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The Initial Impact of an Organizational Development Intervention on Appreciative

Leadership Development: A Case Study of Thailand Appreciative Inquiry Network
Adchariya Auppakarakul1

This research finds its origin in the researcher’s inner inspiration and desire to expand leadership
development knowledge in the Thai society; which was achieved by combining Appreciative Inquiry
(AI) with leadership principles and sharing this combination with AI Thailand’s members.
Appreciative Leadership (AL) development was selected to create positive changes among AI
Thailand’s members. This research aimed at exploring the initial impact of ODI on the Reaction,
Learning, and Behavioral levels of AI Thailand’s members. This was measured in terms of
Disposition, Attitude of openness, Defined continuous learning skills, and Connection to other people,
the latter being assessed in terms of cooperation, collaboration, and complementation. Post-ODI
surveys found that the changes had positive impacts on the participants. Regarding the Reaction level,
the participants were satisfied with the AL development. As to the Learning level, the participants’
knowledge and skills increased significantly while, in terms of Behavioral level, the participants’ AL
Qualities mostly increased.

Keywords: Organization Development, Action Research, Leadership Development, Appreciative
Inquiry, Appreciative Leadership.

Introduction Developing a strong leadership will spur
Nowadays, it is difficult to separate a business employees to guide themselves to a higher level
operation from the impact that the process of of competency in terms of improvement in their
globalization is having upon it. Today, more thinking, action, and behavior. In other words,
than ever, people are the focus of an what is suggested here is that there is a need for
organization’s adaptability and are the ones who leaders with a new paradigm; leaders suited to
actually execute all the tasks in a dynamic today’s changing world or, put differently,
environment (Smith & Dickson 2003). For these leaders for positive change.
reasons, all organizational members need to The inner inspiration for this study is a desire
increase their generative motivation, interactive to enhance Thai human capital. Moreover, the
employee engagement, and functional teamwork. Buddhist faith, with its mandate to behave and
And to achieve this, organizational leaders must think in good ways - and not in bad ones, has
implement development programs through their also been a source of inspiration for the
organization’s staff (Mannix & Reterson 2003). researcher to study leadership development as a
Therefore, regardless of the type of way to ameliorate Thai human capital.
organization, the development of human capital This study focuses on Thailand Appreciative
will help to enhance the adaptability of the Inquiry Network (AI Thailand), a non-profit
organization and enable it to cope better with organization that was established as a
globalization and change. One area that can community of AI practice on October 16, 2007
enhance people’s capability for greater by Dr. Pinyo Rattanaphan. (Rattanaphan 2009).
performance is leadership. AI Thailand started with a total of 32 members,
all of whom MBA students at the College of
Adchariya Auppakarakul, Ph.D.OD is a lecturer in Graduate Study in Management (CGSM), at
the MBA program at CGSM, Khon Kaen University. Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The
This article is based on his Ph.D.OD dissertation. membership has steadily gone up and presently,


. However. easy end of the training program. Learning. Literature Review . AI Thailand sees itself as an international The training program applied action learning community of practice in AI and Appreciative for both group workshops and each individual Leadership (AL). Learning (p. Bratton et This impact is measured by four criteria: (i) al.To create versions of the pioneering from different perspectives. which will help everyone gain learning process over a period of six months.Richness of professional resources of and connection to other people and as indicated AI. and Opportunities complementation. (2005). stating that “no theory or . Researchers have tried to study.Enhanced human capital for Thai model of leadership so far has provided a society satisfactory explanation of leadership.Sustainable growth of AI Thailand the topic of leadership.The first AI community of practice in To assess the participants’ AL quality level as Thailand measured in terms of disposition.To create a Thai research center in AI leadership is complex and because leadership is and AL for academic purposes studied in different ways that require different Results definitions.” Gill (2006) reviewed and critiqued .Leadership Definition . 