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ds ign

david stevens design solutions

Arthritic Solutions

Product Design BSC
Design Project (H6052)
Technical report

Word Count 11, 573

david stevens : major project : product design bsc : university of sussex 07 - 08

Note to Reader
This report is representative of the Arthritic Solutions project and does not resemble the ‘traditional’ model of a technical report. As the project is
entirely user-focused, aspects of the design could change at any time dependent on feedback from the user groups in question.

The project followed the philosphies of Inclusive Design and Emotional Design, therefore this report does not contain a Product Design Specification.
This would have placed constrictions on an area of design that can benefit immediate changes, due to user feedback.

In an attempt to make this report as user-friendly to read as possible, it has been spiral bound, rather than hot glue bound. The spiral bind allows
readers to turn pages fully, removing the need to hold back pages while reading. A hardback bound update of this report will be available at
twentythree08 : University of Sussex Degree Show.

To further this report’s usability and to preserve resources, Appendices A - E have been burned onto the accompanying DVD, as opposed to

Statement of Origininality
This report is a documentation of work conducted on the Design Project course (H6052) at University of Sussex between September 2007 and April
2008. All content has been produced by the author, David Stevens, unless stated otherwise. The corporate identity ‘ds:ign; David Stevens Design
Solutions’ is the property of David Stevens, all rights reserved.

Note to Examiner
Due to a death in the family in March 2008, a mitigating cirumstances form has been submitted for this report.

Using a variety of design philosophies, namely Inclusive Design and
Emotional Design, the subject of Living with Arthritis has been used
as a primary focus point to explore the possibility of new product
developments with the aim of helping people carry out daily tasks
that they may otherwise find challenging. Inclusive and Emotional
Design Philosophies were adopted to give the potentially broad
project a specific focus, leading to the study of relevant areas of
design and market research.

An integral element of the project is observational first hand research.
Through a number of focus groups, case studies and interviews
with professionals, a large body of invaluable information has been Fig 0.1 A selection of people who helped to develop the product from concept to final solution.

collected through the mediums of photography, film and sound arthrits in the execution of daily tasks. Although there is currently a large
recordings, and has helped to: market saturated with products aimed at relieving the symptoms of arthritis,
the focus has been shifted to the Universal Design Philosophy of improving
• Visually document people performing tasks related to the the lifestyle of not only the ‘disabled’ but the wider population, with the
project further aim of reducing the likelihood of arthritis in later life.
• Recognise a problem that may not have been seen by the
intended market, With the use of new materials such as SUGRU, a hand formable silicone, a
• Turn a perceived problem into an exact solution range of products have been developed to eliminate painful symptoms of
• Establish a reliable user base for prototype testing arthritis experienced during daily activities, while establishing a positive
emotional response from the user. It is this effect, accompanied by the
This research was then implemented into the development of a philosophies behind Inclusive Design that have resulted in well-considered,
range of arthritic solutions that aim to reduce, if not eliminate pain unstigmatised, user-centered products.
experienced from the effects of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid

.......8 CAD Development Project Evaluation 3.....................2 Keys in Use 1...................1 Inspiration 3.................4 Visual Impairment Simulation 5.? ............................0 Initial Research............................3 Initial Concepts 1..2 4.............................................3 Manufacturing Process 2........5 Further Development 1..........................0 Concept Refinement.......2 PEST Analysis 3........3 Idea Generation 7.......0 Cost Analysis.......................................................0 Market Research..........................................2 Dial-operated products 3......................1 Occupational Theapy 5.................contents Summary Contents Introduction 1.........23 6..........5 Statement of Intent 4............53 6....4 Glass Rub 50 2.........................................2 Models of Disability 4...........2 Cast Aluminium Pure (S150.5 Sketch Development 7....6 Initial Concepts 5........3 Physiological Research 4..1 Material Selection for body of products 2......6 Sketch Modelling 3............................................1 Integration of SUGRU 3..4 CAD Development 1................13 5.....4 Initial Concepts 7..0 DialTurner..1) 2...................5 Emotional Design 2.59 3..........4 Memory of Pain 4...........6 Potential Market 6...................2 Technical Specification 3..................9 Interim Solution What next...5 SUGRU 2.......0 Conclusion.............................1 Intial Observations 4....55 3..............1 Study of Keys 1.......0 Key Turner......................................0 Materials and Manufacture.. Dunstan’s home for the Blind 5...7 CAD solutions 8............................................................................................................2 St...............3 Arthritis Simulation 5......................................................................43 2.......35 1.........1 Cost of Manufacture 3.

struggles to slice bread • Functional – once the needs and desires of the intended market have been determined. What is Inclusive Design? [online] avialble at : http://www. as many people as reasonably possible … without the need for special adaptation or specialised design. 87% do not have external care. whilst in the USA records have been broken with 69.4 million people in the UK alone with x-ray evidence of osteoarthritis in their hands. commissioned British Telecom. the thought of independent living may be brought into doubt after extended experience of poorly designed products. helps to define an inclusive product as the following: Fig 0.”* Use of the Inclusive Design Toolkit. A product with a large number of features is not guaranteed to be functional. Poorly designed products that place high demands on the user often generate unnecessarily negative brand images.2 Case study volunteer. These insensitive designs can cause frustration in many user groups and can exclude others altogether. the design philosophy developed by University of Cambridge’s Engineering Department. Inclusive Design The British Standards Institute (2005) defines inclusive design as “The design of mainstream products and/or services that are accessible as of August 2007. where a product’s usability decreases with the number of functions it has. Arthritis Care. Cynthia Stobbs. *Source: Inclusive Design Toolkit (2007). Of these people. and usable by. This emphasised by the Flexibility- Usability Tradeoff. This prompted further research into existing products designed to help people with arthritis (Chapter 2).inclusivedesigntoolkit.9 million people (33% of total population) being diagnosed with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. This emphasises the fact that not only does the condition affect hundreds of millions of people. resulting in the discovery of Inclusive Design. In extreme cases. • Usable – many user groups are still the victims of bad design. In Europe. the number of people registered as having a musculoskeletal condition (arthritis) reached over 100 million.Introduction According to the UK charity. Holden and Butler (2003). yet 81% stated that their condition limits their ability to carry out basic daily routines.html . there were 4. but the majority try to stay independent for as long as possible. as defined by Lidwell. the product must contain features that render it functional for its intended use.

Fig 0. Inclusive Design is a process-driven approach by designers and industry to ensure that products and services address the needs of the widest possible consumer base. Emphasis is therefore placed on working with ‘critical users’ to increase the usability of products and services across the board.03. accompanied with release dates and costs. this report is a documentation of the time spent and work produced in developing inclusive products that aim to reduce or eliminate the painful symptoms experienced with the onset of arthritis in the execution of routine activities. This is usually influenced by the above points and whether the correct market research has been carried out. pleasant to touch.a commercially successful product relies on its profitability. conferring social status or providing a positive impact on quality of life. they have been used as a focal point in research.2008] . • Viable . This may be accentuated by the fact that the intended user groups feel as though they have not been stigmatised – it offers a better quality of life to everyone. As their condition limits their ability to carry out every day activities. Using Inclusive Design as a basis for the project. development and testing stages.• Desirable – a product may be desirable for many reasons. including being aesthetically striking. regardless of age or ability. Essentially. In the context of this project.3 OXO Good Grips kitchenware Source : Design Council 2008 [accessed 16. ‘critical users’ are people suffering from either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.

Chapter 1 Initial Research Initial research areas helps to determine potential markets and can help quickly identify problem areas which could be solved by developing products for the specified user. full documentation of observational case studies can be seen in Appendix A 2 . Unless stated otherwise.

This was to observe differences and similarities in performing the same or similar tasks that would be carried out on a regular basis. Fig 1. The full range of images in this section can be seen in Appendix A. I just had to crouch instead. but I don’t think I’m the only one!” “It would be great if you see everything in the freezer before you open the draw so you don’t have to rummage all the time. Vicky lives in a 6-person house in Brighton.1 Initial Observations “Engineers and designers who believe that they do not need to watch the people who use products are a major source of the many poor designs that confront us.” 3 . therefore it is often extremely full. The images shown (left to right) show Vicky’s necessary movements to retrieve the food. When it wasn’t there I couldn’t bend to the bottom drawer. Vicky was asked to retrieve the packet from the freezer. The area chosen to observe was the kitchen.. East Sussex. so when I looked in the [third] draw I could bend pretty easily.1 Vicky Tremain demonstartes the difficulties in obtaining food from freezer units Comments to consider during concept development: “ I couldn’t remember which draw I’d put [the fish] in.1. Having recently bought some frozen fish.or have everything at eye-level.” Norman 2004 Vicky Tremain In order to design products with the aim to reduce the daily pain experienced by people with arthritis. which contains only one medium-sized fridge-freezer. a number of initial case studies were carried out using both older and younger generations. but bending for too long hurts my back and crouching can hurt my knees.. it hurts my back and legs too much. as it is a room used often by the majority of people living independently and poses a number of differing ‘hands-on’ activities.” “I don’t have any joint or muscle problems.

