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Study Guide: Honors Physics: Semester One - 2010

For the final exam, bring – pencil, calculator, equation card, one side of one page of handwritten notes

**Unit 1: Chapter 1 – Introduction, Chapter 2 – Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
**

and Chapter 3 - Kinematics in Two Dimensions; vectors

Vocabulary (define the following words) Note: You do not have to write these out. Just be sure

you know what they are and understand the equations behind any definitions

**SI systems and units
**

Displacement Average speed

Average velocity Instantaneous velocity

Average acceleration Instantaneous acceleration

Kinematic equations Free fall

Graphs of d – t, v – t, a – t Coordinate system

Vectors and scalars Algebraic representation (of vectors)

Component Magnitude and direction

Graphical representation Resultant

Vector resolution SOHCAHTOA

Pythagorean Theorem Triginomification (vector resolution)

Vector components Resultant

x motion and y motion Projectile motion

Time of Flight (TOF) Time to Top (TTT)

Range Maximum height

1. Name the basic units of the SI system

2. In the SI system, what does the prefix milli-, kilo-, micro- mean?

3. What is the most basic science?

4. What is the difference between a theory, a law, and a hypothesis?

5. What is the scientific method and what hare the fundamental steps?

6. Mr. B tells you that he knows a teacher that is 5 meters tall. You do not believe him. Why?

**7. Convert the following:
**

a. 25.0 miles to km. b. 15 days to seconds. c. 6 miles, 551 yards into meters.

d. 465 g to kg e. 18.65 km into mm

8. Write 23,401 in scientific notation

9. What is the best representation in standard form of 8.50 X 10-3

10. How many significant figures in the number 1090 ?

11. Calculate a) 16.2+5.008-13.48 b) 6.21 X 4.7

1

and a vs t graphs that shows constant. The slope of a distance versus time graph gives what quantity? 17. what is the ball’s velocity at the top of the path? 23. acceleration. and a vs t graphs that shows a variable velocity 20. v vs t. ignoring air resistance. and acceleration related to each other graphically? 15. If a 2 kg physics book and a 0. v vs t. which would reach the ground first? 24. and a vs t graphs that shows a constant. v vs t.02 kg marker pen are both dropped from the same height. and time? 14. For a ball thrown straight up into the air. Draw d vs t. What is the acceleration due to gravity on earth? 2 . Draw d vs t. velocity. The slope of a velocity versus time graph gives what quantity? 16. what is the ball’s acceleration at the top of the path? 25.12. displacement. Draw d vs t. Draw d vs t. speed. non-zero velocity 21. For all ball thrown straight up into the air. How many standard 60 Watt lightbulbs (normal lightbulbs for home use) in the USA? 13. negative. and a vs t graphs that shows zero velocity 19. How are distance. non-zero velocity 18. What is the acceleration of a car that travels in a straight line at a constant speed of 100 m/s? 22. What are the units for distance. v vs t. velocity. positive.

What can you say about the ball’s velocity and acceleration now? 28. What is the magnitude and direction of the displacement? 32. Which hits the ground first? Why? 3 . A car is driven 125 km due west and then 65 km due south. A car goes from 15 m/s to 25 m/s in 5 seconds. You notice a point where the ball has zero velocity. What is the difference between a scalar and a vector? 33. What is the acceleration of an object that starts at rest. You fire a bullet horizontally and drop a golf ball from the same height. How long is it in the air? How high does it get? What is the velocity just before it returns to your hand? (Assume the ball starts and ends at ground level) 30. What are the components of a vector that has a magnitude of 1.5 m at an angle of 35° with respect to the positive x axis 34.26. The ball is falling back towards your hand. 35. Then draw the resultant vector from adding these two vectors together. You are throwing a ball up from the ground. You throw a ball upward with an initial velocity of 24 m/s. What is the acceleration? How far has the car traveled in the 5 seconds? 29. and ends up with a velocity of 100 m/s after covering a distance of 25 m? How long. did it take to cover the 25 m? 31. What can you say about the ball’s velocity and acceleration this point? 27. Draw two vectors. in time.

and N3 Free body diagram NULG Weight and mass FN (Normal force) Apparent weight Ff (Friction Frictional Constraint (DaVinci Condition) static friction Kinetic friction coefficient of friction Ft (Tension) Equilibrium Action-reaction paired forces Gravitational force Period of circular motion velocity for circular motion Centripetal centripetal acceleration Centripetal force banked curves Keplar’s Laws (K1. 39. What is Newton’s Second Law? 4 . What is Newton’s First Law? Give an example of each part of Newton’s First Law 42. 36. and then find the magnitude and direction) 40. K2. N2. calculate the cannonball’s range. Using the above information. and how far away from the cliff it will land. Unit 2: Chapter 4 – Motion and Force: Dynamics. Consider throwing your physics book off a 50 m tall cliff. Also calculate the cannonball’s velocity just before it hits the ground (You need to calculate both the y velocity and the x velocity. and K3) Circular orbit Astronomical Unit (AU) Orbital period Orbital radius Geosynchronous orbit 41. calculate how long until it hits the ground. time of flight. and Chapter 5 – Circular Motion and Gravitation Vocabulary words and terms (define the following) Contact and non-contact forces mass Inertia N1. Consider a cannon ball that is fired with an initial velocity of 250 m/s at an angle of 52°. What shape bests describes the path of a projectile? 37. If you throw it with a horizontal speed of 15 m/s. and maximum height. What is the initial horizontal velocity? What is the original vertical velocity? 38.