2). Problem Statement widely. and owners. with regard to determine the extent of the initial impact of the the definition of leadership argued that there is AL training program on the members of AI “no consensus” or that “little agreement exists” Thailand with regard to their Reaction. attitude of . All self-knowledge and will also provide solutions participants were tested at the beginning and the for one’s organization in positive. the global OD community Lussier & Achua (2007) have stated that “There is no universal definition of leadership because . Table 1.Expertise in AI knowledge and training openness.there are approximately 160 members. (ii) attitude of openness. explained that disposition. Some researchers. Indeed. and (iv) connection MBA and ex-MBA students who are private to other people (itself assessed in terms of employees. complementation). for example. reports and observations from the researcher A SOAR analysis of AI Thailand was were processed in order to evaluate the conducted (Table 1. (iii) defined 61 .To make local knowledge available to incomplete. Aspirations define and explain key elements of leadership . it seems Thai AI and AL training center abroad that leadership definitions are still found to be . Research Objectives .Provide AI and AL paradigms to the The topic of leadership has been studied since Thai educational sector ancient times. collaboration.based and AL development by their level of cooperation.Strengthen Thai human capability .” This statement is in keeping with The primary purpose of this study is to Daniels & Daniels’ (2007) who.1: SOAR Analysis of AI Thailand Strengths 2. and Behavior levels. current skills of continuous learning. leadership definitions abound. collaboration.1) participants’ Reaction. Still. and Behavior (Kirkpatick 1998. defined skills of continuous learning. and business cooperation. level. cheap. for instance. 2009).Develop an AL training program for the Thai community 3. government officers. Individual project and workable ways. there are many definitions of leadership that vary 1. .

an impact on organizational prosperity. the researcher will define AL as satisfied.AL Definition make AL successful in terms of driving positive AL is a relatively new leadership concept and change. Fry and Cooperrider interaction of leaders and followers within a (1990) referred to an appreciative executive as “a specific context and is equated with power.” scholar.” words.” inspires followers. new they look at and define things. Holland. organizational life. Organizations and Communities: (iv) Appreciative Leaders “are continually looking Inspires Hope. of leader is the person who designs. (2006) stated that “Appreciative based on the assumption that an effective leader leaders are self-aware and incorporate new can be made. not problems.“leadership is socially constructed through the To define AL. where internal processes are being the ability to discover. Srivastva. not the processes of change. created. anticipation of the changes. quality is increasing. sets objectives. organization.” involves appreciation. et al. and awareness These two examples of leadership definitions [so] that there is a difference between problems demonstrate that leadership has a high impact on to be solved and aspirations that need the level of organizational performance. Riley. where customers are being In this study. and the process of facilitating individual Keefe & Pesut (2004) for their part defined and collective efforts to accomplish shared AL in those terms: “This style of leadership objectives. taught. to do it. Processes. inspires they cannot rely only on their own innate transformational conversations. appreciative leader is a person who is able “to see the best in people and leverage their . and mobilizes personalities.” organizations and their communities in order to 62 .” This is because a mastery and wonder. innovations.” business conditions come into play. creativity. gather. and amplify the managed seamlessly and where wealth is being existing strengths and successes of members. 1999). where Integrity (Ibid). and connecting all that is good and leaders are required to establish new leadership healthy in people and the world around them---in paradigms to lead their organizations. AL (i) is Inclusive. they need to develop their new cooperative action toward life-affirming social leadership skills. arguing that “leadership is attributes of a leader’s characteristics which they the process of influencing others to understand expressed in terms of ‘strongly relational’ and and agree about what needs to be done and how ‘participative style and beliefs’. and (v) Exemplifies Relational for instances where things are going right. In other specification. so For Diana Whitney (2007) AL refers to “the organizations must acquire new capabilities in capacity to engage others in discovering. leadership effectiveness has a direct According to Mantel and Ludema (2004). As Bushe (2001) explained.Leadership Development strengths to achieve significant and mutually Leadership development is a relevant topic in valued goals”. As times change. (ii) and Inquiry terminology which is derived from the AI based. & Schiller (2002) concluded that Yukl (2006) broadly defined leadership in AL is a combination of the competencies and terms of influences. Organizational magnifying. (iii) it Illuminates the Best of People. the development of today’s organizations as it is Lewis.” She also identified five characteristics that . and developed learning and they are willing to change the way (Zimmerman et al. colleague and sculptor of conversation Parry (1998) stated that “leadership is one of that seeks to give new voice to the mystery. concept. Because such a way that deepens relatedness. and makes decisions for the After interviewing Appreciative Leaders.