3. therefore presenting unnecessary problems to older people. respectively and have been close friends for many years.4. the bottom shelves are often not used in order to avoid uncomfortable arching of the back. These problems show that the design and layout of products for simple tasks have not been considered fully. which are located under the stairs.Audrey Flint and Maurice Still Audrey and Maurice are 79 and 85. A further annoyance experienced by both Audrey and Maurice was the height of their light fittings. and long periods of kneeling on turf can cause severe discomfort. A further problem relating to bending is Audrey’s mini-fridge (Fig 3. Fig 1. particularly upstairs. The red circle in Fig 1.2 shows a light in Audrey’s home that is positioned at a difficult height and directly over the stairwell. in particular. If she was unable to obtain help to maintain this light. As it is so low to the ground. Bending like this not only causes pain in the back and knees but aggravates existing problems. They were supplied with a camera for a number of days and asked to record elements of their life that proved difficult or required external help. if designed properly should not pose difficulty. Maurice is a war veteran and. due to his injuries. Audrey is a keen gardener but has trouble bending to the ground. The images shown depict often simple problems that. experiences problems gaining access to his fuse box and electricity meters. Audrey would face serious dangers in trying to reach it.2 Images taken by Audrey Flint and Maurice Still when asked to document activities they foudn troublesome 4 .3). Maurice has equally high light fittings and due to a long standing knee injury is unable to climb on stools or chairs to change light bulbs.

preventing the door opening fully and consequently obstructing access to the freezer drawers..Cynthia Stobbs Cynthia lives by herself in a one-person.this means some things do go out of date though. Fig 1. Cynthia was also asked to access her freezer and retrieve an item. so when I do go. so. Although Cynthia lives alone. Due to poor design of other kitchen units. ground floor flat in Sussex. the gap in which the fridge is positioned is not large enough.3 shows that the fridge-freezer unit that Cynthia has installed has access problems before anything is even taken out.3 Cynthia Stobbs using her fridge-freezer unit Fig 1. Like Vicky. to get to the lower drawers of the freezer she needs to support herself on the work top. Cynthia finds it increasingly difficult to crouch. I tend to stock up.” 5 . she lives as independently as possible. Despite her age and the onset of arthritis. Unlike Vicky.. as seen below. She explained: “I find it more difficult to walk the distance to the shops now. there is a surprisingly large amount of food in the refrigerator. which presents dangerous consequences if she were to slip.

4 Further problems Cynthia experiences in the kitchen The study of both Vicky and Cynthia highlight the fact that problems are experienced with every day appliances. Despite the fact that these issues may be accentuated with age. I can see things a lot easier and it doesn’t use as much electricity!” “The corner unit is far too high and it’s so awkward to open I have to stand on a stool. rather than wrist rotation. Cynthia has difficulties elsewhere in her kitchen. Aside from problems experienced with the refrigerator unit. pictured left. The product is operated by using linear movement of the upper arm. This simple device reduces the distance needed to lean to close the window. “My arthritis means I can’t grip knives or food very well and my fingers and wrist hurt most when cutting vegetables. regardless of age.” The sink in the kitchen is so deep that Cynthia cannot close the window without the help of her “most useful gadget”. Fig 1. regardless of physical ability. 6 . whilst offering improved grip and wrist support. problems have been created by the lack of attention paid to user interaction. This is further emphasised by theoretical research into the Medical and Social models of disability. in particular.” “I have a mini oven/grill on my work top so I don’t have to bend down to use the bigger one. such as refrigerators. I can’t afford the specialist knives so I’ve started to cook less.

although they may have physical or mental impairments. such as buildings.6 Depiction of how society is not designed for those with physical or mental impairments. Larger diagrams can be seen in Appendix A. which emphasises stereotypical attitudes of pity. from which the Administrative and Charity Models have developed. but one that changes the way a task is fulfilled. (www. Medical Model This is probably the most traditionally used model. Contrary to the Medical Model.selfdirection. Fig 1. If the product is used by a wider demographic then it has the scope to relieve existing symptoms of arthritis and also prevent further development of the condition in future generations. fearing and patronising attitudes imposed on the ‘disabled’ community by society. When assessing an individual’s ‘disability’.1. with an emphasis on not simply designing a product for people with arthritis.2 Disability Models The study of disability models ( 7 . Social Model The Social Model has been developed by the disabled community with the belief that. the Social Model emphasises that mental or physical impairments become disabling due to poorly designed Fig 1.5 Common conceptions of ‘disabled’ imposed by the Medical Model (www. The study of disability models has given further focus to the project. If a person cannot be adapted to fit into the world as it is (using specialised products and services) then they should be placed in a home or institutional care. The Medical Model places the fault of difficulties experienced by a disabled person on them. where their basic needs can be met.selfdirection. 2005) emphasises the importance of not stigmatising products towards a specific ailment and highlights the fact that society can do a great deal more to help those less able. fear and patronisation ( Charity Model). which result in the sympathetic. the focus in often on their impairment rather than on the physical or mental needs. rather than on the barriers they experience. which have been created by society. but little else. ‘disability’ is the fault of society in the way it is designed and run. access routes and everyday objects.

people with osteoarthritis inevitably revert to lifting from the back. Fig 1... however ‘able .” Libby Finn. BUPA Physiotherapist tendons...” “... surrounding the spine. only audio was retrievable. with the onset of osteoarthritis. which.8).. who may not consider themselves to have a problem..” As seen in the accompanying observational responses (Fig 1. due to a corrupted memory card.the optimum lifting position is with a straight back. however. however.. rather than the chronically ill aren’t going to have the strength to squat down to get things legs. which can cause further discomfort. simply may not have Lifting from the legs is safer. 8 .getting down to low stuff does depend a lot on strength in the legs.. Fig 1. the elderly population and positions and the dangers of lifting from the back.and that is something that you reduced strength in the knees can result in further strain on the achiles really have to consider. This interview was video recorded. when this natural degeneration occurs. lifting from the back places strain on the mulifidus muscles (core muscles) “. alongside dangerous equivalent Fig 1. if damaged can result in chronic pain.8 Ben Nolan acts as a case study regarding muscle and tendon strain when lifting “. out of the bottom of their freezer.7 shows Libby demonstrating the difference between lifting You and I would be perfectly fine. the strength or movement to bend down. This can be found on CD in Appendix A. Her expertise has helped to emphasise what the previous observational studies had concluded .1.7 Libby Finn demonstrates optimum lifting positions.the limits of physical capabilities at older ages can present unnecessary dangers due to poor product design. however..3 Physiological Research Libby Finn has been registered as a qualified BUPA physiotherapist for 10 ‘able bodied’ person should have 150 degree rotation at the knee. According to Libby.bodied’ is such a broad term that your ‘Average Joe’..

items above 10 kg should not be lifted from below the knees. you will naturally avoid open flames afterwards. Retrieving these items can unnecessarally aggravate back pain. located at the bottom of the unit. danger signals are sent to the brain and perceived as pain. 1. on a trek through a rainforest.9 Diagram of maximum masses to be lifted from varying heights An Intorduction to Ergonomic pp 65( Bridger (2003) 9 . it is not the skin. However. the memory of the ‘danger signals’ that had been sent before triggered the neurological reaction of being bitten by a poisonous animal. Returning to slightly less dangerous walks.9). even not muscle damaging. If you are burned on a fire. can cause the same pain. these “neurotags” can cause similar pain for completely different actions. for example touching an open flame. the heaviest items in a fridge-freezer are often the frozen items. Although only a small scrape. As muscles are over-strained. According to Butler and Mosely (2003). “there are no pain fibres in the nervous system. a man’s ankle brushes what he thinks is a sharp twig. claiming that he had been bitten once again. Taking into account the observational and theoretical research obtained. yet collapsed in excrutiating pain. rendering him bed-ridden for weeks. However. However. When injured. it was initially decided to develop a user- centered and Inclusive refrigeration unit. according to Libby Finn. However. the nerve fibres send ‘danger signals’ not pain signals towards the brain.” These ‘danger signals’ are interpreted by the brain in relation to the action that is being carried out and can help us to avoid the same situations again to avoid feeling the pain associated with it. the man brushed his ankle on an actual branch.4 Memory of Pain When we carry out an action that ‘hurts’. the same action. However. is lifting of heavy objects from the incorrect height. nor the muscle that feels the pain. Fig 1. we feel pain. A frequent cause of chronic back pain. it was actually a potentially poisonous snake bite. which results in muscles tensioning in order to protect themselves. As Bridger’s (2003) diagram shows (Fig 1. For example.

avoiding the memory of pain. • Lifting height of items over 10kg must not be placed below knee-height. without the need to bend to uncomfortable angles. the needs were based on research of the physically less abled. this focus is needed in order to fulfill the needs and desires of a market.1. Although it places constraints on the design. • The product must enable ease of access to refrigerated or frozen food.aesthetics must be carefully considered in order to not stigmatise to a particular ailment 10 . • The product must be easily installed and must not have large moving parts so as to avoid accessibility issues whilst in use. an introductory statement of need was developed. • Inclusive Design must be used throughout . A statement of need helps to define consumer needs for a task.5 Statement of Need From the initial research conducted. In this case.

