
Most scholars want to receive more training in the RE field. 75% of the respondents are not working in that direction yet. there is a significant opening for project development. Of those whose work in RE began after 2007.
Of universities and departments whose work with RE began before 2007.3 – Benchmarking survey results
The questionnaire on benchmarking was used to rank the HEIs in terms of the RE market. followed by biomass and fuel cells.
. The most significant results are presented below. As shown by the figures below. Solar energy generation was the preferred field of work as well as the source of greatest interest. 62.Thus. In this sense. with laboratories funded by companies.5% operate post-graduate programs and research projects using foreign investment. This implies that there is a great opportunity for universities. the majority also see the possibility of increasing research and education programs with both public and private funding.5% do so through laboratories and integrate national and international networks of RE research. the principal methods are collaboration with public and/or private institutions. As for RE-related programs in universities. 12. according to all interviewees.
With regard to capacity building. particularly through businesses.5% predict an upswing in RE knowledge acquisition in the next few years. the surveys indicated that the universities according to the stakeholders are not prepared to supply the market needs.5% of the HEIs have implemented them since 2007. 12. and then merely for the dissemination of values and organizational culture promoting renewable energy. 37. Regarding knowledge acquisition. These two answers demonstrate that RE is a significant area and has growth potential within HEIs. only 37.
. most of them plan to adopt strategies and policies in the coming years.Regarding RE policies and strategies. As in the former answer. However.5% became familiar with the topic before 2007.
3 – Conclusions
The main finding of the three surveys conducted in Brazil suggest that there is a significant gap between the RE market requirements and needs and what indeed the universities are offering in terms of research and teaching. The surveys also indicated that there are more needs for investments in the universities infrastructure in order to better respond to the growing market needs for research and training in the field of renewable energies. and 50% through research institutes.
Between the years 2010 and 2014. Law 20. which established the obligation of electric companies to obtain a percentage of commercialized energy from non-conventional renewable energy sources (ERNC) starting in 2010.5% annually. in commerce with distributors or end users. has been injected into one of the non-conventional renewable energy generator sources: their own or contracted. This supply is composed of five energy sources: crude oil. biomass and other resources. the obligation to supply energy with non-conventional renewable generators will be 5%. this percentage will increase 0. In 2008. in 2016 with 6% and so on.
1 – Energy market in Chile
The Chilean energy supply for 2007 reached 301.1. hydropower.Chapter 4 . After 2015.1 – Annual obligations established by Law 20. up to 10% in the year 2024. coal. natural gas. must prove that a quantity of energy. Specifically. the law states that each electric company that purchases energy from power systems with installed capacity greater than 200 MW.257 came into effect.257. up to 10% in the year 2024. as is shown in Graphic 4.381 GWh.5%. equivalent to 10% of its purchases in each year. This progressive increase will be applied in such a way that purchases affected by the obligation in 2015 must comply with 5.
three different surveys were designed to gather information from the labour market.Given the above.
. Chile must improve the technical skills of those who will manage and operate systems that generate this kind of energy. The section on logistics details how contacts were made and how information moved amongst those involved in this project. HEIs and internal staff at the University of Chile. The different methodologies used for the market survey. a primary objective for the short and medium term will be to improve both teaching and research in renewable energies at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). In the section on sample selection. For this reason. Thus. the criteria applied to select the respondents for our survey and design the database are described. The methodology to develop the proposed surveys focused on two main aspects: the sample selection and logistics. Chile’s near future will obviously find a significant increase in the use of renewable energies in their energy system. the benchmarking survey. To examine the current situation of teaching and researching in the area of renewable energy and to help define the future needs in this area.
2 – The JELARE surveys in Chile
The sample selection and the criteria applied to design the database differ depending on the survey objective. and the staff survey are described below.
Companies located outside Santiago were supposed to answer the survey without a personal interview. The final sample of sixteen companies is detailed in Table 4.A Codelco Collahuasi Contac Electronet Poch Ambiental National Energy Comission Chile Sustentable CMPC Tissue Chile Deuman EndesaEco
Agrosuper CDEC-Sing Colbún S.A Gener Ingendesa Transelec S.1 – Final surveyed companies. but only one company responded.Market Survey Results
For companies located in the Santiago area. and personal appointments were then scheduled.
Agriculture/food Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Mining Mining Other/consulting Other/consulting Other/consulting Other/government agency Other/NGO Pulp and paper Renewable energy Renewable energy
.1. an initial contact was established by means of an email or phone call.
html members of the survey team were not allowed to
provide answers and/or fill out surveys in order to provide statistical validation.
http://www.1. cl/cda/cda/ The three surveys described above were performed programa_ considering the following criteria: domeyko/index.
interviewed contacts could not answer more than one survey (this criterion maintained the statistical independence of the answers provided). personal interviews were given first priority.uchile. derecho. project managers and researchers who were chosen for their research and teaching interests within selected academic units.Staff survey
The staff survey was conducted among university professors. The academic units were selected based on the Domeyko Energy program. potential contacts located outside Santiago were also considered and were approached electronically (by email). whose objective is to strengthen the university capabilities to face issues of national concern.
Figure 4. However.
The survey logistics were organized as shown in Figure 4.1 – Survey team logistic organization.
The field team is in charge of applying the survey. Finally. Chile. but not all of them do research and teach in the field of energy.
Conicyt. non-conventional renewable energy predominates in nineteen centres.
. when a survey is completed.
There are currently fifty-eight universities in Chile. final data is supplied to the coordination area. Once contact with the universities was established. and most of these are located in universities. These thirteen universities constitute the initial database for the survey development. Based on Conicyt studies. 2007. “El sector de la energía en Chile. Seven centres focus their research on the energy field. Capacidades de investigación y áreas de desarrollo científicotecnológico”. A smaller number of centres (eleven centres) carry out research on electric energy. The coordination area is in charge of developing a database with potential contacts to be interviewed for the three surveys and for making the initial contact with prospective respondents. the final sample of seven universities were interested in participating in this project as detailed below in Table 4.Figure 4.2. Santiago.1 shows the flow of information related to the surveys. the field team is advised. Once the contact responds that he/ she will participate. there are thirty-four research centres in Chile developing research lines on energy. Additionally two more universities that created energy centres in 2008 were added to the initial sample. In general these thirty-four centres are located in eleven universities. Among the main research lines developed by those centres. processing and storing the data collected.
Only 8% of the sample operate in the steel sector. oil) and 50% of these operate in both the energy and renewable energy sectors. 6% are state-owned and 6% are non-governmental organizations (NGOs).University name
Universidad Federico Santa María Universidad Diego Portales Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez Universidad de Antofagasta Universidad de Santiago Pontificia Universidad Católica Universidad de Tarapacá
Table 4. 75% operate within the energy sector (gas.2 – Type of organisation. 25% of the companies operate in the agriculture sector as well as in the paper and pulp industry.1 – Market survey results
88% of the companies in the sample are in the private sector.
.2 – Interviewed universities for benchmark survey. 42% are in the mining sector.
2. electricity. Staff.
In this section. Market and Universities (benchmarking). are presented below. survey results for three targets.
3 – Subsectors of economic activity within which the companies operate. Another 33% of the companies operate across all subsectors: generation. With regard to the subsectors of economic activity within which the companies operate. or are not sure. some fall into more than one category. 33% of the companies participate in both generation and distribution. photovoltaic and geothermal are expected to be the most active energy sectors. 8% either do not know. The sample shows that the majority of the companies surveyed are involved in generation (83%). if there will be money available for renewable energy projects. In the future. The results also indicate that geothermal energy and solar thermal energy are the sectors expected to be of most interest to these companies. distribution.92% of the companies surveyed are interested in developing renewable energy projects. commercialization and transport.
Codelco Colbún S.000. companies expressed plans to focus on research and development. on education and training.A Collahuasi CMPC Tissue Chile 78
Number of workers
More than 500 More than 500 More than 500 More than 500
continues. which puts them in the medium−to−large− company category. Another company functions as a consultancy.
For the future.000. One of the companies in the survey assesses programs but does not develop them. Only twenty-five of the surveyed companies have income from renewable energy greater than €10. Regarding renewable energy projects and activities within the surveyed entities: 58% of the companies uses all three methods of project development.3 and Graphic 4.
Outsourcing.000.. on mechanical engineering and plant construction.Companies are focused primarily:
on planning. The number of employees by company sampled is detailed in Table 4. and on energy trading.
. and marketing.000. companies have an average annual income greater than €10.4.. own development and joint The sample shows that more than half of the surveyed development.
Deuman Electronet Endesa Eco Gener Ingendesa Poch Ambiental CDEC-Sing Transelec S.
.A CNE Contac Ingenieros Agrosuper
Number of workers
20–49 6–19 More than 500 More than 500 More than 500 250–499 20–49 250–499 50–249 50–249 50–249
Graphic 4.4 – Total number of employees per organization.3 – Number of workers per company.
5 – Number of available RE employees. 33% of the surveyed companies report having other facets related to renewable energy in which their employees are involved. Given the size of the companies surveyed. the majority of the companies fall in the medium-to-large category.
Graphic 4. technology watch. and some respondents have estimated zero availability. project assessment and impact. If we go further afield into the NonConventional Renewable Energy (NCRE) segment. These are:
training courses. they do not have a very substantial number of employees dedicated to renewable energy.
Additionally.000. these companies have practically no specialized employees and therefore have to turn to international experts for training in the area.Whether measured by number of employees or income greater than €10.000. The perception among employers is that the availability of RE employees is generally low. The company average is from 20 to 49 employees.
This may be attributable to the growing importance of renewable energy both in our country as well 81
. 16% of the companies did not respond to this question. This method has been generally effective as companies feel they have been able to locate good candidates for the jobs. they turn to international experts who are brought into the company to train as many workers as possible in the area. In some cases the company has employees with postgraduate degrees. As a result. or they send a company representative to be trained abroad. preferring to hire electrical engineers. 24% of the companies surveyed have technicians and university graduates working in the RE field. In regard to which methods are used by companies to hire personnel. For a large majority of the sample (84%). or who are engineers with experience in renewable energy. straightaway recruiting and hiring are most commonly used by the companies. the forecasted hiring trend in the renewable energy field is both positive and constant. The large majority of those who do exist are trained abroad. There are very few workers with deep knowledge and sufficient experience when it comes to RE. 58% of the companies reported problems locating and selecting qualified employees.
assessment of renewable energy process. One of the companies in the survey does not specifically hire renewable energy personnel.
Regarding the professional and educational backgrounds of company employees hired to work in the renewable energy field. since they barely exist. 8% of the respondents report that it is difficult to hire experienced personnel in the NCRE field. and sale on the electricity market. In four cases the respondents indicated that there are not enough candidates for the jobs and that candidates lack the specialized technical skills required.
Companies indicated they will require training in the legal and the standardization aspects in the field of renewable energy.
75% of the companies surveyed have future plans to train or educate their employees in the new skills required by the renewable energy field. The remaining companies are not sure.as abroad. 50% of the companies currently have training plans for their organization and employees.6 – Training opportunities. We can see that the medium−term hiring trend in the RE field is growing even more than for the short term. The training opportunities provided by the companies are as follows:
Graphic 4. It can be observed that the vast majority of those interviewed will require new specialized skills and qualifications.
. Regarding current training needs for organizations in the renewable energy field.
basic innovations. 83
. and 92% of the companies surveyed indicate that there is a gap between what the institutions of higher learning are currently offering and the needs of the market.
92% of the surveyed companies say they require new skills from their employees in the renewable energy field. transmission systems and legislative changes required in the area of RE. 42% of the companies believe there is no need for a new profession related to renewable energy though there should be a postgraduate course available. This gives strong support for the need of universities to carry out this function. The catalysts for the required new skills development in renewable energy are: process innovations. the expected role of institutions of higher learning in the area related to RE is mainly in training and education and research and development. in addition to courses in the legal and environmental aspects of the field. such as new technologies. policies and government incentives. 75% of the companies indicate that universities need to develop new courses and skills relating to the renewable energy field. There are other areas in which renewable energy skills are required. modified legal framework conditions. and market needs. types of services offered by institutions of higher learning that are of interest to companies are research and development and technology transfer.
2 – Staff survey results
In regard to the current positions of the respondents at the University of Chile (Administration. and the remaining 13% for three to five years. unit. though it should be noted that the universe of respondents included all of the renewable energy sectors. institute or project degree related to renewable energies at the University of Chile. 50% have a Bachelor of Science in Energy Engineering. 75% currently work in generation.2. 38% of the interviewees are also involved in environmental economics as well as exploration. and the remaining 25% hold a Certificate in Environmental Economics. while only 13% are employed in administration. Regarding type of degree. 50% have teaching responsibilities and also administrative duties. Approximately 75% have worked at the University of Chile for more than five years. which entails both research and teaching. As for segments of the value chain describing current academic/professional participation in renewable energy. while 13% have worked there for one to three years. while also being engaged in research and development. 25% of the respondents hold a Master’s degree in renewable energy. Research or Teaching). The majority of the respondents work in the photovoltaics and windpower sectors.
. 88% have a position at the University of Chile. 24% of the sample are involved with all three university functions. 100% of the interviewees are currently engaged in training and education. 25% work in transportation and 10% in distribution.
and photovoltaics were mentioned as a secondary preference. 88% of those interviewed demonstrated interest.Graphic 4.8 – Types of energy.7 – Specific RE area you work in. geothermal. The main preference was found for solar thermal. Windpower.
When asked about their interest in working in the renewable energy sector.
50% would like to receive training in solar thermal energy and biomass.
63% of the respondents have more than five years of experience and 25% have less than five years of experience in the renewable energy field.9 – Academic experience. Concerning experience in research design and management.In regard to academic experience in renewable energy. 51% of the respondents have more than five years of experience in research design and management. 75% of them indicated interest and of those interested. Additionally. When the respondents were asked if they were interested in receiving training in renewable energy technologies. 50% of the respondents are vastly experienced with more than ten years of academic experience in the field.
Graphic 4. 50% of the respondents would be interested in receiving training in curriculum development.
10 – Training in curriculum development. In spite of the distinguished careers of the academics interviewed. a significant number of them (63%) would be interested in receiving training in developing teaching modules.
Graphic 4.11 – Areas of research management training. and 37% are interested in receiving training in research management.
38% of the respondents would like to be trained in programs carried out in conjunction with international entities.Graphic 4.
Concerning how they would describe the need for improving their technical/professional knowledge and skills in the teaching and education areas. and 75% of them indicated the very important need to improve the infrastructure and research at the university. 38% of the respondents consider it important to improve both their technical/ professional knowledge and skills in the education and teaching arenas. fully 75% of the respondents deem the need for collaboration to be a very important need.12 – Technical and professional knowledge. 88% of the respondents consider that participation in renewable energy-related events is either an important or a very important need.
On the other hand. 88
. 88% of the respondents consider that acquiring renewable energy curriculum development skills is either an important or a very important need. with the idea being to solidify both the knowledge and research base. In regard to the need for more collaboration between the University of Chile and the renewable energy industry as a whole.
Graphic 4. Additionally.
75% of the respondents indicate that it is either an important or very important need for the University of Chile to participate in associations with the renewable energy industry and markets in order to share knowledge.Graphic 4. 75% of the respondents indicate that participating in exchange programs between the university and the industry is an important need.13 – Collaboration between the University of Chile and the renewable energy industry as a whole.
It is important to notice that 100% of the respondents indicated that the focus on renewable energy needs to be strengthened at the University of Chile. 89
. and that both financing and greater regulation from the state are needed. Concerning the most important measures for strengthening the focus on renewable energy at the University of Chile:
75% of the respondents consider that there is a need for academic programs dedicated to meeting market requirements. The remaining 25% consider this to be a very important need.
and 38% of the respondents believe there is an important need for ongoing analysis and occupational training design as it relates to renewable energy due to changing technology and economic variability.
63% of the respondents believe that it is very important to participate in applied technology research carried out within the University of Chile and financed by the renewable energy industry and market. From 2007 to the present. 60% of the respondents indicated they have been using formal programs for tutoring/training. Regarding which kind of RE projects the university is engaging in. while 80% are not sure or do not know if they will. 80% of the sample work with private and/or public organizations in subject areas related to renewable energy. 100% of the sample do not know whether they will utilize these or not. 50% of the sample considers that there is a real need for more internship and hands-on opportunities for students with renewable energy companies.3 – Benchmarking survey results
Only 20% of respondents plan to engage in a renewable energy research project with foreign investment within the next twenty-four months. 63% of the respondents believe that it is important to participate in applied technology research carried out within the University of Chile and financed by governmental agencies.
. Insofar as registered patents or new developed technologies are concerned.
and 40% of the sample do not know whether there are renewable energy scholarships available. The majority of those interviewed believe that their organization had developed renewable energy policies and strategies prior to 2007. 60% of the sample supports their personnel in participating in team projects (or conferences) with external experts.
. since before 2007. 60% of the sample have been using renewable energy knowledge obtained from other research institutions since before 2007. 60% of those surveyed use experienced personnel with different areas of expertise to transfer their “know-how” to students and faculty members. such as companies and organizations. When it comes to investing in external knowledge on renewable energy. 80% of those surveyed indicate that they frequently use formal tutoring/training programs. 60% of the sample do so very rarely.On the other hand. Finally. 60% of the sample frequently use the Internet to obtain renewable energy knowledge from external sources. 60% of the respondents do not know whether there are interdisciplinary RE programs within their institutions. while a fraction of the respondents believe that these policies and strategies are planned for use in the next twenty-four months. Concerning the types of knowledge acquisition strategies the universities regularly employ. 60% of those interviewed have used renewable energy knowledge from external market sources. 60% of those interviewed rarely use renewable energy scholarships. On the other hand. Another 60% of the respondents use the Internet to obtain external renewable energy knowledge. while the remaining 20% use them once in a while.
