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Leonid Kashchenevsky, David Johnson
AMETEK Precitech, Inc
AMETEK Ultra Precision Technologies
Keene, NH, USA
Hydrostatic spindles have extremely high To make the analysis easier only the simplest
rotational accuracy in both the radial and axial type of manufacturing error will be taken into
directions. It is well known from multiple consideration. Both thrust surfaces, the one on
measurements that rotational accuracy for the non-rotating housing and the one on the
hydrostatic bearings is usually many times rotating shaft, are flat but not square to the
higher than the manufacturing accuracy of the rotational axis (Fig. 2): the angle between thrust
individual bearings components. This effect is surface of the housing and the rotational axis will
called errors averaging ; it is the result of be called , and the angle between the shaft s
averaging that occurs due to the oil layer that thrust surface and the rotational axis will be
surrounds the rotating shaft. called .

In [1] and [2], the theoretical rotational accuracy
for hydrostatic journal bearings is analyzed, and
the averaging mechanism is explained.
However, the averaging process differs
significantly between journal and thrust
bearings. In this paper the averaging
mechanism for a hydrostatic thrust bearing is
theoretically analyzed and explained.

To simplify the equations used, a simple type of
hydrostatic thrust bearing will be analyzed
(Fig 1). Oil from the hydraulic power unit is
supplied to the pocket through a constant inlet
restrictor, R0. Oil leaves the pocket across two FIGURE 2. Thrust pocket detail.
annular lands located on the thrust surface. A
large pocket of constant pressure acts on the The goal of this investigation is to find how the
rear of the shaft and preloads the thrust pocket. shaft axial coordinate, z( ), varies as the shaft
This thrust bearing design is widely used,
rotates, .
especially in high speed applications.
Bearing Equations
The quasi static behavior of this system is
completely defined by two equations; the flow
balance equation,

ps pp 1 1
pp (1)
R0 R1 R2

and the force balance equation,

pp Sp p0 S 0 (2)

FIGURE 1. A simple hydrostatic thrust bearing.

and v2 all equal 1 1 zero (which is the ideal thrust bearing.I. D1 and D2 are 2 z3 3 z u12 v12 2 u1v1 cos R1 24 L1 the effective diameters for inner and outer lands (7) respectively (Fig. d and outer lands respectively. h1 . v1. one can get the . v1 and v2 are measured on the 1 D1 shaft and are half of the total run-out at the inner h13 . h1( . Parameters u1. 1 1 D1 D2 1 ps S p z D2 sin cos D2 sin cos z 03 1 (10) 2 2 12 L1 L2 R0 p0 S 0 z u 2 cos v 2 cos (5) Setting the left sides of (9) and (10) equal to where. v1. u2. ) are the gaps at the inner and outer restrictors lands 1 D2 respectively (Fig. v1 D1 sin . pp is pressure in the 1 1 1 thrust pocket. as well as the following calculations.(Y=0) crosses the z( ) can be obtained: point where deviation of the housing s thrust surface is maximal. z0 satisfies z u1 cos v1 cos (4) equation (9) when parameters u1. v1. 2). R1 and R2 are the hydraulic resistances 1 for the inner and outer annular lands v2 D2 sin (6) 2 respectively. u2. p0 is pressure in the preloading u1 D1 sin . z0 is the axial gap when u1. and the plane X-Z. D1 2 z3 3 z u12 v12 2 u1 v1 cos 24 L1 The initial shaft s angular position ( =0) is D2 chosen when maximal deviation of the shaft s 2 z3 3 z u22 v22 2 u2 v2 cos thrust surface coincides with maximal deviation 24 L2 of the housing s thrust surface. d (3) new set of equations for the outlet restrictors R1 R2 24 L2 and R2: 0 where L1 and L2 are the width of the inner and 1 D1 outer annular lands respectively. 1 ps S p 1 (9) Using these definitions. R1 24 L1 0 2 By substituting (4) and (5) into (3).where ps is supply pressure. and v2 are all zero. 2 2 2 chamber. each other and dividing both sides of the resulting equation by z03. Sp and S0 are the areas of the thrust pocket and preloading chamber respectively. ) and h2( . the parameter z0 will be introduced. is the angular coordinate 2 z3 3 z u 22 v22 2 u 2 v2 cos in non-rotating coordinates system related to the R2 24 L2 housing. u2 D2 sin . Substituting (7) and (8) into (1) and (2) and The non-rotating coordinates system will be combining the equations by eliminating the chosen so that the z-axis is along the axis of pocket pressure. h2 . and is the shaft angle of rotation (8) relative to the housing. u2. 1). measured on the housing at the following formulas: the middle of the inner and outer annular lands 2 respectively.R). and v2 all have very simple metrological meanings: u1 and u2 are half of the The outlet restrictors R1 and R2 are described by total run-out (T. the formulas for the R0 p0 S 0 gaps at the inner and outer lands can be written as: To simplify equation (9). pp. one can get a 1 D2 h23 . the following equation for rotation. where all z D1 sin cos D1 sin cos 2 2 surfaces are flat and parallel).

v1. SUMMARY OF RESULTS The difference between maximal and minimal values for . The dimensionless parameters are defined as follows: z u1 u2 v1 z . variable: z( ). the axial run-out of the spindle will be very small D1 2 compared to the run-out of the individual parts. u 2 . As long as the nominal gap is . z( ). PhD Thesis. z 1 . the function can be approximated as: D1 D2 . Kashchenevsky. and the first and second order terms for u1. pages 52 55. u2 . the first term in (14) describes the shaft s axial motion during rotation. u1 v12 2 u1 v1 cos D1 D2 3 L1 z3 z REFERENCES L1 L2 2 D2 2 u 2 v22 2 u 2 v 2 cos [1] L. v1 . both sides of (15) need to be multiplied by the nominal gap. u1 . Byron R. D1 D2 Predicting the Rotational Accuracy of (11) Hydrostatic Spindles. ASPE 2001 summer L1 L2 topical meeting Volume 24.following equation for the dimensionless significantly larger than the run-out in the parts. is the spindle s axial run-out: D1 D2 2 u1 v1 u 2 v2 (15) L1 L2 To obtain the actual run-out of the spindle. can be written as a combination of a nominal dimensionless gap and a dimensionless spindle run-out term. v2 u1 v1 u 2 v2 cos L1 L2 1 D1 2 D2 2 u1 v12 u 2 v22 2 L1 L2 (14) The second term in equation (14) does not change when the shaft is rotating. v1 . u2. z0. v1 . z0 z0 z0 z0 v2 v2 (12) z0 The dimensionless function. and v2. Knapp. u 2 . u1 . v 2 (13) By substituting (13) into (11) and leaving only the first order terms for . u1 . 1981 L2 [2] Leonid Kashchenevsky. .