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TABLE OF
CONTENTS
1. A 2010 Declaration of Broadband Inclusion for All

2. Executive Summary - A 2010 Leadership Imperative: Towards a Future
Built on Broadband

3. Creating a Broadband Development Dynamic: A Strategic Framework
for Action

3.1 Policy: From Clear Policy Leadership to an Enabling Environment
3.2 Infrastructure: Investing in Infrastructure for the Future
3.3 Technology: Future-proofing Technology
3.4 Innovation: The Changing Face of Innovation
3.5 Content and Applications: The Growing Importance of Content
and Applications
3.6 People: Building the Network of Ideas and Information
3.7 Government: Government takes the lead in creating demand

4. Broadband and the Interlinked and Interdependent MDG Agenda

5. Broadband and Beyond the MDGs

6. Recommendations and Proposed Plan of Action

Acknowledgements
Disclaimer
This Report does not necessarily represent the opinions of the International Telecommunication
Union (ITU) or the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
or their respective Member States, Sector Members, Associates and Secretariat.

The views of the Commissioners reflected in the Report are personal and do not entail any
responsibility for their respective Administrations or the Organizations to which they are elected
or associated with or of which they are staff members.

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5
We believe that the Internet and
other information and communication
technologies (ICTs) should be used for the
benefit of all mankind. Beyond any physical
or virtual infrastructure that has preceded
it in the industrial revolution or information
age, and as a catalyst and critical enabler
for recovery in the wake of the recent
economic slowdown, broadband will be the
basis for digital invention and innovation
and the foundation for digital and other
investments that lie at the very heart of our
shared knowledge economy and society.

We firmly believe that with the strategic
and innovative use of broadband ICTs, the
international development community can
move beyond ‘business as usual’ and that
it will be possible to achieve the inherently
interlinked MDG agenda by 2015 to address
the existing and emerging global challenges
of the 21st Century.
New York, September 19, 2010
Put plainly, we believe the models of
We, the members of the Broadband
the mobile and Internet revolutions can
Commission for Digital Development, transform global development and have

A 2010
address this Declaration to the world fundamentally thrived because they are
leaders attending the 2010 MDG Summit bottom-up, market-led models. By forging
at United Nations Headquarters. a common vision and understanding of

Declaration
the needs and requirements for ubiquitous
We call upon you to embrace a common and higher capacity access to the Internet,
leadership vision that has profound governments have today an unprecedented
implications for the accelerated opportunity to unleash the creativity

of Broadband
achievement of the Millennium Development and inventiveness of their citizens and
Goals (MDGs) by the internationally-agreed industries to innovate and invest in health
and education. Although broadband is a
deadline of 2015. That common vision is

Inclusion
means to an end, and not an end in itself,
broadband inclusion for all. It is a vision
ICTs and broadband can help generate
that embodies effective and sustainable jobs, growth, productivity and, ultimately,
solutions to the great global challenges long-term economic competitiveness.

for All
of the 21st Century in poverty, health,
education, gender equality, climate change Timing is everything. In September 2000,
and the seismic demographic shifts in when the historic Millennium Declaration
youth and ageing populations. was agreed by 189 UN Member States,