Finally. Regarding the sector of renewable energy field where universities have research and/or teaching activities. Additionally. As for biomass.
. 57% are carrying on research. It is worth noting that in the area of solar thermal energy. while only 43% are engaged in teaching. 57% of the sample teach about biofuels. 20% of the sample note that they work with research committees. In the area of geothermal energy. 56% of the interviewees teach in the area of wind energy and 44% carry out research in this same area. 57% of the interviewees have teaching activities related to PV. but only 33% carry out research on the subject. and only 43% are active in that research area. 80% of those interviewed work with a strategic plan that guides the way they manage the entity they control. 71% of the sample teach and 29% do research in this area. 67% teach in the hydraulic energy area.Additionally. while the remaining 20% have no strategic plan to follow. such as biomass. 40% of those who have a strategic plan indicate that it is followed rigorously. 80% of those interviewed believe this survey covered all the renewable energy practices and initiatives used by their institutions and that there were no additional practices or policies which were not mentioned. 50% of the respondents teach and only 33% are doing research. windpower and solar power. These committees meet twice a year and then conduct workshops for the community regarding new forms of energy. one of which focuses specifically on energy.
. and industrial Engineering with a focus on Energy and the Environment. These are as follows:
degree in Energy and Sustainable Development.
100% of the sample said they did not have an exclusive area specifically dedicated to renewable energy.Graphic 4.14 – Sector of RE field. which includes some aspects of RE. 80% of the surveyed universities have specific courses/ programs in the area of renewable energy.
25% produce ISI documentation while 40% produce laboratory prototypes. the most frequently used materials come from conferences and handouts produced for the courses. focusing on in-house training with external support where the main concern is on changes related to the legal framework. and
. The companies surveyed showed significant interest in developing projects on their own or jointly. Finally. The 20% that do have a budget feel that the amount available for renewable energy is low. Clearly for both short.Concerning the materials universities produce for research/ teaching in RE.
3 – Conclusions
Considering the country background described at the beginning of this national report and the results of the performed survey. the labour market detects a need for more training of its employees. 60% of those interviewed have no budget to invest in renewable energy. 75% of the interviewees use information gathered from conferences for both researching and teaching. the recruiting tendency shows a positive increase. In summary. 60% of the sample produce books for teaching about RE.and mid-term hiring. some concluding remarks should be added from these surveys:
the RE technologies with the highest development potential are hydraulic. and they still prefer to recruit university graduates. the Chilean labour market currently has a scarcity of potential employees with RE backgrounds. wind and geothermal. 80% of the respondents produce their own course handouts and materials.
where the main interests are: thermal solar. PV and solar thermal energy. attend conferences. the university respondents showed interest in receiving training in RE. etc. They also noted the need to develop research at the university funded by industry or government.
the companies expect the universities to contribute in the areas of technological transfer. geothermal. They do not consider training in curriculum design as relevant as doing pilot modules. The most important issue mentioned regarding the direction for research training is finding appropriate funding sources.
. and research and development. and the respondents considered it very important to improve the research infrastructure and cooperation between industry and university.. wind and PV. keep up to date with the technology changes. especially focused on geothermal. consulting and advising. They also demonstrate some experience in curriculum design. but not much. the respondents considered it most important to: improve technical/professional knowledge. and establish internships with the RE industry. hydraulic. wind. access an RE database. workshops.
In regard to the university staff survey the following can be concluded from the results obtained:
the great majority of people interviewed have five or more years of experience in the university.
Other universities develop these activities through standard procedures (courses. the following points should be observed:
the main activities that have been developed by the universities are: undergraduate teaching. and other universities consider that there is a lack of investment in RE. biomass and wind generation.
. etc. networking. and joint development with external institutions. and where there is any funding at all. it is perceived as very limited. the primary interest in the research field is solar thermal technology.From results of the benchmark survey. RE scholarships and cooperation with government agencies.). while for the teaching aspect the focus is on hydraulic.
1. with a surface area of 356. More than 80% of its population lives in urban areas. the country has to import energy to cover its own requirements. Its gross domestic product of 2. This characteristic of the German energy market is a powerful incentive for public and private organizations to invest in research and technology for renewable energy (RE) in order to increase their independence from energy imports. It has large deposits of coal. As a consequence. The country has a developed free-market economy which is largely based on services and manufacturing. whereas the production of energy from conventional sources has remained stable.423 billion euros (DESTATIS.
. though locally significant. the domestic production of energy from renewable energy sources has grown over the past few years.978 m2 and a population of approximately 82 million inhabitants. Germany has few conventional primary energy resources available. 2008) is one of the highest in the world and the country maintains a positive trade balance.Chapter 5 – Germany
1 – Renewable energy market in Germany
Structure of the energy market in Germany
The Federal Republic of Germany is a major country in Central Northern Europe. As shown in Graphic 5. but its reserves of petroleum and natural gas are relatively small.
1006.1 pentajoules (equal to 7. The core elements of the EEG are:
. Given that the energy market in Germany is liberalized.Graphic 5. The German government oversees and regulates the market and creates initiatives to promote sustainability and the competitive application of renewable energy sources.2%) of the whole primary energy consumption in Germany were provided by renewable energy sources (AGEB. energy is offered by many different private companies to the end users. The Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz or EGG) is the key instrument for the promotion of renewable energy. It came into force in 2000 and was amended in 2004. 2008).
In 2007.1 – Primary energy production in Germany 2000–2007. who can freely choose their energy supplier.
The EEG ensures the increased use of environmentally friendly renewable energy. not through subsidies but through apportioning the costs (BMU 2004).
priority connection of installations for the generation of electricity from renewable energy and from mine gas to the general electricity supply grids. the later an installation begins operation. Graphic 5. Source: AGEB. the lower the tariff (degression). and nationwide equalization of electricity purchased and the corresponding fees paid.2 – Renewable energy sources in Germany by source in 2007.2 shows the contribution of each renewable energy source to the total amount of renewable energy sources consumed in the country in 2007.
The fee paid for electricity depends on the energy source and the size of the installations.
Graphic 5. priority purchase and transmission of this electricity. Supply and demand in the renewable energy market in Germany develops in a well-balanced way and private companies are encouraged to remain competitive both in price and services. The rate also depends on the date of commissioning. 2008.
jobs attributed to renewable energy-related sectors in Germany increased between 2004 and 2006 from approximately 160.8%).700 new jobs were created in that period (Kratzat et al. 2007). 2007). The majority of the jobs in the RE industry exist in the biomass (38. followed by the photovoltaic sector (15. 2008).
Labour market in renewable energy: opportunities for Higher Education Institutions
As a consequence of the increasing demand and rising production of RE. followed by wind energy and renewable energy obtained from the coincineration of waste. 2008). skilled workers specialized in the area are required. All jobs directly related to the RE sector as well as corresponding supply and service sectors and research activities are included in these calculations. the largest amount of renewable energy in Germany is produced from biomass (solid and liquid forms as well as biogas).7% of the companies questioned rated the availability of RE-specialized professionals as scarcely available or 100
.000 by 2020 (KRATZAT ET AL.As can be observed from Graphic 5. but still positive: 13.5%) (KRATZAT ET AL.600: an increase of nearly 48% in that period (KRATZAT ET AL.2. A study carried out by HAW Hamburg in 2006/2007 has shown that the demand for skilled workers in RE is not being fully met and that there is a lack of specialized professionals in the renewable energy industry.. 76.000 to a total of approximately 235. Experts forecast a total number of jobs in the RE industry of 400.5%) and wind sector (33. According to information from the German Ministry for the Environment. From 2006 to 2007 the increase is less impressive.
the range of courses and specialization levels is very broad and covers complementing lectures in traditional study programs right down to totally new degree programs dedicated to the study of one or several renewable energy sources as well as the whole supply and service sectors around it. several HEIs have recognized this lack of skilled workers as a chance to complement their existing study programs or to create new degree programs in order to respond to the increasing demand for expert professionals in the field. According to the companies surveyed. Degrees offered in Germany in the field of RE include Bachelor and Master of Science degrees as well as Bachelor and Master of Engineering degrees. often lack sufficient resources to provide their workers with the required training and have to rely on governmental support to get access to advanced knowledge in the area of RE (HAW 2007). the primary difficulties encountered in searching for appropriately skilled workers in the RE industry are the lack of an interdisciplinary education of the candidates and of the desired technical skills (HAW 2007). the HEIs make their graduates more attractive for the employers and more competitive in the labour market. by contrast. Some companies (usually the largest ones) compensate the lack of their employees’ expertise by offering them internal training sessions to keep them updated or by sending them to external complementary training sessions to acquire the required knowledge or skills. In Germany. 101
. In this way. Other companies. The study courses are mainly taught in German. but the number of programs taught in English is continually increasing.insufficiently available. Nowadays.
In 2008. the Competence Centre for Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency (CC4E) was created to link departments with energy-related degree programs and research fields and to encourage synergy within the university.
. and Business & Social Sciences in a total of four faculties. Life Sciences. Design.000 students. The diversity of degrees on offer includes:
Engineering & Computer Science. HAW Hamburg focuses on applied research and has close ties with institutes and industry. has become the second largest institution of higher education in the Hamburg region and one of the largest of its kind in Germany. with approximately 12. Media & Information.Research and teaching of renewable energy at HAW The Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg)
The Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg).
HAW Hamburg offers undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs leading to the academic qualifications ‘Bachelor’ and ‘Master’. One of its main areas of interest lies in the research of renewable energy.
Process Engineering (Bachelor). the CC4E organizes events for renewable energy. (Bachelor.Environmental and Process Engineering (Master’s. starting in winter 2009). Renewable Energy Management program under development). Furthermore.
Renewable Energy Systems . coordinates their activities and facilitates cooperation work between HAW and private companies. creates information material and transfers knowledge acquired from research and development projects at the university. specializing in power engineering (Bachelor).The Competence Centre for Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency (CC4E)
The CC4E concentrates all the capacities of HAW in the area of renewable energy. Energy & Plant Engineering (Bachelor). The following degrees are already being offered or are under development at the HAW:
Information & Electrical Engineering. and Renewable Energy Management program under development). Innovative Energy Systems (Master’s).
. The degree programs at the HAW in the field of renewable energy sources are taught in different departments of the HAW. Environmental Engineering (Bachelor). (Master’s.
energy efficiency and other related topics including economic and business solutions. it was not possible to contact them all or to carry out an extensive survey within the framework of the JELARE project. fuel cells. The procedure for the survey was therefore as follows: during an event related to wind energy held at HAW. HAW was not able to contact all companies directly again. Later 104
As part of past activities of HAW. the participating companies were asked at the end of the event to manually fill in the questionnaire. These projects are all application-oriented and are carried out in close cooperation with private companies concerning the topics of biomass. Due to the large number of companies in the RE market. A total of twelve companies agreed to fill in the questionnaire. In addition to the general methodology described in Chapter 1. solar and wind energy. For this reason. the following specific methodology was applied to the different surveys in Germany. more than twenty formal research projects and numerous student projects are carried out by HAW academic staff and their students.
2 – The JELARE surveys in Germany
The survey carried out in Germany by HAW Hamburg cannot be considered as a representative survey for the whole country.At the same time. RE staff at universities and universities engaged in RE topics. all RE companies in the Hamburg metropolitan area were contacted in the recent past to answer questions regarding renewable energy topics.
five showed interest and willingness to cooperate with the JELARE project. One additional university filled in a Word template with the same questions as the online questionnaire.
For the benchmark survey. the information compiled was manually fed into an Excel spreadsheet by HAW staff in order to analyse and evaluate the results. Twenty-five of them showed interest and willingness to cooperate with the JELARE project and filled in an online questionnaire. The information compiled was manually fed into the spreadsheet and thus the survey results were evaluated. Four of them filled in an online questionnaire.on. Technical problems arose with one set of questions which made it necessary to contact the survey participants later on via email to ask them these questions directly. The answers from this university were manually fed into the Excel spreadsheet and the survey results were updated with this information. the HAW contacted different institutions of higher education with which the HAW has cooperated in past projects.
For the purpose of the participants’ selection. Of these HEIs. The results of the online questionnaire were saved automatically in an Excel spreadsheet in order to analyse the information. 105
. nearly fifty HAW staff members working in RE or in related fields were contacted. The results of the questionnaire were saved automatically in an Excel spreadsheet in order to analyse the information. These institutions received information about the JELARE project in order to get them interested and to invite them to take part in the survey.
The rest of the participants were from the manufacturing sector or were active in the communications or transportation sector.2. Activities in other RE sectors were less intensive. therefore the participant companies or organizations may be active in one or more sectors at the same time. Furthermore. especially in the case of geothermal energy (only 10%).3 shows how the participant organizations develop renewable energy activities or projects in their sectors (multiple choice was possible). About 60% of the participants were active in the energy industry including renewable energy production and conventional energy production. followed by participants active in the biogas or biomass sector (50% and 40% respectively) and by participants active in the photovoltaic sector (40%). most of the participants were involved in planning/project management or in service and maintenance of installations.
.3 – Project development strategies in the organizations. Multiple answers were possible. Graphic 5.
Graphic 5. These were mostly private companies. Several governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations were also included.1 – Market survey results
Generalities of the organizations and their RE staff requirements
The total number of participants in the market survey was twelve. The majority of the participants were active in the windpower sector (80%).
.As Graphic 5. When asked about the functional areas in which the RE staff work.1%). directives / politics. the organizations require RE staff work in many different areas.1 – Main work areas for RE professionals in organizations.3 shows. project development. supply of services) Management Administration Research and development Percentage of RE professionals working in this area at organization 64%
36% 27% 27%
Table 5. 90% of participants considered skilled professionals as scarcely or even insufficiently available on the market. a large part of the project work is done internally at the organizations and almost half of the organizations take advantage of joint development projects.4%) or business qualifications (21. the following options are observed among the survey participants: Functional area Miscellaneous activities (consulting. When asked how they rate the availability of qualified RE staff on the labour market. the participants mentioned that the majority of their RE staff have a university degree (47. According to the companies surveyed. the primary difficulties while looking for appropriately skilled workers in the RE industry are the lack of an interdisciplinary education of the candidates as well as a lack of the desired technical skills. The scarcity of appropriate candidates for RE jobs was also an obstacle in order to find the desired personnel. and they are mostly recruited directly by the organization itself. In order to carry out their projects.
1 – Drivers for new qualifications in RE.1 shows the drivers for the required new qualifications in the field of renewable energy and their relevance according to the organizations surveyed (multiple answers were possible).9%).
From the market’s point of view it was also determined that the most important training requirements in the future will be new specialized technical qualifications followed by the enhancement of existing basic qualifications and multidisciplinary qualifications. and coaching and learning on the job (22.Training and qualification requirements in the RE market for RE staff
To cover their increasing requirements of RE specialists. in-house training with external support (25.6%).
Figure 5. Figure 5.2%). When asked which RE training opportunities were planned for their employees. the organizations can also train their current staff instead of recruiting new employees. the organizations mentioned the following options (listed according to popularity among participants):
external training at further education and research institutions (29.
1 shows. whereas the remaining 50% considered the HEIs to be behind the market needs. When asked what types of services offered at HEIs they would be interested in using. new measuring techniques. etc. 109
. Graphic 5. the most important driver for acquiring new RE qualifications is ‘process innovation’ followed by ‘product innovation’ and ‘changes in the legal framework’ according to the organizations surveyed. More than 80% of the organizations considered that the HEIs should develop new courses and qualifications in the RE field.
Role of Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) in the qualification requirements of organizations and the market needs
In general.. the organizations expressed interest in many different services. the survey participants strongly expect HEIs to provide training and education programs as well as basic research and development activities.4 shows the different services and the participant’s level of interest in each one of them. Furthermore. however only 50% of the organizations questioned considered that HEIs are up to date with the market needs. 63% agree that qualifications additional to those obtained in an initial vocational education (upgrade training) should be developed and 27% think that new degrees or professions should be developed. Of the organizations supporting the creation of new courses and qualifications at the HEIs. The participants did not expect much from HEIs in terms of basic innovations regarding information and communications technologies. Besides providing new professionals or upgrade training. or in product innovations.As Figure 5. the role of the HEIs in the RE market is perceived as highly important by the market. there are several ways in which HEIs can support the industry and related organizations in the renewable energy market.
participants suggested several topics as major challenges for the wider application of RE in Germany. almost half of all participants were interested in using HEIs as consulting partners when advice is needed.
. public opinion and acceptance towards RE in combination with the ‘not-in-my-backyard’ effect were considered a major challenge.Graphic 5.
As seen in Graphic 5. As the responses to this question show. Among those challenges. Technology transfer services are an equally interesting option for participants. Other major challenges mentioned are the licensing and authorization procedures for generating renewable energy sources.4.4 – Interest in services offered by HEIs. Finally. there is a tendency and interest in using HEIs increasingly as an independent service provider rather than as a mere information provider.
A total of twentyfive staff members took part in the survey. education and training activities (36%) and in project planning and management activities (24%).2. Graphic 5.2 – Staff survey results
Profile of interviewed staff
The participants of the staff survey were a sound mix of university professors and research associates as well as technical and administrative staff. The participants were involved in research and development activities (48%).5 shows the ranking of RE technologies according to the interest shown by the survey participants.
Graphic 5. Student workers were included in the survey as a minority.
.5 – Interest of staff members in RE technologies (by technology type). The survey results indicate that the participants are involved or interested in all types of renewable energy.
6 shows the different topics of interest for further training according to the staff ’s preference.
Graphic 5.6 – Interest of staff members in training (by topic). the majority of the survey participants showed an interest in obtaining further training.
Training interests and requirements of RE staff
In order to continue with their activities in the area of renewable energy or in order to enter new expertise areas. Graphic 5.
The topics of energy efficiency and energy management were also mentioned as a field of interest.
