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United States Office of Water EPA 832-F-99-033

Environmental Protection Washington, D.C. September 1999
Agency

Combined Sewer Overflow
Technology Fact Sheet
Alternative Disinfection Methods
DESCRIPTION While chlorine disinfection is the most common
method used to kill pathogenic microorganisms at
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur when wastewater treatment plants, this methodology
flows exceed the hydraulic capacity of either the may not be feasible at all CSOs for several
wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) or the reasons, including:
collection system that transports the combined
flow of storm water and sanitary sewage to the • CSOs occur intermittently and their flow
WWTP. When an overflow occurs, the excess rate is highly variable, thus making it
flows tend to be discharged into a receiving body difficult to regulate the addition of
of water. CSOs typically discharge a variable disinfectant.
mixture of raw sewage, industrial/commercial
wastewater, polluted runoff, and scoured materials • CSOs have high suspended solids
that build up in the collection system during dry concentrations.
weather periods. These discharges contain a
variety of pollutants that may adversely impact the • CSOs vary widely in temperature and
receiving water body, including pathogenic bacterial composition.
microorganisms, viruses, cysts, and chemical and
floatable materials. Health risks associated with • Residual disinfectants from chlorine
bacteria-laden water may result through dermal disinfection may be prohibited from
contact with the discharge, or through ingestion of receiving waters.
contaminated water or shellfish.
• CSO outfalls are often located in remote
Preliminary reduction of microorganisms and areas and thus may require automated
bacteria may be accomplished through physical disinfection systems.
reduction of solids in the wastewater, primarily
through sedimentation, flotation, and filtration. In addition to these problems, the increased health
Following solids reduction, most systems further and safety concerns regarding the use of chlorine
reduce bacterial concentrations through to disinfect CSOs has prompted the development
disinfection. Disinfection occurs as the of alternative disinfectants, which often pose
wastewater is brought into contact with oxidizing fewer problems and hazards. Alternatives to
chemicals (such as chlorine, bromine, ozone, chlorine have been developed and evaluated for
hydrogen peroxide, and related compounds). continuous disinfection of wastewater discharges
to small streams or sensitive water bodies, and are
Chlorine has long been the disinfectant of choice now being considered for treatment of CSOs and
for most disinfection systems. It offers reliable other episodic discharges.
reduction of pathogenic microorganisms at
reasonable operating costs. (See EPA's CSO This fact sheet addresses the use of chlorine
Technology Fact Sheet 832-F-99-021, dioxide, ozonation, ultraviolet radiation, peracetic
Disinfection-Chlorination, for more information).

are produced or released while treating CSOs with UV. Germicidal few reactive species formed during this process properties range between 200 and 300 and include oxidizing hydroxyl radicals. with 260 nanometers being the most aqueous electrons and hydrogen atoms. And wastewaters with a high TSS level. formation of halogentated organics as does chlorination. Ozone is equal or superior to chlorine results in acetic acid. Based on limited demonstration data for disinfection of Ozone is a strong oxidizer and is applied to secondary treatment plant effluent. Electron Beam Irradiation Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Electron Beam Irradiation (E-Beam) uses a stream of high energy electrons that are directed into a UV radiation is one example of electromagnetic thin film of water or sludge. Its use in CSO treatment appears to be an effective disinfectant and should facilities for wastewater disinfection is relatively be evaluated further for treating CSOs. lethal. The new in the United States. UV disinfection apart water molecules and produce a large number incorporates the spectrum of light between 40 of highly reactive chemical species. peroxyacetic acid. while chlorine dioxide will not react with wastewater to form chloramines. UV disinfection is not effective in chlorine when generating chlorine dioxide. it can produce Peracetic Acid potentially toxic byproducts such as chlorite and chlorate. and so PAA must be capital costs associated with ozone generation produced on site. There are a nanometers and 400 nanometers. although its use around 254 nanometers. but it does not cause the oxygen. Therefore. Chlorine dioxide is applied to wastewater as a gas that is generated UV disinfection works by penetrating the cell on-site using excess chlorine. reducing nanometers. thus preventing cell chlorine dioxide is unstable and reactive and any replication and function. must be careful to use the correct amounts of Thus. No hazardous chemicals transport is hazardous. also known as ethaneperoxoic acid. The electrons break radiation used for disinfection. or actyl Ozonation hydroxide. and there are few equilibrium mixture of hydrogen peroxide and facilities currently using ozone for disinfection. The decomposition of PAA equipment. any excess method. Although it is walls of pathogenic organisms and structurally relatively easy and economical to produce altering their DNA. The primary method for utilizing UV . However. operators wastewater. most UV disinfection facilities have been designed to utilize Low Pressure Low Chlorine Dioxide Intensity UV lamps for disinfection. it disinfects without altering the physical chlorine remaining from the generation of or chemical properties of water. Peracetic acid (CH3COOOH) (PAA). is a very strong oxidant. UV chlorine dioxide would react with THM efficiency is affected by suspended solids in the precursors and form THMs. For example. peracetic acid wastewater as a gas. lamp. hydrogen peroxide and in "killing" power. Historically. but does not react with aquatic humus to produce Because UV is not a chemical disinfection trihalomethanes (THMs). low-pressure mercury arc lamps emit Studies have shown that chlorine dioxide is an approximately 90 percent of their light energy effective wastewater disinfectant. However. in the United States is limited.acid and Electron Beam Irradiation (E-Beam) to disinfection is to expose wastewater to a UV treat CSOs. Chlorine dioxide is effective at oxidizing phenols. which can scatter and absorb light. acetic acid that produces PAA is too unstable and This can be potentially attributed to high initial explosive to transport.