10 Initial refrigeration concepts 11 .10 shows concepts based around locating refrigeration on one level. a range of concepts were developed based on the idea of: • Food preservation • Removal of physical strain • Increased content visibility Fig 1. it was important to establish why refrigeration is needed. it is possible to state both the PURPOSE and FUNCTION of a fridge. the purpose of a soldier’s helmet is not to protect their head. Further sketches can be seen in Appendix C.1. This concept also lends itself to division of the unit into designated compartments. Function: According to TRIZ. therefore eliminating the need to bend. With this in mind. but to change the direction of any bullets traveling towards them. Having established this need through previous observational research. Fig 1. Using TRIZ design methodologies. Purpose: The purpose of a product describes the user’s need for it. For example. The purpose of a fridge is to slow down the growth of bacteria on it’s contents. the function of a fridge is to change the temperature of the air within the unit. Therefore. all optimised for different food stuffs. two elements that are essential in determining the user’s need for the product. the function of a product requires a change to happen.6 Initial Concepts Sketches of the refrigeration concept were developed from the idea of removing the need to bend to retrieve items from the appliance.

11 Clothes peg preservation concept Fig 1. the concept was altered in order to provide containment for taller items.13 Cynthia’s stcoked fridge These early stages of concept development helped to visualise possible solutions to problems observed in initial research stages.. enabling the user to see its contents and avoid looking in the wrong area for desired items. who lives alone. an idea suggested by Vicky Tremain..12 Glass-fronted fridge collide with doors and walls. it was decided that the focus was too specific on refrigeration and that further research into food preparation and kitchen interaction should be carried out. Although they addressed a recognised problem. it became clear that a one-level unit may not be able to contain the entireties of a user’s desired items (Fig 1. open bags need to be secured shut. this concept removes However.they struggle with buttons and zips etc. reverting back to previous observations of Cynthia. 12 . Libby Finn. Fig 1. The circled element in Fig 1. Therefore. a problem often experienced in the use of fridge-freezers is that the door can Fig 1. With a sliding shutter. a central compartment for the majority of food stuffs and a separate freezer compartment (Fig 1.. stated in the earlier interview that “people with arthritis in their hands have reduced fine motor control movements.11 depicts the use of a ‘clothes peg’ device to aid people with arthritis in sealing open bags.14 Alternative containment design.13. As discovered in the observation of Cynthia Stobbs. Fig 1.12 shows a variation of the one-level fridge that has a glass ‘shutter’.” With an increased surface area and spring loaded mechanism.14). This sketch shows that not just refrigeration concepts were considered.. but also the idea of preservation of its contents. Fig 1. This approach was adopted to help broaden product possibilities to solve a range of difficulties experienced by sufferers of arthritis. To prevent spillage of contents. Physiotherapist. therefore greatly improving usability. such as bottles. restricting access to the appliance. the clothes peg concept would enable the consumer to use the product with minimal effort.

Chapter 2 Market Research Market Research represents the voice of the consumer within the organisation. therefore it is essential to observe potential users and gather objective information regarding their wants and needs to develop considered products. Full documentation of observational visits in this Chapter can be seen in Appendix B. 13 .

Throughout the design process the aim of market research was to: • Reduce uncertainty and risk • To aid planning and strategy • To explore opportunities for growth • To monitor the market and competitors. and personal simulation experiments in response to these visits. By analysing existing products.0 Market Research The British Institute of Management defines market research as “the objective gathering. alongside a large amount of primary observational evidence. Brighton. recording and analysing of all of the problems relating to the transfer and sale of goods and services from producer to consumer or user” (Verrel. a problem had to be identified within a specific market that could be solved by a either a singular product or a range.2. Hove. enabling informed design decisions to be made. 2007). 14 . Dunstan’s Home for Blind ex-Service men and Women. it was possible to achieve the aims stated above with a large degree of success. St. The observational research conducted throughout this Chapter is a documentation of visits to The Daily Living Centre. Primarily.

Fig 2.” Once the needs of individuals are established. depending on their specialism. Many of the products seen in this visit use contrasting Good Grips Vegetable Peeler have proved best sellers among colours to cater for the visually impaired. however if an object required turning.1 Occupational Therapy Occupational therapists. Fig 2. as described previously. therefore reducing unnecessary and often painful opening cans.this product been designed for arthritis. 1. this product has a number people with limited dexterity in order to help them of spring-loaded columns that have the ability to grip onto pull plugs out of sockets. of Inclusive Design. offer a range of services that help to assess disability.due to reduced dexterity with the onset of 4.completely eliminating seen in the Arthritic Gripper by keeping the wrist in line with the the need to wrestle with varying methods of lower arm. magnets. the rotational and stigmatises towards sufferers of arthritis. With the use of product. 2008). Arthritic Gripper . The arm support and alternative example of Inclusive of the most successful examples Although this study was not entirely based in the kitchen arena. OXO Good Grips Cutlery . Dunstan’s Home for Blind Ex-Service Men and Women. Plug Pulling Aid. According to Derek Moore at The Daily Living Centre. therefore motion required helps alleviate pain experienced while reducing consumer costs. along with their families. contrary movement required can cause more discomfort than if not to Inclusive Design guidelines. the grip arrangement improves efficiency and the use of bright user operates the product by pressing the large colours also helps easily identify the essential features of the and easily visible green button. such as handles and dials. The pushing brilliantly and is cheap and easy to produce. which cater to partially sighted users.2.5 One Touch Can Opener Fig 2. PETA Gardening Trowel . “the people who often visit. another problem the able bodied as well as those with physical impairments. Once in place. informed recommendations on products to help a variety of conditions can be made. Hove. Although it functions a variety of objects. associated with ageing. This was addressed with a visit to St.this product addresses the problems 5. Fig 2.1 Arthritic Gripper using the product. resulting in 50% sales increases year on year (Design Council.3 OXO Good Grips Cutlery 15 . One Touch Can Opener . However.2 PETA Gardening Trowel 3. the product is hands-free and makes it easy to remove the lid from the tin. An observational visit was made to The Daily Living Centre to assess the current market for arthritis-focused products. These products have been designed for analysis of existing products in similar areas of focus helped to people with poor dexterity and limited movement of the explore the different tasks that people with arthritis may find upper arm.4 Plug pulling aid 2. this product is another excellent movements when gardening. are those who have recently suffered a stroke or have discovered that they can no longer perform their daily routines. such as the difficult. products within the range. it is visually unattractive gripping. Fig 2.

tunnel vision and glaucoma. an employee at St. the aim of this study was to develop an understanding of what the visually impaired require in a product to allow safe and effective use.7 Wearing of adapted safety goggles simulates different ocular conditions. .2 St. is a centre for ex-Service men and women. either blinded in action having developed blindness with age. aimed to encourage independent living. audio and film recordings were made and can be accessed in Appendix B. Although there are approximately 20 permanent residents. Dunstan’s. With the help of Mark and his colleague. Alongside photographic documentation.7 shows the use of glasses designed to simulate the effects of ocular degeneration. which are also synonymous with age. 16 Fig 2.2. Fig. According to Mark Brownlow. the majority attend specific classes each week. “everyone’s eyesight goes as they get older”. Dunstan’s St Dunstan’s.6 Mark Brownlow and his colleague Michelle act as guide around the home. emphasising that this was an issue that needed to be addressed alongside degenerative musculoskeletal conditions. Dunstan’s attend a two-day training course which aims to provide employees with an understanding of exact problems associated with blindness and partial sightedness. Michelle. All staff at St. such as arthritis. Given the opportunity to briefly experience this training. 2. Fig 2. based in Brighton.