.Other types of renewable energy of interest mentioned are:
organic Rankine cycle processes to collect residual heat by means of organic high molecular mass fluids and convert this heat into work. waste-heat recovery. and waste-to-energy processes.
Nevertheless. waste-to-energy technologies. whereas the interest by participants in hydrogen or fuel cells technology was definitively smaller. None of the participants showed any interest in training for development of licentiate degrees known in Germany as Diplom degrees. the interest of staff was not only for specifically one type of technology but was fairly well distributed among the different technology types. Training for the development of teaching modules was not of interest for the majority of the survey participants. a clear preference for photovoltaic technology was identified. staff members who are interested in receiving training in curriculum development have a clear preference for getting trained in curriculum development for Master’s programs.
Furthermore. Interesting additional topics for training in technologies mentioned by staff participants
socio-political framework. and connection possibilities for renewable energy sources to the existing electricity grid. the following non-technical areas of interest are attractive topics:
project-orientated tutorials.Regarding training in RE technologies. However. especially project financing. and economic aspects. or in the development of technical degrees. for those where teaching modules were of interest.
. improvement in social conditions for renewable energy.
their need for access to a scientific database in renewable energy was also considered as highly important by the majority of participants.In general. the majority of the participants considered it at least as a definite need. the majority of the staff surveyed considered their need to learn skills in curriculum development as nonexistent or only as a minor need. a major need or even as a very important need. major or very important. these are not unexpected results. given that 45% of the participants are involved in research and 50% are engaged in teaching. This was expected. however not as a very important need. the participants showed little interest in the topic. Again. Both needs were regarded by the majority of participants as important. In comparison.
. Furthermore. who considered their need for such a database as definite. Similar results are obtained for questions regarding the need to participate in networking events and the need to collaborate with industry. The same applies for the need to be updated with major technological change. and the need to collaborate with industry was in particular ranked as very important or as a major need by 64% of the participants. because in previous questions. when asked how important a better research infrastructure such as laboratories and equipment was. the majority of participants considered the need to update technical/vocational knowledge and skills in their areas of teaching and research as a definite or major need. In contrast.
33. D – Applied technological researches funded by the market.76% Minor need 14.29%
.62% Major need 23. Percentage received by participants for each option and need level Options A – Academic programs devoted to market needs.52%
9. B – Exchange programs between HEIs and RE market.2 shows the prioritization of options according to the survey participants.00%
47. the priorities of such measures were perceived differently.33%
42. an emphatic ‘Yes’ was the answer. C – HEI’s partnership with RE market. E – Applied technological researches funded by government.00%
0. Although all proposed measures to strengthen the topic of RE at HEIs were mostly perceived as an important need.Strength of renewable energy topics at HEIs
When asked if the topic of renewable energy needs to be strengthened at their HEIs.76%
4.86% 38.29% Definite need 47..76% 4.29% 19.81% Very important need 9.57% 33.62%
0.52% 4. No need 4. Table 5.
and more internships for students in RE companies.
It can be concluded from Table 5.57%
Table 5.00% Definite need 50.
.2 – Priorities according to staff for strengthening RE topics at HEIs. according to the staff.Percentage received by participants for each option and need level Options F – Internships for students in RE companies.00%
23.00% Minor need 5.81%
42. they are seen more as a definite need with less priority.2 that. G – Constant analysis and design of occupational plans in RE.86%
28. No need 0. exchange programs between the HEIs and the RE industry as well as HEIs’ partnership with the RE industry in order to share knowledge. However.00% Very important need 10.
The rest of the options are also considered important.00%
0.00% Major need 35. the following measures are the most important to strengthen the topic of renewable energy in their institutions (the list is ranked by importance):
applied technological research in RE conducted within the HEIs and funded by the RE industry or by government agencies.
7 provides a very good overview of the universities’ profile in RE topics and an insight into how strongly the topic of renewable energy is handled in the participant HEIs. but its popularity has increased largely over the past few years.
. Graphic 5. Another interesting fact is that the collaborative work at the universities by physically separated project teams (‘virtual teams’) was not very popular before 2007. Furthermore.3 – Benchmark Survey Results Engagement in renewable energy topics at HEIs
A total of five German HEIs took part in this survey.7 – Profile of HEIs regarding renewable energy.
Graphic 5. Among the participant HEIs there were traditional universities and universities of applied sciences. the majority of universities currently have research laboratories financed by organizations from the production sector although half of these universities received this financial support as recently as 2007.2. It can be observed that almost all universities were already researching renewable energy with the support of foreign investment before 2007 and also a large proportion of the participants had partnerships with national and international networks for research on renewable energy before 2007.
In addition to the RE profile of the HEIs.
. such as private households and the organization of an annual symposium focusing on one type of renewable energy. The most important innovation in the pipeline is the use of interdisciplinary programs on renewable energy at institutions (20% of HEIs plan to start this practice in the next two years). all of the HEIs use information technology (Internet) to gain external knowledge about RE.There are several similarities between all the universities surveyed. only 40% of the universities surveyed offer such possibilities for students to finance their courses and also 40% of the HEIs use external training to keep in touch with technological change in RE. Few universities plan to start with new practices or initiatives different to those already mentioned in the next two years. Moreover. Regarding scholarships for students in the RE field. Common practices or initiatives in renewable energy are the use of knowledge about RE obtained through other market sources such as enterprises and organizations and the use of knowledge about RE obtained from research institutions (80% of HEIs). the survey results showed that all of the participants now have strategies at their institutions for renewable energy topics and they work in collaboration with public and/or private organizations on RE topics (80% of the HEIs had collaboration work with public and/or private organizations even before 2007). Further actions taken by the universities in the RE field include the realization of informative sessions for different target groups. A further 20% plan to start this practice in the next two years.
Teaching and research of RE topics at universities
The RE field where the most teaching is carried out is in wind energy topics. Teaching activities are most frequent in wind energy.8 – Research/teaching ratio for renewable energy topics. followed by hydropower and hydrogen/fuel cells.
Graphic 5. Research activities are strong for all bioenergy types and in geothermal energy.
.8 shows the research/teaching ratio for each type of renewable energy. photovoltaic and solar thermal energy. biomass has the most research being conducted among all the RE technologies without having as much teaching activity. it is also the wind energy field where less research is undertaken. however. Graphic 5. In contrast.
5% of the degree courses on offer are exclusively dedicated to the study of RE topics. Nevertheless.00% 100. it could well be that both activities are also carried out in parallel. but only one third of these departments are dedicated to RE and only 40% of the HEIs have a dedicated budget for investment in the renewable energy area.3 shows. There are a large number of degree courses in RE fields at HEIs. Half of the programs at the universities consist of Master’s degrees (Master of Engineering or Master of Science) and slightly less than half are Bachelor degrees (Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Science). Given that the majority of HEIs could only choose between teaching or researching in the online survey. Teaching/research product Lecture notes. as Table 5.The results shown in Graphic 5.00% 80.8 may not be conclusive.00% 60. Teaching materials as well as materials from conferences are the most popular and most extensively used type of products at the universities interviewed. Most of the universities have at least one degree course including RE topics on offer.3 – Type of products at universities. the survey results show a good approximation of the tendency.00% 60. all universities have specific departments or institutes for RE topics. Finally. the survey results made evident that the universities questioned are very active in elaborating teaching products and issuing publications in renewable energy topics.
% of HEIs creating this product 100. However. Furthermore.00%
. teaching materials Materials from related conferences Articles/papers in scientific journals Books Laboratory prototypes
Table 5. only 12.
‘product innovation’ and ‘changes in the legal framework’. As the companies expressed it. geothermal energy has the smallest share of the market among all RE technologies. According to the survey results. According to the companies which took part in the survey. 121
. Some of them will train their employees internally or externally and they will also apply learning on the job as a training measure. The scarcity of appropriate candidates for RE jobs will increase if no measures are undertaken. the companies plan to train their current staff. the most important drivers for acquiring new RE qualifications in Germany are: ‘process innovation’. the greatest difficulties encountered while looking for appropriately skilled workers in the RE industry are the lack of an interdisciplinary education among the candidates as well as a lack of the desired technical skills. Furthermore. In order to cope with their requirements of RE professionals. as the market needs and requirements of RE professionals will increase over the years to come. the same elements that drive most of the technology markets also drive the RE market. the demand for RE personnel is larger than supply: the market faces scarcity of RE skilled personnel and RE professionals. In Germany. In other words. it was suggested by the survey participants that public opinion and acceptance towards RE in combination with the ‘not-in-my-backyard’ are also major challenges to overcome in the RE sector. biomass and solar/photovoltaic sectors and it is common practice among public or private organizations to be active in more than one specific RE sector. A large part of the RE project work is done internally at the organizations with an important part of the work carried out in joint development projects at the same time.3 – Conclusions
The German market is highly concentrated in the wind.
This may explain why the survey participants do not perceive updating knowledge in their expertise and work areas as a very important need but only 122
. However. It is interesting to observe that in Hamburg not only are technology-related topics of interest. there is a general interest in all types of renewable energy and staff members usually carry out activities in several different fields of RE at the same time without exclusivity for a special type of energy (similar to the market case). the market is interested in using HEIs as consulting partners when advice is needed. HAW staff are mostly interested in receiving further training in the field of RE technologies and in research management rather than training in curriculum development or development of teaching modules. the companies consider that the universities are commonly behind the market needs. economic and social topics are also attractive and considered necessary in order to overcome the barriers to RE acceptance among the different stakeholders and increase the competitiveness of RE in the market. The companies would expect the HEIs to develop new education and training programs in RE topics parallel to increased basic research and development activities. Furthermore.The role of HEIs in the RE market is perceived as highly important. This is followed by windpower and energy generated by sunlight (photovoltaic and solar thermal).
Renewable energy generated from all types of biomass is the topic of most interest among staff members of HAW Hamburg. The RE topics at HAW Hamburg being researched or handled by staff go beyond the ‘traditional’ renewable energy and have already moved in more innovative directions as the RE market grows. however. Furthermore.
therefore the update of knowledge is continuously carried out without being an isolated event. Furthermore. The priorities of the scientific and administrative staff taking part in this survey regarding their requirements in terms of training and qualification for RE are similar and this is definitely to be recognized as a present and future success factor for the universities in the area of RE. On the other. it is necessary to strengthen RE topics at the universities and the most important measures to be taken are the implementation of applied technological research in RE conducted within the HEIs and funded by the RE market or by government agencies. The majority of these universities have made provisions regarding aspects related to renewable energy. According to the staff. However. RE staff have continuous access to updates or news regarding RE. 123
. it may be argued that in Germany.as a definitive or major need.
Institutions of higher education that have participated in the German benchmark survey are very active in the RE field at a national and international level. On the one hand. the majority of universities also have funding from the production sector for their research activities. the survey results do not provide information about the motivation of each group. instead of merely receiving information from external sources. and a large proportion of them have forged partnerships with national and international networks for research on renewable energy before or since 2007. as staff members primarily think that a better research infrastructure and access to scientific databases is highly important. it may be that the staff members also prefer to generate innovations on their own.
. biogas. the HEIs have demonstrated high activity. these results may not be conclusive. biofuels) and in geothermal energy topics. It can be observed that these universities recognize the synergy principle as the most effective way to work. it could well be that both activities are also carried out in parallel. it seems that few universities plan to start new practices or initiatives different to the current ones in the next two years. Apparently the HEIs do not plan to change their strategy for RE in the next two years. and all universities have specific departments or institutes for RE topics. the most intensive research is being undertaken in the bioenergy sector (biomass. The survey results indicate that teaching activities in wind energy and in solar/photovoltaic energy are the most intensive and that geothermal energy has the least intensive teaching activity.The participant HEIs are also very good at using knowledge obtained from external sources and not only at developing new knowledge on their own. as most of the universities have at least one degree which includes an RE topic. the survey results show a good approximation of the tendency. As they already have many ongoing practices and initiatives. although already very active in R&D and knowledge transfer. Nevertheless. it may be that the speed at which they generate innovations could decrease in a couple of years. Given that the majority of the HEIs could only choose either teaching or researching in the survey. this does not mean that their progress will stagnate in the RE field. However. Regarding the teaching of RE at universities. However. In any case. In regard to research activities.
Their interest is geared more
. the HEIs should expand their current study and training courses and obtain enough students for their programs. However. In the three different surveys. the renewable energies with highest potential to develop in the coming years are in the wind. but also to society if better acceptance is to be achieved. but also research should be done focusing who will receive this training (potential skilled staff ) and by which means this training will be provided (by means of the HEIs). because in their opinion. The abovementioned conclusions for each survey revealed important information regarding the preferences and needs of the different stakeholders. the results of the market survey gave more than this information as an output: it showed that not only should training requirements be studied. However. Furthermore. as both the market surveyed and staff involved have shown interest in continuing with the research and production activities. the role of the university as a knowledge provider should be enhanced and the information should flow not only from the HEIs to the market. the participants were asked about their qualification and training needs. the priorities and interests of the staff and HEIs point in a different direction. To generate enough skilled professionals.Overall conclusions
According to the survey results. biomass and solar/photovoltaic sectors. the role of the universities is highly important. skilled RE staff are scarce on the market nowadays. In order to overcome these challenges.
it is worth highlighting that the market sees universities not only as a provider of skilled staff. This opportunity should not be underestimated. Finally.
. so the priorities of all stakeholders are lined up and a more common course of action is taken.towards knowledge generation and transfer to the market and not towards development of new study programs. more intensive dialogue between the market and the HEIs must be promoted. but also a potential partner for applied technology problems. Therefore.
This context allows companies. Ministry of Energy and Mines): this public body is the maximum authority of the electric subsector. where their simultaneous development is carried out through different legal entities or companies. 1996). National Committee of Electric Energy): the CNEE is a technical body of the Ministry of Energy and Mines with functional independence. it evolves within a decentralization framework along energy generation.
. (MEM. with a clearly-defined regulatory framework in which the access of all agents to the open market is fundamental. implementing and controlling the electricity regulatory framework. transporting and distributing electric energy. in charge of formulating. in theory. 1996) was passed. Nowadays.Chapter 6 – Guatemala
1 – Renewable energy market in Guatemala
The electric subsector has been involved in a changing process ever since the General Law of Electricity (MEM. Comité Nacional de Energía Eléctrica. it is in charge of granting authorizations for generating. 2007):
Ministerio de Energía y Minas. transport. regulation and coordination of the subsector companies’ activities (MEM. commercialization and distribution activities. Based on the General Law of Electricity (MEM. the development model of the electric subsector is supported by three public institutions that have specific functions regarding commercial facilitation. competition and no privileges. (CNEE. to work in an environment of total freedom.
(AMM. with a 6. However.1. thanks to eight pieces of legislation enacted in the last twelve years. 2007): 128
. distributors. importers.6% growth compared to 2006. carriers and distribution companies. in those sectors in which economies of scale can induce natural monopolies. and by a contract market where Agents and Large Scale Users freely negotiate contract terms. traders. which are generating. The main renewable energy market indicators in Guatemala within the wider energy sector can be seen in Figure 6. the prices are fixed by the regulatory entity. exporters and Large Scale Users. It is managed by an administrating body which is independent from CNEE. carriers. and Wholesale Market Agents: there are market agents in the electricity wholesale market. In 2007 the production was as follows (National Association of Generators. based on efficiency criteria.
Electricity generation develops in both a free and competitive environment. 2008). It has the legal form of a private corporation. Wholesale Market Manager): the wholesale market consists of electricity generators. the Guatemalan electric market system has evolved from a state-controlled centralized system to an open wholesale market system. quantities and prices. commercial traders.
Administración del Mercado Mayorista. The national production in 2007 was 7.936. established as a nonprofit organization and it is in charge of the sales of potency and energy in block that would be carried out in the short and long term between market agents. constituted by an opportunity market based in short-term marginal-cost service. 85% of the population has access to their benefits at present (MEM. Nevertheless.74 GWh. Transmission and distribution are regulated activities.
The National Institute of Electrification) is the state electric company that participates in the national and regional electric energy market.
Figure 6.8% hydroelectric generation and 4. 16. exporting 131. while hydrocarbon-based plants generated 49.5%. 2009.9 GWh. It has remained as the main individual generating system with a generation of 2.4% thermal-electric generation. Guatemala. which represents an increase of 49.1% thermal generation). private generators contributed 5.74 GWh (66.555. bringing this service to the poorest strata. Source: National Association of Generators.8%. and exports increased compared to the year before.
. (INDE.7% cogeneration. El Instituto Nacional de Electrificación. May 10.238 GWh (99. Based on data from the Wholesale Market Manager.9% hydroelectric generation and 0. www.2%.
private participation was 70% and public sector participation 30% for the whole energy sector.angguate.1% geothermal generation). renewable energy stations’ production was 50. competitively and self-financed.org.1 – Electricity generation by source: derived hydrocarbon vs RE. 12. Electric Sector of Guatemala.
Source Hydroelectric Geothermal Wind Biomass Potential MW 5. energy products should have competitive prices and quality. resource replacement must be faster than its use.000 1.
. The principles include:
achieving economic development and social welfare in an environmentally friendly way. February 2007.000 7.5 0. Guatemala. energy efficiency.1. Source: Ministry of Energy and Mines. there is a set of principles in place that orient the objectives of the renewable energy policy sponsored by the public sector. Renewable Energies in Guatemala.
Apart from 10 year legislative income tax and customs exemptions to expand the renewable energy. The energy sector is one of the most dynamic and open sectors in Central America.800 N/C Used MW 650.01 2.3 26. It has a great deal of renewable natural resources with great potential as can be seen in Table 6.8 Used Percentage 13.65 0 N/C
Table 6.1 – Summary of renewable resources potential in Guatemala.1 187. RE and energy sector.Guatemala has both the energetic potential as well as the legal framework that will allow the development of largescale electric projects. safety and diversification of supply.
it takes care of environmental concerns about the limits of growth and sustainability (Meadows et al. an international non-governmental organization.