cultural diversity. women. of expression. agricultural and environmental be addressed at the national. New models are needed The implications are enormous. and we We urge national governments not to Digital literacy and e-skills should remain concur with OECD findings that justify limit market entry nor tax broadband a key preoccupation of governments We therefore make a clarion call for rapid broadband roll-out in all OECD unnecessarily to enable the market to and business. awareness-raising vision and leadership. there are world. pose Proposed Plan of Action contained therein mental and physical disabilities in rich and immense challenges for existing national with a full pledge and commitment from us Therefore. Equitable and affordable compensation. the unprecedented opportunities for Digital Development to the United Already. content and applications. economy. universal access to information and with the majority located in the developing knowledge of and respect for cultural and Digital creators are entitled to fair While local conditions vary. and significantly increased user satisfaction. This will require the hands of each and every one require a newly proactive and progressive integral part of the strategic deployment of the development of technical solutions of us – and it begins here with your approach to creating an enabling broadband infrastructure. a global million Internet users worldwide. We believe that broadband inclusion for fair competition to promote access to all. At the on growth in the number of Internet users as the critical enablers of the international and social change commensurate with international level. around the concept of knowledge cooperative framework is needed as there are more than 5 billion mobile cellular innovation.3 per cent additional growth in national policy-makers and industry. It is now high time to take the next linguistic diversity.6 7 there were some 740 million mobile environment for broadband inclusion for We affirm that in order to realize its full and the establishment of related laws and cellular subscriptions and nearly 400 all via the convergent and interdependent potential. confidentiality and security accelerated achievement of the MDGs. issues of until 2015 specifically in service of the broadband policy and investment mix right and other key development priorities. Digital networks have led some similarities in the issues affecting great digital leap forward toward our universal access to broadband networks to unprecedented levels of content piracy developed and developing countries and and broadband-enabled applications that will be further exacerbated in the broadband future. enlightened political leadership. ITU estimates that by achieve its full growth potential. all relevant stakeholders that. shared public goods and services. At the same time. to radically the opportunity in developing further the leadership from the top and a ground- 2015 at least half the world’s population multilingual Internet by building on the recent swell of support in shaping the broadband rethink the availability of adequate radio should have access to broadband content deployment of the first internationalized future through the deployment of National frequency spectrum in the broadband era. Critically. including principles of freedom these issues often extend far beyond the subscriptions and over 1. In 2010. forces of policy. the strengthening distributors and network operators – every 10 per cent increase in broadband need to create a regulatory environment of social cohesion and the promotion of models that are best developed through penetration we can expect an average of conducive to investment and innovation. . Preservation of cultural Broadband Plans. societies. boundaries of individual nations or sectors. in a digital final Report of the Broadband Commission mitigating the effects of climate change. infrastructure. domain names. We draw your progress which digital inclusion offers to we urge world leaders to recognize that and almost limitless access to content. it is essential that we examine poor countries alike. We encourage all to seize ‘Broadband Inclusion for All’: for global member countries. and for full-scale and to adhere to the guiding principles of diversity and promotion of multilingualism recognition in policy-making of technology. in cyber-space will have a positive impact innovation and private sector investment all will represent a momentous economic including fair licensing procedures. culture. quality education for all. knowledge and applications. gross domestic product (GDP). online privacy. attention to the Recommendations and youth. networks and Trust and confidence are prerequisites. regional Broadband inclusion for all rests in as grassroots support. users according to ITU’s most recent data. broadband must be anchored regulations. we submit to you our delivering digital education for all. technology. coordinated standards around the globe. all to continue the work of the Broadband ways to develop local content and Commission for Digital Development applications in order to serve the MDGs We strongly believe that getting the As broadband usage increases. as well as education. software through economies of scale and We believe that recognition is needed by With this Declaration. in addressing rising healthcare costs. and communication. partnership and consensus between 1. development agenda and development in the very problems that the MDGs aim to for interoperability must be established that the 21 st Century. and that it will be a game-changer can grow markets in devices. and international rules and regulations. in the solutions to those issues – including are the key for the delivery of online broadband era. afforded by flows of ideas and information Nations Secretary-General. International estimates suggest that for responsibility for a shared resource and the scientific information. requires coherent and concerted political Promoting access to education. the elderly and people with connectivity and content go hand in hand. solve. this will information should thus become an and international levels. the sharing of for the remuneration of content creators. health are becoming more important and must will and leadership from the top as well services.8 billion Internet people and government. we see the transformational While broadband infrastructure is crucial.

Kathy Calvin President of Rwanda Honorary Lifetime Chief Executive Officer.E. Irina Bokova H.E. Dr. Helen Clark Administrator. Cisco Systems Dr. UNESCO Minister for Broadband.8 9 co-chairs Commissioners H. Australia . Communications and the Digital Economy. United Nations Development Programme Dr. ITU Director-General.E. Cerf VP and Chief Internet Evangelist. Chairman Emerging Markets Microsoft Corporation Sir Richard Branson Founder. Republic of Azerbaijan Mr. Senator Stephen Conroy Secretary-General. Carlos Slim Helú Ms. United Nations Foundation Chairman of Grupo Carso Dr. Paul Kagame Mr. Hamadoun I. Telefónica Mr. Abbasov Minister of Communications and Information Technologies. Vinton G. Orlando Ayala Corporate Vice President. Choi Soon-hong Assistant Secretary-General Chief Information Technology Officer. Mr. César Alierta CEO. Chambers Chairman and CEO. Prof. Google Vice-chairs Mr. Virgin Group H. Touré Ms. Ali M. John T. United Nations Ms.