g. It does not alter pH of water. C Has taste and odor control properties. they disinfectants. It must be generated on disinfection). the limited use of chlorine dioxide in this country has made it C More costly than traditional chlorinated difficult to assess these byproducts for toxicity. which can elevate ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES oxygen levels in treated water. Because ozone must be generated on-site and the amount generated is dependent on the C More powerful disinfectant than most chlorine demand.. ozone is not currently considered compounds. peracetic acid may be most advantageous for specific and UV radiation as alternative CSO disinfectants applications. ozone. Table 1 provides comparative data for chlorine dioxide. disinfection techniques. residuals such as trihalomethane production. E-Beam. C Does not produce a disinfection residual that Beam system as a promising innovative would prevent bacterial growth. are not currently considered practical for CSO disinfection and thus they are not included in Ozonation: Advantages Table 1. and their lead to corrosion. . initially developed for the disinfection of municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge and C Will oxidize phenols with no negative the destruction of hazardous organic compounds. Highly effective for treatment applications. The alternatives to chlorine for CSO disinfection C Forms nitric oxides and nitric acid which can are not problem-free. precautions. and UV A brief summary illustrating the general radiation to help in determining which compounds applicability of chlorine dioxide. and it has not been evaluated for CSO disinfection. technology for wastewater technology. such as in CSO strains of both. C Ozone is chemically unstable as a gas. They require certain storage and use site and used immediately. one of the primary reasons for seeking alternatives to chlorine disinfection of C Increases coagulation. While ozonation and the the advantages and disadvantages of using E-Beam process are discussed in this fact sheet as ozonation and E-Beam as alternative CSO potential alternative disinfectants for CSOs. CSOs is the growing concern over safety in handling gaseous chlorine and the possible toxic C Helps remove iron and manganese. Although chlorine dioxide does produce Ozonation: Disadvantages byproducts and residuals. and UV. have shown that these alternatives serve as good substitutes for chlorine C Requires short contact time because they produce no toxic byproducts. As discussed above. peracetic acid. Studies on alternative disinfectants such as peracetic acid. side effects of treatment with chlorine. The following sections summarize is provided in Table 1. EPA will continue to evaluate the E. effectiveness depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastewater (e. The E-Beam system was Cryptospiridium eradication. however. C Degenerates into oxygen. and the presence of large particles may hinder hazardous to transport. and disinfection residuals and byproducts may be a concern in receiving waters. practical for intermittent use in situations where the system would be frequently turned on and off C Inactivates most strains of bacteria and viruses or where there are wide fluctuations in flow rate and is noted for destroying chlorine-resistant and disinfection demand.APPLICABILITY As discussed above.

operation and maintenance. PAA AND UV RADIATION ClO2 PAA UV RADIATION Stability Moderate Low High Persistent Residual Moderate None None Potential Byproduct Formation Yes No No Reacts with Ammonia No No No pH Dependent Moderate No No Ease of Operation Moderate Complex Simple to Complex Temperature Dependent Moderate Complex Simple to Complex Contact Time Moderate Low Low Safety Concerns High High Low Effectiveness as Bactericide High High High Effectiveness as Viricide High High High Likelihood of Regrowth None None High Source: Compiled from various sources. C Cost (capital cost. study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection C Thin process flow stream. DESIGN CRITERIA C No toxic byproducts are known to be produced. amortization cost) . E-Beam: Advantages C No full scale application experience for CSOs. C No disinfectant chemicals required. C Potential to penetrate waste streams with high C Safety (transport and storage in inhabited areas. will differ based on site-specific needs. potential for release) E-Beam: Disadvantages C Effectiveness (ability to reduce indicator organisms to target levels. C Increased safety considerations due to use of conditions of use) high. solids concentrations. (NYCDEP) determined several advantages of the E-Beam system: C Abundant pretreatment straining of influent is required for this delivery system. Design criteria for different disinfection systems C Short contact time required.voltage technology and the generation of X-ray radiation. E-Beam process to make a full determination of its usefulness for CSO disinfection. reliability. there is insufficient information on the C High capital costs. alternatives. Currently. the following general factors should always be C Potential to deactivate a wide range of considered when evaluating disinfection pathogens. However. but a pilot C High O&M costs. TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF GENERAL ATTRIBUTES OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE.