The listed courses of action should make an impact in the present sources that generate energy. 1970). high percentage of homes electrified at optimal cost. located just half an hour from Guatemala City. 131
. relatively sustainable management of wood. and climate change mitigation.
Research and teaching of RE at the Galileo University in Guatemala
high percentage of renewable energies participation in the energy supply. Institute of Research and Development). among other tasks. There are three academic degrees in renewable energies:
Master’s Degree in Renewable Energies (2007). On the other hand. the Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo at the Galileo University (IID. and five-year Bachelor’s Degree in Energetic Systems Engineering. This study aims to generate biodiesel from the micro-seaweeds that pollute the Amatitlán Lake. Master’s Degree in Energetic Efficiency (2008). presented a project that was approved by the Central American Alliance.
which began its Master’s Degree in Energy and Environment in its Department of Engineering in 2006. as shown by their academic degrees described above.Since the inception of these programs. Moreover. The graduation requirement is a thesis that might include these experiences. Universidad del Valle and Universidad Rafael Landívar. In addition to the collaboration of professionals from this sector in the classroom. but without the needed large-scale support and investment.
. students visit and study processes in many of these companies through internship programs. The JELARE technical team also visited university departments that were involved in RE. Galileo University’s leadership in RE curriculum development. Students are oriented to specific needs of companies in the public and private sector through internships that are related to the university. an emphasis has been placed on the collaboration between university programs and business firms. With the exception of Universidad San Carlos. must be acknowledged. RE research activities in these universities were found to be either absent or concerned mainly with some biofuel development. the universities offered few courses on the subject. which included: Universidad San Carlos. though Universidad San Carlos and del Valle had concrete limited low-budget projects underway. In this regard.
This methodology tried to get the qualitative aspects and ideas that went beyond the questions in the questionnaire. In addition. The selected populations include:
public and private companies and organizations in general with high incidence in the RE market. through an applied questionnaire. a focus group was made to complement the structured questionnaire. and departments.
. initiatives in the renewable energy field.
Furthermore. This decision was made by the JELARE Project’s Steering Group in Hamburg at its first meeting at the end of February 2009. teaching and administrative staff in the RE courses and degrees at the Universidad Galileo.2 – The JELARE surveys in Guatemala Methodology
Populations and data recollection instruments’ definitions
It was established that the study should target. but that complemented it. three specific populations. each questionnaire contained specific variables relevant to each population. institutes or academic units in different universities that currently have. in one way or another.
three judges were asked to rate between 0 and 3 which of these 123 companies were the most relevant and important to be polled. it was replaced by another one with a lower score. a selection was made from the list of those 51 companies and organizations that attained the highest scores. This fact makes us claim that our sample was highly representative of the universe of RE industries and organizations in Guatemala. confirmed that the sample selected was a cross-section of organizations and companies in Guatemala.Sample design for market participants
The case selection was based on a list belonging to the Ministry of Energy and Mines and enriched by key informants. it was instructed that the required information should be given by the highest managerial authority or the one following in rank. of the completed questionnaires. our technical team was able to obtain data from 51 cases. in case any of the companies could not be reached. This number is equivalent to 41% of the cases mentioned in the original list. either because of its location or for any other reason. An examination of key variables.
. The relevant decisions were the following:
it was agreed to apply the questionnaire to 50 of these companies to make up the cases selected in the sample and obtain information from them. such as number of employees and annual turnover. Total cases in the list reached 123 companies and organizations. In the end. considered market participants.
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. and Universidad Galileo.Sample design for the teaching and administrative staff
The technical team was able to apply the questionnaire to twenty cases that are equivalent to a census of the RE staff at the Universidad Galileo when the survey was done. based on the visits made to universities in Guatemala. GU.
Sample design for departments. We can therefore claim that this sample’s results are representative as well. we attempted to cover all the existing entities.
Once this list was done. Universidad Rafael Landívar. Universidad del Valle de Guatemala. URL. Thus. institutes or units involved in RErelated activities was made for this approach.
. USAC. UVG. Problems around whether results are representative or not are then out of the question. a census was obtained and we were able to apply the questionnaire to 10 of them. institutes or units of Higher Education Institutions involved in the field of RE
A list of departments.
the analysis that follows. the universities’ organizational units in the field of RE. the interviewer recorded this information immediately after finishing the questionnaire application.
The three surveys mentioned in the methodology are aimed to focus the labour market. On this basis the market survey should be first in the analysis. the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used and three data bases were done belonging to the results of each sample. represent the offer of qualified personnel for those firms. well focused towards private and public companies and organizations directly related to renewable energy. three examines first the market survey. Thus. based on the samples. second the staff survey and were nongovernmental third. In order to process the questionnaires’ contents. indeed. The following characteristics drawn from the data gathered should be highlighted:
. and organizations work prove that the survey was. organizations (NGOs) and 2. in the Out of the 51 light of these results.Data recording and analysis plan
All questionnaires were pre-coded in the same sheet where the questions and answers were. one was the administrative units to which they are affiliated that a co-operative.1 – Market survey results 36 belonged to the private The evaluation of the sectors in which these industries sector. for the universities. their staff and cases. For this reason. mainly covering those industries and organizations that are capable of influencing the offer and demand of qualified personnel. because it highlights the demand for deriving consequences afterwards.
and ‘energy industry’ and ‘research and development’ are second. leaving ‘education and training’ behind. both in absolute numbers and in percentages. ‘planning. However. but windpower has a bigger projection of expansion. When the RE sector in which companies plan to work is studied. with regard to those companies that already participate in this market. thermal including geothermal. biomass and solar thermal energy. why
. wind and photovoltaic energy is also being carried out in Guatemala. however. There is a bias favouring education and training plans but a more practical emphasis is advanced when companies and organizations are confronted with energy generation activities. solar. Regarding the area in the value chain in which companies plan to work. photovoltaic. We should be more practical […] RE is hydraulic. project management and marketing’ is first in preference. projections towards education and training have priority. With regard to the way industries approach their activities. followed by ‘mechanical engineering/plant construction’. A representative of the RE private sector in a focus group on the subject said:
We should foster entrepreneurs and particularly the practical part and leave for later […] the academy. The industries and organizations working with RE mainly do it with hydropower.Guatemalan RE industries and organizations are mainly oriented towards hydroelectric energy generation although windpower is a rising star. their own development and joint development are preferred. Because the RE subject is more for us who already have certain experience. Data not shown here put windpower in first place. hydropower and biomass strongly appear again. though on a smaller scale. If one asks individuals coming out of a RE Master’s Degree.
sales and research. Work assignments that those industries and organizations give to their employees show that there is a wide diversity in their main occupations and qualifications needed. Almost all of 138
. 100 litres. Although the turnover information was partial.8% of the total). Partial information given by a significant number of industries and organizations is proof that RE. Recruitment is clearly addressed to technicians and university graduates in the RE area of the market. when considering total turnover of these large-scale industries in 2008. especially when one can observe companies with ‘more than five hundred’ and between ‘two hundred and fifty to four hundred and ninetynine’ employees in the RE sector (15. can position itself in a highincome sector if the performance of these companies is followed. Have these professionals with higher education the capacity to make this calculation? (JELARE. 2009)
Annual returns. when considered. industry size and employment diversification depicts a self-sustainable and increasing RE growth sector in Guatemala. the diameter and how the containers should be for a possible project.don’t you calculate for 100 metres. going from very concrete aspects such as production/manufacture to more abstract and responsible duties such as management. Links to HEIs emerged from recruitment needs and direct hiring from a labour force that showed scarce availability of qualifications together with unequal and unsatisfactory performances in the job according to employers. corroborates with prior statements. The most important conclusion that can be drawn from this data is that RE companies are sustainable across many sizes. Few organizations hire through external agencies. as respondents chose not to answer the question. the variable regarding the number of employees.
2 that follows the graphic. Most employers in the RE sector revealed that they have difficulties when searching and selecting appropriate employees. The main problems faced when hiring are the lack of applicants.the organizations use direct recruitment and few of them use both. This view contrasts with the need perceived at the HEIs. In theory. distribution Which new qualifications in the field of renewable energy do you of the answer ‘Yes’ in Table think will be required of your employees in the future? 6. there is an openness of the interviewees towards training and education. Perceptions of employment in the Looking RE sector in the short term are critical and in the medium only to the percentage term are promising. where a greater emphasis in multidisciplinary subjects is highlighted.
Graphic 6. multidisciplinary capabilities do not seem to appear among their problems as is seen in Graphic 6. and the lack of specialized technical capabilities. Currently.
The felt need of RE workforce better qualifications coming from HEI is not a ‘blank cheque’ but specifies certain conditions along practical and ‘down-to-earth’ low-cost training or externally financed which means less formal education around titles and production oriented with a less multidisciplinary perspective.
.1.1 – Perceptions among Market Participants of New Qualifications.
In contrast to the openness towards innovation inferred from other information.8 39 76.0 f 20 23 8 51 % 39.6
51 100. government incentives and basic innovations.0
Responses f YES 34 NO 8 N/A 9 TOTAL 51
f 0 42 9
% 0. confirming previous findings as can be seen in Table 6.2 – New qualifications needed for organization’s employees in the future
. mainly.0 82. leaving behind ‘e-learning and blended learning’ and ‘long-term external continuous education courses’.1 15. although would be favourable attitudes towards ‘education and training at work’ and ‘external training’. there is less emphasis in the legal framework.7 17.2. the possibility of having access to external support. foreign language skills and social skills) f % 4 7.2 45. by ‘new specialized technical skills’ and with almost no preference is ‘multidisciplinary efforts’. the preference is towards the ‘strengthening of basic existent capabilities’.7 15.5 8 15. with a lower score. Finally.4 17.0
Table 6. There is almost a consensus in the main motivations for new requirements in RE capabilities which include product and process innovations followed by market needs.7 51 100.Nevertheless.0 Multidisciplinary qualifications (communication skills. Training is planned to be carried out at the companies and organizations. the condition for the above is. Enhancement New specialized of existing technical basic qualifications qualifications % 66. as well as in the areas of information technology and communications. followed.6 100.7 100.
expressed it this way:
The problem is that we are starting from zero in all plans and support is not sought from someone that has already started that could give some ideas that could give support to what one is doing […] These attitudes continue the same without change […] In my university. who belongs to one of the universities in the country. I work in a Research Co-ordination Unit that covers the whole university.
What is most expected from universities is ‘processes innovation’. An area emphasized by participants in the focus group was better coordination within the universities and externally with the private and public sector. the tendency is towards additional capabilities in order to complement initial professional education and is not aimed at new professions. technology transfer has a 141
. there is a lab on atmospheric studies that is located in the Pharmacy Department but it has neither a relationship nor established any link with the Masters Degrees related to Energy and Environment that is at the core of the subject. In regard to services that could be expected by the market from the HEIs. but the work of this Department has never been related to an Energy Programme. There is almost unanimous awareness of the fact that universities need to develop new courses and capabilities in RE. A participant in this exercise. ‘training and education’ and ‘basic research and development’. This practice is quite widespread.The profile required by companies and market organization forces HEIs to rethink their practices and search for greater synergies. Nevertheless.
besides the access to the latest knowledge.
Universities need to develop:
Graphic 6. lack of information about RE in the population. respondents perceive that the universities’ programs should be reconfigured.2 (part 1) – Respondents’ perception of HEIs. environmental and social restrictions.priority. limited support from the government. The major challenges that the RE market faces.2 (part 2) – Respondents’ perception of HEIs. inadequate technology and the high costs associated with RE. In any event.
. according to the respondents. The perception of HEIs by employers is that they are behind the market needs.2. inadequate education and public policies. Do universities need to develop new courses and qualifications in the field of Renewable Energy?
Graphic 6. include: limited financing. as shown in Graphic 6.
is no different in its basic characteristics from those of other HEIs in Guatemala.2 – Staff survey results
The findings that follow correspond to the sample drawn from all professors and administrators related to RE at the GU.
Graphic 6. as is seen in Graphic 6.
The profile of GU teachers’ teaching structure.3 – Main activities and where staff are allocated. Staff ’s profile shows a small number of teacheradministrators at the top. with a very small segment of teachers with administrative duties at the top 143
. managing a greater number of temporary professors heavily loaded with teaching activities and other full-time jobs.3.2.
It is important to observe that this preference is in contrast to the one expressed by participants in the market. even when they come from professional areas or sectors different from RE. the recent creation of programs related to RE reveals the fact that few teachers show a long-term connection with the GU and therefore the number of courses taught in the last cycle is lower than the number taught in the most recent cycle. although the biomass sector here is also relevant. Most of the time. a shift towards training and education can be seen. geothermal and solar thermal energy also get special attention.and a large group of temporary teachers. This preference is also present in the disclosed interest to work. the interest in receiving training is more concentrated in hydropower and biomass. as opposed to the teaching approach. Research activities show its absence in this context. Consistent with that. there is hydraulics. especially in this last instance while both expressed preferences towards attaining these goals with formal education higher degrees. With respect to curiculum development. the latter work in other universities and/or dedicate limited time away from their primary job to these activities. Master’s or PhD. which has almost a full-time dedication. the Technical degree follows these degrees as an option. according to different forms. when it is contrasted to other areas in the chain of value. as described before. are preferred. Hydroelectric energy generation is the preferred field of work as well as the respondents’ greater interest. with no room for other activities. On the other hand. which is highly correlated to the potential in Guatemala in this field. such as Bachelor’s. 144
. although wind. Therefore their insertion as teachers is very recent. Regarding teachers’ professional development. overwhelmingly in charge of teaching at the bottom. Among the sectors where teachers said they worked. This shift in behaviour can be attributed either to their academic background or their interest in these innovations. more formal degrees. followed by biomass.
. research skills and access to scientific databases are urgent requirements. in the survey on GU teachers. In research. There is no need for fund management when there is none in the first place.3. there was a marked preference among respondents towards taking courses in funding opportunities and research management capabilities. which seems reasonable given that lack of funding is perceived as a main concern regarding RE. a concern about research. access to a scientific database also came up very strongly in data not shown here. to a lesser extent. compared to fund management as such. according to the respondents. There is also. apart from the need to connect students’ practice with the RE industry through exchanges or internships. significant percentages were also evident related to the need for more collaboration with the RE industry and the ability to be updated in this field. the concern over infrastructure again emerges. as the most perceived need. either funded by the RE market or by government agencies.Laboratories. as well as the right research infrastructure. mainly laboratories and equipment. Expanding on the above. including greater links with the RE industry and government. These results can be observed in Table 6. not only for learning but also for funding these activities. Among training requirements.
of RE curriculum such as development? laboratories and equipments? f 4 4 6 5 1 20 % 20 20 30 25 5 100 f 11 4 4 0 1 20 % 55 20 20 0 5 100
Responses Very important need Major need Definite need Minor need No need TOTAL
How would you describe your need to update technical / vocational knowledge and skills in your area of teaching / researching? f 4 6 7 3 0 20 % 20 30 35 15 0 100
How would you describe your need to keep up to date with the major technological changes in the field of renewable energies? f 6 9 3 2 0 20 % 30 45 15 10 0 100
How would How would you describe you describe your need for your need for better research learning skills infrastructure.3 – Requirements in terms of training and qualification for RE.
equivalent to a census of all efforts made by Guatemalan universities in the RE field. In addition. conferences and/or field visits to the industry? f 5 13 1 1 0 20 % 25 65 5 5 0 100
How would you describe your need for more collaboration between Universidad Galileo and the RE industry? f 7 8 5 0 0 20 % 35 40 25 0 0 100
Answer Very important need Major need Definite need Minor need No need TOTAL
f 9 7 3 1 0 20
% 45 35 15 5 0 100
Table 6. seminars.3 (cont) – Requirements in terms of training and qualification for RE. support this section’s statements.
How would you describe your need for access to a scientific database in RE?
How would you describe your need for participation in networking events in RE. such as attendance at workshops. we visited these universities and one focus group.3 – Benchmarking survey results
Data gathered through questionnaires applied to ten different RE-related departments.
2. institutions and units.
RE’s innovation practices at HEIs in Guatemala mainly started from the year 2007 onwards. These innovations can be seen in graduate and pre-graduate programs. These programs use experienced staff from different areas of knowledge to transfer their know-how to students and teaching staff. Also, since 2007 there has been an attempt at collaboration between public and/or private organizations and existent multidisciplinary programs in the institutions. Other important innovations are planned for the next twenty-four months such as Research Labs financed by productive sector organizations and external cooperation. It is worthwhile to point out that other practices that are more related to basic research and information technologies, such as newly developed registered patents or technologies that allow virtual teams to develop, are not even considered in the near future, emphasizing again the weakness in the research area. Teaching through courses, books and conferences is by far the main approach, rather than research, while geothermal and solar thermal energy sectors are emphasized, followed by other RE sectors. As can be seen in Table 6.4, very little research is done at the universities in RE sectors. However, there is an emphasis, prioritized by respondents. The question required respondents to answer which sectors they considered when teaching or when doing research. Curiously enough, percentages were higher on teaching geothermal and solar thermal energy followed by hydroenergy, windpower, biofuel, biogas and photovoltaic energy. This observation contrasts with priorities around hydropower and biomass, expressed before. On the other hand, biomass and hydrogen/fuel cells remain less mentioned. Nevertheless, consistent with the findings shown above, the products offered through teaching, to reinforce the subject, revolve mainly around course materials, books and printed conferences.