2. Limited vision reduces the According to Mark. Martin’s belief is that although they may initially remove day-to-day difficulties. the user may develop a dependence on the product.8 Wall mounted Soap Dispenser Fig. 2. preventing over filling buttons can be fitted to regular of hot liquids. This device senses the existing products as often as preparing food. Although many products were available at St. vibrates. 17 . “ one of Coloured cutting mats provide this wall-mounted soap ability to carry out even simple the best ways to encourage much needed distinction dispenser allows easy and tasks. 2.” This raised the question as to whether the use of such products helps or hinders independence.” As pictured.. small home.11 Coloured cutting mats Often seen in public lavatories.10 Textured buttons on existing products Fig. For a product in this field to succeed in its aim of helping people. therefore eliminating it’s long-term usability. Dunstan’s..9 Water level sensor Fig. it needs to encourage independence. not everybody decided to use them. not render the user incompetent without it. such as making a hot independence is to use a person’s between surfaces when consistent location of essential drink. products to allow ease of navigation. a member of staff at St. Dunstan’s is blind and prefers not to use the products on offer: “I’ve been living independently with blindness for 15 years and I don’t use any of these gadgets.Fig 2. Martin Shail. hygiene products around the water level and beeps or possible.

3 Arthritis Simulation As stated in the previous Chapter. dexterity and coordination. such as cooking. an investigation into a reduction in placed in order of use dexterity was conducted in a basic kitchen. this experiment provided a valuable insight into daily problems arm and wrist to the knife. Fig.2. This can inevitably affect • Difficult to open drawers daily activities. using padded gloves as a limiting factor. • Hard to pick up waste off chopping board. cleaning and getting dressed. arthritis decreases fine motor control in the fingers. Accompanied with poor grip. The task was to prepare and cook a meal whilst wearing large mittens. are all symptoms of arthritis. Although the pain associated with degenerative easily transferred from the conditions was not experienced. limited grip. However. • Difficulty in coordinating vegetable peeler with vegetables. • Vegetables had to be In response to observations made during initial research and at the Daily Living Centre. 18 .12 Storyboard of arthritic simulation. • Due to poor grip. food was wasted. 2. which were predicted to reduce grip and dexterity. experienced by people with arthritis. thumb and wrist. • Peeling onions with hands proved almost impossible. to avoid unnecessary handling problems. the force needed to cut the Evidently. as vegetables could not be previously established in interviews and observations. the large majority of the problems experienced preparing food were severely accentuated by the large gloves.

unfortunately in this experiment the texture of the knife was not sufficient to prevent injuries occurring.4 Visual Impairment Simulation As with the arthritis simulation. chopping of food and using appliances to cook. 2. especially if one is already hindered. the points listed demonstrate how good or bad design can affect the sensory perception of multiple senses. the task was to prepare a toasted sandwich to the best standard possible in the circumstances.butter was located in the refrigerator through the brightly coloured packaging in comparison to other contents • Texture .the bread was removed from the toaster once it had ‘popped’ • Colour and contrast . With Vaseline covered glasses. Fig 2. Dunstan’s were emphasised: • Location .13 Storyboard of visual impairment simulation From the experiment. giving the impression of blurred vision or cataracts.2. this experiment was to simulate ocular degeneration in order to understand the difficulties associated with it.helps to distinguish one item from another .using routine storage spaces for particular items helped navigation around the kitchen • Sound . Although the simulation was terminated early. aspects initially identified from the visit to St.13 depicts a range of tasks conducted that are associated with food preparation: navigation around the kitchen. 19 . Fig.

with users apparently injuring themselves on the product. but design is not compromised and the stigma of designing for a disability is removed. To satisfy the behavioural level.14Integrated fork and pizza cutter Fig 2. In terms of design. which not only appears unattractive and unsafe at the visceral level. in turn. it is important to satisfy each level of emotional responses so that the product is able to be used on a long-term basis. Likewise in the design community.14 shows an attempt to integrate a fork and a cutting implement. therefore satisfying the reflective level. On the other hand the ‘Knork’ (Fig 2. but functions terribly. Visceral . At the visceral level. In terms of products. The brighter or rounder a plant or fruit appears. traits often seen in the survival of plants and animals in nature. this level can enhance or inhibit the visceral level and can. 2. Fig 2. the more attractive it is to animals and seeds are dispersed. first and foremost.15) is a regular fork with slightly thinner edges for improved cutting. and a thicker ‘neck’.15 depict two different attempts to fulfill the need of eating a meal with one hand.The site of most human behaviour. rounded shapes more attractive.2. which increase grip and comfort. as defined in Emotional Design : Why We Love (or hate) Everyday Things (Norman. making a judgement of what is attractive or ugly. therefore creating a better emotional bond to the user. safe or dangerous etc. according to Derek Moore at The Daily Living Centre. Fig 2. the product must function and fulfill its need.14 and 2. be inhibited or enhanced by the reflective level. therefore satisfying both the visceral and behavioural levels. Behavioural .The level which tries to influence the behavioural level through the use of reflective thought. humans find bright colours and symmetrical. The latter appears more attractive and fulfills its need far better. the more attractive an object is at the visceral level. products intended for amputees and people who have suffered strokes.5 Emotional Design The concept of Emotional Design is based on our emotional response to products and services. Fig 2. These responses.The immediate response to objects or situations.15 ‘Knork’ knife and fork combination 20 . the greater chance it has at succeeding in the marketplace. 3. Dependent on experience. 2004) are based on three levels of feedback from the brain: 1. the behavioural level acts as a judgment level of a product or service’s functionality. Reflective .

for the user to designer’s conceptual user’s mental be able to understand the product is functioning correctly. see Appendix B.handles. and. Norman states that “for someone to use a product successfully. a range of actions were observed on a variety of products to explore their use of system image. The hand position necessary to grip encourages the user to pull it outwards. or product language. This exploration emphasised the importance of user interaction with products and the consequent effects it can have on a product’s life time. transmit the undisputed system image of a turning moment. • Pulling . Behavioural and Reflective level satisfaction.” Having discovered the importance of a coherent system image. then irritation. such as the ones pictured in Fig 2. “negative emotions kick in when there is a lack of control .” The only way the designer can talk to the user in terms of a product’s functionality is through the product itself. such as the feeling of a mechanism moving when a button is pressed. For further images. Furthermore.16 Modified diagram of Norman’s (2004) ‘System Image’ diagram According to Norman. Recessions or extrusions provide an interaction point.17 Investigation into system image of a variety of products 21 . The final level of feedback is conveyed the product turning on or off. • Switches are usually reliant on user-based feedback systems. where moving parts provide feedback that the relevant action has been carried out. they must have the same mental model as that of the designer.small recesses indicate that there is an area within it that can be gripped onto. a feedback system must model model be in place. • Opening .17. therefore the way a product fulfills its purpose must be through an intuitive system image. Fig 2. resulting in the opening of the object towards (or away) from the body.System Image The System Image Alongside Visceral. Fig 2. even anger. if the lack of control persists.first uneasiness.

4 (2007)Ageing . This is demonstrated by the table below.01. National Statistics Report. available at http://www. the growth has not been evenly spread. Behavioural and Reflective brain levels in order to evoke positive emotional responses. therefore eliminating stigmatised reactions from potential users. there are approximately 175 million people suffering from musculoskeletal conditions in Western society. represents “improved survival and the post World War One baby boomers now reaching this age group. DirectGov. 1971 2006 Current figure (millions) % of population aged under 16 26 19 11.16% of UK Population are aged 65 or over [online]. • There must be a cohesive system image in place to avoid confusion of how to use the product(s).gov. alone.08] 22 .asp?ID=949 [accessed • Using Inclusive Design philosophies.6 Potential Market “The UK’s population is ageing”.5 % of population aged over 65 13 16 9. 22nd August 2007. but also shows a huge potential market for products that address the needs of people with arthritis. Although there has been an 8 per cent increase in population overall from 1971 to 2006. which could lead to reduced overall independence. not just those suffering from arthritis. without compromising on its functionality. Source: National Statistics Online This growth in the over 65 age group. This not only highlights the scale of the problems demonstrated in research throughout Chapters 1 and 2. states a National Statistics report (August 2007). the product(s) must be visually striking. • Although the product(s) may help the user significantly.1 Table of change in age demographics over a period of 35 years. they must not develop a dependence on the product(s).” 4 In Europe and the USA. • The product(s) must satisfy the user’s Visceral.2. • The product(s) must improve the potential market’s overall quality of life.7 Table 2.statistics. From this research it was possible to refresh the Statement of Need for an arthritis-focused and Inclusive product: • The product(s) must solve a daily or routine [potential] problem applicable to the majority of the population.