potentially resulting in chlorinated byproducts.. C Environmental/adverse effects (aquatic toxicity. TSS concentration. 1 gram of ClO2. single chemical reactant. these factors vary from location to Chlorine dioxide produced via UV radiation does location. Chlorine dioxide is directed Chlorine Dioxide from the generator into an ejector. Once in produced by combining sodium chlorite with the ejector. submerged (hydrochloric acid) weir. involves a discharge event. formation of toxic A new method of ClO2 generation that does not or bio-accumulating byproducts) involve chlorine is to radiate sodium chlorite with UV radiation as follows: C Flow and wastewater characteristics (range of flows. the efficacy of a disinfectant depends on factors such as the flow rate. and temperature of the wastewater. Reaction 3: downstream channel conditions. persistent residuals. The chlorinator. reactor vessel with metering pumps and ancillary piping is required. monitoring and control points) • NaClO2 + hv (254 nanometers)÷ Na+ + ClO2 Generally. An adequate be considered. turbine) can be to react with 0.4). Mixing can be accomplished using Reaction 1: one of four available methods: 2NaClO2 + Cl2 ÷ 2ClO2 + 2NaCl (chlorine) C A diffuser can be placed in the center of a pipe or channel with flow running at full turbulence. thereby creating a but is unstable and explosive as a gas. mixing chamber and the ejector. The ejector is a Chlorine dioxide is an effective bactericide and hydraulic chamber designed to carry a fraction of viricide that works over a wide range of pH values wastewater flow through it.g. On-site vacuum or negative pressure.34 grams of sodium chlorite C A mechanical mixer (propeller. with the rate of flow controlled by a chlorinator. CSO facilities will need to conduct preliminary baseline A chlorine dioxide disinfection system requires studies to characterize the range of conditions that chlorine dioxide generation on site by one of the exist for a particular area and the design criteria to three generation methods above. and even from discharge event to not use aqueous or gaseous chlorine. Reaction 2 requires 1. hydraulic jump).526 grams of chlorine to produce used in conjunction with a small residence time 1 gram of ClO2 (pH of chlorine water 1. TSS • Na+ + H2O ÷ NaOH concentration.7-2. ClO2 can also be the ejector as wastewater flows through. generation of ClO2 may be accomplished by which uses a negative pressure diaphragm valve. disinfectant is difficult to characterize. combining sodium chlorite with either aqueous or is triggered by the vacuum and releases gas into gaseous chlorine (Reaction 1).67 grams of sodium chlorite to react with hydrochloric acid to produce .C Complexity of use (on-site generation. and mixing intensity for a particular producing any toxic by-products. and thus a typical concentration. and is cheaper while not contact time. Excess chlorine is typically application and control. Reaction 1 requires 1. volume. flexibility) required in both of these reactions. For CSOs. duration of event. and is sent to a diffuser where it is mixed with wastewater. pH. chlorine dioxide enters into solution hydrochloric acid (Reaction 2). Reaction 2: C A hydraulic structure may be placed in the flow 5NaClO2 + 4HCl ÷ 4ClO2 + 5NaCl + 2H2O stream to induce turbulence (e.

dry gas for at high pressure into the wastewater. destruction. Depending on the outlet. Contact time and impurities in the gas are chief concerns in the can also be lengthened to allow for further ozone design of such a system. On the other hand. wastewater enters into a contact The removal of foreign particulates such as dirt basin to be held for sufficient time until desired and dust is often accomplished through filtration. The Air humidity is usually decreased by lowering the discharge pipe or channel may be used for contact dew point through refrigeration. cleansed and The degree of mixing at the point of disinfectant dehumidified. the back pressure of the ejector is not oxidized by particulates. the inlet Ozone has an average half-life of 20 minutes if it water pressure. After mixing. Regulations require the resulting both the lag in the solution line and the back concentration of ozone to be reduced to less than pressure at the ejector. suspended solids concentration. Although the use of pure oxygen gas will contact reactor-type design uses lamps encased in result in a higher efficiency of ozone generation. Ozonation Ultraviolet Radiation Ozone disinfection is similar in most respects to The following factors must be monitored for the chlorine disinfection. using atmospheric air systems are: requires preparation of the gas source. The major difference is that successful operation of a UV system: flow rate. and the distance between the ejector and water quality at a given time. Compression of the air serves to application affects the initial rate of inactivation. atmospheric air must first be compressed. increase the concentration of ozone in the supply. The two primary types of submerged UV source. a quartz sleeve submerged in wastewater at all it will also increase the initial cost of the gas times. The design of the contact adjusting the voltage of the current or the flowrate chamber is dependent on the disinfectant dose. so it must be generated on site. Most . optimal conditions. average lamp irradiation of dry air or oxygen. Designs for an ejector should be based on the maximum capacity of the chlorinator. and average transmissibility of the injected or diffused into the water supply stream. baffles should be The solubility of ozone in water is a function of used to provide the longest possible pathway for temperature and pH. UV absorbency For water treatment. The most common sources for with UV. if sufficiently long distance is available. Ozone can be generated from any gas containing Two generic designs are available for disinfection oxygen molecules. initial and final coliform density.7 pounds per the addition of hydrogen peroxide or by passing square inch. Ozone can be output.002 mg/L before the water is released from the gas between the chlorinator and ejector should plant. a portion of the the diffuser.C A jet mixer can discharge disinfectant solution ozone generators require clean. ozone is unstable. The temperature of the supply lines the system through a UVc system. maximum solubility concentration of ozone in water is 40 mg/L. The air. The vacuum line carrying 0. microbial inactivation has been attained. Therefore. The amount of ozone in the flow to minimize dispersion and approach plug system can be regulated in the generator by flow conditions. Ozone degradation can be accelerated by have a pressure drop of less than 0. the of the gas. and the required level of produced by a generator is 50 g/m3 and the disinfection. ozone is produced by an coefficient. The non-contact design suspends lamps ozone generation are oxygen gas or atmospheric away from contact with the wastewater. The maximum ozone concentration nature of the wastewater. electrical corona discharge or ultraviolet number of lamps in operation. The ejector should be located as dissolved ozone may pass through the system close to the mixing point as possible to minimize unoxidized. If a contact chamber is to be built. transmitting surface.