B has an acceleration of 1. and 165 N to the left act on a 120 kg object. What is your mass? 47. assume that the box does not move. 44. are on a slippery surface. What is the coefficient of static friction. what is the acceleration of the box down the incline now? Finally. Ms. what would the scale read. a mouse or an elephant? 46.0 m/s. identify the action-reaction forces acting on a book that is sitting at rest on a tabletop. What is the frictional force? 49. If there is no friction.5 m/s2? 48. 225 N to the right. 53. What is the net force and acceleration on the object 45.0 m/s2. Using the same information above. What is Newton’s Third Law? Using Newton’s Third Law. You are pushing a 50 kg crate across a rough floor with a force of 100 N and at a constant velocity of 5. What force does the wall exert back on the ball? 51. is 0. μk.0 m/s2? Accelerating downward at 2. Which has more inertia. Two wires hold up a stoplight of mass 100 kg.43. They push off from each other. what is the acceleration of the box down the incline? Now assume that the coefficient of kinetic friction. Calculate the tension in each wire. On earth. Each wire makes a 30° angle with respect of to the horizontal. Two horizontal forces. Hughes acceleration? 52. Hughes. if you were accelerating upward at 4.20. μs in this case? 5 . what is the coefficient of friction (kinetic friction)? 50. A box is sliding down an incline of angle 20°. with a mass of 40 kg and Dr. What is Ms. Using the same information above. You throw a ball against a wall and it strikes the wall with a force of 25 N. Dr. a scale shows your weight to be 585 N. B with a mass of 100 kg.

what does the force become if the mass of one of the objects is doubled? Both masses double? 59. What is the centripetal acceleration of the runner? What is the centripetal force acting on the runner? What specific force is responsible for this force? What is the coefficient of friction? 60. Draw a picture of the earth orbiting the sun. How far apart do two 10 kg masses have to be in order for the gravitational force between them to be 1 X 10-5 N? 56.000 N.000 N. draw an arrow that represents the earth’s velocity and an arrow that represents the earth’s centripetal acceleration. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects as the distance between them increase? Decreases? 57. A 60 kg runner is moving at a speed of 8. 6 . If the gravitational force between two objects is 10.54. what does the force become if the distance between them is cut in half? Doubled? Tripled? Reduced by 1/10? 58. If the gravitational force between two objects is 10. What is the gravitational force between two 100 kg masses that are separated by a distance of 5 meters? 55.8 m/s around a circular track of radius 25 m. On that picture.

75 that of earth.9 X 108 m from the center of the earth. and a mass of 1. what is your mass on the moon? What is your weight on the moon? Unit 3: Parts of Chapter 9 – Equilibirum and torque. Assume you have a mass of 100 kg on earth. You know that the moon has an orbital period around the earth of 27 days.2 times that of earth? 66. 61. where gmoon = 1/6gearth. Chapter 6 – Work and Energy and Chapter 7 – Linear Momentum Vocabulary words and terms (define the following torque equilibrium statics Energy Work Power Work-energy principle Area under Force vs distance graph Kinetic energy Potential Energy Mechanical energy Kinetic energy Gravitational potential energy Conservation of Energy Impulse Impulse-momentum theorem Momentum Collisions Conservation of momentum Area under Force vs time graph 7 . What would g be on a planet that had a radius equal to 0. Does the sun exert a gravitational force on the earth? If so. Compare the speed of Halley’s comet when it is nearest to the sun and furthest from the sun. 63. What is the mean orbital distance of an object that has a orbital period of 1 day? 64. An asteroid revolves around the sun with an average orbital radius equal to 2 AU. What is the period of the asteroid in earth years? 62. Its mean orbital radius is 3. On the moon. why doesn’t the earth fall into the sun? 65.

What are the conditions for equilibrium? 70. What is the gravitational potential energy of a 1000 kg roller coaster car that is located 15 m above the ground? 8 .00 m. how much power did the player generate? 73. Consider a small bridge across a 10 m wide river that consists of one support on each side of the river and a single span with a mass of 500 kg. How can you balance a teeter-totter that pivots in the middle with a 25 kg . A player exerts a constant 55 N force over a distance of 2.50 m. How much work does the player do on the puck? What is the change in the puck’s kinetic energy? If it took 5 seconds to move this distance.67. Consider a wheel of radius 0. There is one other mass of 200 kg located 4 meters from the left end. like shown above. a 35 kg. What is the kinetic energy of a 1000 kg roller coaster car that has a speed of 12 m/s? 74. Find the forces that the left and right support exert on the bridge.110 kg hockey puck is moving across the ice. and a 45 kg person? 71. You apply a 18 N force at the edge of the wheel. A 0. What is the torque applied to the wheel? 69. What is the best definition of a torque? 68. 72.