paradigms such as transactional and (iii) adopt the “what is” approach. of AI with others people as a team in order to however. 2007). your lens:” “(i) see people through an AL is different from other leadership Appreciative Lens. are the same as AL’s. confidence by showing extraordinary leadership which refers to the contributive positive energy ability to the followers (Gill 2006). suggests that a leader gains a objectives together (Reed 2007). pride in being part of the organization. A transactional leader motivates other people to 4. Collaboration. and (v) ask questions the organization and people’s strengths and what from diverse points of view. (ii) envision what you want. transformational leadership and AL do beneficial insight which can inform Appreciative have some similarities. (ii) and always integrating other people when approach others with unconditional positive working and making changes. (2004) articulated four AL creates self-positive thinking and emphasizes principles serving as guidelines to develop taking action when interacting with other people individual AL: (i) believe in the possible. Conceptual Framework achieve the desired outcomes by exchanging The conceptual framework for this study is rewards and promising tangible rewards.AL Development change across and within groups and Ring et al. objectives and performance standards (Gill when in an organizational context. on the other hand is continuously move toward others.. they Connection to Others. action. and includes three sub-components: Cooperation. which has to do with the development of partnerships for .e. Defined Skills of Continuous Learning refers Lim & Daft 2004) AL will create positive to the process of knowing the value of reflection changes rather than maintaining the stability of and action and the capability of reflection. While a transactional leader deficient ones (Senge et al.” i. Bass (1995) identified Leaders of the next action in daily life (Stavors transformational leadership characteristics that & Torres 2006). This quality follower’s trust.create positive and sustainable change for the whereas AL focuses on intrinsic rewards such as organization and the world. achieve the goals. admiration. individuals 2006). which means integrating the development in terms of “five ways to widen whole organization and its people. a reference to a form of need “to recapture those past events of interaction with other people and the influence consequence to the organization’s future” (Ibid). It is a top-down management style participate in some activities with other people whereas AL is both a vertical and horizontal they respond with positive thoughts instead of management style. the current organizational circumstances. makes no reference to this element. (iii) radically include others. Moreover.” is working well in the organization. meaning that. A AL has also been characterized in terms of transactional leader also uses a directive style Disposition. and (v) Transactional leadership. (iv) nurture transformational leaderships in that it focuses on the power of creativity. (2009) defined the concept of AL Complementation.1: 63 . Attitude of Openness. respect. and Defined particularly when setting organizational Skills of Continuous Learning. and positive momentum that contribute to One transformational leadership component. shown in Figure 1. regard. And Mantel et al. an exchange process (Bass 1985). It also refers will focus on short-term goals rather than long- to building a shared vision attitude rather than term changes by maintaining stability and adherence to a leader’s vision only (Ibid). and then reflection again with new or Still. transformational leaders Another term connected with Al is need to be able to “honor the past. AL. efficiency within the organization (Gill 2006. achieving the group’s and organization’s Idealized Influence.