the top row of lamps can become exposed. Sulfuric Acid 0. but primary effluent such as that found in CSOs. Studies have shown lamps are housed on racks (ballasts) that require that reduced TSS concentrations are necessary to ventilation or cooling to reduce heat build up. and is produced by and electronic controllers.0% UV dosage is dependent upon the frequency and Hydrogen peroxide 28. UV disinfection of CSO wastewater requires that An open channel system submerges lamps in proper UV intensity be applied to wastewater for either a horizontal or vertical arrangement in an sufficient time to render pathogens inactive.0% water level in UV tanks. Automated control valves downstream demonstration projects for the treatment of from the UV lamps can control water level. also added to solution to slow biodegradation. they require proper installation and use more Equilibrium concentrations are: hydraulic head than an appropriately sized control valve or weir. A open channel from a self-supporting stainless steel spectrophotometer can be used in a UV system to enclosure. hydrogen peroxide.2% and their configuration.8% square centimeter (mW-s/cm2).0% nanometers are usually adequate for disinfection. Although these gates catalyst for the reaction. In horizontal systems. Sulfuric acid is typically used as a over a wide range of flows.0% the intensity of UV radiation. the distance between the wastewater and the lamp surface.8% turbulence. Lamps in both positions are arranged ensure that proper light intensity is delivered. the number of lamps Water 42. which can be used in pressurized systems. control gates can control upstream water levels and water. and be based on 1. obtain adequate disinfection with UV systems. Weirs may also be used to control Peracetic Acid 15. A closed Unfortunately. and have no moving parts. and the absorption A 15 percent solution would be made with the coefficient of the wastewater. Proper disinfection is also The water level in the channels must be kept fairly dependent upon the light transmitting surface constant. sedimentation or filtration prior to UV is usually required.8% Preliminary sizing and design for a system should . Fluctuations in the water level may remaining clear. these systems require electrically-operated valves PAA is a very strong oxidizer. predictable. Design following proportions: considerations should account for the number of lamps required for disinfection and the number of Glacial acetic acid 39.C Open channel (horizontal and vertical). many factors may limit the channel system is a sealed disinfection chamber intensity of the light delivered for treatment.0 million gallons per day per UV kilowatt. Glacial acetic acid 14. C Closed channel.4% channels required to minimize headloss. the chamber Sulfuric Acid 0. Weirs are inexpensive. UV dose is usually expressed as milliwatt-seconds per Water 38. Self-adjusting level combining glacial acetic acid. UV Suspended solids absorb and scatter UV light lamps are installed in a stainless steel chamber while shielding microorganisms in the particles with removable ends for interior access. therefore. result in several problems. the exposure time. All from exposure to UV light. perpendicular to the horizontal flow. A stabilizer chemical is are inexpensive and require little maintenance. reliable. Excessive heat causes failure of ballasts. Lamps emitting wavelengths in the range of 250 to 265 Hydrogen peroxide 21. or the Peracetic Acid depth of water above this row can become so great that adequate exposure of wastewater to UV does Peracetic acid has been used as a disinfectant in not occur.