Note : Full documentation of this Chapter can be seen in Appendix C. 23 . it was decided to study dial-operated products with the aim of developing an arthritic solution to problems observed. Chapter 3 Dial Turner Having conducted a large volume of observational and statistical research.

. as seen in the PETA Product Guide. 2007 (Fig 3.2) This reduction in strain on tendons can slow down the onset of arthritis. a way to alleviate the pains of arthritis of the wrist and thumb and prevent further progression of the condition is to keep the wrist in the neutral position. Fig 3. with the aim of providing a solution to the problem.1 Inspiration The conceptual design process was instigated by a comment made by Libby Finn at BUPA: “. particularly in the wrist and thumb. This is not to say that there have not been products to help relieve the symptoms of the condition but there have not been significant developments in the way users interact with products to reduce the likelihood of developing the condition in later life. people with arthritis often do not have the rotational strength required to operate a number of products without experiencing pain.2 PETA demonstration of neutral wirst position 24 . therefore the post world-war one ‘baby boomers’ will not have had significant access to these products. studies were conducted in the area of dial operated products. keys and dials on appliances.1 Derek Moore demonstrates the neutral wrist position with the PETA gardening trowel As stated in earlier research.” As seen in the PETA Gardening Trowel (Fig 3. Using further observational research methods.1). Products to combat the development of arthritis have only been introduced to market relatively recently. One area identified was the operation of kitchen appliances that require the rotation of dials to turn on and off and to select different functions.people with arthritic problems don’t have the necessary rotational strength in their wrist to turn objects like jars. Fig 3....3.

2 Dial Operated Products Fig 3.3 Demonstration of Beverly using dial-operated products 25 . washing machine. The rotation of the wrist caused the forces placed on each digit to act against each other in the same direction.3.3 shows. central heating unit. As Fig 3. Fig 3. This is explained diagrammatically in Fig 3. the majority were operated by using the edge of the index finger. which is a good system image to use. toaster.3 shows Beverly. 49. due to the visual similarities to a clock. and the thumb as a solid grip. pressure cooker and an oven. all of the appliance dials are turned in a clockwise direction.4. forcing the dial to turn on its axis. The way in which Beverly held the dial varied slightly from appliance to appliance. however. such as a dishwasher. The dials featured are found on regular products. demonstrating the use of dials in her kitchen.

it was decided to design a device Fig3.4 and 3. The full film can be seen in Appendix C. the operation of a washing machine was documented using film.4 Diagram of opposing forces of finger and thumb. In response to the established problem of turning dials easily. Even in a healthy individual this proved to be a strenuous movement and required significant effort. resulting in dial rotation that made these routine actions easier for sufferers of arthritis.5 Screenshots from film taken exploring the rotational limits of a healthy individual’s wrist 26 . However. the user requires a decent gripping ability and a further ability to turn the dial using rotational strength in the wrist. Fig 3.5 demonstrate that in order to turn a dial on a variety of appliances. Fig 3.5 shows that in one movement. Response In order to explore the limits of wrist rotation. Both Fig 3. people with arthritis in these areas may not have such capabilities. the wrist is able to rotate approximately 180 degrees from its neutral starting point (in line with lower arm).

however.3.7 Demonstration of Flexibility-Usability Trade-off Principle 27 .3 Idea Generation Hundreds of varying idea generation and analysis methods are used in industry. as they may have been useful at a later stage. a number of brainstorming sessions were carried out within the user group of people with arthritis. they can be time consuming. is used to generate a vast array of ideas in a relatively short space of time and can involve a large variety of participants from wide-ranging backgrounds. Butler. it was essential to keep the philosophies of Inclusive and Emotional Design in mind so as not to stray from the aim of the product. Throughout the project Focus Groups have been held to establish the need for the product and possible problems it could solve . Essentially. Holden.6 Brainstorming sessions and focus groups Flexibility-Usability Trade-off Principle usability Alongside idea generating brainstorms. flexibility Fig 3. The Flexibility . the fewer features there are. Throughout the sessions. music and psychology. it was important to use a selection of these in order to create an exciting yet comprehensive design. the fewer things can go wrong. also known as “thought showering”. Alongside associates from backgrounds including geography. Keeping this focus in the conceptual stages helped to provide valuable evaluation criteria with regards to concepts taken through to development. Brainstorming Brainstorming. Due to the limited time scale. it was imperative not to dismiss any ideas. Universal Principles of Design (Lidwell. Fig 3. As well as design philosophies. 2003) were also adopted in the conceptual design process.Usability Trade-off Principle state that the fewer functions and options that each product has increases its usability.

Still requires use of hands and . Dual-Action Dial Turner Rollerball .Does not adhere to fingers. . Concepts chosen to be developed : Dual Action. needed to rotate.8 Lever concept Fig 3.9 Dual-action concept 28 . One piece Fig 3.Turning moment from the pivot .Requires user to stand to is extended. adding Fig 3. to have a dual function.Large and cumbersome .using the arm to One-Piece . People with arthritis have previously stated Flexibility. limited fine motor control and may Usability Trade-off principle.Cost of replacement of dial would . Quick evaluation of the concepts meant dismissal of the weaker ideas and the stronger concepts were taken further. struggle with its operation. extended handle.11 Rollerball concept further problems for the user. Lever .replacement of dial.Would not be able to be applied to the mode-selecting dial.4 Initial Ideas A selection of suggestions brought forward by focus groups were sketched with the most effective solutions being carried forward. and Jar Opener . a range of dials due to fixed teeth. therefore less force is the side of the appliance. Fig 3. .3.Clip off section would be prove far too expensive. See Appendix C for further images. therefore blocks their view of .grips to dial using rotate the dial rather than ‘teeth’ and is turned using the wrist.10 One piece concept hard to remove.Clip off rather than using a product to fix mechanism enables product the problem. . Usability must be maximised.

it still looked like a gadget for a disabled person. an action that was to be eliminated. Dial Turner and Jar Opener. However..5 Sketch Development Dual-action . however. Fig 3. particularly for those with arthritis. Therefore. Jars can be notoriously difficult to open. moveable ‘wings’ were experimented with. they would rest in recesses in the body of the product. 3. not stigmatising towards any ailment.. When they are not in use. Initial development sketches were not viscerally pleasing. as it could be applicable to the majority of the population. One-Piece . and did not satisfy the reflective level of the brain . it was decided to take this concept further. a number of products (see Appendix B) currently exist to solve this problem. which allowed the user to turn the device when necessary. presenting a much more attractive device.12 Range of sketches chosen to develop 29 . The handles indicate they are to be held and then turned. While not being used. The product consists of two segments. the way in which they are separated requires rotation of the wrist.Reducing the complexity of the dial turner by making it one piece reduces costs. fits the Flexibility-Usability Trade-off Principle much better and has an improved sense of system image.Although initially discarded as a concept. This concept was taken further in the form of sketch modelling. they fit together as a unit and form an attractive ornamental object.

Materials used : Plastic Cup. It was important to establish whether the product functioned before continuing with development studies.6 Sketch modelling Early prototypes in the form of sketch models helped to quickly visualise the possibilities of a dial turning product. Using two handles on the top of the product. (For film. Corrugated Card.3. As Fig 3. replacing the need for a forefinger and thumb grip. which acted as a grip.13 Sketch model of Dial Turner concept The model was based around the aim of inserting the dial into two extrusions. the dial could be turned far easier than with fingers alone. the rotational movement in the wrist needed previously has been almost completely eliminated. see Appendix C) Fig 3.14 Screenshots taken from sketch modelling film. 30 . Parcel Tape Fig 3.14 shows.