(ii) AL practical experience. workshops: (i) Appreciative Coaching. It employed both qualitative and previous workshops. Value attitudes. All the participants were members of AI The first group-training session was an AI- Thailand. and (iv) AL qualities. and follows: Post-ODI. and share his were males and 6 females. attitude level and behavior of participants in terms of AL mindset. experiences with AI with the participants There were three age groups: 8 of the 20 The second one aimed at having participants participants were just under 30. Research Methodology activities. between 30 and 40 years of age. to which the founder of AI Thailand. and 3 were over The participants were asked a particular question 40. whereas 6 of the 20 participants were specifically impressive experience. The action research framework for this study The research hypotheses were developed as is divided into three parts: Pre-ODI. was invited to teach the concepts of students from Khon Kaen University and 14 AI. eighteen were MBA and Ex-MBA Dr. conducted as one intervention. Both coaching and consultations were and their organizations. experience the Discovery stage of AI 4-D cycle. and mindsets. These Initial Personal AL Qualities two techniques aimed at checking the reactions. Pinyo. Attitude  Connection to Others The first one was for the participants and the -Cooperation  Self-awareness -Collaboration second one for people around the participants. six people (family members  Belief in the Abilities of Others or co-workers) were queried.  Positive Attitude of Openness  Defined Skills of As to the quantitative methods. ODI. workshop. two  Strength-Based Continuous Learning questionnaires were used to conduct this study. and behavioral levels of participants in  Disposition Attitude the Pre-ODI. Its objective was to increase AL skills This research is a “one-group pre-test-post. all of whom held various of the AI project (for 5 months) within each occupations and came from different provinces. all volunteers. as a vehicle to develop AL qualities. In the wake of the the study. give some real case studies. two techniques were used for data collection: Independent Variables Dependent Variables participants’ interviews and observations of each of the participant’s behavioral changes. Sekaran 2003. H0: The AI-based training workshop cannot be The pre-ODI stage explains the current used as a vehicle to develop AL qualities. The respondents Created by the author for this study totaled 120. Participants were selected from consulting. 64 .1: Conceptual Framework Regarding the qualitative methods. It focuses on four criteria: Ha: The AI-based training workshop can be used (i) problem solving. participant’s organization. ODI. Out of a total of twenty participants. dialogues. business owners. (ii) Walliman 2006). and Post-ODI phases. and (iii) implementation a group of volunteers. It consisted of three group test design” (Field & Hole 2003. 14 of the 20 participants worked as about going shopping and were let to recall a employees. The ODI stage shows implementation 5. -Complementation For each participant.Figure 1. The third one had as its goal to teach AL Action research was the main methodology of concepts to the participants. another 9. (iii) AL skills. coaching and consultation quantitative approaches for deeper inquiry to sessions were implemented for AL development study the positive changes within the participants purposes.

Participants . The post-ODI AL concept mean stage. this research focused concept in respect of learning level before and primarily on three elements: the Reaction or after the AL development.” and then could 80% of the participants were satisfied with the go to the “Appreciative Leadership Network” AL development. Moreover. however. participants were asked “What are the diaries was analyzed according to Kolb’s fundamentals of AL?” and “What is the meaning experiential learning cycle (Coghlan 1993a. the researcher’s log book. participants averaged page. they could formulate the right answers – interviews was analyzed by a method for coding albeit in their own wording. 1 = learned from this program.14. indicating that people working with the participants. Overall.345. The questionnaires were written in The paired-samples statistics and a t-test AL style. an AL questionnaire asked about learning new knowledge and skills for participants.Increased Learning Level researcher had to develop a new interview record Participants rated ( X ) 4. t (19) = 5.01.57) was higher than the pre-ODI participants. that those criteria will form of the appreciative comments made (see point to some improvement. after the ODI Brannick 2002).Reaction Level: Participants Satisfied were able to access the network via the internet A post-program survey found that at least website: “www. the . participants in terms of AL learning. the proper terminology. When asked people around the participants (Appendix B). conducted to compare the mean scores of the AL As aforementioned.95 out of 5. And when probed about their level Evaluations concept (Kirkpatrick 1998.34 out of 5. the data from the process. 