RE policies, strategies and culture or value systems are little practised at Guatemalan universities in the context of low investment efforts. Policies, strategies or values inducement are rarely used by Guatemalan universities, and when they are used, results show percentages of 40%. The greater percentages appear when there is a reference regarding the incorporation of this kind of practice for the future, reinforcing the former statement. Data not shown here, but asked of Guatemalan respondents, confirm this finding, with respondents acknowledging that 50% of these entities do not have a strategic plan and when they do, 50% of respondents find the degree of success in implementing the strategic plan just ‘fairly fulfilled’ as opposed to ‘highly fulfilled’. Type of RE Windpower Sector Research Teaching Teaching and research There is none Doesn’t know Total f 1 5 1 0 3 10 % 10 50 10 0 30 100 Biofuel f 1 5 2 1 1 10 % 10 50 20 10 10 100 Biomass f 0 3 3 2 2 10 % 0 30 30 20 20 100 Biogas f 0 5 1 2 2 % 0 50 10 20 20 Hydro energy f 1 6 2 1 0 % 10 60 20 10 0
10 100 10 100
Table 6.4 (part 1) – Research and teaching activities by sector.
Type of RE Sector Research Teaching Teaching and research There is none Doesn’t know Total
Solar Geothermal thermal energy energy f % f % 0 0 0 0 8 80 9 90 0 1 1 10 0 10 10 100 0 1 0 10 0 10 0 100
Photovoltaic Hydrogen/ energy fuel cells f 0 5 0 2 3 10 % 0 50 0 20 30 100 F 0 2 0 6 2 10 % 0 20 0 60 20 100
Table 6.4 (part 2) – Research and teaching activities by sector.
A final question was asked: ‘Does your entity have a specific budget to invest in RE?’ The data indicates that 70% of those that responded answered ‘No’ to this question. When the respondents were asked to rate the investment in RE as ‘high, low or very low’, 50% of them responded ‘very low’. This observation reinforces previous statements about the place that RE occupies in Guatemalan universities.
3 – Conclusions
Priorities by sectors, drawn from the responses given, are straightforward regarding the potential that hydroenergy has in Guatemala, perhaps followed by biomass. If a difference is to be made in the future, research, teaching and technology transfer should concentrate on these sectors. Moreover, if the RE sector is to be modernized, four gaps must be overcome:
breaches between the ideal and present reality in the areas of research as opposed to teaching; environment in contrast to RE activities; specialization as opposed to a multidisciplinary approach; and lack of synergies due to poor coordination and networking among the private, public and university sectors in the RE field.
Gap between research and teaching
The collected data illustrate this gap, which affects all university activities in Guatemala and, in general, these statements may be extended to all developing countries. In the RE sector, this gap acquires particular characteristics. This disconnection between the ideal and reality appears in the university sector when it is seen that the main responses from Guatemalan universities towards this subject have been implemented since 2007, precisely when oil prices began to increase to levels never seen before. New practices have arisen mainly in the design and implementation of teaching units. Research and its results are systematically left behind. 151
This gap is widened by the following facts:
the lack of investment in research; the absence of laboratories to carry out these activities; the lack of specialized personnel who can fulfil quality of education standards when there are requests for teachers to write, do research, and teach; the difficulties to access knowledge and other research institutions advancing knowledge in the field; the weakness in offering appropriate and updated training; and the lack of specialized publications to encourage publishing and debate among scholars.
This situation becomes relevant when it is verified that there is almost no connection between universities and the registration of patents, which is the product of the emphasis in research and development in Higher Education Institutions. On the other hand, it reinforces the lack of interest from the private and public sectors and the market in academic contribution. This situation has to be seen in the light of main deficiencies detected in Guatemalan HEIs, which are also affecting the RE sector. In general, the root of the problem is the reliance on temporary teachers who are also working in two or more universities to keep themselves solvent, and/or for the same reason, teachers that engage mainly in other occupations, who regard their involvement at the university just as a complement. This involvement does not provide the stimuli to devote time to research design projects and their implementation.
These characteristics contrast in their projection and can widen the gap and prevent beneficial synergies between both activities. economics. for those in environmental studies engaged in concerns regarding climate change. and preservation of the environment. Furthermore. which show a lack of connection and synergy with RE-related courses. among others. social responsibility concerning fuel energy use. compared to those more involved with RE. These courses are often not shown in the curricula and. because the interest in investing in RE is affected. It also arises from the observation of the activities to which the groups related to environment devote their efforts. These subjects are usually raised as warnings to discourage inappropriate behaviour or oversights regarding RE consequences. when is offered. sustainable development. these subjects appear in a permanent and systematic way. because the RE sector develops in a scenario that requires knowledge and capabilities that go beyond the ones strictly related to engineering.Gap between RE and environmental studies
This weakness arises from the study of the curricula of different programs related to environmental studies. more interest is shown when it is high and less when it is low. atmospheric pollution. this gap is wider than the gap between RE and environmental studies. anthropology. among others. The rise and fall of the price of oil might be affecting this gap. little emphasis is placed on them. 153
. political science and law. These other disciplines are more related to information technology.
Gap between specialization and a multidisciplinary perspective
This gap could be related to the previous one because both environmental studies and RE programs incorporate multiple disciplines. sociology. Nevertheless.
has led to problems of competition. as well as from the results of the focus group. jeopardizing coordination and networking
This observation clearly arises from visits to universities interested in RE. However. medium and long term.
use of qualified personnel in different subject areas. which would allow a follow-up and a systematic advance in this field.
Consensus is also needed between HEIs requesting new skills and market participants who are more concerned with basic and practical knowledge with less formal education and multidisciplinary influence. The survey also documents the possibilities of collaboration that have not materialized. when limitations are set in regard to the interdisciplinary programs implemented recently. Encounters between 154
. Attempts have been made to create networks that could stimulate coordination. Coordination is also complicated by political.
Gap among internal bodies within an entity and between these entities and other external ones. coordination.This vacuum is also shown in the data collected in the survey. RE-related policies and strategies. The lack of coordination discourages synergy that could move the RE sector forward in the short. as many bodies in the public sector carry out similar activities or duplicate existing ones. in past experience. and eventually become rivals. academic as well as national changes. such as:
collaborations organizations. etc.
workshops or seminars are still too casual and without specific objectives and time terms. This situation also weakens the financial flow from the government and international cooperation towards the RE sector and universities. Although there are some isolated efforts on RE agreements among universities and the public sector. trainings. together with the good use of the companies’ field for the teaching-learning process of students. these innovations are limited and experimental with a low budget allocation.sectors through events of mutual interest. The HEIs have not yet realized the importance of having an appropriate academic input for their own purposes and demands.
According to the law. can obtain the rights to sell the produced electric power in a volume necessary to buy electric power. 2009. It is the main normative act that regulates the exploitation and support of renewable energy resources in the Republic of Latvia. utilizing renewable energy resources. On 10 March. The Latvian Ministry of the Environment is responsible for planning and working out the appropriate basic documents in the area of renewable energy resources. A bill governing the electric power market was passed in 2005. “Regulations regarding electric power production utilizing the renewable energy resources. 157
.3% of electric power consumption in 2010.
criteria in accordance with which the producer of electric power. and the production of electric power cogeneration”. On 24 February. the proportion of electric power produced by renewable energy resources has to make up 49. utilizing renewable energy resources. “Regulations regarding the determination of electric power production and pricing. the Latvian Cabinet issued regulation no. 2009 the Latvian Cabinet issued regulations no. They regulate the production line in the field of electric power and stipulate the following: conditions of electric power production. 198.Chapter 7 – Latvia
1 – Renewable energy market in Latvia
The purpose of the policy regarding state renewable energy resources is to promote their exploitation while respecting the neighbouring environment and diminishing CO2 emissions. and the rocedure of price determination”. 221.
The main attainable aims of the renewable energy resources policy are the following: electric power. to prevent the dominance of natural gas. which will be obtained from renewable energy resources in 2010 will compose 49. activities and production by power stations that use local fuel and renewable energy resources in cogeneration and a highefficiency cycle will be promoted. and activities to promote electric power production from biomass. To achieve the highest energy efficiency.
The purpose of the government policy is to achieve the balance between an electric power query and delivery potential from Latvian power stations in 2011 and 2012.
specific share of renewable energy resources in the general energy mix is at least 37%.
criteria in accordance with which producers of electric power at power stations utilizing biomass or biogas with capacity of over 1 MW can obtain rights to get a guaranteed payment for the adjusted electric capacity on the power station.75% of market power in 2010.3% of the total volume of electric power produced. and specific share of biodiesel out of all transport fuels will make up 5. The remaining necessary part of production will be taken from other kinds of fossil fuel.
Master of Environmental Protection and Doctor of Environmental Engineering. Utilization of additional renewable energy resources is regulated by the Business Control Law passed in 2002. therefore an integrated approach to energy efficiency issues is included in the policy of renewable energy resources. The Biofuel Act was adopted. The renewable energy resources strategy is closely linked to the introduction of energy efficiency activities. which designates the targets for Latvia concerning the specific share of biofuel – 2% of the marketed energy transport fuel in 2005 and 5.The support from EU structural funds and the cohesion fund should attract better renewable energy resources for the use and development of cogeneration stations for the use biomass.75% in 2010.
. which stipulates that support for renewable energy production amounted to 40% from environmental protection activities at facilities in 2005.
Researching and teaching renewable energy at Rezekne Higher Education Institute
Rezekne higher education institute prepares environmental engineers and specialists in the professional Bachelor of Environmental Science. 8. Study courses related to renewable energy resources and their use are mandatory and included in all these programmes.1 million lats from the state budget and 27 million Ls from the European structural fund are foreseen to attract investment into biomass cogeneration power stations by 2016.
Physical and chemical processes in the environment.the professional Bachelor’s Environmental Engineering programme includes the following components. for example. the basics of ecotechnology. 160
. The Latvian Council of Science adopted priorities in scientific research for the 2006–2013 period in 2006. are taught in other degree programmes. associated with the renewable energy study courses: natural resources and technologies for the utilization of natural resources. and forest resources and management technologies.Thus.
The courses in natural resources. and Biological and biochemical processes in the environment. There is one related to energy resources out of nine priorities: the electricity industry should provide environmentally friendly renewable energy that is safe and efficient. There are the following Master’s courses: Ecotechnology and industrial ecology. including renewable resources. the course “Natural Resources and Sustainable development” –economic and pedagogical studies.
energy and power supply. Research at Rezekne Higher Education Institution is based on the Latvian Science Council-approved priorities in science from 2006.
Additional students’ specialization in RE is provided during their practical training and preparation of degree work or theses.
research into solar and wind energy exploitation is not carried out at Rezekne Higher Education Institution. market survey. Rezekne Higher Education Institution does not only conduct research in renewable resources. The seventh volume of the conference was issued in June 2009. containing papers on renewable energy resources and their use related to scientific and practical aspects. but also every other year it organizes the international scientific practical conference “Environment.
. Technology.The research into renewable resources at Rezekne Higher Education Institution is concentrated in the nature and engineering departments and the Latgale sustainable development research institute. while at the level of the Bachelor’s and Master’s research work they are handled in the same way as the use of heat pumps. Currently. The conference materials are published in the conference paper volumes. The research into wind and solar energy utilization feasibility at Latgale is planned during the next three-year period. and university (Rezekne Higher Education Institution) staff survey. processing and efficient complex utilization of renewable energy ecotechnologies”. Resources”.
2 – The JELARE surveys in Latvia
Some important survey results
The survey itself was divided into 3 subcategories:
university benchmarking survey. This institute is currently undertaking complex research: “Extraction.
The respondents included four university representatives. energy and environmental protection study courses. In all the universities. the study process and research are related to environmental science.1 – How long has there been a focus on RE in the activities and programmes of your university?
. which include renewable energy topics and have existed since before 2007 (see Graphic 7.1). Each graphic represents one of the survey questions.
Graphic 7. twelve companies that work or are planning to work in the renewable energy sector. The next paragraph shows some important survey results obtained in Latvia for each of the aforementioned subcategories. and ten staff members at Rezekne Higher Education Institution.
2 – What kind of programmes in RE subjects does your university provide?
Graphic 7.Graphic 7.2 in renewable the policy problems at
shows that interdisciplinary programmes energy exist and have been developing and strategy of renewable resource 75% of Higher Education Institutions.
Graphic 7.The degree programmes have dealt with almost all types of renewable energy (see Graphic 7.3 – In which sector of renewable energies does your university have research and/or teaching activities?
Taking into account that these types of energy are crucial for Latvia. this work needs to be intensified.
.3). Currently 75% of universities state the lack of funding for this research as one of the most serious disincentives to continue their work.
biomass.5 and 7.4). and hydropower (see Graphic 7. solar thermal energy.
Graphic 7.6 show the types and sectors of enterprises included in the survey. 165
.4 – In which RE technologies would you be interested in receiving training?
Graphics 7.Rezekne Higher Education Institution staff are most interested in receiving training in the following renewable energy technologies:
Graphic 7.5 – Type of organization.
Graphic 7.7).7 – How do you rate the availability of qualified renewable energy staff on the labour market?
.Graphic 7.6 – In which sector does your organization operate?
64% of the companies consider as positive the availability of qualified specialists in renewable energy on the labour market of Latvia (Graphic 7.
Company survey results show that, despite a 100% interest in corporate use of renewable energy in solving problems, the number of employees that directly deal with renewable energy issues amounts to only five, including just 16% of the scientific staff (see Graphics 7.8 and 7.9).
Graphic 7.8 – How many staff members does your organization employ in the field of renewable energies?
Graphic 7.9 – In which fields of activity, related to renewable energy, do your employees work?
The majority of specialists working in the field of renewable energy have an university degree (Graphic 7.10).
Graphic 7.10 – What are the professional and educational backgrounds of the employees you recruit in the renewable energy field?
At the same time, only 25% of companies feel the need to expand the number of employees in this direction and to predict how many they will need. 42% believe that they have a sufficient number of employees in the field of renewable energy. 42% of companies already predict the need to increase the number of staff (Graphics 7.11 and 7.12).
Graphic 7.11 – What future employment trends do you predict for your organization in the field of renewable energy in the short term for the next 2 years? 168
Graphic 7.12 – What future employment trends do you predict for your organization in the field of renewable energy in the medium term for the next 5 years? Graphic 7.13 shows that companies are interested in their own personnel in terms of improving professional skills, but most of them are considering training from external sources (generally 35%).
Graphic 7.13 – Which further training opportunities does your organization currently plan in the field of renewable energy?
Many businesses also support the need for new technical and multidisciplinary qualifications (Graphic 7.14).
Graphic 7.14 – Which new qualifications in the field of renewable energy do you think will be required of your employees in the future?
In addition, the main motivation for acquiring new qualifications is innovation (product and process).
Graphic 7.15 – What are the drivers for new qualification in the field of renewable energy requirements at your organization?
The companies consider that renewable energy problemsolving is of great importance to external factors such as appropriate legislation, public policies and initiatives. Almost all companies are convinced that the specialist field of renewable energy is necessary to develop new courses and to develop new qualifications (Graphics 7.16 and 7.17).
Graphic 7.16 – Do universities need to develop new courses and qualifications in the field of renewable energy?
Graphic 7.17 – Which new courses and qualifications in the field of renewable energy do universities have to develop?
monitoring and evaluation (see Graphic 7.19 – What types of services offered by HEIs would you be interested in using? 172
.18 – What do you expect from the Higher Education Institutions in the Renewable Energy sector? Consequently. including joint research.19).
Graphic 7.18). research and innovation from university activities (see Graphic 7.The companies primarily expect specialist skills. consultancy. the companies need to offer forms of cooperation with universities.
Monitoring. conferences. Only if HEI staff are more qualified than other Latvian experts. Energy plants. technology.
Services offered by HEI
Comparative research results in RE area. Common database for partners in RE area. Hydrology area. Table 7.1 – What types of services offered by HEIs would you be interested in using?
. Only if HEI staff are more qualified than other Latvian experts.
Joint research and development
Consultancy. When something is not clear. Participation in the 7th framework programme projects – new technologies in RE for production process optimization. Professional evaluation of energy plants.1 gives a more detailed look at specific services required by the companies. Discussion groups.Each company has its own vision of services shown in Graphic 7.19. optimization. Scientific evaluation and explanation of possibilities to use latest RE technologies. If it pays off. optimization. Overview of different technologies and possibilities to use them in Latvia. evaluation Providing access to latest knowledge
Linking with business or research partners
Table 7. Possibilities to use biomass production scheme in Latvia. Exchange of experience. Processes. technology. Processes.
A major motive for academic and performance improvement, together with business expansion, is the fact that 50% of companies valued university activities in renewable energy as an area of non-market requirements, and no one believes that universities are at the forefront of market requirements.
Graphic 7.20 – How up to date do you think the HEIs are in terms of RE? The major answers obtained from the question “What do you regard as the major challenges for the wider application of RE in your country?” are as follows:
co-operation between companies, integrated government policy, lack of clear guidelines and stimulation of development; no support for RE projects, corruption, lack of integrated government policy and support; lobbying of gas, lack of integrated government policy; chaos and contradictions in legislation in the recent years, no support from the government, things are getting a little better now;
lack of integrated government policy and support for entrepreneurship; political and economic situation; economic crisis, EU funding; and bureaucracy.
3 – Conclusions
Survey results demonstrate that all organizations, such as public institutions, enterprises and universities – focus on renewable energy. In all universities, the study process or research are related to environmental science, energy and environmental protection study courses, which include renewable energy topics and have existed since before 2007. Interdisciplinary programmes in renewable energy exist and have been developing the policy and strategy of renewable resource problems at 75% of Higher Education Institutions. The degree programmes have been dealt with almost all types of renewable energy. Students have been developing papers and projects related to those particular resources. Taking into account that these types of energies are crucial for Latvia, this work needs to be intensified. Currently 75% of universities state the lack of funding for this research as one of the most serious disincentives to continue their work. Company survey results show that, despite a 100% interest in corporate use of renewable energy in solving problems, the number of employees that directly deal with renewable energy issues amounts to only five, including just 16% of the scientific staff.
