# 2011,Apr.

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Mechanics of Structures HES1125 Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)

EQUILIBRIUM OF FORCES IN THREE-DIMENSIONS OBJECTIVES 1. To investigate the equilibrium of forces in three-dimensions. 2. To prove the summation of forces in x, y and z directions are zeros Apparatus: 1. A set of 3D force apparatus (force table with protractor and pulleys) 2. A roll of cord (string) 3. A set of weights

1

Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)

Component of the force in the xy plane = Wi cos E i c. assuming that the pulley is frictionless. The three poles can be adjusted to be at any point along the table s circumference. 17
Mechanics of Structures HES1125 Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)
How does this work: y y y y y y y y In this experiment. is the angle between the string and its projection on the xy plane. The three cords are connected to a ring that will be inserted to the centre pole. we are able to adjust the heights H1. then the force in the string is equal to the weight hanging at its end. measure H and the radius of the table R. we are going to use the force table shown in Figure 1 and 2. Then. Force in the z -direction =
§W
i
sin E i = 0 =0 =0
b. from Figure 1. Force in the y direction = d. y-components of the forces. H3.Apr. W2 and W3) are connected to cords and hung to 3 separate poles with pulley installed on them. is the angle which the projection of the cord made with the x axis. y. Three set of weights (W1.
Theory: y y y Referring to Figure 1 and 2. Force in the x
§ (W cos E ) sin U direction = § (W cos E ) cosU
i i i i
i i
2
Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)
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a. components of the forces. we are able to calculate the x-component and the y-component of the forces after we measure the angle 1.2011. 2 and 3. H2. The weights can be added and taken away until the ring is on the centre of the centre pole. From that we can calculate the z-component of the forces and also the x. From the x.

Apr. The height of the pulley is then adjusted and locked in its position. 9.0 30. 3.7 0.0 30.5 30.0
1
Pulley 2 W2 N 0. Then.2 31.4
2
Pulley 3 W3 N 0. 8.5 0.0
3
H(cm)
degree 60 60 20 20
degree 120 120 110 110
degree 280 280 240 240 29. gradually weight is added onto the third hanger so that the centre pole is aligned at the centre of the ring without touching the ring in anyways.2 18.5 24. The position of the central ring is then checked.8 1.0
3
Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)
. (The Centre Pole should be aligned at the centre of the ring. 5. Desired weight is placed on two of the load hangers.0 30. this position should be adjusted properly by loading appropriate weight on to the load hanger).5 0.
7.0 30. Each cord is passed over its respective pulley where a load hanger is attached to the other end of the cord. This experiment is then repeated several times using different sets of locations loading appropriate sets of weight.
Pulley 1 W1 N 0.5 0.2011.5 0.2 0.1 0.9 H1 cm 32. 2. The location of the cord is first selected. 17
Mechanics of Structures HES1125 Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 1. Finally the weights on each hanger and the location of the cord are measured accordingly.5 30.7 1.2 30. Then the vertical poles are clamped at the selected locations.5 31. if not.0 31. 6.
ACQUIRED DATA Contains data obtained from the experiment after four runs. One end of the cord is tied to the ring while the ring is slipped into central.5 H2 cm 30. 10. 4.2 H3 cm 18.

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Mechanics of Structures HES1125 Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)
METHODS OF CALCULATION:
4
Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)
.Apr.2011.

2011.8 1.7 0.0153 0 0.0090 0 0. (a) Component of force in the z direction.7 1.0004 00107 0.5 sin
2
Pulley 3 Fz2 N 0.1 0.2 sin
3
Fz3 N 0 -0.5 0.5 0.Equilibrium of forces in the z-direction
5
Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)
. L =
(H 1 H 2 ) 2 R 2
sin
1
=
H1 H L
1
Fz = W1 sin
Pulley 1 W1 N 0. 17
Mechanics of Structures HES1125 Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)
RESULTS The following results can be calculated using the data obtained in Table 1.1114 -0.1053 0.0134 0 0
0.0527 0.0627
0 0.0537 0.0422
0.0314 W3 N 0.Apr.2 0.0067 0 0 W2 N 0.0111 -0.5 0.0090
Table 2.5 0.0107 0.0224 0. Fz (positive upwards)
Length of cord.0108
Fz N 0.0448 0.9 sin
1
Pulley 2 Fz1 N 0.0638 0.