2009) of improvement regarding their newly-acquired was adapted to measure the changes in the expertise. used to support the from the interviews was transcribed to a quantitative results. Learning level. SD=. with but the there was also some supporting evidence in the expectation. the average score was strongly disagree). used Moreover. and statistically a highly significant difference Behavioral level with the expectation that there between the pre.40 out of 5 when system (see Appendix A). Though not using interview data. at the time of the research. The data The qualitative data.73 (M=3. as the qualitative analysis shows. and one by 0. Since. quite a high score ( X ) of 4. reveal that there was Satisfaction level. SD=.40. came in the form of recording system in terms of numbers and was questions asked before and during the ODI plotted in AL’s diagrams (see Appendix A). they assessed the level at 81. about confidence in the participant’s ability to The questionnaires mostly used the 5-point apply the knowledge and skills which they had Likert Scale (where 5 = strongly agree. before the ODI process Information from the logbooks or research’s began. percentiles. would be a change therein at the Implementation p<0. of Disposition of Openness?” and could not McMullan et al. both cited in Coghlan & answer either of them. Analysis of Findings and Interpretation learning. process. The final stage. 65 . there was no standard test for assessing AL qualities. 1979.aithialand. and a questionnaire for other from the AL training program. Kirkpatrick Four Levels of 3. To help participants share their experiential 6. Data was collected from three sources: (M=4. the post-ODI stage. For example.32).5%. they replied correctly. an AL Network was created to enhance communication among participants. the ODI process had a significant effect on the All questionnaires used arithmetic means ( X ). and Paired t-Test Analysis. criteria similar to the Pre-ODI stage. However. Appendix C).and post-ODI.

174. respect of participants’ survey show that there is Thus. the AL participants’ pre. p<0. and there is statistically a highly significant Connection to Other (i. who had high intrinsic motivation.01 as the post-ODI Disposition Attitude of Openness mean (M=4. SD=. In keeping with this finding.86.Increased Defined Skills of Continuous based on the researcher’s observations and Learning logbooks and calculations of the results of the The pre-ODI and post-ODI interview results pre. 1990).54. The AL development impact on the SD=.66). In The pre.and post-ODI. moderate ones. the participants’ learning levels had each participant show that 16 of the 20 increased.01 with the post-ODI positive. As their experiential learning cycle increased.e. questionnaire surveys. difference between the pre.83. six.and post-ODI questionnaire development had a significant effect on the surveys and the second one from people participants in terms of Disposition and Attitude involved the participants’ pre-ODI and post-ODI of Openness level. although not homogeneously.24) is higher than . as an ODI process. they were . SD=. Clearly. the Results from the participant’s survey more knowledge and skills they acquired. In Kolb’s 2 scales up Significant Increase experiential learning cycle parlance. One were more likely to gain from AL development participant.37) higher than the corresponding data were used. t (19) = 6. the paired- which confirmed their improved learning (for samples t-test between the pre. through practice’. Disposition Attitude of Openness mean In the quantitative analyses two sources of (M=4. AL development statistically a highly significant difference increased the Learning level of the participants between the pre.Increased Behavioral level the corresponding pre-ODI one (M=3. 66 . participants’ AL qualities or behavior. . SD=.and post-ODI interviews.and post-ODI interview results of short.33). t Collaboration. reported a significant as they had specific goals to improve themselves increase. Cooperation. participants had increased their level of Put in terms of Adult Learning Theory Disposition and Attitude of Openness in the (Knowles 1984. people around the participants also indicate that Defined Skills of Continuous Learning.. and Complementation). and thirteen. the 1 to 2 Increase participants showed that they had improved their 0 to 1 Slight Increase knowledge and skills through their experiential 0 No Increase learning cycle by implementing the AI projects.and post-ODI in comments.showing that they had understood the AL Improvement Scales Interpretation as concept and not simply memorized it. was (119) = 6. As to the qualitative analyses. Attitude of Openness. collected from in terms of Disposition. slight and their organizations. The more they practiced. development. participants had ‘learned wake of the AL development.562. The change level of each participant reveal that 19 of the 20 with respect to each criterion and each participants increased their level of Defined participant was divided into four groups as Skills of Continuous Learning after the AL shown below: development.and post-ODI. themselves as ‘improved’ after AL training. assessed Another paired-samples t-test.Increased Disposition and Attitude of Openness new knowledge and skills were acquired. see Appendix D).72. participants gave some feedback. The questionnaire indicate that all participants rated participants. in particular. The first one came from the pre-ODI one (M=3. At the end of the AL ones. p<0.