At the same time, only 25% of companies feel the need to expand the number of employees in this direction and to predict how many they will need, 42% believe that they have a sufficient amount of employees in the field of renewable energy. 42% of companies already predict the need to increase the number of staff. Companies are interested in their own personnel improve professional skills, but most of them are considering training with an external support. Many businesses also support the need for new technical and multidisciplinary qualifications. In addition, the main motivation for acquiring new qualifications is innovation (product and process). Companies consider that renewable energy problemsolving is of great importance to external factors such as appropriate legislation, public policies and initiatives. Almost all companies are convinced that the specialist field of renewable energy is necessary to develop new courses as well as new qualifications. Companies primarily expect specialist skills, research and innovation from university activities. Consequently, companies need to offer forms of co-operation with universities including joint research, consultancy, monitoring and evaluation. A major motive for academic and performance improvement, together with business expansion, is the fact that 50% of companies valued university activities in renewable energy as an area of non-market requirements, and no one believes that universities are at the forefront of market requirements. Currently, government has actively committed to the legislation and regulatory aspects of renewable energy resources. Survey results also demonstrate that it is necessary to stimulate higher and technical education in renewable energy, as so to provide a link between education and the renewable energy industry. 176
Chapter 8 – JELARE survey reports: main variables
8.1 – Questionnaire 1: market survey report
This section concerns the illustration and analysis of the comparative results regarding the application of Questionnaire 1 in the countries of the JELARE project.
General information about the organization
What typeof organization do you work for?
Most of the surveyed organizations are private. The highest concentration of private organizations, 88%, is in Chile, and the lowest, 34%, in Latvia. Brazil is the only country among the surveyed organizations that does not have governmental agencies. Latvia has the highest concentration, with 33%, and Chile the lowest, with 6%. The highest distribution among the answers is in Latvia, which has the highest percentage of non-governmental organizations, 25%. The lowest, 4%, is in Guatemala. 177
In which sector does your organization operate?
In Brazil, Guatemala and Bolivia the organizations work in nine different sectors; in Germany, Latvia and Chile, in five sectors. In Chile, Guatemala and Bolivia more than half of the researched institutions operate in the renewable energy sectors; in Germany 43% and only 20% in Latvia and Brazil. In the latter, there is a higher dispersion, with nine sectors presenting frequency higher than 5%. The organizations which operate in the non-renewable energy sector (oil and gas industries) represent, on average, 15% of the surveyed organizations. This sector presents the second highest percentages in all of the surveyed countries, with two exceptions: Brazil, where transport occupies the position with 11% and Chile, where 70% of the organizations operate in the field of non-renewable energies.
Is your organization interested in the development of renewable energy-related projects?
More than 90% of the organizations are interested in developing renewable energy-related projects in Brazil. In Germany. all the organizations are interested in RE-related projects. Chile and Guatemala.
. all organizations in the sample already work with RE. Bolivia. In Latvia.
In which sector of renewable energies does your organization operate (part 1)?
In which sector of renewable energies does your organization operate (part 2)?
Among the RE sectors in which the organizations already operate. Germany seems to be advanced. Chile is the only other country with more than 10%.
In which sector of renewable energies does your organization plan to operate (part 1)?
. mainly in windpower and biogas. showing percentages equal to or higher than 10% in all surveyed sectors. with which 80% and 50% of the organizations operate respectively.
with 40% and 33% respectively. In the Bolivian and Guatemalan organizations. followed by biofuels. Bolivia. the segment of the highest interest is windpower. however. it is estimated that half of the organizations perform in hydropower and windpower.In which sector of renewable energies does your organization plan to operate (part 2)?
However. the highest percentage. 11% of the organizations plan to operate in the windpower segment. and the geothermal sector is the most desirable (50%). Oddly enough. all with 15%. followed by photovoltaic energy. In Chile. The highest frequency sector is biomass. the percentages of organizations that intend to operate in renewable energy-related areas in Brazil. with 26%. In Latvia. In Brazil. the organizations in Latvia do not show interest in the sector. with 42%. with 19%. biogas is the main sector of interest to the organizations. biomass and windpower. few organizations already operate in renewable energy sectors. Chile and Guatemala are much higher than in Germany. 182
In which segment of the renewable energy value chain does your organization operate?
In which segment of the renewable energy value chain does your organization plan to operate?
the operation in the energy trade is part of the plans of 22% of the organizations. with 45%. Operation and management is the highest percentage sector. plan to operate in the segment of inspection and certification. project management and marketing segment. there is a low frequency of answers about the planning of which segment they should operate in. the highest proportion of organizations in Brazil. Among the German and Latvian organizations. with 18%. with 7%. This does not occur only in Guatemala. 15%. along with planning. the goal of 17% of the surveyed organizations is to operate in the research and development segment. where education and training present the highest percentage.
. project management and marketing. And in Bolivia. where the highest frequency of answers is for the research and development segment.The segments of the renewable energy value chain in which there are the highest concentration of organizations operating are planning. and. 21% of the organizations intend to enter into the planning. For the future. in Germany and Latvia. In Guatemala. the preferred segment is education and training. In Chile. and in Latvia. maintenance and repair segments are also the most frequently mentioned. In Germany.
58% of the researched institutions use the three researched methods.How does your organization develop projects related to renewable energy?
Only in Germany is self-development is the most common method to develop renewable energy-related projects. Latvia and Bolivia is joint development. among the German organizations surveyed. Tercerization is practised by 52% of the Guatemalan organizations in the development of renewable energy projects.
. In Chile. The most common method in Brazil. 50% and 40% of the organizations respectively carry out this procedure. approximately 70% use this procedure. 60%. In Chile. 67% of the organizations develop both individual and joint projects.
It is estimated that 14% of the Guatemalan organizations reached this financial result.
.000 to €200.000. 41% obtained a turnover higher than €10 million. In Bolivia. In Latvia.What was your organization’s turnover in 2008?
In Guatemala and Latvia. and the highest frequency ranged from €100. the highest rate for this income range among the countries surveyed. with the same percentage of noresponses. Nearly 60% of the Chilean organizations presented results above the €10 million. 14% obtained over €10 million of turnover in 2008. the revenue of 23% of the organizations was up to €50. more than half of the organizations did not reveal their 2008 turnover. none of the organizations confirmed that they achieved more that €10 million. with 7% of the organizations with up to €50. In Germany.000. In Brazil. Guatemala follows.000 of revenue.
in Chile. 86% of the organizations did not report their income. with revenue of over €10 million.What was your organization’s turnover resulting from the renewable energy segment in 2008?
In relation to the turnover resulting from the segment of renewable energies. this percentage was higher than for the half of the surveyed organizations. 27% of the organizations involved in research obtained revenue below €100. Only in Brazil did no organization present turnover lower than €100. with 3% of the organizations.
.000 in 2008. and Bolivia. Guatemala. not many replies were received. with around 25%. Brazil and Chile follow Germany. Once more. 36%. In Latvia. In Brazil and Guatemala. In Bolivia. equivalent to 27%. and finally. In Bolivia.000 in the renewable energy field. 42% and in Germany. with 13%. Germany presents the highest percentage among the organizations. the percentage of non-responses was 47%.
000. while in Germany 9% of the organizations presented results below €50. and none of the organizations that obtained revenue made less than $2 million. 25% of the organizations did not have any turnover in the renewable energy segment. 27% of the organizations researched obtained turnover below €100.000 in the segment.
Collaborators’ capacitation and qualification
What is the total number of co-workers in your organization (part 1)?
.In Bolivia. 16%. In Chile. and in Guatemala.
. Germany and Latvia show the highest percentage (25%). In Brazil. with 25% and 18% respectively and then Latvia. Bolivia does not have any organization with more than 500 employees in the research field.What is the total number of co-workers in your organization (part 2)?
In Chile. over 50% of the organizations have more than 500 co-workers. Germany and Guatemala follow. followed by Bolivia (27%) and Brazil and Guatemala (approximately 12%). Among the organizations with up to five collaborators. the number falls to 33%. with 8%.
What is the total number of co-workers in RE in your organization (part 1)?
What is the total number of co-workers in RE in your organization (part 2)?
In Germany and Guatemala these organizations represent approximately 30%. Among the Brazilian organizations.The organizations with up to five collaborators represent 86% of the Latvian organizations.
What is the availability of qualified professionals for the renewable energy area in the labour market?
Through the analysis of the results. 48% of the surveyed organizations in Bolivia and 43% in Brazil. it is Latvia where the availability of qualified renewable energy professional is perceived by organizations to be highest. this percentage is 7%. 8% of the German and Guatemalan organizations have more than 500 co-employees in the renewable energy area. it is possible to observe that among the surveyed countries. 46% of the
. whereas in Chile it is 25%. No organization surveyed in Bolivia and Chile has more than 500 collaborators.
organizations surveyed in Latvia evaluate the labour force as sufficient for renewable energy. it is estimated that 47% of the organizations evaluate the professional availability for the renewable energy area as insufficient. the proportion of organizations considering the availability of professionals to be enough is equal to the proportion of the organizations that believe otherwise. In Chile.
In which area of renewable energy do your employees work?
Among the Chilean organizations. The highest 192
. the highest rate of organizations stating that there are no professionals available for the area is found in Chile with 17%. In Germany. half of the organizations surveyed consider the number of qualified professionals as low. Bolivia and Latvia and around 15% in Brazil operate in this segment. Yet in Brazil and Guatemala. around 30% of the employees operate in the management and research and development sector. most of the surveyed collaborators (18%) work in the management. Around 10% of the workforce in Guatemala. However. In Germany.
64% of the hired professionals have a university degree. except for Chile. this rate is around 45%.
What is the qualification level of the professionals recruited in the area of renewable energy in your organization?
Concerning the qualifications of the professionals hired for the renewable energy area. People with qualifications in the business area represent 21% of the professionals recruited in the Brazilian and German organizations. between 9% and 10% work in that segment. where it is 83%. In the other countries.
. This division represents 15% of the Bolivian. Around 17% of the collaborators from the surveyed organizations operate in the sales segment in Bolivia. 9% of the Brazilian and 4% of the German and Latvian workforce. In the other countries. In Latvia. Bolivia and Guatemala presented very similar responses. 45% of the researched organizations recruited professionals with technical qualifications.concentration of employees (25%) is in the production segment in Guatemala. In both countries. 12% in Latvia and 9% in Bolivia and Guatemala.
What are the mechanisms used by the organization to recruit professionals in the renewable energy area?
In all the countries. the most common selection method is direct recruiting. In all of the countries it is used in more than 50% of the researched organizations.
the main difficulty is the lack of qualified technical specialization and few candidates.What are the main dificulties faced in choosing qualified professionals in the renewable energy area?
According to the results.
. stated by 62% of their organizations. In the other countries. the only surveyed country where it is not difficult to select qualified professionals is Latvia.
In Germany. the same percentage (42%) believes that the number of professionals to work in RE will remain constant and positive. In Chile. most organizations from Brazil and Guatemala have positive perspectives in relation to the employment of professionals. Bolivia and Latvia. it looks like the level of recruitment will remain constant. what are the perspectives for your organization in the renewable energy area in the short term (next 2 years)?
For the next two years.In terms of recruiting.
most organizations believe there is a positive outlook for professional recruitment. what are the perspectives for your organization in the renewable energy area in the medium term (next 5 years)?
In the medium term.In terms of recruiting.
The organizations in all surveyed countries in general plan to use mainly on-the-job training. the highest concentration of answers indicate that training sessions are not needed.Market requirements and needs
Which training modalities does your organization plan for the renewable energy field?
In relation to the planning of the training modality to be offered in the renewable energy field. training with external support and continuing education in HEIs. the answers are very diverse.
. In Latvia.
in particular in Guatemala and Brazil.
. 75% and 45% of the organizations respectively implemented actions for the acquisition of new technical qualifications. Similar statistics are found in the other countries too.Concerning future capacitations. In Chile and Bolivia. what actions will you implement for your professionals?
The strengthening of employees’ qualifications is integrated into the plans of most of the surveyed organizations. where 59% and 41% respectively intend to focus on capacitation.
. around 21% believe they need product innovations. Additionally. some of Brazilian organizations state that they need more financial incentive from the government.What drives for new qualifications does your organization need?
Among the surveyed organizations. The proportion of organizations that need new qualifications in process innovation account for 30% in Guatemala and approximately 25% in Germany and Bolivia. In Chile and Latvia. ‘Changes in the regulatory milestone is the most important requirement from the organizations’ standpoint.
Should universities develop new courses and qualifications in the renewable energy field?
The majority of the surveyed organizations in all countries believe that the universities need to develop new renewable energy-oriented courses. None of the countries returned an affirmative response rate of less than 75%.
This is the model in all of the countries except for Brazil.Affirmative cases:
More than 60% of the organizations believe that the universities must develop additional qualifications to complement education.
. where there is a similarity between the number of organizations that believe the universities should develop new qualifications and the ones that believe the HEIs should develop new professional profiles.
In Bolivia. placing equal importance on basic research and development. the highest percentage expects the HEIs to offer training and education in relation to the renewable energy sector. Chile and Guatemala. This last expectation is found mainly among the Brazilian organizations. this expectation is also high. the main expectation of the organizations in the HEIs in the renewable energy field is basic innovation.The role of the Higher Education Institutions
What do you expect from the Higher Education Institutions in the renewable energy sector?
From the organizations surveyed in Germany.
. In Latvia.
. technology transfer. Joint research is the most interesting service for the organizations in Bolivia. in general. the organizations look for consultancy and advice from the HEIs.What types of services offered by the Higher Education Institutions would your organization be interested in using?
The service that most attracts the surveyed organizations is. Brazil. in Brazil and Chile. Nevertheless. This service showed higher response rates in Germany. Chile and Guatemala. And in Latvia. joint research and development also interests the same percentage of organizations.
In all the surveyed countries. and those that believe that they fall behind. in terms of renewable energy.
. are. the respondents are divided almost equally between organizations that believe the HEIs are updated. In Germany. at least 50% of the organizations consider that the HEIs are behind the market requirements.. particular attention should be given to Bolivia. At this point. where 93% of the organizations see this gap between the market and the HEIs.. 6% of Brazilian organizations affirm that the HEIs are ahead of the market.Do you consider that the Higher Education Institutions.
In Bolivia. together with economy and social sciences. In Latvia. they were not concentrated in any specific area.
.8. In Germany. and it is not possible to characterize an area that is most representative.
What is your current position within your HEI?
Most of the staff interviewed in Chile work in research.2 – Questionnaire 2: staff survey report
This section concerns the illustration and analysis of the comparative results regarding the application of Questionnaire 2 in the countries of the JELARE project. the highest representativity is among the professionals in the teaching area. engineering is also one of the most frequently mentioned areas. Due to different forms of presenting the information. In Germany.
What type of HEI or department are you currently working in?
Only in Chile and Guatemala were there professionals who operated directly with renewable energies – on MSc courses in both countries. some graphics have not been included in this report. In Brazil and in Bolivia. In Brazil. the highest concentrations are in agriculture and engineering. Guatemala and Latvia. there is a great dispersion in the responses. most professionals work in engineering HEIs.
there is again a high concentration in the engineering field. In Guatemala.
. the planning and education areas represent the highest response rate. In Brazil.Which of the following options best describes your current position within your HEI?
Research and development is the area with the highest frequency of responses in Germany. Bolivia and Latvia. this time in electrical engineering.
Which of the RE sectors are you working / interested in (part 1)?
Which of the RE sector are you working / interested in (part 2)?
with 27% of the professionals engaged or interested in the area. hydropower has the highest percentage. solar energy is the busiest. In Latvia. expert and senior – represented 22% of the professionals. 75% of the Brazilian professionals who participated in the survey have less than nine years of experience. Chile and Latvia. In Bolivia. the responses were balanced.
Which of the following options best describes the duration of your academic experience in renewable energies?
In Chile and Guatemala. the three options – junior. with 33% of employees. In Guatemala.Windpower is the busiest renewable energy sector in terms of professional performance or interest in Germany. most of the surveyed professionals have less than five years of academic experience in the renewable energies. 209
. 40% of the employees are senior. In Brazil. with more that ten years of experience. Bolivia. The top position is shared with the biomass and photovoltaic sectors in Germany and Chile.
55% and in Chile 57% of the professionals have been developing curricula for less than five years.
. 25% of the Brazilian professionals and 40% of the Latvian professionals have been developing curricula in RE for more than ten years. However in Latvia.
How long have you been researching renewable energy?
In all the countries in the survey. in Guatemala. 40% of the professionals have less than five years of experience and 40% have more than ten years of experience. most professionals have less than five years of experience in renewable energy research. 44%. In Bolivia. Among the respondents.How long have you been researching renewable energies?
This question does not apply to most respondents in Brazil and Bolivia.
Would you be interested in being trained in RE technologies (part 1)?
Would be interested in being trained in RE technologies (part 2)?
In Germany and Bolivia. according to the employees. In Latvia. hydropower in Guatemala.
. geothermal power in Chile and windpower in Latvia. Bolivia and Guatemala are interested in receiving capacitation in curricula development in renewable energies. there is a 50:50 split between those professionals who are and who are not interested in receiving that kind of training. the highest interest in training is. the biomass area.Most professionals in all surveyed countries are interested in receiving training in RE technologies. more than half of the employees are not interested. In Germany and Chile.
Would you be interested in receiving capacitation in curricula development in RE?
More than 80% of the employees in Brazil. For the other countries it is distributed as follows: solar energy in Brazil.
Germany and Guatemala. the Bachelor degree in Latvia. In Brazil.
Would you be interested in receiving training in the development of teaching modules in RE?
In Bolivia. 90% and 70% respectively are not interested in this kind of training. Chile and Guatemala. 213
. more than half of the professionals who participated in the survey are interested in receiving training to develop teaching modules in renewable energies. and in Brazil the number of employees interested in training is the same as the number who are not interested in it. some professionals are interested in short-term capacitation courses and others in seminars and congresses. and joint programmes with international institutions in Chile. In Latvia and Germany.The types of capacitation that appeal most strongly to the professionals are: the MSc (university Masters degree) in Bolivia.