Although this process helped reduced the need for rotation further.15 Sketch model can be used to turn dials on a variety of appliances One of the most valuable aspects of the prototype was that it could fit a variety of dials and. an extra two were added. the action was far slower. therefore evoking more positive emotional responses. Fig 3.15 shows the prototype being used on two washing machine dials of different sizes. if developed. had the possibilities of becoming a retro- fit device for almost any dial-operated household appliance.16 Unsuccessful modification to original sketch model 31 . perpendicular to the existing ones. Fig 3. The feedback system of two handles informs the user which settings they are close to. Modifications As rotation in the wrist had not been completely eliminated by the two-handled dial turner. and a dishwasher dial. The product’s aesthetics also suffered from this addition due to the over-complicated shape and lack of reference points while in operation.Fig 3.

instead of fingers easily and accurately.7 CAD Solutions Dial gripped by recess 3D CAD Modelling packages help to visualise and edit concepts quickly. they must not feel excluded by society for owning and using it. all with arthritis in enables user to turn dial with the’s a bit bendy…” Cynthia Stobbs Aluminium connecting pin - is this necessary? “It looks like it’s designed for a disabled person . were essential in re-establishing focus on Inclusive and Emotional Design. and the fact that although the product is designed to help people.I may have arthritis but I’m not disabled. Produced in Solidworks. although critical.3.” Audrey Flint These comments. when the concepts were shown to a Wooden or rubber handle focus group of older people. these initial CAD models feature a curved handle designed to facilitate ease of clockwise rotation of dials on kitchen appliances. However. wrist or thumb. I prefer more symmetrical shapes . therefore providing a reliable and realistic representation of a product. although is particularly popular: “too bendy” “personally.17 Initial CAD development models of Dial Turner 32 . Fig 3. they did not appear reduced force.

thinner handle increases grip with both hands and is more aesthetically pleasing Silicone-lined recess accommodates a wide range of dials Silicone ‘flaps’ fold inwards when pressed to a dial. With the development of more viscerally satisfying solutions. with no room to grip handle .8 CAD Development Taking into account comments from the user focus group. Soildworks was used further to develop more aesthetically pleasing. they became more functional.3. longer. one-piece solutions.” The annotated solutions show the development from one concept through to various alterations. Silicone ‘reference button’.too ‘stubby’ added features for specific markets. following Norman’s (2004) statement that “attractive things work better. Use of bright colours caters to partially sighted users. 33 . Enables partially sighted users to locate and utilise the product easily Beech finish boasts kitchen-friendly antiseptic properties and an alternative texture. Folded silicone acts as an extra grip on the sides of the dial.

Using brighter colours.3. this product. rather than four also help to create reference points for when they product is in use. when placed on a product will rotate something. therefore fits in with the Inclusive and Emotional Design philosophies. this concept best represented the aim of the Dial Turner up to this stage of development. yet this does not remove anything from its styling. Using more sophisticated styling than previous concepts. 34 . This intuitive product language is essential to the success of an Inclusive product. does not look like an arthritic aid. as proven in observational research. In order to develop the Dial Turner concept. and is viscerally attractive. Two handles. who are also likely to suffer from arthritic conditions. The symmetrical layout of the Dial Turner portrays the system image of a handheld product that.9 Interim Solution As an interim solution. it was decided it was necessary to investigate other areas of daily living that people with arthritis may find troublesome. firstly. is often beneficial to the visually impaired.

Chapter 4 Key Turner Rotataion of the wrist is not exclusive to using dial-operated products. Further studies were conducted into the area of key operation and how users interact with them. Full documentation of this Chapter can be seen in Appendix C. 35 .

2 shows a range of items that keep keys in a collective group and ensure they are not lost. The most popular method is a key ring. which. it was necessary to investigate the styles of keys used and what they are used for. In order to design a device to help people turn keys in locks with improved ease.2 Differing methods of securing keys together . people with arthritis in their hands can suffer. Due to the fine motor control needed for such an action.1 A range of differing keys.Deadlocks on Locker key Padlock key Bike lock key locks doors Methods of storing Fig 4. Types and Uses Fig 4.predominantly door Chubb . while fulfilling its task is not user-friendly due to the manner in which the user must prise apart the device in order to attach or remove a key. in terms of size and purpose Yale .1 Study of Keys In a society obsessed with security. 36 Fig 4. keys are an essential part of daily routines for millions of people.4.

Chubb. • The product must provide a user-centered and Inclusive method of attaching and removing keys. 37 . although the product may help the user significantly. • Turning keys in locks with the aid of the product must be significantly easier than without it. they must not develop a dependence on it.3 Range of accessories used to personalise bunches of keys Statement of Need Conducting this initial research facilitated the development of broad statement for a device to help people with arthritis in their hands use and store keys easier. Fig 4. such as toy figures and bottle are commonplace. the addition of accessories. and similar styles. • The product must be able to accommodate a wide variety of keys. which must also address the possible elimination of the memory of pain • The design solution must be coherent with Inclusive Design and Emotional Design philosophies. namely Yale. • As stated earlier in a previous Statement of Need (Page 22).Accessories In order to differentiate and personalise keys.

2 Keys in Operation The study of the use of keys. Although Ben does not have arthritis.4 and 4. was asked to open a newly installed back door of his house in Brighton Town Centre. Ben. thumbs and wrists.4. 38 Fig 4. helps to highlight to problem areas for people with arthritis in the hands.5 depict the stresses and rotational movement about the wrist needed to open the door. The images shown are a series of screenshots taken from a video which can be found in Appendix C.4 Ben has difficulties opening a newly installed kitchen door . aged 22. as with the study of dial operated products. Figures 4.

.5 Ben has further problems locking the kitchen door It is evident from the length of the video that Ben had problems locking and unlocking “.” In terms of the movements necessary to turn the’s really annoying. the strength needed to grip and rotate dials and keys is often and re-designing a lock and key would not (at this not enough to perform the tasks without pain.. Fig 4. The thumb and forefinger are the two Chapters regarding the strength needed to grip and opposing forces that cause rotation of the key when rotation of the wrist is applied... however.” systems in place within the locking mechanism itself. door. it is not obvious that the handle must first be pulled up to allow the mechanism to move freely. Although it is essentially the task that needs re-designing... stage) be applicable for the majority of the intended market. this was due to poor feedback pull the handle up first. they are similar to those seen This research emphasises points made in previous in Chapter 3. When the door is locked.. rotate every day items. rather than due to physical shouldn’t take that much effort to open a This problem is mirrored when locking the door. “. the conceptual design stage for a ‘Key Turner’ began.. the area is too broad For people with arthritis.. Therefore.2 with the dial-operated products.the door doesn’t lock or unlock unless you the door. 39 .

however. The Winged Concept houses the key in a rubberised groove.7 ‘Winged concept’ Fig 4. whilst the pivot would be the lock in which the key is turning. Held together by a rubber strap.8 Clam concept 40 . there would be a danger that the product would restrict the key from turning. The increased distance gained from its opening aids opening. The forces would encompass the opposing forces used to turn keys either clockwise or anti-clockwise.3 Initial Concepts Initial concepts were focused around increasing the turning moment produced by applying a force around a pivot. However. when released. The Clam Concept is a spring-loaded device that addresses the winged concept’s problem of bulkiness.6 Range of initial sketches Fig 4.4. the bulk of the product would be uncomfortable whilst in pockets and may evoke negative emotional responses. The Key Turner would reveal ‘wings’ at the push of a button. allowing ease of turning. due to its width. the clam opens up. Fig 4. revealing a groove to hold the key.

the concept includes a rubber ‘groove’ in which the key is inserted into.10 and 4. which aimed to depict how the device would hold a key once it was insert key needed. Fig.12 and 4. the lack of movement hinders the concept severely. Fig 4.9 shows.12 Fig 4.4. followed by different rendering techniques to represent different materials. An initial attempt at modeling the ‘Clam’ was not particularly successful.4 CAD Development Use of CAD modelling packages not only allow accurate modeling of concepts. it was modeled in one piece.13 41 . but can produce highly realistic rendering results. Although this may work as a simple demonstration.10 Fig 4. The ‘Clam’ concept was modeled through various stages of development. As Fig 4.13 show the concept in transluscent plastic finishes.9 materials investigation. When the product is opened. In order to accommodate a wide range of keys.11 show further development of the clam concept. allowing the user to utilise the expanded product as a turning aid. indicating further virtual Fig 4. Fig 4.11 Fig 4. 4. the key is inserted and elastic tension in the rubber acts as a grip around the key.