SD=. a moderate one.01 and a post-ODI Cooperation mean (M=4. this was also supported by the Also.67.59). p<0.Increased Cooperation Level (119) = higher than the corresponding pre-ODI indicates that there was statistically a highly one (M=3. There is statistically a 67 .and post-ODI interviews .30) was increased level of Defined Skills of Continuous higher than the corresponding pre-ODI one Learning. and 15 slightly also indicate just that with one participant improved. p<0. 6. in ODI Collaboration mean (M= 4. The post-ODI effect on the participants as measured by their Cooperation mean (M= 4.40. (4. which qualitative analysis in the areas of frequency of was collected from people around participants.20.7615). Data from the participant’s survey show that The other paired-samples t-test conducted each participant improved at the Connection to among people around the participants also goes Others level after the ODI process. (4. eleven.Increased Connection to Others than the pre-ODI one (M=4. One out of 20 in the same direction and is consistent with the participants significantly improved. p<0. reporting a significant increase.35) higher . t (119) = 9. SD=.and three arithmetic means (Cooperation. a The overall results in terms of Connection to moderate one and eight a slight one.55. mean (4. difference between the pre.62. experiential learning cycles. They show that the post-ODI highly significant difference between the pre.37). the AL significant difference between the pre. SD =. Defined Skills of Continuous Learning mean Also. the paired-samples t-test participants recorded an increase in respect of between the pre. Here again. As the overall pre.002.and post-ODI.and post- and high self-motivation.60). t (19) = 7. 4 made Cooperation level tests.8365) was higher than the pre-ODI one SD =. And again. Collaboration. SD =.and post- development has had a significantly positive ODI. t (19) = 8. and participants with a statistically highly significant Complementation. The results of the participant’s survey in this moderate improvements.47. 15 of the 20 As with Cooperation. Others were calculated by the summation of A paired-samples t-test between the pre. post-ODI with regard to the participants’ survey Collaboration.5440) was higher than the pre-ODI one and post-ODI.01 as the post- increase. 8. and Complementation) and confirms the increase as there is statistically a divided by three.90. ODI. higher than the corresponding pre-ODI one 5 showed no increase. (M=3. A differing pattern emerged highly significant difference between the pre- with 1 participant reporting a significant and post-ODI.221.23.62). implementation of confirms this increase with a statistically highly AI projects.786.01 and a pre-ODI Defined The paired-samples t-test between the pre- Skills of Continuous Learning mean (M=4.38) is a departure from the previous criteria considered.and post-ODI of participants’ their level of Connection to Others following the survey demonstrate that there is statistically a AL development. t (19) = 6. and post-ODI of the participants’ surveys SD=.24) higher than the participants showed that the post-ODI mean corresponding pre-ODI Defined one (M=3. a slightly and.568.01. p<0.01.Increased Collaboration Level results of each participant show.446. SD =. p<0. t . (M=3. SD =.2170) with respect to the level of Connection This is also confirmed by the paired-samples to Others which in this study is analyzed in sub- t-test collected from people around the terms of Cooperation. post-ODI (3. SD =. significant difference between pre. another paired-samples t-test. the survey data from people around the (M= 4. SD=. adaptation of the AI 5 principles.