2892 0.7 0.5 0. Fxy = W cos Component of the force in the x direction.9990 0.2
cos
3
cos
3
0.0763
-0.2892 0. calculate the total force in the z-direction.5
2
cos
0.
§F
xT
! § Fx
FxT -0. FzT.94 0.Apr.55
0.7 1.94
1
Pulley 2
1
Pulley 3
2
cos
0.5 0.2486 -0.2011.0679 -01697
W3 N 0.0638 0.5 0.2 0. calculate the total force in the x-direction.8 1.17 -0.9986 0.5 0.2892 0.0000 1.0000
Fx1 N 0.0521 0. Fxt.direction From Table 3.1360 0.0497 0.0422
b) Component of the force in the xy plane.0000
Fx3 N 0.0521 0.17 0.33 -2. Fx = W cos
F(xy) = W cos cos
Pulley 1 W1 N 0. for each load case
FzT ! § Fz W1 W2 W3
§ F [N ]
z
FZT -1.9 cos 0.5 0.5 -0.5
cos -0.0521 0.0763
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Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)
.0000 1.69 -1.5 0.34 -0.1 0.2498 -0. for each load case.Equilibrium of forces in the x.8460
W2 N 0.9999 1.5 -0.4700 0.0000 1.0629 0.38 -2.9944 0.0000 1.2500 0.0629 0.0763
Fx -0.34
Table 3.2890 -0.3500 -0.0629 0.9938 0. 17
Mechanics of Structures HES1125 Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)
From Table 2 above.9980
Fx2 N -0.5
1.6000
Fx N -0.0004 00107 0.

2011.064 = 1.5 0.98 -0.250 + 0.4350 0.0457 (Approximately equal to zero) Component of the force in the x-y plane = 0.999 = 0.8 x 0.87 0.87
1.2513 -0.9944 0.2 0.6660 -0.98 -0.4326 0.87 0.0000 1.139 + -0.
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Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)
.0027 = 0.4691
N -0.2 sin
2
Fy3 cos
2
Fy N -0.9986 0. Fxy = W cos Component of force in the y direction.7 0.0000 1.0000 1.7964 -0. Fy = W cos sin
Pulley 1 W1 N 0.338 + 0.912 (Very close to zero/Negligible) Hence the body remains in equilibrium in three dimensions.Equilibrium of forces in the y direction
Summation of the forces and divided by the mean Force in the z-direction = 0.0000
Table 4.5 0.5 0.9999 1.87 0.8 1.87 -0.34 0. 17
Mechanics of Structures HES1125 Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)
(c) Component of the force in the xy plane.6090 -1.87 0.4346 0.9 sin
1
Pulley 2 Fy1 W2 N 0.2649 -0.1877 0.9980
-0.Apr.7840 -1.433 + 0.3060
cos
2
N 0.0179 + 0.94 0.077 = -0.7992 Force in the y-direction = 0.94
0.9938 0.1 0.5 sin
2
Pulley 3 Fy2 W3 N 0.0000
0.724 + -0.787 + 0.5 0.1700 0.0440
0.622 (Very close to zero/Negligible) Force in the x-direction = -0.34
0.0865 0.7 1.2689
cos
1
N
0.0179 + 0.9990 0.0072 + 0.0000 1.

proper position to take the measurement is needed. 7. The body is considered to be in equilibrium when the centre pole stays through the ring without touching it.
8
Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)
. 2. I personally don t agree the way did this experiment which was six person per group. I recommend this experiment should be done max three person and minimum two people.3 (this value depends in each and every scenarios )
Therefore.2011. 4. Parallax error will affect the measurement. there are certain experimental errors which are faced due to various reasons. 8. Therefore. Some of which are:
1.
Still. 17
Mechanics of Structures HES1125
Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)
DISCUSSION
This experiment can practically produce values which are very close to the theoretical exact values. 5. The values obtained from the measurement are not that accurate because the apparatus used. The summation of the three forces is supposed to be zero according to the theory. 6.Apr. but still not sure whether the centre pole goes right through the centre of the ring. like the meter ruler have a lower accuracy and precision. If we compare each and every reading with other group members we can see our readings and their readings are difference due to tolerance. because everyone don t get a chance and everyone will not get a equal good knowledge. The wind and other environmental forces can affect the weight when measuring because these forces can add in as extra weight whereas the exact load will be read as a lesser value. The heights were measured using a feet scale without considering too much on its decimal values which can still cause changes in final calculations. There is friction along the three pulleys that cause errors in the experiment. the calculations of this experiment could be not exact expectations but still are approximately true values. The pure eye has to see the body hanging in equilibrium to record the values and therefore the values come very close to the expected true values. 3.
µ=± 0.

This ends up with enough and more facts and calculations to show the summations of all three dimensional forces acting on a body when it is in equilibrium and hence good enough to come up with a worthy discussion. The summation of each three dimensional force can be proved zero (If the centre pole lies through the exact centre of the ring). In conclusion. There are several factors like the friction and parallax error had affected the calculation.Apr. the concept of a body remaining in equilibrium under three dimensional forces can be proved precisely with no doubt. However.
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Bradly Roger Shedden (7433670)
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Mechanics of Structures HES1125 Equilibrium Of Forces In Three-Dimensions (Lab Report)
SUMMARY
Through this experiment. Still with experimental errors distracting in between. the reading will be more accurate. this experiment succeeds in proving concepts on equilibrium of forces acting in three dimensions. If the errors can be prevented. the reading will be more accurate. If the errors can be prevented. the summation of each three dimensional force can be proved as a very close value to zero Newton s. where the values can even be neglected.
Conclusion Theoretically. several factor like the friction and parallax error had affected the calculation. the summation of forces should be zero because it is in equilibrium.2011.