. most professionals showed interest in qualifying in research management for funding. and in Latvia in the management of research funding. in Guatemala many stated they would also want to receive capacitation in management in research.Would you be interested in receiving capacitation in research management in RE?
In all six countries.
the need to update technical knowledge in their teaching/research area is significant.
.Requirements in terms of training and qualification for RE
How do you assess your needs regarding the update of technical knowledge in your teaching/research area?
According to Brazil. Bolivia and Chile. Guatemala and Latvia responded that they needed updating in technical knowledge. whereas most professionals in Germany.
44% responded that this is a defined necessity. Bolivia. Guatemala and Latvia define the requirements for updates due to technological changes in the renewable energy field as quite necessary. Yet in Germany. and in Chile 57% of the professionals define the requirement for updating expertise due to technological changes as very important.How do you assess your requirements for updates due to technological changes in RE?
Most employees in Brazil.
Bolivia and Chile rank the need to develop skills in the elaboration of curricula in renewable energies as quite necessary.
. The same percentage of Germans consider it unnecessary. whereas in Guatemala and Germany 30% rank it as a defined necessity.How do you assess your needs with regards to developing skills in curricula elaboration in RE?
Most surveyed professionals in Brazil. In Latvia. it is ranked as less necessary.
.How do you assess your needs in research infrastructure (laboratories and equipment) in RE?
Only in Brazil the need for improved infrastructure in research (laboratories and equipments) in renewable energies is regarded as quite necessary by most professionals. In the other countries. most respondents define that necessity as very important.
whereas in Chile and Bolivia they find it very important. around 40% of the professionals evaluate this necessity as defined.How do you assess the requirement for you to have access to a database in RE?
In Brazil and in Chile. approximately 70% of the employees consider the need to access a database in renewable energies as important. In Germany and Latvia.
. more than half of the surveyed professionals evaluate the need to participate in events in the RE area as important. conferences and field visits to companies and industries in the area)?
In Brazil.What are your requirements for events in the renewable energy area (workshops. Bolivia and Guatemala. seminars. In the other countries needs in this area are assessed as undefined.
most professionals consider it very important. Guatemala and Latvia describe a closer interaction between their HEIs and the market of renewable energies as important. In Germany and Chile.
.How would you describe the necessity for better interaction between your HEI and the RE market?
Most professionals in Bolivia. half of the professionals rank it as very important and the other half as important. In Brazil.
. must this relationship be enhanced in your HEI?
In all the surveyed countries.Specify what kind of training would be more suitable to meet your needs in the renewable energy area?
Distinct responses. 90% or more professionals believe that the relationship between HEIs and the renewable energy market must be strengthened.
Improving the interaction between your HEI and the renewable energy market
From your standpoint.
How do you assess the need for more market-oriented academic programmes?
The necessity of more market-oriented academic programmes are ranked as very important by 50% of the Brazilian professionals. 40% rank the need as defined whilst the same percentage consider it an important need. 40% in Germany and Chile ranked them as defined. In Bolivia.
. such programmes are considered to be important by more than half of the interviewed professionals. and in Latvia.
How do you assess need for exchange programmes between the HEI and RE market?
Professionals in Brazil. some consider them very important. Guatemala and Chile are divided as follows: the ones who consider exchange programmes between the HEIs and the RE to be important. and those who consider them very important. In Latvia. while some consider them a defined need. Most professionals in Germany and Bolivia estimate this kind of action as important.
This is also the evaluation of all the Brazilian professionals. In Chile the responses are disperse.
. and of 90% of Bolivian professionals.How do you assess the need for partnerships between the HEI and RE market with the aim of sharing knowledge ?
Around 40% of respondents in Germany. Guatemala and Latvia rank the partnerships between the HEIs and the RE market as important as regards knowledge transfer.
How do you assess the need for company-sponsored RE applied research conducted within the HEI?
Only in Germany was the practice of RE applied research. ranked as important by the majority of the surveyed professionals. In all of the other countries it was considered as very important by more than 40%. conducted within the HEIs and funded by enterprises.
How do you assess the need for government-sponsored RE applied research conducted within the HEI?
In Brazil. More than half of the professionals from Guatemala and Chile evaluate this practice as important. Germany and Latvia assess this practice as very important.
. Most professionals in Bolivia. 75% of the professionals assess the practice of RE applied research conducted within the HEIs and funded by government agencies as important or very important.
50% and 40% respectively consider it an important necessity.
.How do you assess the need for a higher number of RE internship vacancies for students in the companies?
An increase in the number of internships in the RE area for students is considered very important by 70% of the professionals in Latvia and 40% of the professionals in Guatemala. In Germany and Chile. and among the Brazilian and Bolivian professionals. at least half of the interviewed consider this need as defined.
42% of the professionals evaluated the monitoring as a defined necessity for the HEIs.How do you assess the need for continuous monitoring in people management due to technological changes and to the socio-economic environment?
The continuous monitoring in the people management is a practice ranked as very important by most of the interviewed professionals in Bolivia. estimate the continuous monitoring as very important and important. 37% of the professionals in Brazil and 40% in Latvia share the same opinion. Guatemala and Chile. In Germany. respectively. The same percentages represent the professionals that in Brazil and Latvia.
and 75% of the institutions do not use this tool.8.3 – Questionnaire 3: benchmarking survey report
This section concerns the illustration and analysis of the comparative results regarding the application of Questionnaire 3 in the countries of the JELARE project.
Renewable energy at university Do you have teaching programmes (undergraduate and postgraduate) in the RE field?
The focus of the institutions occurs through undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in all the surveyed universities in Latvia since before 2007. most institutions also have these programmes. while in Brazil only 12% of the institutions have had the programmes since before 2007. Bolivia and Guatemala. In Germany.
. there is an identical distribution among all the response options. In Brazil. however. 60% of the institutions teaching research in Bolivia do not utilize this practice and in Chile the figure comes to 80%. half of the surveyed HEIs are involved in these projects.Do you have research projects on RE with foreign investment?
Research projects on renewable energies with foreign funding are a common practice in most institutions in Germany and Latvia. In Guatemala.
. half of the institutions have such laboratories. half intend to establish them within the next two years. No research institutions in Bolivia or Chile have research laboratories funded by organizations from the manufacturing sector in the RE area. and.Do you have research laboratories funded by organizations from the manufacturing sector?
It is only in Germany and Brazil that most HEIs use research laboratories funded by organizations from the manufacturing sector in the renewable energy area. In Latvia. in Guatemala.
In Chile.Do you have partnerships with national and international networks for research on RE?
In all the countries surveyed. except for Brazil. at least 60% of the HEIs have partnerships with national and international networks for research in renewable energies. where only 25% of the institutions have such partnerships. 17% of the organizations have this kind of partnership. and more than half do not use them or do not know how to answer.
. The same percentage occurs in Bolivia. 20% of the institutions plan to do it. In Brazil and Chil. Latvian (75%) and Bolivian (20%) institutions. but 80% do not know the procedure or do not use it. In Guatemala.Have you registered patents or new technologies?
The registration of patents or new technologies in the RE field is only observed in the German (60%).e none of the institutions are familiar with or use the patent register in the renewable energy field.
. Bolivia and Guatemala.Do you collaborate in work by project teams that are separated geographically (“virtual teams”)?
The use of virtual teams in renewable energies is common only in Germany. most institutions are not familiar with or do not use this tool. In Brazil. Chile and Latvia.
only 25% of the HEIs offer these programmes and the same percentage of institutions plan to have them implemented in Brazil.Does your institution have interdisciplinary programmes on RE?
Interdisciplinary programmes on renewable energies are provided by most institutions in all the countries in the survey. where there are currently no interdisciplinary programmes on RE. but only in Brazil and Chile are they not used in most teaching institutions.
. In Chile.
In the other countries.
. at least 75% of the organizations also do this kind of work.Do you partake in collaborative work with public and private organizations?
All of the surveyed institutions in Latvia and Germany collaborate on work in partnership with private and public organizations.
none of the HEIs are familiar with this kind of practice or utilize it. In Germany.
. In Bolivia. Latvia and Guatemala. and in Brazil. 75% of the institutions responded in the same way as Germany. 40% use this practice and 20% plan to introduce it in the next two years.Do you provide advice and training?
The provision of formal advice and training is common in the teaching institutions in Chile.
Do you share expertise from different scientific areas for knowledge transfer to students and new co-workers?
The sharing of expertise from distinct scientific areas for knowledge transfer to students and new co-workers is done in all the teaching institutions surveyed in Latvia and 60% of the institutions in Guatemala.
. In Germany and Chile. most HEIs state that they do not do it or are not familiar with such a practice. while the other half is not familiar with it or does not do it. In Brazil. half of the institutions do it. once more.
In Bolivia. there is an extreme situation. In Brazil. half of the teaching institutions offer scholarships and incentives in studies in the RE field. In Germany and Guatemala more than 60% are in the same situation.Do you offer scholarships and incentives in the RE area?
In Chile. In the other countries. 62% of the institutions intend to offer such incentives within the next two years.
. this result is lower than 40%. with none of the Bolivian HEIs offering scholarships or incentives.
aiming at updating knowledge resulting from technological changes in RE?
External training for the capacitation of collaborators. aiming at updating expertise due to technological changes in renewable energies is done in at least half of the teaching institutions in Guatemala. while in Brazil and Bolivia at least half of the HEIs do not do it or are not familiar with it.Do you provide external training to capacitate collaborators.
. The scholarship and incentive programmes are the least used by the teaching institutions from the surveyed countries. It could be observed that the most common system used by the institutions is to carry out work in cooperation with public and/or private organizations. Chile and Latvia.
.Do you have policies for renewable energies?
Since before 2007. half of the institutions have had policies since before that. 50% of the HEIs in Germany started engaging in renewable energy policies. In Chile this happened in 25% of the institutions. and in Guatemala. As from 2007. In Germany. 25% and 10% of the institutions respectively have policies. and in Chile and Guatemala. in 30%. more than half of the teaching institutions in Latvia and Bolivia have had policies regarding renewable energies. there are no teaching institutions that have followed renewable energy policies before or after 2007. However. In Brazil. 25% plan to adopt a RE policy within the next two years.
75% of the HEIs state that they do not use or are not familiar with them. 25% and 20% of the institutions respectively have had strategies since before that. In Chile and Guatemala. and in 80% of the Bolivian ones. all institutions in Bolivia and Germany have strategies in renewable energies.
.Do you have strategies for renewable energies?
There have been strategies for renewable energies since before 2007 in 75% of the Latvian and German institutions. In Brazil. Nowadays.
Do you apply a policy of values and organizational culture which promotes RE?
. Bolivia. In Brazil. Chile and Latvia adopted it before 2007. but 37% of the institutions adopted one after 2007. and 20% began to adopt such a policy after 2007. the most common policy among the teaching institutions is organizational values and a culture which promotes renewable energies. At least 50% of the institutions in Germany. In Guatemala. this percentage falls to 30%. none of the institutions had any policy to promote renewable energies before.
whereas in Bolivia the percentage is 60%. Bolivia and Chile. and in Brazil the same percentage ignores or does not use this type of know-how. and in Chile 50% started to use this knowledge after 2007. is a common practice in all teaching institutions in Germany. all institutions have used this method since before 2007. 75% of the teaching institutions in Latvia have used that method. In Guatemala. Since before 2007. however.Do you use knowledge about RE obtained through other market sources. In Germany. such as companies and organizations?
The use of renewable energy expertise obtained through other market sources. such as enterprises and organizations.
. the use of RE knowhow obtained through other market sources is a common practice.
the rate is 60%.
. only 10% of the HEIs have used this know-how since before 2007 and from that year on. and in Bolivia.Do you use RE knowledge obtained through research institutions?
Know-how obtained from research institutions has been used by all surveyed institutions in Germany and Latvia since before 2007. 40% started to use it. In Guatemala. half of the institutions present the same characteristics. In Brazil and Chile.
In Chile. the highest concentration of responses were “Not currently available” or “Don’t know”.
.Do you use supply investments to obtain external knowhow in RE?
The investment reserve is not frequent among the surveyed institutions. For the other countries. 100% stated that they are not familiar with the practice. although in Latvia. half of the HEIs adopt the practice.
.Do you use information technology (Internet) to obtain external knowledge about RE?
Internet is a very popular tool for RE knowledge acquisition in all surveyed countries. More than 60% use the Internet for this purpose.
while the rate for Bolivia is 40%.
.Do you encourage collaborators to participate in project teams or conferences with external experts?
The motivation for employees to participate in project teams with external expertise is common in half of the organizations in Germany and in Brazil. more than 70% use this policy. Guatemala and Latvia. In Chile.
and 60% for Guatemala.Is there any practice or initiative in RE used by your university that is not included in the questionnaire?
None of the teaching institutions in Brazil and Latvia use any other kinds of practices or initiatives in the renewable energy area other than those mentioned above. In Germany and Chile. the rate is 75%. 80% of the institutions in Bolivia use other kinds of practices and initiatives not included in the previous questions.
In which sector of the RE area does your university conduct research activities (part 1)?
In which sector of the RE area does your university conduct research activities (part 2)?
In which sector of the RE area does your university conduct teaching activities (part 1)?
In which sector of the RE area does your university conduct teaching activities (part 2)?
In Brazil and Bolivia. attention should also be given to the biofuels. solar energy and biofuels are researched by half of the surveyed universities in Latvia. In Germany. The most intensively taught energy sectors in Bolivia are: hydropower. geothermal and photovoltaic power. The dispersion of the sectors is seen in the graph of responses from the teaching institutions both in research and in teaching activity. many sectors are researched by the same amount of institutions. Solar thermal energy is the most intensively taught sector in Guatemala.
. institutions focus more on the teaching than research. biofuels and biogas are the sectors with higher percentages of research institutions.In Chile and Germany. solar thermal energy and photovoltaic energy are the most intensively explored by the German institutions. geothermal energy. and the percentage of responses are identical in many sectors. biogas and hydrogen sectors. In Latvia. In the field of teaching. In research. there is no one sector that is more intensively researched or taught. contrary to what happens in Latvia and Guatemala. However. and the most intensively researched sectors are biomass and hydropower energies. Windpower. both areas are well balanced. biofuels and hydropower are the most studied areas in Chile at the same time as solar thermal energy is the most researched one. All sectors included in the survey are taught by 25% of the Latvian universities. the sectors of windpower. Windpower. biogas.
Does your university have specific programmes/courses in the RE area?
Does your university have specific programmes/courses in the RE area?
there is a 50:50 split between the HEIs that have and the ones that do not have these courses. In Chile. Brazil is the only country where most teaching institutions do not have specific courses in the RE area.Among all the surveyed countries. In Latvia. except for Germany. Bolivia and Guatemala.
. Among the countries where most HEIs have this kind of programme. In Germany. there is a predominance of the Bachelor course. only half of the HEIs have specific departments in the renewable energy area. more than 80% of the HEIs have specific departments or institutions in the RE area. however. where there are more MSc courses in the RE area.
Does your university have specific departments or institutes in the RE area?
In Brazil and Latvia. none of the teaching institutions have this kind of department.
and Latvia also produces. And in Germany and Chile. to the same extent. books on renewable energies. Brazilian and Latvian HEIs produce mainly laboratory prototypes and conference documents.
. this type of product. the main materials produced by the HEIs on renewable energies are materials for courses. are the main products of the institutions. Bolivia and Guatemala.What kind of materials does your university produce concerning RE research/teaching activities?
In Germany. together with conference documents.
In Germany 40% of the HEIs use this strategy.Does your university have a specific budget to invest in renewable energies?
The investment reserve to be used in activities related to renewable energies is not common in any of the surveyed countries.
Training and qualification of the labour force
The main goal of this section is to identify. Brazil. most enterprises in Bolivia. In Bolivia. Germany and Latvia. We draw attention to Germany. according to the standpoint of the companies.Chapter 9 . When Bolivian companies were asked about the qualification of future employees. where the majority of the companies plan to work in at least one RE segment. It should also be noted that there are companies working in research and development in Brazil. what kind of labour force should be present in the labour market. The country that stands out is Guatemala. the focus is on biomass. Of the Bolivian respondents. Another interesting point is Germany’s potential in solar energy. Concerning RE activity.57%) work with photovoltaic energy. however. In Chile. while in Brazil the distribution among renewable energy sources is more even. most respondents (21. whereas in Guatemala most companies (32%) work with hydropower. 47% of them answered that an insufficient number of potential employees is available. with which 80% of the respondent companies work. Germany and Latvia. where many companies work with education and training. 30% reported sufficient staff availability.Conclusions
Profiles of the companies surveyed
The research revealed that most of the surveyed companies operate or intend to operate in the sector of renewable energy (RE). Chile and Germany operate in the planning and project sectors. 259
. the survey revealed that only 3% of the current staff would meet proposed qualifications.