Venosa also developed a sheet are new and innovative. Comparisons of performance data from different liquid reactants must be delivered to the site in applications may be further complicated by the separate tanks. Ideally. levels of 1. particles to the E-Beam delivery system and Therefore. regardless of the contactor type. The pilot flow rate was held Venosa (1983) compiled data on several studies relatively constant during each of the test runs. According to a pilot discharge was then fed to the E-Beam delivery scale study in New York. a high mixing intensity. To limit the size of pathogenic organism concentrations in the flow. According to the study. Water was then Chlorine Dioxide pumped through the E-Beam system using a progressive-cavity. Ozonation The E-Beam disinfection pilot was operated at a flow rate of 20 gpm. However. The pump in bacterial concentrations. Venosa cites a 1977 study by Scaccia and Rosen showing that PERFORMANCE the disinfection efficiency of ozone is related to the amount of ozone transferred into the process Disinfectants for treating CSO events require water. and mixed on an as-needed basis. Since most of the number of coliforms entering the disinfection alternative disinfectants evaluated in this fact system. a dosage of 12 system where the wastewater film was scanned by milligrams/liter ClO2 applied for a two minute the electron beam. and an effluent is directly related to the reduction in the increased disinfectant dosage.000 colonies/100 milliliters. Venosa "high rate" disinfection practices. performance data is model to predict the effluent coliform number limited. the absorbed E-Beam dose was determined as a function of wastewater C Fecal coliform (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) temperature changes in the contact tank. other methods may be more prevent clogging of the delivery unit. the coliform applicability. on ozonation as a CSO disinfectant. In this study. the pilot appropriate for determining the concentrations of study for NYCDEP allowed the wastewater to disinfectants to add to the flow to achieve the flow through a basket strainer equipped with desired results. A bacteria reduction to 200 colonies/100 temperature increase of 1EC equates to an milliliters. either a 1/32-inch or a 1/64-inch screen basket before reaching the E-Beam. disinfection is a function of the absorbed dose and . high also cites his own 1978 study demonstrating that bacterial kills should be accomplished with low the amount of ozone transferred to a municipal contact times.Because of the high reactivity of the final product. treatment data were used to evaluate the This and other research demonstrates that ozone effectiveness of the disinfectant. In cases where actual CSO data were not based on the amount of ozone being transferred available. achieve the desired bacterial reduction. fact that it is often difficult to determine the PAA residuals appear to be non-toxic and are appropriate disinfectant concentration to apply to readily biodegradable in receiving waters. primary and/or secondary effluent and the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD). Concentrations of fecal and total coliform bacteria Electron Beam Irradiation in the CSO are commonly used to assess the performance of the disinfection process in A limited amount of information exists on the wastewater applications. performance and optimum design count for storm flow is often uncorrelated to the features for E-Beam systems.6 krads. positive displacement pump. absorbed dose of 418. Thermocouples attached to the contact time achieved the following: delivery system influent and effluent monitored the temperature change of the wastewater and C Total coliform (TC) bacteria reduction to target were used to calculate the absorbed dose. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in treating The pump provided positive control of the CSO discharges is measured in terms of reduction wastewater flowrate discharge.

E-Beam is not appropriate for the C A simulated CSO study carried out at the disinfection of CSOs. A dose-response relationship exists between UV C A similar pilot scale study at CCCSD designed dose and reduction of TC and FC. suggested that a dose of 500 to control disinfection efficiency. Proper operation and maintenance of a chlorine dioxide facility should include the following C A study performed on wastewater being procedures.S. centimeter and UV transmittance at an average 65 percent (as cited in U. chemicals being used. monitoring off-gas ozone levels can help Syracuse. discharged into shellfish waters around St. and Escherichia coli. MD found that total coliform C All tubing should be inspected every six densities could be reduced to 70 MPN/100 ml months and faulty or corroded tubing should be or less with UV at 25. a study in addition. F+ bacteriophage. regulations.7-log reduction in these organisms. (CCCSD) indicated that UV doses of 55 mW-second/square centimeter were required to OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE achieve 240 MPN/100 milliliters TC bacterial densities in unfiltered secondary effluent In order to assure proper operation and (WERF. Doses less than 50 maintenance for CSO disinfection. and toxicological 30 liters/second was able to achieve a 3 log kill information. Staphylococcus aureus. Results from the Enterococcous group with increased disinfection Central Contra Costa Sanitary District facility dose. Pseudomonas Chlorine Dioxide aeruginosa. NY. A UV disinfection dose for total coliform. all Material Safety Data Sheets on any bacterial densities in filtered effluent. chlorination using a dose of 30 to transmittance and a suspended solids 300 milligrams/liter per minute achieved little concentration of 30 milligrams/liter.8 log kill (99. or MPN: According to the pilot study done for the NYCDEP.8 percent removal) of fecal coliforms. The quality of to examine UV and chlorine inactivation of the wastewater will dictate what dose should be used. total coliforms. The study showed no Brampton WPCP in 1991 used a 60/40 blend increased disinfection with an increase in of raw wastewater and final effluent. MS2 bacteriophage indicated that UV doses of A 30 megaWatt-second/square centimeter (mW. EPA. up to a 4. bacterial Electron Beam Irradiation concentrations are given in terms of the most probable number.000 uW-second/square replaced. EPA. operators and mW-second/square centimeter were required to facility managers should have access to. Results of or no inactivation of the MS2 bacteriophage. fecal dosage of 75 mW-s/cm2 was needed to achieve coliform. 1995). and enterovirus. salmonellae. 1986). several studies on UV disinfection are presented below.2 MPN/100 milliliters total coliform aware of. In several of these studies.the effluent’s ozone-demanding properties. In C Under laboratory conditions. C A study using a UV dose of 40 mW-m/cm2 on including handling and storage. tertiary effluent with flows ranging from 9 to disposal considerations. 1986). 20 to 100 mW-s/cm2 were sufficient to cause a s/cm2) dose is recommended for a 4 log reduction 1 to 4. These data sheets provide information on several aspects of the chemical. A weak trend was a target bacterial concentration of 100 observed for increased disinfection of the colonies/100 milliliters. . and be achieve 2. mW-s/cm2 would be required to achieve a residual coliform level of 2500 MPN/100 Ultraviolet Radiation milliliters (as cited in U.S. Michael's. In in fecal coliform for wastewater with a 65 percent comparison.