This is supported by the qualitative analysis Regardless of their final achievements. As for AI Thailand.32. the paired-samples t-test theory. between the pre. the which shows an increase as a result of adapting participants have also helped to implement all 5 of the AI principles. this research has strenuous bureaucratic environment. from four different perspectives: the research .82. been instrumental in creating sustainable growth those who had had experiences managing people for AI Thailand and enhanced the human capital were able to improve faster. t (119) = 7.10. SD =.32).highly significant difference between the pre. this research program.156. Twenty five percent of the participants significant difference between the pre. p<0. mean Collaboration of the post-ODI (M=4. complete their implementation projects within The AL theory was much appreciated by all the their own organizations. the research participants’ survey indicate that there is objectives have been fulfilled and some lessons statistically a highly significant difference drawn from the experience. they collected from people around the participants have acquired new knowledge and skills in AI shows that there is statistically a highly and AL. AI Thailand. Once the implementing their AI projects within their researcher connected AL with Buddhism in respective organizations as they succeeded in terms of self-awareness. combined AI-based and AL-based trainings p<0. it can be said that AI business managers and business owners for Thailand’s objectives have been fulfilled. and positive 68 . In this respect.28) is higher than the mean Collaboration The results of this research can be considered of the pre-ODI (M=4.and post.30). meditation. stimulating their mindsets.Increased Complementation Level itself.90.227. Concerning the participants themselves. medium and large-sized companies grasped the Finally. organization and attracted the attention of others. Moreover. the AL development support system to support its vision: the has had a significant impact on the participants Appreciative Leadership Network. particularly in an Eastern context. Collaboration as well as has also brought eight new members to the Complementation levels. Complementation of the post-ODI (M= 4. their efforts to bring about a positive impact on and post-ODI. this research has gathered SD=. And here too.14) higher than the Pre-ODI one (M= 4. p<0.76). repeating the actions of the new behavior. The participants who positive change through Thai society via their work in a highly competitive environment as projects. One is that between the pre. respectively. the paired-samples t-test. Conclusion and Recommendations SD=.and post-ODI.01.AL their implementation projects while 8 had yet to knowledge. and prompted AI Thailand to come up with a As these findings show.71. t (19) = 4. and AL In this case too. 5 of the 20 participants participants and all the others involved one way have made significant achievements in terms of or the other in this ODI program.15. t (119) = 8.561. 12 of the 20 participants had completed has helped to accumulate – and disseminate . Still. SD =. by the end of the AL development With respect to the AL theory. the participants. have made significant achievements in ODI. more case studies for the AI-based community SD= . SD=. AL communities.27) higher the participants. This research in terms of Cooperation.01 with the post-ODI mean should begin by implanting knowledge within Complementation (M= 4. with reference to the measurable concepts more quickly than those at junior results shown in the SOAR analysis of AI and executive positions or those working in a less.and post-ODI of the With regard to the research itself.01 with the mean implementing AI projects. and than the pre-ODI one (M=4. in the Thai society. The the people in their organizations.