The roller coaster moves to the bottom of the hill. If the object has a mass of 4 kg and starts from rest. Can a bullet and a car have the same momentum? How? 81. Calculate the change in momentum and the average force applied to the SUV in each case. TME. Consider a rollercoaster that has a mass of 250 kg on top of a hill that is 15 m tall and is at rest. TME 78. PE. and velocity 79. what is the velocity of the object after moving 6 meters? Work 6 Force in newtons 4 2 0 -2 -4 0 3 6 9 12 15 Distance in m eters 76. in 5 seconds in a panic stop. and velocity 80. find the work done on the object and the change in the object’s kinetic energy. In the distance between 0 and 6 meters. At this point.2 s if it hits a concrete wall. At this point. What is meant by conservation of energy. and in 0. of height 12 m. PE. calculate the KE. calculate the KE. the roller coaster moves up a smaller hill. 9 . specifically the conservation of mechanical energy? 77. A 2000 kg SUV traveling at 30 m/s can be stopped in 20 s by gently stepping on the brakes. PE. At this point.75. TME. Use the graph below. calculate the KE. Finally.

What is meant by conservation of momentum? 85. from 0 to 15 seconds? How is the impulse related to the change in momentum? Impulse 6 Force in newtons 4 2 0 -2 -4 0 3 6 9 12 15 tim e in seonds 10 .82. a large bus at rest at a stop sign. How fast and in what direction does the astronaut go? 87. The two cars stick together. The combined mass of the astronaut and pistol is 65 kg. if they both have the same speed? 83. Use the graph below. or a small insect flying across the road? Why? 84.050 kg of hot gas at a speed of 900 m/s. What is the velocity of the wreckage immediately after the collision? 86. What is the impulse in the time interval from 0 to 6 seconds? From 6 to 15 seconds? Overall. expelling 0. Which has more momentum. Is the momentum of an object traveling in the positive x direction that same as an object traveling in the negative x direction. An astronaut at rest in space fires her thruster pistol. A 2250 kg car going 25 m/s rear-ends a 850 kg compact car going 15 m/s (in the same direction).

unless acted upon by an external force N2: ΣF = Fnet = ma N3: F12 = -F21. Equations to use cosθ = adj/hyp sinθ = opp/hyp tanθ = opp/adj 2 2 2 hyp = adj + opp .gt xf = xi+(vicosθ )t y = yi+(visinθ )t – ½gt2 These equations below only apply to a projectile that is launched and lands at the same height. or object in motion with constant v. stays in motion with constant v. ax2+bx+c= 0 x = (-b ± √b2-4ac)/(2a) Kinematics xf = xi + vit+½at2 if a is 0.gt vf2 – vi2 = 2g(hf-hi) Time to drop from top of a cliff or building: if initially at rest t = √(2h/g) Projectile Motion equations Motion in the x (horizontal direction) Motion in the y (vertical direction) a=0 a = -g vx = vicosθ vy = visinθ . object at rest stays at rest. Range = vi2sin(2θ )/g Time of Flight = 2visinθ /g Time to Top = visinθ /g Maximum Height = (visinθ )2/(2g) Forces and Newton’s Laws N1: valid if a = 0. Pythagorean Theorem Quadratic formula. forces come in pairs! 11 . then v = (xf-xi)/t vf = vi + at a = (vf-vi)/t vf2 – vi2 = 2a(xf-xi) Free fall hf = hi + vit-½gt2 (sometimes h is replaced by y) vf = vi .

if a is negative.Momentum Theorem pbefore = pafter. your apparent weight > true weight.67x10-11 Nm2/kg2 Circular motion f = cycles/time T = time/cycles f = 1/T v = 2πr/T. conservation of momentum 12 . µs > µk Weight = mg (also called your true weight) Apparent weight = FN = mg+ma. Work = 0. not the diameter! gplanet= GMplanet/R2planet G = 6. this is also the Impulse. with sun at one focus K2 – planets move faster when closer to the sun K3 – a3/T2 = constant Equilibrium and torque τ (torque) = Frsinθ. your apparent weight = true weight Fg = Gm1m2/r2. for an object moving in a circle ac = v2/r = 4π2r/T2 Fc = mac or Fc= mv2/r Kepler’s :Laws K1 – planets orbit in ellipse. your apparent weight < true weight. usually θ =90° Equilibrium conditions: ΣF = 0 and Στ = 0 Work and Energy W(ork) = Fdcosθ. Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation (NULG) r is the distance between the two masses. if a is positive. IF the force is perpendicular to the direction of motion W = mgh work against gravity Wnet = ΔKE . if a = 0. the frictional constraint. this is the Work-Energy principle P(ower) = W/t PE = mgh KE = ½mv2 PE + KE = TME Momentum and Impulse p = mv FavgΔt = Δp = m Δv = Impulse.Ff = µFN.

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