A problem that needs to be solved. but it is also secure. An increased turning moment is force applied achieved by increasing the distance the force is applied from the pivot.14 Wing nut concept Fig 4. Fig 4. These devices have been designed to allow nuts to be threaded on to bolt much tighter than standard nuts. Not only is this method of storing keys far easier to use in terms of attaching and removing keys. is the fact that the magnets attach themselves to the keys. however. Although a final solution is not in place. areas have been identified for development: Use of ‘wing nut’ form . resulting in usability issues.4. they could be threaded through the key’s loop and insert key then allowed to connect to each other(Fig 4. It was decided that this would be a concept to be taken further into development studies.provides user with improved usability without the emerging of security issues. and without the use of other tools.5 Further Development Inspiration for an improved concept derived from the appearance of a wing nut. To eliminate the user’s need for a traditional ‘keyring’.15 Securing mechanism using rare earth magnets Fig 4.16 Rare earth magnets are extremely powerful and can be used to secure items together 42 .16).allows ease of turning Use of rare earth magnets . Currently. an alternative method using extremely powerful ‘rare earth magnets’ (see Appendix D) was devised. By attaching the magnets to a length of cord. the key turner is still in stages of development and a final solution has not been completed due to time constraints and the vital need for materials research (see Chapter 5).

as they can have major implications on the design in terms of finish. Chapter 5 Materials and Manufacture When developing a new product. All data regarding the selection of materials. unless stated otherwise. including costs. It is also important to consider the way the chosen material is machined. it is essential to consider the materials used to manufacture the product. 43 . as this can affect vital aspects of a project. including material qualities has been obtained through CES Material Selector. comfort and overall usability. waste and the finish obtained on the product. Full documentation of this Chapter can be seen in Appendix D.

the most viscerally pleasing finish for the handles of the products was polished aluminium.Density (X) versus Price (Y).1 Material Selection for main Body of Products Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) is a material selection computer program designed to produce informed design decisions based on pre-determined factors.Density (X) versus Price (Y). With the use of this software. it is imperative to keep costs to a minimum. Graph 5. At no point should the products be unaffordable to the people that would benefit from them. In the case of the Dial Turner and the Key Turner.2 CES graphical selection . Filter “Metals” Graph 5. the option of other materials had not been taken into account. Taking into account the Inclusive nature of the devices. it was possible to make informed design decisions based on reliable graphical and tabular data. According to physiotherapist.1 CES graphical selection . Libby Finn. For full size images of graphs. Therefore. however.5. “people with arthritis in their hands struggle holding heavy objects for extended periods of time due to strain being placed on muscles and joints affected by their condition.1 and 5. The CES graphs highlighted these alternatives. see Appendix D.2 were Density (X axis) and Price (Y axis). the two limiting factors used to create Graphs 5. which were duly investigated. Filter “Commercially Pure Metals” 44 .” highlighting the fact that the weight of the product must be reduced without compromising the design.

it is extremely cost effective for a mid-weight metal. in their respective environments. the use of Zinc Aluminium Alloy can have significant advantages over other metal alloys.2 was created by filtering the metals already shown in Graph 5. It also has extremely poor finishing qualities. As it does not need to be coated protectively. However. By dividing the density value by price.1 Table of material density and price properties obtained from Graph 5.1 was filtered to show metals only. Tabular data obtained from this selection can be seen in Table 5.1 The aim was to specify a light. therefore would not produce the aesthetic qualities desired. representing commercially available metals in their purest form. a material selection index is created. 45 . the higher the number. it was decided that metals would be investigated first. it is a highly durable material and is almost entirely 100% recyclable. meaning more energy is spent in separating the zinc from the aluminium. Aluminium Alloy : Although the third most suitable according to the material selection index. It is applicable over wide range of high specification engineering applications. As Table 5. this reduces production costs. It also has a lower recycling factor than aluminium. it is far too dense a material to use as a handheld product. In this case. the more suitable the material is for the task. Table 5. but not too light material that would be cost effective and suitable for use in the Dial Turner and Key Turner applications. Graph 5. machines to a finer precision than the majority of alloys and can produce much higher finishes. As Aluminium had produced the most aesthetically pleasing results in the development stages.1 into Commercially Pure Metals only.Graph 5.1. Grey (Flake Graphite) Cast Iron : Although this material obtained the highest value.2 shows. the manufacturing costs are significantly more expensive and the process is generally only used when aluminium casting is not suitable. Zinc Aluminium Alloy : According to the Key to Metals Database.

therefore the Key Turner must be resistant to the elements. This point is further emphasised by the use of aluminium foil in cooking to reflect heat. which is ideal if the Dial Turner were being used on an oven or gas stove. With excellent protection against fresh water and weak acids. aluminium is resilient against rain. not only due to its low density. acid rain and can be cleaned easily if dirtied.1) Source CES material selector 46 .2 table of properties for cast aluminium pure (S150. aluminium does not conduct heat well. aluminium has a Young’s Modulus of up to 69. in this case acting as a ‘handle’ for turning dials and keys. and is therefore extremely unlikely to break whilst being used for its intended purpose. Due to its high Specific Heat Capacity.2 Cast Aluminium Pure (S150.5. Keys are usually taken outside. low cost and recyclability but also due to its physical properties and environmental resistance.7 GPa. As the table shows. Table 5. demonstrating that it is an extremely stiff material with a high elastic limit.1) Aluminium has been chosen for the Dial Turner and Key Turner.

• High-speed production • Dimensional accuracy and Fig 5. Die cast Advantages of Die Casting parts are important components of products ranging from automobiles to toys. (4) The product is removed from the mould by moving side ejectors. The plunger is in the upper position. whilst the product remains in the mould. describes the 4 stages of the process (See Appendix D for larger image): • Stronger and lighter than injection moulded equivalents (1) The mould is closed and sealed. Parts can be sharply defined. and are suitable for a wide variety of attractive and serviceable finishes. until the material solidifies. called dies.ortal. Parts can be as simple as • Efficient and economical process a sink faucet or as complex as a connector housing. in industry the Dial Turner and Key Turner would be die cast. These molds. stereolithography or 3D printing techniques.1 The die casting process industry. whilst • Multiple finishing techniques preserving static pressure with the movement. Information on the process.5.1 diagrammatically explains the die casting process. with smooth or textured surfaces. Die castings are among the highest volume. obtained from Ortal stability Die Casting (www. mass-produced items manufactured by the metalworking Fig 5. The following information regarding die casting has been obtained from Ortal Die Casting and www. commercial and industrial products.diecasting. • Simplified assembly process (3) After casting the plunger returns to it’s original position. 47 . and they can be found in thousands of consumer. can be designed to produce complex shapes with a high degree of accuracy and • Excellent thin-wall strength (2) The plunger injects liquid metal through the gooseneck and along to the Die casting is a versatile process for producing engineered metal parts by forcing molten metal under high pressure into re-usable steel molds.3 Manufacturing Process Although a working prototype would most probably be rapid prototyped using CNC.

.4 Glass Rub 50 Having contacted material innovation company Mouldlife. It’s also translucent which makes it ideal for pigmenting. an alternative solution was sourced. it was concluded.. This involved mixing two reagents (A and B) in a bowl. Taking this into account. with the assistance of Russell Neill.2 Screenshots taken from film in which Glass Rub 50 is prepared 48 .5. if this practice was adopted in industry. A full film of this experiment can be seen in Appendix D. labour and time (taken to set) would increase significantly. Fig 5. manufacturing costs in terms of materials. stirring and then pouring into a prepared mould to set over 16-24 hours. However.” An initial trial was conducted with the material to test its suitability for the products being developed. This system has a long pot life and is ideal for large section casting. that Glass Rub 50 would be a suitable starting point to mould the gripping sections of the Dial Turner and Key Turner. “Glass Rub 50 is a poly urethane elastomer that has a hardness of 50 shore.

SUGRU is a “hand-formable, self-adhesive silcone” (ni
Dhulchaointigh, 2008), developed by Jane ni Dhulchaointigh
during a Masters in Design at The Royal College of Art.

The material is essentially a rubber that is easily snapped and formed
when pressure is applied to it. The moisture-reactive molecules
within the material start the curing process, which results in a solid,
customised silicone grip.

The discovery of this material, although late into the project, began
to open up entirely new prospects for the Dial Turner and Key Turner.
With the very real possibility that the material could improve emotional
responses to the products in development, samples were obtained and
experimented with.

open : prime surface with adhesive wipe : mould : leave to dry : use

Fig 5.3Documentation of how SUGRU can be applied to materials and used to improve usability

“Mass produced products
are a compromise;
they are designed as
if everyone that will
use them is exactly the
same...” Jane ni Dhulchaointigh (2004)
Fig 5.4 SUGRU Prototype
Early prototypes were developed using a Green : very easily mouldable, although very sticky. Curing time : 24 hours
surprisingly small amount of the material. The Red : harder to mould than Green, far less sticky. Curing time: 16 hours
different colours available (Fig 5.4) represent the Black : easy to mould with minimal residue of material on hands. Curing time 20 hours.
different consistencies SUGRU is available in.

The integration of SUGRU into the project as a whole had a number of extremely positive outcomes:
• Mass-produced bespoke - despite, in industry, the products would be mass-produced, the user essentially has the finishing touches
• Emotional attachment - the user creates their own personalised grip on a product, therefore increasing positive emotional responses from the
behavioural and reflective levels of the brain.
• Durable and hard wearing - when set, SUGRU feels and acts like silicone, therefore has self-healing properties and is extremely impact
• Reduced tooling costs - SUGRU is ready made and can be injected into ready made moulds/grooves (not injection moulding). This is a much
more cost effective solution than producing Glass Rub 50 moulds for the gripping feature, or commissioning their manufacture elsewhere.
• Ideal for kitchen use : waterproof, thermally stable up to 250oC, and dishwasher-proof.