Doing Action Coaching. B. that is in itself food for thoughts and a topic yet to be explored. D.. Vol. R. USA: McGraw-Hill. (1995). R. for example. D. The next step in AL development should be to study AL in one context. T. from A customized AL training course should be http://kirkpatrickpartners. understand and more readily accepted by the Therefore. there needs to be more time to Bass. 103-109 should have at least 4 to 5 years experience in Kirkpatrick. Theory and Practice of Leadership. participants so as to properly monitor the impacts that AL may have on that organization. How to Design and Report This would generate a greater understanding and Experiments. (1995). Ohio: Thomson Learning. & Daniels. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. L. this AL development was 69 . Journal of Management Inquiry.clearlearning. D. development program has worked effectively for people who are managers and business owners in Keefe. This Leadership: Looking at Possible Antecedents and would help the researcher understand more of Consequences. Field. (2004).. G. organizations should be interviewed to measure the harmony between quantitative and Bushe. experiential learning cycle. Retrieved February 28. 2010.” The next AL training course will strengthen and enrich AI Thailand’s AL Daniels.. Vol. Grint. California: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. in Others. The and Leadership Transitions. L. (2002). Evaluating Training Programs: managing people. L. 20 No. Leadership and Performance beyond For those participants who did not complete Expectations. J. As AboutUs/OurPhilosophy/tabid/63/Default. A. The Appreciative Self: Inspiring the Best qualitative data. The results of this research show that this AL London: Sage Publications Ltd. some intervention activities such as participants. This will help future The Four Levels. K. Appreciative Inquiry medium and large-sized companies. Ltd. & Hole. Bratton. Journal of Professional individuals to be chosen for such further studies This study should include enough New Alternatives. & Nelson. Wilshire. Retrieved May18. Inc. their AI projects. & Pesut. G. Kirkpatrick. E. A. W. (2005). London: Sage further developed with respect to an “AI Publications Ltd. Team Building: Current Issues and company. D. Comment: Transformational follow up on their implementation results. 293-297 In order to gain more insight and knowledge. Great Britain: Sage publications knowledge of AL. the AL training course should be Research in Your Own Organization. Further studies should thus focus on this target group. the AL theory was suddenly easier to effective for people with work experience. 2009.attitude. from In order to deepen the knowledge and http://www. (2007). D. New York: The Free Press. (2009). (2006). C. This may also attract new members Producing Exceptional Performers and Outstanding to the community. (2001). audience.3. Inc.Recommendations for AI Thailand Bass.htm understanding of AL and Appreciative Coghlan. Results. References .aspx previously mentioned. Learning Team. M. M. in one Dyer. The Kirkpatick Four Levels. (1985). (2003). which says quite a lot about the AI projects should be reframed and transplanting Western concepts to an Eastern customized for this group of people. participants effectively learn from the self. G. . Measure of a Leader: The Legendary Leadership Formula for knowledge.Recommendations for Further Studies Gill. 2. 4 the current developed for less experienced people. (1998). those people within the participants’ Organizational Leadership. & Brannick. M. No. J. B.

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organizational strengths and achievements. answer the way you do? 2. pay attention to structure do you usually respond? And what made you and system first. 2. This person praises others with his/her we learned is different from what we had genuineness. If someone says “focusing on someone’s Example of Survey Questionnaires for People strengths”.” 4. studied. create positive change in Response Response my organization. This person is working with self-awareness of person? Why do you say so? positive attitude.” have done good things “I feel good about focusing on positive for their groups or organizations. experiences.” The record system was designed in the scale from 1 to 9 whereas 1 represents a negative response and 9 represent a positive response. This person encourages Appendix C me to focus on my Comments: strengths. I learned something new and now adores others when they understand AL. Appendix B I normally focus on Example of Pre. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I am working on self- 2. This person admires and “It was good.and Post-Program Interview 3. how do you feel about it? And around the Participants what made you answer the way you do? Opinion 3.Appendix A “I have learned how to encourage myself when Example of Interview record system facing a difficult time.” 71 . what 3. Attributes /Competencies Ability of AL measure The Positive Principle attitude.” “I have been exposed to new positive experiences. Question # 6: “How do you feel when for Participant things happen unexpectedly? Why do you feel this way?” This question was designed to Skills level / No.” Appendix D Comments: “It is a practical theory. I normally 1. awareness of positive attitude. how 4. 1 2 3 4 5 Very Very I have the ability to Negative Unconcerned Positive 1. If someone says that “the things that happen Perception to Participant No. 1 2 3 4 5 in the past are the causes of your present expectation”. When you face an unexpected situation. I have gotten a practical experience. Questions To develop an organization. what will you reply to that 1. “The AI and AL concepts were new to us. For Example of Pre and Post Survey Questionnaire example.