In Brazil.3% of the companies in Brazil answered that availability is scarce. Another 32% said that they find people without multidisciplinary skills. As for the difficulties that companies face in finding prepared workers in the labour market. 42% of the companies said that the hiring trend is positive. 33% of the interviewed companies answered that skilled personnel are scarce and other 33% said that skilled workers are lacking in the labour market. 50% answered that there are not enough applicants. 53% of the Bolivian companies said that such problems will remain constant. Only 2% answered that they face no problems in finding appropriate candidates. When asked about problems faced in finding specialized employees in the labour market. When asked about the future trends in contracting new employees. corroborating the view that it is one of the main sources of RE on the planet. Concerning staff availability in the labour market. 32% said that there is lack of technically skilled personnel.With respect to the problems faced by companies in finding and selecting a skilled labour force. Concerning future trends. None of the companies said that it is easy to find skilled workers in the labour market. most companies want to participate in the RE market. 54% of Bolivian companies said that the main problem is lack of technical expertise. 73. 73. In terms of near-future labour force hiring trends in Brazil. 33% said that the main problem is the level of technical expertise desired. which means that there is a wide gap between what is offered in the labour market and the requirements of the companies.3% of the firms said that there is a positive trend. In Chile. as in the other countries involved. and another 42% answered 260
and another 26. only 36% of German firms said that there is a positive trend in the near future. 46% of the interviewed companies answered that qualified staff is sufficiently available in the labour market. This shows the complexity of establishing a hiring trend for the RE market in Chile. 48% of the interviewed companies answered that skilled staff is scarce in the labour market. 50% said that staff is scarcely available.3% of the firms said that there is a need for specialized technical qualifications. Concerning future hiring trends. and 36% of them said staff (of any kind) is scarcely available in the market. Concerning future hiring trends. In Germany. With respect to problems that German companies face when selecting skilled workers. 26. both in the short and long term. possibly due to the global economic crisis of 2008–2009. and 40% said that employees are lacking. 83% stated that candidates do not have specialized technical qualifications or that there are not enough applicants.3% said that applicants do not have multidisciplinary qualifications. Regarding the problems that Guatemalan companies find in selecting appropriate employees.that it will remain constant. 94% of the companies answered that they will hire personnel in the area. In Latvia. 36. 261
. In Guatemala. Nevertheless. only 10% of the interviewed companies answered that skilled staff is available to a satisfactory extent in the labour market. the responses were more positive when companies were asked about the long term.3% responded that there are not enough applicants. which means that companies have great difficulties in finding qualified workers.
this could be due to the consequences of the economic crisis in Europe. 45% of the companies said that their employees need new specialized qualifications and 33% said that their employees need to enhance their existing basic qualifications. while process innovations and government policies were also quoted. 26% of Bolivian firms said that the main driver was product innovation. concerning further training opportunities. only 25% of the companies responded that they will hire more people over the next two years. this number increases in the long term. As in Germany.with 18% responding that staff is readily available in the market. Concerning future trends. 97% of the firms want to have more partnerships with the universities. especially in developing additional qualifications to complement initial vocational education. Concerning the stimuli for new qualifications in the RE field. Again. To 25%.
Qualification requirements and market needs
In Bolivia. 62% of the Latvian companies said that they have no problems in finding and selecting new employees. In Bolivia. 30% of them said that candidates do not have specialized technical qualifications or multidisciplinary skills. On the other hand.
. market needs were considered important drivers. 36% of them find that skilled staff is insufficiently or scarcely available. With respect to new qualifications in the Bolivian RE market. while 28% answered that they need external training at universities and long-term external education. 27% of the companies said that they need on-the-job coaching and training. Contrary to other countries.
innovation and governmental policies were also reported as important in this process. To 22% of Brazilian companies. the main driver for new RE qualifications was governmental policies. 55% of the companies responded that they need more training. 92% of Chilean companies want to develop new qualifications for their employees in the RE field. 24. the most quoted was modification to the legal framework. 50% of the organizations plan to give their employees opportunities to achieve new qualifications in the RE field. while 28% answered that they want external training at universities and longterm external education. especially through coaching. Concerning further training opportunities in Germany. Moreover. Process and product innovations were also reported as drivers of new qualifications. while 29% want to develop new types of skills. In Chile.
. Concerning drivers of new qualifications. 83% of the firms want to develop courses and new qualification programmes through the universities. With respect to future training.2% said that they want on-the-job coaching and training. 42% of the firms want to enhance their employees’ qualifications. either external or in-house coaching. it is important to mention that all kinds of training were quoted as necessary by these companies. however. especially in developing additional qualifications to complement initial vocational education. 86% of these firms want to have closer partnership with the universities. in-company training and in-house training with external support. However.Of the firms interviewed in Brazil.
28% of the firms said that process innovation stands out. with 29% reporting the need for their employees to enhance their existing basic qualifications. especially in developing additional qualifications to complement initial vocational education. 21% said that it is important to have coaching and on-the-job learning. With respect to new qualifications in the Guatemalan RE market.
. 30% of the companies affirmed that the main driver was process innovation. product innovation and government policies were also reported to play a key role as drivers of new qualifications. especially for developing additional qualifications to complement initial vocational education. Concerning drivers of new qualifications in the RE field. concerning further training opportunities.3% of these companies. Nevertheless. 94% of Guatemalan firms want to improve their partnership with the universities. In Latvia. In Guatemala. 37% of the surveyed companies stated that there is no need for further training opportunities. 33% of the companies said that they need coaching and training on the job. Concerning drivers of new qualifications in the RE field in Germany. while 34% said that their employees need to enhance their existing basic qualifications. 59% of the companies stated that their employees need new specialized qualifications. Other important drivers mentioned were government policies and product innovations. The desire for greater partnership with universities was quoted by 83.With respect to new qualifications in the German RE market. while 51% answered that they would like external training at universities and long-term external education. 38% of the companies said that their employees need new specialized qualifications.
26% of the companies said that the main driver is modification to the legal framework. while 38% stated that the most important driver is either process or product innovation. The main priority for 82% was to develop courses that add qualifications to complement initial vocational education. Concerning the relationship between HEIs and the RE sector.
. most of those interviewed consider that companies had fallen behind market needs. 53% believed that companies have fallen behind the market. while another 28% said that their staff needs multidisciplinary qualifications. in Germany the rate was 50%. the surveyed companies responded regarding their expectations in relation to the role of the universities in the RE field. Chile showed the highest interest in partnerships with HEIs. especially in the development of new courses in the RE field. Only Brazil and Guatemala had respondents who stated that the companies are ahead of the renewable energy market. According to the responses collected. In Brazil.With respect to new qualifications in the RE market. the answers varied. research and development. The companies from the six countries involved stated that they want mainly educational and capacity-building programmes created at universities.
The role of Higher Education Institutions
Regarding this topic. 38% stated that their employees need to enhance basic qualifications. Chile and Guatemala. While in Bolivia. Only 28% said that employees need new qualifications. As for drivers of new qualifications in the RE field. 93% of Latvian companies want to improve their partnership with the universities. and on a smaller scale. since the companies’ demands range from basic innovations to research and development.
With respect to research. in Bolivia. The results of this survey revealed that most of the HEIs involved that were developing research in RE before 2007 have undertaken research projects using foreign investments. most of them do not have research
. in addition to work with laboratories sponsored by companies.5% of universities and departments that had been working in RE before 2007 participated in graduate programmes and research projects with foreign support. since they participate in national and international RE research networks. many universities were offering undergraduate and postgraduate programmes on topics linked to renewable energy before 2007. 62. four in Guatemala and four in Latvia. Both traditional institutions and institutions of applied sciences were among the respondents.Analysis of the benchmarking survey
Renewable energy in universities
Five HEIs in Germany responded to the survey. we call attention to the following aspects:
collaborative work carried out by physically separated university teams (virtual groups) has been widely used in Germany since 2007. four in Brazil.5% have done so through laboratories. seven in Chile. 12. where no formal mentoring practice has been verified. in Brazil. For institutions that have started to work with RE since 2007. and they have partnerships with national and international networks. five in Bolivia. including laboratories sponsored by companies. On the other hand.
The present survey showed that.
in Chile. and the remaining 75% have not yet been clearly scheduled. most are already outdated. The most significant point from each country 267
Almost all HEIs involved have been using information technology (Internet) to obtain foreign knowledge about RE since 2007. the main means of development is joint work with public and/or private organizations. and are linked to national and international networks. 25% of the external funds assigned to RE research projects have been scheduled to be used within the next two years.programmes with external sponsoring in the field.
HEI research/teaching activities in RE sectors
This portion of the survey showed great diversification among the HEIs concerning research and educational practices. showing a gap in the technological development chain. and the utilization of experts from different scientific areas for knowledge transference to recent students and collaborators. Although there is lowcost technological transference. and in Guatemala. in almost all of the universities involved in RE projects. Most RE activities financed by external capital are in rural areas. 100% of the respondents are not sure whether the research laboratories are likely to be sponsored by external cooperative organizations. almost 60% of the RE programmes were established due to oil prices in 2007.
involved illustrates this:
in Germany. Brazilian electrical energy production has been based on hydropower generated by dams. solar and photovoltaic energy sectors. 75% of the participating HEIs have both research and educational activities about windpower. biomass is the most investigated. In relation to other RE modalities. followed by hydropower and hydrogen/ fuel cells. which has not been discussed here. emphasis is given to biomass-generated energy. especially from sugarcane.
. The HEIs involved in this study concentrates more on biogas and hydrogen/fuel cell research (20% each). in Bolivia. followed by wind and biogas power. Among the RE technologies. Research and education in this area is an international highlight. photovoltaic and solar energy are the most studied. with no related educational activity at the undergraduate or postgraduate level. As far as education is concerned. focusing on hydroelectric. wind energy. Research about geothermal energy and hydrogen/ fuel cells was not observed. historically. The other 25% focus on education. RE education prevails over the research activities in all the investigated HEI. the percentage was low (12%). but because only one HEI that participated in the survey has been involved in this work. windpower is the least researched area. in Chile. Research is concentrated on all bioenergy areas as well as on geothermal technology. it is important to observe that.
Chile (75%). and in Latvia.55% of the participating HEIs involved. with 14. in the following proportions:
Germany (80%). the two main areas of research are biomass and hydroelectricity.
Programmes/specific university courses in renewable energy
This survey demonstrated that most of the participating universities have at least one specific programme or course on renewable energy. photovoltaic and hydrogen/fuel cell energy was registered. Brazil (25%).
in Guatemala. no activity was found regarding hydroelectricity. Regarding education. and Latvia (50%). with 27% of the HEIs involved. no research was registered among the HEIs about energy from photovoltaics and hydrogen/fuel cells.
. the most significant RE modalities were hydroelectricity and geothermal power. Guatemala (90%). In education. No investigation into solar.
the highlight was hydropower. The study revealed that. The same Guatemala. such as hydrogen/fuel cell and geothermal energy. whereas in Germany 76% were. 270
. in the six countries. 85% trend was noticed in the other countries. waste energy technology and possibilities for connecting RE to the existing grid. In Brazil. For example. Other specific requirements quoted by the participants were training in the socio-political framework. emphasis ranging from basic and advanced concept 75%. Three areas in particular stood out in five countries: windpower. Other kinds of renewable energy were less frequent. In the six countries questioned.
Capacity building in renewable energy
Most of the respondents from the six countries showed some interest in RE capacity building: developing their present competence as well as acquiring new competence in the field. Latvia and Bolivia. Chile.4%. most of the respondents are involved or intend to get involved in RE.. with 82. photovoltaic solar energy and bioenergy. in Brazil 87.g.5% of those interviewed e. Guatemala. 75% of the respondents said they were somewhat involved in the RE value chain.Research about university staff
Teachers and researchers from the surveyed universities were the most representative sample from the six countries involved. the interviewees showed very similar interests regarding the kinds of renewable energy in which they act or would like to act upon. followed by similar numbers in Chile. Germany. for example. said they were interested in being trained in RE. and training to application and development of RE. In Guatemala.
with only a slight percentage of variation. 271
. the respondents in all six countries observed the need for substantial improvements in laboratories. research and extension. in Bolivia 93% and in Chile. understand that there is either a need or an urgent need for greater interaction between the industry/ market and the universities.
In relation to the university/RE market relationship. equipment and database access. for example. Generally.
Infrastructure and laboratories
Concerning infrastructure for RE research.The survey also demonstrated the participating faculty’s interest in curriculum development training. 75%. 100% of the respondents in Brazil. remained mostly focused on seminars. Brazil. the necessity to participate in scientific events and social networking in the RE field. and courses of short duration. They similarly pointed out. we can affirm that the respondents in the six countries confirmed their need to improve technical and operational knowledge in teaching. research and extension areas related to RE. congresses. In Germany 64% agreed. however. most of those interviewed observed a wide gap between the needs of industry and the market in general and attributed this to the three focus areas offered by the universities: teaching. The trend is the same for the other countries. events. focusing on various aspects such as graduate MSc work in renewable energy (Germany) and international cooperation programmes (Chile).
78% in Bolivia. or at least very important: Brazil. and the same trend was seen in the other countries: Brazil. Participants also answered positively that applied research financed by the government would be helpful to reinforce RE in the universities involved: 85. 100% in Brazil.71%. in Chile. and Bolivia. and 75% in Chile. 88. 63%. the respondents followed the same trend: 85. and it was 100% in Brazil. in Bolivia it was 77. 63% in Chile. 100% Germany. Moreover. and 77.78%.95% stated that they have a very important effect or that there is a great necessity for more of such programmes. and 77.Reinforcement of RE in universities
Regarding the need for RE investment/reinforcement in universities. most answered positively: in Germany. and Chile. With respect to the need for collaboration programs between universities and the market.71% in Germany. most respondents agreed that market-sponsored applied technological research is very important as an RE reinforcement measure in universities: 85.72% in Germany.78% in Bolivia. Germany. 77. 100%. 100% in Brazil. 50%. 88. 100% in Brazil. most respondents answered positively to almost all proposed initiatives. 45%.88% of the researchers in Bolivia answered positively.72% answered positively in Germany. as follows: When asked if academic programmes impact the market. many respondents in all six countries understood that it is a must.78% in Bolivia. 85. Regarding the need for partnerships between universities and the market for the promotion of RE. in Chile the percentage fell to 75%.88%. Chile. 80. Concerning the RE qualification programmes offered by companies to university students.
all additional training methods. therefore. Chile. university postgraduate courses. continuous human resources monitoring would reinforce the issue of RE in universities. and Bolivia. This allows a broad range of research and teaching options for universities. there were more similarities than differences between the six countries involved. The survey disclosed some extremely important points:
most participating companies already operate or intend to operate in the RE sector.
Conclusions and recommendations
These three studies. most companies in the six countries involved stated that candidates for vacancies in RE positions are not prepared for the market. The surveys enabled researchers to rank the HEIs in relation to the RE market from the standpoint of the enterprises. which means that there is a need for additional qualification programmes. the respondents gave positive feedback: Brazil. enabled all the investigators involved to experience an atmosphere of transnational cooperation and a favourable attitude towards greater cultural and technical knowledge exchange on RE. due to technological changes and the socio-economic environment. and 273
. including: companydesigned courses.78%. regarding this aspect. 100%. 77.When respondents were questioned if. simultaneously conducted in six countries.19%. Germany 76. are acceptable to the companies. 38%. It was observed that. and specialization courses.
In an atypical approach. there is no skilled workforce. which was about benchmarking.
The second study. there are environmental and social restrictions. the companies stated that the universities are behind the RE market curve. despite presenting research projects sponsored by external investment.
with few exceptions. and most HEIs do not have budget planning for the development of teaching and research in RE. there is little government support.
. and RE costs are high. The results clearly presented the differences between the countries involved as well as the fact of the irreversibility of RE in both research and teaching. the population is poorly informed about RE. which means that there is no sustainability for those processes. allowing in-segment analysis at different interaction levels. the benchmarking analysis research carried out in Guatemala produced a chart in which the same kind of problem faced by several countries in relation to RE development can be described as follows:
the technology is inappropriate. The survey also revealed some other very important points:
most HEIs are not tuned in to the technological demands of the RE market. attempted to rank the HEIs in relation to RE.
on one hand. The investigation also unveils an urgent need for a broader restructuring in the academy. following the evolution of the market demands with interdisciplinary professionals who are able to design. Another important finding from the research is that. Such actions should help meet popular expectations and hopes for a sustainable planet. as well as courses. the demands and gaps seem to be very similar. the analysis carried out by partners of the JELARE project also showed the need for better integration with industry in various fields and activities related to RE.
. together with a constant monitoring of professional trends and market needs. The surveys of university staff brought out important data indicating that. although there is a gap between market needs and the services offered by the university. for example in applied research sponsored by industry. Furthermore. although there are different stages of development for RE in the investigated countries. The study also revealed that the staff of the universities involved believe that there must be government financial support for RE research. government action together with an energy policy that increases investments in the RE field is imperative. On the other. there is a growing conscience in the institutions about the procedures needed to steadily decrease this distance. seminars and internship offers for university students. it is recommended that HEIs develop courses and carry out research in the sector.As we can see. operate and manage the new technologies in the RE field. The analysis showed that there are common internal university demands in terms of enabling a better response to the market. not only in infrastructure but also in faculty and staff training and qualification.
the following actions are recommended:
the promotion of greater integration between
university and market through specific actions such as products and services that meet market demands in terms of RE. This consciousness is manifested in current proposals to decrease the existing gap through substantial investments in human resources and in teaching and researching infrastructure in the field of RE. investment in the creation of infrastructure for teaching and researching that suits the present RE demands. Thus. it can be concluded that the staff of the universities involved are conscious of the discrepancy between market reality and academia. the development of national and transnational pilot programmes for the expansion of new teaching modalities in RE.
giving a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary dimension to the topic of RE in universities so as to offer a holistic approach which integrates the processes of teaching. based on a transversal and transnational analysis of the surveys carried out by the universities participating in the JELARE partnership.Thus. the development of alliances and partnerships with enterprises from private and public RE sectors. and
. the allocation of higher investment in university staff qualification for the development of new products and services aimed at meeting RE market needs. research and extension and which must be accountable to market needs.
along with other institutional initiatives. may help reduce the gaps that this study unmistakably disclosed in all six countries investigated. The results also pointed out that. This situation demands immediate action mainly on the university side.
These actions. regardless of the varying degrees of RE technological development in the studied countries.
the creation of a multidisciplinary forum in universities to promote debate about RE in all sectors and departments. the gaps are very similar when the relationship “university X market” is discussed. with the objective of developing an integrated institutional vision about the topic. so as to follow market trends in the field.
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