ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN MEDICAL COLLEGES

Sample Items: PHYSICAL SCIENCES
(Extracted from MCAT Practice Test 3R)

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A scientist produced both types of spectra using the Xray tube shown in Figure 1 below. and the number of X-rays produced at the anode (A). two types of X-ray spectra are observed: continuous spectra and line spectra. The scientist used an X-ray tube to determine the relationship between X-ray wavelength. An electron from an outer energy level then fills the vacant inner energy level. which of the following represents the source of emission peaks P1 and P2? A ) Bremsstrahlung B ) Absorption of X-ray photons resulting in electronic excitations in atoms C ) Emission of X-ray photons as a result of electronic transitions in atoms D ) Acceleration of electrons in a magnetic field 12. In Figure 2. if an electron in the n = 1 energy level is ejected from an atom. λ. I. ray photons emitted at λ. A power supply (LV) regulates the filament temperature. A) B) C) D) 5 x 102 W 1 x 103 W 2 x 105 W 2 x 107 W 2 . The scientist then graphed the results of the experiment. A line spectrum results when an electron having sufficient energy collides with a heavy atom. which is proportional to the number of XCopyright 2003 AAMC. the electromagnetic radiation produced when free electrons are accelerated during collisions with ions. an electron in the n = 2 level of the atom can fill the vacancy created in the n = 1 level. and X-ray intensity. resulting in emission of an X-ray photon. as shown in Figure 2. approximately how much power must the tube consume? Figure 1 Heated cathode X-ray tube The tube contains a heated filament cathode (C). A continuous spectrum is produced by bremsstrahlung. to maintain an electron current of 0. For example. and an electron in an inner energy level is ejected from the atom. All rights reserved. which emits electrons. and a photon with an energy equal to the energy difference between the two levels will be emitted. the electrical current in the tube.005 A and a potential drop of 105 V between the anode and the cathode.Passage III (Questions 11-16) When X-rays are produced in an X-ray tube. Another power supply (HV) regulates electron acceleration. Figure 2 X-ray intensity versus wavelength 11. Based on the tube in Figure 1.

When an electron in the n = 2 level fills a vacancy in the n = 1 level. 3 . what is the energy of the X ray that is emitted? A) B) C) D) 1.40 x 10-14 J 14. peaks P1 and P2 were produced by events that occurred with unequal probabilities. because the peak has the longer wavelength P2. and 3 energy levels of Pb are 1. The voltage of LV was decreased.92 x 10-15 J 2. because the peak has the higher intensity Copyright 2003 AAMC. because the peak has the longer wavelength P1. 240 x 10-17J. bremsstrahlung will NOT be produced by collisions between electrons and: A) B) C) D) He. protons. Which peak was produced by the more probable event? A) B) C) D) P1. He2+. According to the passage.16 x 10-14 J 1. 2. respectively.400 x 10-17 J. and 48 x 10-17 J. 15.40 x 10-15 J 1. The voltage of HV was decreased.13. Li1+. the scientist made which of the following changes? A) B) C) D) The voltage of HV was increased. because the peak has the lower intensity P2. In Figure 2. In order to increase the maximum kinetic energy of electrons colliding with the anode. All rights reserved. 16. The ionization potentials for electrons in the n = 1. The voltage of LV was increased.

23. The sheet will be in translational equilibrium when F has what value? F=3N F=4N F=5N F=7N 24. 26. is applied to the center of the sheet. potential energy. Evaporation occurs when molecules at the surface of a liquid overcome the attractive forces of the liquid. starting from rest and accelerating uniformly at 1. How much work is done when a constant horizontal 20-N force pushes a 50-kg block a distance of 10 m on a horizontal surface? A) B) C) D) 50 J 100 J 200 J 500 J A third force.75 with respect to the horizontal direction. This occurs when molecules within the liquid attain a sufficient amount of: A) B) C) D) resonance. How long will it take a runner. are applied parallel to two edges of the sheet.5 m/s2. F. kinetic energy. as shown in the figure below. surface tension.5 sec 2. along a line in the plane of the sheet. A rectangular sheet of material has a width of 3 m and a length of 4 m. A) B) C) D) 25.0 sec Copyright 2003 AAMC.0 m? A) B) C) D) 21/2 sec 1. 4 .Questions 23-26 are NOT based on a descriptive passage.0 sec 3. at an angle θ = arctan 0. respectively. All rights reserved. Forces with magnitudes of 3 N and 4 N. to travel 3.

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