With initial trials of the material looking and feeling
impressive, further talks were held with Jane ni
Dhulchaointigh, founder of SUGRU’s parent company,
FormFormForm, regarding the possibility of sponsorship.

As the material is not currently commercially available, a
development agreement between David Stevens Design
Solutions and FormFormForm was established. For project
development purposes, FormFormForm would supply
materials and any development expertise necessary. In
return, the Dial Turner and Key Turner projects would act
as a case study for SUGRU.

Having experienced the positive aspects of SUGRU first
hand, it was expected that the material costs would be
far too expensive to pursue the concept. However, in
further correspondence with Jane, she stated that “to
manufacturers, SUGRU costs £8 per kg”, rendering the use
of the material financially viable.

In the material investigation shown, approximately 40g
of SUGRU was used to create two personalised handles
on a polyurethane tube of length 150mm and diameter
Calculated cost of SUGRU per unit:
40/1000 = 0.03
0.04 x 8 = £0.32 per unit
Fig 5.5 Further experimentation with innovative material, SUGRU

52 . due to the late discovery of SUGRU. it is important to return to the concept and make any necessary changes that will ensure user requirements are met. It is important to note that at this point of the project. Chapter 6 Concept Refinement Once materials for a product are selected. only the Dial Turner was developed further.

further CAD studies were produced in response to the findings from prototyping (Chapter 5. Fig 6. allowing the user to define the grip they find the most comfortable.6.5). allowing the user to create a mould for the dials on their appliances. this product signifies the beginning of mass produced bespoke products.1 Integration of SUGRU With the discovery of the positive emotional effects that SUGRU could have on the arthritic solutions.2. finalised by the user themselves. Taking care not to assume that the product will be used in the same way by everyone. With aim of mass production. finger ‘SU-GROOVES’ have been placed in the ideal location to grip the product.1 Wireframe models of Dial Turner Fig 6. determined by where the fingers and thumbs were placed. Perpendicular to the finger ‘SU-GROOVES’ is a a further application of the material. It was discovered from these prototypes that in order for the SUGRU to make an emotional impact on the user. the material had to be placed in ergonomically pleasing positions. the SUGRU has been placed in strips.2 Strategically placed SU-GROOVES allow the user to form their own personalised grip 53 . As shown by Fig 6.

Mass : 120g (approx) Volume (excluding SUGRU) : 30278.51 mm3 54 .6. an engineering drawing of the Dial Turner could be produced. All measurement are in millimetres.2 Technical Specification Using Solidworks Drawing Package.60 mm3 Volume (including SUGRU) : 45717.

there may be a danger of excluding the intended user groups. Chapter 7 Cost Analysis During the design of any product. If too expensive. If the product is too cheap then its continued production may not be financially viable. costing can affect its success. in this case. people with arthritis. 55 .

1 per kg of Aluminium.£8 per hour £ 2. is nearing 200 million people worldwide.7. 000 = £0. 000 SUGRU Assembling and packing 60 units per hour = £0.39 per unit Total manufacture cost = £1. the final costing shown is based on a fraction of this number. as stated in the introduction. Material Costs: Labour and Sundries Sales Solid Aluminium Skilled workforce casting body of dial turner .£1.99 = 73% profit on each unit 56 . electricty) £6.12 per unit Turnover Unskilled assembly and packing staff .000 units will be sold internationally.01 per unit Total material costs = £0. As this is a new product development venture.too expensive RRP £4. therefore with a 10% safety margin. all materials.66 per unit 100% mark up for profit margin = £7. 600. However.1 Cost of Manufacture The following shows the estimated cost of manufacture of the Dial Turner.000 per year £ 1.£20 per hour Based on projected sales of 500. 495.25 per unit Year 1: 81.75g per unit (0.9 .000 units in Purchased at $3030 per tonne = £1515 per ton Manufacture 20 units per hour = £1. 500. (Note: CES quoted a price of £0.13 per unit Purchased direct from producer at £8 per kilo Total costs (excluding wages) 40g per unit (0.83 per unit 100% mark up in retail outlets = £3. labour and overhead costs have been considered.32 RRP . a more recent update at the London Metal Exchange shows that the current cost is approximately £1515 per ton).000 units will be produced. The potenial market for the Dial Turner.04kg) = £0. 000 £1. however. It is predicted that in the first year of operation. In order to establish a suitable recommended retail price (RRP).32 per unit Amenities (servicing of machinery. 830.44 per unit Profit before tax Total Labour and Amenities £ 665. all costs have been based on external outsourcers.081kg) = £0.

The General Environment surrounding an industry can often have a detrimental effect to a company if left unaddressed.2 PEST Analysis With the development of a new product. Economic Exchange rates play a huge part within the Economic sector. often unpredictable. and consequently the business in question. as potential consumers can determine the worth of a product by investigating whether it is proportionally priced elsewhere. it is important to assess the environment in which the product will be placed. However. which allows the free movement of people. therefore the competitive advantage may not be sustainable. Changes in power can result in the forging or breaking of foreign agreements and relationships. measures can and must be taken in order to sustain a competitive advantage. Such events can be encompassed into four main categories and must be closely monitored by the company’s managers for a company to sustain such competition: • Political • Economic • Sociological • Technological Political Arguably the most important political event bracketed within the ‘General Environment’ is a Change of Government. A method of assessing these situations can be through conducting a PEST analysis in the General Environment. goods and energy between countries within the EU. Although the company has no direct control over. events that may occur. unforeseen global political changes could indirectly affect a company’s ability to trade effectively.7. as this often determines many of the other political issues that can affect a company. The current strength of the pound against the dollar could mean that the Dial Turner would have to be priced lower in the United States. 57 . which may or may not be successful to the economy. Tariffs do not currently exist between countries within the EU due to the Trans-European Energy Networks1 (TEN-E) legislation.

Changes such as culture. the discovery of SUGRU has helped to increase the product’s usability as well as increase positive emotional responses from users. If a new material is discovered and a company decides not to use it then they risk losing out to their competitors. fashion.Sociological Sociological changes differ from country to country and between continents. In response to the climate change warnings. Technological Advances in technology can transform the way a product functions dramatically. 58 . In the case of the Dial Turner. consumer trends and environmental issues all have an effect on the design of products. which is highly recyclable. an aspect that could help launch the product into the marketplace and sustain a competitive advantage. the Dial Turner’s body would be made from solid aluminium.

Chapter 8 Conclusion 59 .

highly durable.. Its moisture activated molecules allow the user to put the final touches to their device creating a completely personalised grip.Project Evaluation In conclusion. The Dial Turner is an arthritic solution to turning dials on cooking and cleaning appliances. which protects the material in transit and is then removed by the user to form their grip. The Dial Turner and Key Turner would not be as emotionally successful without the use of the new material technology. further development is due to take place with the founder of SUGRU. the development of products aimed to relieve the symptoms of arthritis has been successful. it is important to also consider the corporate identity of the products in order to market them successfully. such as a hardened skin. By using an increased turning moment. which has industrial advantages over SUGRU. 60 . In conjunction with the packaging. the use of rare earth magnets as a securing point is a promising arthritic solution to this problem. Throughout the project.? Although the Dial Turner is at a finalised solution. the rotational movement and strength of the wrist and fingers needed to use the appliance are severely reduced. Development in the form of prototyping and user testing is essential to the success of any user-centered project.’ The Key Turner uses the same principle of increased turning moments. however an additional issue is how the product allows keys to be attached and removed easily. therefore increasing positive emotional responses. ready for prototyping. this report is a documentation of work produced within the identified user area of Living with Arthritis. the costing of the Dial Turner shows that it is a fantastic business opportunity. This has been duly noted and a patent application has been filed with the UK Patents Office. protecting the SUGRU. sleek handles. Jane ni Dhulchaointigh on both the Dial Turner and Key Turner. Where next. created by its long. SUGRU. With the study of Inclusive and Emotional Design. environmentally resistant and aesthetically pleasing. The report successfully shows the extensive observational research within user areas that has helped to develop products from concept to final solution. Packaging for the products is also currently in development.. yet must be easy for the user to remove the product for use. The use of aluminium for the body of the device renders it lightweight. Currently in development. There are alternative material possibilities in the form of Formerol. therefore this will be carried out in the further development of both products prior to final prototyping. Although new material technolgies have been applied. For the packaging to succeed. therefore increasing usability and reducing the stigma attached to products designed for the ‘disabled. it must be air-tight. Inclusive Design has played an integral role in focusing both research and design work.

...Thank you for reading.

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