contacted uniformly in a near plug flow contactor. the bulb covers Maintenance of an ozone residual at a given must be cleaned. Bacterial growth on the quartz tubes surrounding the UV C Increases in temperature. C Monitor ozone generator operating temperature. exposure to light. . concentration for a specific period (detention Several methods are available for cleaning lamps time) is necessary for proper disinfection. C Ejectors should be disassembled and cleaned every six months. The calculation requires consideration of gas volume and concentration Several cleaning agents available for cleaning versus aqueous volume and concentration. trichloroethylene. clean with concentration out of the contactor and the aqueous chemical. and exposure to organic radiation reaching. As with most surfaces exposed to C Granular sodium chlorite should be stored in wastewater. C Chlorine dioxide pressure reducing valves should be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol or C Schedule cleanings of ozonator and its parts.C Any gas filters should be inspected every six C Prevent leaking connections or other leaks in months. the contaminants should be avoided as they wastewater. The ozone dosage must be calculated based on the C Dip tanks. bacterial growth occurs in spite of the its own building equipped with sloped floors disinfecting ability of the UV radiation (the and equipment to hose down spills. and disinfecting. meters that measure the amount of UV light coming from the bulbs and passing through the Ozonation wastewater. chemically and/or physically. lamps gradually reduces the amount of UV changes in pressure. including: Because ozone has a tendency to decompose naturally and is consumed rapidly. C Clean the ozone generation cells periodically to maintain maximum efficiency. C Chlorine dioxide analyzers (if used) should be inspected regularly. C Lubricate compressor or blower as scheduled. include area maintenance and component cleaning/repair. and gas flow and the concentration applied to the contactor versus the gas flow and the C Removing modules (rinse. lamps include: Maintenance activities that should be addressed include: C Citric acid. C Dilute HCl. C Mechanical wipers. it must be C In-place recirculation. associated warmth facilitates growth). All lines should be Ultraviolet Radiation inspected daily. UV systems have transmittance increase the chance of ClO2 explosions. rinse and return) ozone residual and flow. When the transmittance reading reaches a predetermined low level. C The valve spring should be replaced every two to five years. Results from the analyzer should be compared with results from a manual Maintenance for a UV disinfection facility would analysis. or around the ozonator because this presents an electrical shock hazard.

covers must be worn at all times around UV lamps even when manually cleaned or replaced. leakage detection equipment. covers to their original transmittance level. appropriate areas of the facility describing the relative output. The normal life span of a UV lamp is approximately 14. Spilled chemicals should Limited safety data is available on UV be cleaned up immediately. The Excessive exposure may cause bleeding and explosive nature of the chemical agents stored at blistering. and chemical dry condition. The coating composition and the rate at which it C Precautions should be taken to avoid electrical accumulates are site-specific and depend on the shocks. Ultimately. Maintenance for a PAA facility should include Reactors taken out of service should be rinsed periodic inspections of feed lines. and held in a drained. The Peracetic Acid ballast cages used to house the lamps will also need to be replaced approximately every 10 years. The period of time between cleaning is C Protective electrical devices should be included determined by the rate at which the quartz sleeves in electrical designs for the facility. and C Interlocks should be incorporated into the channel lamp design to allow for the shutdown C Sulfuric acid.C Phosphoric acid. C Access to those areas should be limited only to The lamps themselves will ultimately burn out or necessary personnel. and ballasts. More detailed . storage areas. The amount of restoration is likely to be less with each C Protective goggles and a face shield should be subsequent cleaning. The following precautions are suggested to help reduce UV exposure: C Tile/bowl cleaner. Strict C Hazard placards should be placed in inventory should be made of all lamp usage. Blocked or silted sewer lines should be around the entire UV disinfection system for use flushed and cleaned on a regular basis. and cataract formation. Spent during maintenance tasks. drained. Pilot studies are access and traffic through electrical and recommended to produce data that correspond to equipment areas. with clean water. inspected regularly. retinal lesions. The chemical housing disinfection systems. Moderate skin exposure to facility should be cleaned and inspected UV can cause erythema.000 hours. periodically to ensure structural integrity. C Detergent. C Open-channel lamps should be arranged in C Lime away. metal frames. lose their intensity. become coated and reduce the ultraviolet output. Facility plans should provide limited chemical properties of the water. A bypass should be constructed injectors. actual operating conditions. operating life. Inventories should also be made on quartz sheaths. and estimated cumulative risks associated with the UV equipment. Interlocks should also prevent lights from illuminating when they are Chemical cleaning may not restore the lamp not completely submerged. UV exposure to eyes can cause the facility requires that the sprinkler system be kerato-conjunctivitis or inflammation of the eye. the lamps appear to be emitting little light. chronic yellowing of the lens. chemical containers should be discarded in approved receptacles. Teflon tubes. of entire lamp blocks. or reddening of the skin. The following basic safety precautions should be observed while handling PAA.

