CELL DIVISION Dividing cells under go a regular sequence of events known as cell cycle.

Cell cycle may be divided into 2 basic parts 1. Interphase /Resting phase • Period of non division • It is divided into 3 phases naming G1/first growth phase • cell organelles are synthesized • new proteins produced • cytoplasm produced • cell grows rapidly ii) S/synthesis phase DNA replicates iii) G2 /second growth phase – • centrioles replicate • energy stores increase 2. Mitosis This happens in 4 phases 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase

PROPHASE • At the early stages (late interphase) the chromosomes are not visible whereas during the late prophase they become visible as long thin threads.Gradualy they coil and condense becoming short and thick • Each chromosome is seen to comprise 2chromatids joined at the centromere. • The centrioles migrate to the opposite poles of the cell (They appear like star like asters) and microtubules called spindle fibres,span the cell from pole to pole. • Nucleolus disappears • Nuclear membrane disintegrates

METAPHASE The chromosomes arrange themselves at the centre or equator Chromosomes become attached to certain spindle fibres at the centromere ANAPHASE The centromeres split and further shortening of the spindle fibres causes the 2 chromatids of each chromosome to separate and migrate to opposite poles. The centromere moves first towards the pole NOTE Contaction of the fibres causes the movement of the chromatids which is an active process.Energy is provided by mitochondria which are observed to collect around the spindle fibres. TELOPHASE The chromatids reach their respective poles and hereafter will be known as chromosomes. New nuclear membrane forms around each groups Chromosomes begins to uncondensed, uncoil and lengthen, thus becoming invisible again Spindle fibres disintegrate Nucleolus reforms Centrioles reform CYTOKINESIS Division of the cytoplasm Follows telophase and leads into the G1 phase of the interphase Animals Microfilaments/contractile fibres draw the cell surface membrane to form a furrow around the outside surface of the cell. Cell surface membrane in the furrow eventually join up and completely separate the two cells. Plants Some spindle fibres remain in the region of the equator Golgi apparatus produces a number of fluid filled vesicles These vesicles fuses to form a cell plate which grows across the equatorial plane The contents of the vesicles contribute to the new middle lamella and cell wall of the daughter cells,whilst their membranes form the new cell surface membrane. The spreading plate eventually fuses with the parent cell wall and separates the two daughter cells.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MITOSIS BETWEEN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS PLANT ANIMAL No centrioles present Centrioles present No asters formed Asters formed Cell division involves formation of Cell division involves furrowing cell plate and cleavage of cytoplasm Occurs mainly at meristem Occurs in tissues throughout the body SIGNIFICANCE OF MITOSIS 1.Genetic stability Daughter cells are genetically identical 2.Growth Increase in the number of cells 3.Cell replacement Dieing cells are replaced by mitosis 4.Regeneration Parts of the body are regenerated by mitosis 5.Asexual reproduction Mitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction, the production of new individuals of a species by one parent organism.

MEIOSIS Meiosis is a form of nuclear division in which the chromosome number is halved from the diploid number(2n) to the haploid number(n). Interphase is followed by 2 cycles of nuclear division and cell division known as meiosisI and meiosisII A single cell gives rise to 4 haploid cells. This takes place during gamete formation (plants and animals) INTERPHASE Same as in mitosis

PROPHASE I • Organisms have 2 sets of chromosome one derived from each parent – homologous pair of chromosome. NOTE Each member of the homologous pair of chromosome is of the same length,centromere at the same position and have the same number of genes. • • • • • • • • • • Chromosomes condense Chromatids are visible Homologous pairs of chromosomes associate with each other. They come together by a process called synapsis and each pair is called bivalent Chromatids of the pairpartially repel one another although they remain joined at certain points called chiasmata At these points chromatids may break and recombine with a different chromatid This swapping of portions of chromatids are known as crossing over Nucleolus disappears Nuclear membrane disintegrates The centrioles migrate to the opposite poles of the cell (They appear like star like asters) and microtubules called spindle fibres,span the cell from pole to pole

METAPHASE I • The bivalents become arranged around the equator of the spindle,attached by their centromere ANAPHASE I • Spindle fibres pull homologous chromosomes towards the opposite poles of the spindle • One of each pair is pulled to one pole,its sister chromosome to the opposite one. TELOPHASE I • Chromosomes reach their opposite poles • Nuclear envelope reforms • Spindle fibres disappear • Chromatids uncoil • Cell begins to divide PROPHASEII SAME AS MITOSIS METAPHASE II

SAME AS MITOSIS ANAPHASE SAME AS MITOSIS TELOPHASE SAME AS MITOSIS ORGANISATION OF CELLS Histology is the study of tissues. Tissue - group of one or m ore type of cells carrying out/specialized for one type of function. In plants One type of cell making a tissue parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma More than one type of cell making a tissue xylem Phloem Animal tissues are divided into four groups 1.Epithelial 2.Connective 3.Muscle 4.Nervous tissue EPITHELIAL TISSUE • Arranged in single or multilayered sheets and covers the internal and external surfaces of the body of an organism. • Cells rest on a basement membrane • They are not supplied by with blood vessels; rely on diffusion to obtain nutrients. • They protect the underlying structure from injury and infection • Their free surface could be specialized.-cilia

EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Simple epithelia • • Squamous epithelia Cuboidal epithelia

compound epithelia • stratified epithelia

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Columnar epithelia ciliated epithelia Squamous epithelia Thin flattened cells. Found in renal capsule,alveoli,blood capillary walls

Cuboidal epithelia Cube shaped cells. Central spherical nucleus present Lines the ducts – salivary Present in glands - salivary gland, sweat gland • Columnar epithelia Tall and narrow cells Nucleus at the basal end It can be secretory of absorptive in function May possess a brush boarder Goblet cell belongs to this type Present in intestine,kidney ducts • ciliated epithelia columnar in shape but bear numerous cilia at their free surface. Mucus secreting goblet cells Lines oviduct and respiratory passages • stratified epithelia number of layers therefore thicker than simple epithelial layer relatively rough impervious barrier found on external skin surfaces,buccal cavity and vagina ORGANS Anumber of tissues working together as a functional unit is known as an organ. SYSTEM Parts of large functional units formed by organs

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