000 $2. 3.000 $23. be evaluated based on the characteristics of a particular site. and the various disinfectants.000 $1. a greater quantity requires storage in on E-Beam processes there is no cost information separate buildings. This data is should be allowed inside the facility at any one presented in Table 2.000 $500. Costs do not include additional contact tankage (if required) or support facilities. and near valves and equipment constructed of materials with maximum that pose a potential threat. should include deflagration venting. Notes: 1. Tradeoffs should be weighed to C A backup power supply is necessary for determine any overriding factors to be ultimately housing structures at all times.000. In a report prepared for the NYCDEP. TABLE 2 CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY COST PROJECTIONS Conceptual Level Disinfection Costs Technology Chlorine Dioxide Ozone Peak Design Flow (cfs) 1.000 $275. alkalies.000 1.000 $3.000 $275. The storage building should be near chemicals. The facilities must be designed with interior walls C Chemical spills must be contained and diluted capable of withstanding 125 pounds per square with water. UV radiation.000 $28. ozonation. C Chemicals for use in PAA disinfection processes should be stored in a cool.000 Source: NYCDEP. Capital costs are based upon sizing to meet peak design flow and a 4-log reduction in fecal coliform.000 $184. currently available. 2.500 5. C PAA may only be stored in 30 gallon closed drums and cannot be stacked. and E-Beam processes C The storage room should be kept separate from cannot be easily compared due to the different all other processes and should be separated variables and the varying application methods for from acids.000 $2.085.000 Total Annualized Costs $341.40 gallons per minute per square foot. C Personnel must wear special protective well-ventilated area and should be kept in their clothing and positive pressure self-contained original. with hazard labels intact.343.safety precautions are available from the manufacturer.000 $18. PAA is thermally unstable and decomposes explosively at high C Release detecting equipment must be located temperatures. DOT-approved shipping containers breathing apparatus.833. Storage buildings should COSTS have an automatic sprinkler system designed for 0.000 $615. Each alternative should heavy metals.600.250 2.528. a cost projection was created C No more than 4.000 Annual O&M Costs $275. peracetic acid.000 $2. .250 2. Capital costs are for installation at Spring Creek and are for process equipment only. Costs for chlorine dioxide.000.000 $1. Due to limited information time.000 $459.808. foot internal overpressurization and ceilings must be insulated. Releases in excess resistance to fire and explosive potential. and of 1 pound should be reported. Costs are present worth in 1997 dollars.000 $550.500 5.000 Annualized Capital Costs $66.800 gallons of the product for chlorine dioxide and ozone. dry.000 $111. incorporated into the system.913.000 $1.000 $2.333. 1997.000 $386.000 Capital Costs $651.893. organic materials.

1998. Dunham.2 mgd) 1990. UV Transmission 65 (%) 6.5 mgd) 5.A. and L.282-287. Volume 62.html. 9. Monteith.. and S... R.edu/enviro2/wtprimer/o sodium chlorite or chlorine. This system was not used for treatment of CSOs. Longley.. meets the minimum fecal coliform count of less than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters for any 30. system. D. an open channel vertical infection with Ozone. Hall. Volume 38.Final Report. Boner. Avg..Chlorine Dioxide REFERENCES Costs will vary for a chlorine dioxide generation 1. B. accessed July 1999. Jr. D. Morone Saxatilis. 1997.A. C. T. and Chlorine Toxicity to the Development Costs and equipment designs were based on the Stages of Striped Bass.html. expectancy of 20 years and an 8 percent interest rate for both capital cost and operation and 8. Goldstein. L.W. Disinfection of Combined Sewer The present worth analysis based on a life Overflows-Phase III.000. Peak Flow (GPM) 7297.. S." following data: Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science. Jamesson.N. date. and M.. would be dependent upon demand and would not be affected by variations in flow rate. PA. "Toxicity Effects of Alternate Disinfection Processes. 1974. K.ce. Metcalf and Eddy. Flow (GPM) 2919 (4. Hass." Research Influent BOD mg/l 30 Journal of the Water Pollution Control Influent SS mg/l 30 Federation. “Water Disinfection with Ozone. H. He. (wired and installed) capable of producing a feed rate of over 100 pounds ClO2/day is 2. Woodard. Kramer. accessed July 1999.897 for a Sewer Overflow Disinfection vertical system and $492. Production of gas zone/ozone. and T.” I n t e r n e t s i t e a t The system would convert chlorine dioxide from http://www. estimated cost for a chlorine dioxide system Presented at WEFTEC ‘98 Workshop.5 (10. "High-Rate Coliform Disinfection of Storm Water Overflow.edu/enviro2/wtprimer/o would be required to produce effluent which zone/ozone. Prepared for the New York City Department of A detailed cost analysis was obtained from a pilot Environmental Protection by Camp demonstration project performed at the Dresser & McKee. G. Leung.. Combined maintenance is approximately $446. Burton. B. M.” Internet site at system with the specifications shown in Table 3 http://www.ce. 1995. and R. The Weather Demonstration Programs. Microstraining and day geometric mean of daily samples at peak flow.A. no approximately $21.J. C. Rein. 7. No.vt. “Dis- Based on this data. 1981. "Comparison of Ozone baseline estimates for similar treatment flows. 1992. 3. undated.vt. the equipment and O&M costs provide Richardson. Wet system based on design specifications. however. CSO Disinfection Pilot Study-Spring Creek AWPCP Ultraviolet Radiation Upgrade . 3. S. and K. pp.517 for a horizontal Effectiveness." Water . Downingtown WPCP in Downingtown. Selfridge.. 4. Maher. Arnett.

"Residual Toxicity of Several 10. S." Journal of the Water Pollution 12. "Enhancement of Journal of the Water Pollution Control High-Rate Disinfection by Sequential Federation. Moffa. 11. 3 ph.680 Cleaning $180 (30 minutes per channel per $990 (15 minutes per module per month) month) Replacement Labor $2.208 Replacement $8. Ward.085/kW (Horizontal) Lamp Replacement Cost $55. Minimum of 57. TABLE 3 ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION COST FACTORS FOR AN OPEN CHANNEL VERTICAL SYSTEM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING AN EFFLUENT WITH A MAXIMUM FECAL COLIFORM COUNT OF LESS THAN 200 COLONIES PER 100 MILLILITERS SPECIFICATION Number of Channels 2. EPA. R." and R. Disinfection of Combined Sewer . 1978. Water Depth will be a maximum of 62". Bench-Scale High Rate Control Federation.L.S. E.400 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Electrical Consumption $. 60 amp Capital Cost: $278..00 every 8760 operating hours Cleaning Frequency Once/month (may vary depending on site-specific conditions) Labor rate $15. 65th Annual Conference and Exposition.5" Number of Modules/Channel 6 Total Number of Modules 12 Number of Lamps/Module 40 Total Number of Lamps 480 Dose Level (megawatts per second 36 per square centimeter) Retention Time (seconds) 12-38 Headloss (inches) <3" Power Requirement (2) 208 v.I. Field.C. DeGraeve. July.400 (30 seconds per lamp per $4.800 $9. Richardson. 1975.W. and G. U.E. 1977. 60 Hz. Tift.782 $7..162 $22. P.075/kW (Vertical) $0.00/hour Vertical Horizontal Number of Lamps “On” 160 176 Electrical $5. Addition of Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide.M.102 Environment Federation. Disinfectants in Domestic Wastewater.055/kWh Consumption/Lamp $0.224 (8 minutes per lamp per year) year) Total Replacement Costs $17. 1977.

S. Barry Zuckerman 96-05 Horace Harding Expressway. Overflows With Chlorine and The City of New York Department of Chlorine Dioxide. EPA. Combined Sewer Overflow Pollution Abatement.D.. EPA. EPA 670/2-75. U. 5. recommendation for the use by the U.O.S. Stormwater Pollution products does not constitute endorsement or Abatement Technologies. “Current State-of-the-Art of Wastewater Disinfection. Georgia Cliff Arnett Columbus Water Works 1501 13th Avenue Columbus. 1983. Wastewater Disinfection..S. NY 13214 . NJ 07430 Municipal Technology Branch U. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The City of Columbus. Inc. 1989. U. Principle Engineer For more information contact: 1 Lethbridge Plaza Mahwah. Wet Weather Engineering and Technology Mark Boner 14. U. Environmental Protection 021. 5710 Commons Park Washington. EPA Columbus. Venosa. Volume 55.” Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation. 17. Environmental Protection Agency. 1984. 1986. EPA/600-R. Karl Scheible. Box 26 Syracuse. S. Combined Sewer Corona. NY 11368 Overflow Control Manual.S. EPA.C..W. 1996. 94/129. EPA 625-R- 93-007. pp 457-466. 5th Floor 13. The mention of trade names or commercial 15. GA 31902 HydroQual. Manual of Practice FD-10.S. Design Manual: 1825 2nd Avenue Municipal Wastewater Disinfection. A. Water Pollution Control Federation.. Water Environment Federation. 1994. No. EPA Moffa and Associates Mail Code 4204 Peter Moffa 401 M St. D. GA 31901 625-1-86/021. 16. 18. 20460 P.