Leisinger Chairman. Finland Mr.E. Japan Ms. Uruguay Commissioner for the European Digital Agenda H. A. Cheick Sidi Diarra Under Secretary-General. Swiss Development Corporation Executive Director. Sunil Bharti Mittal Founder and Chairman.E. Bharti Enterprises . Paul Jacobs Chairman and CEO. Republic of Korea H. Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States E-Development International Mr. Infocomm Development Authority Cooperation and Development of Singapore Mr. Julius Genachowski Prof. President and Managing Director. Qualcomm Mr. Angel Gurría Mr. Organisation for Economic (Telecoms and Post). Mr. Ingrid Deltenre Director General. Suvi Lindén Director General. Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union Executive Vice-President. European Broadcasting Union Dr. Bruno Lanvin Former Director-General. Mr. Leong Keng Thai Deputy Chief Executive and Director General Secretary-General.10 11 Mr. United Nations Office for Partnerships President. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Ms. United Nations Dr. Dr.E. Bharti Airtel. INSEAD Mr.E. Ivo Ivanovski Minister of Information Society. World Intellectual Property Organization Minister of Communications. Klaus M. Mo Ibrahim Foundation Chairman. Edouard Dayan Mr. Universal Postal Union President. Ricardo Ehrlich Ms. NHK. Neelie Kroes Vice President of the European Commission Minister of Education and Culture. Francis Gurry H. Yoshinori Imai Director-General. National Information Society Agency. eLab. Amir Dossal Dr. Federal Communications Commission. Novartis United States Foundation for Sustainable Development Mr. Mo Ibrahim Mr. Ambassador Walter Fust Mr. Ms. Kim Seang-tae Executive Director. Milagros Del Corral Former Director General of the National Library of Spain H. Reza Jafari Special Adviser on Africa and High Representative for Least Chairman and CEO.

Ben Verwaayen Samoa CEO. Speranza Ndege H. Distance & e-Learning. Sam Pitroda Ms. Mr. China Mobile Dr.12 13 Mr. Sun Yafang Adviser to Prime Minister of India on Public Chairperson. Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition General for the Millennium Development Goals. Shashi Tharoor President and CEO. Digicel Group Group Chief Executive. Youssou N’Dour H. Christian Roisse Professor Muhammad Yunus Executive Secretary. Hans Vestberg Organization President and CEO. Jay Naidoo Prof.E. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Mr. Development Bank of Southern Africa Special Adviser to the United Nations Secretary- Chair. Alcatel-Lucent Mr. UNICEF Under Secretary-General. International Telecommunications Satellite Organization Mr. India H. International Mobile Satellite Mr.E. Paul S. Adama Samassékou Director. WPP Mr. Otellini Dr.E. Goodwill Ambassador. Huawei Technologies Information Infrastructure and Innovations Mr. Wang Jianzhou and Development Chairman and CEO. Ms. President. Jeffrey Sachs Chair. Director. Ambassador Sha Zukang Musician. Esteban Pacha-Vicente Director General. The Earth Institute. EUTELSAT IGO Nobel Laureate Managing Director. Columbia University Dr. Luis Alberto Moreno Mr. Institute of Open. International Council of Philosophy and Kenyatta University Human Sciences Mr. José Manuel do Rosario Toscano President of the Inter-American Development Bank Director General and CEO. Supachai Panitchpakdi Secretary-General. Denis O’Brien Sir Martin Sorrell Chairman. Ericsson Mr. Safuneitu’uga Pa’aga Neri Minister of Communications and Information Technology. Mr. United Nations Conference on Trade Dr. Grameen Bank . Intel Corporation Member of Parliament.

structural and institutional hurdles that remain in the way of widespread. and with only five years left to meet the MDGs amid a continuing climate of fiscal and donor uncertainty. as these very leaders gather this week at the United Nations in New York for the watershed 2010 MDG Summit. The year 2010 marks not only a key milestone on the road to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the outcomes of the Geneva and Tunis phases of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). While strong market demand in the form of mobile telephony and the Internet have since driven the explosion of worldwide ICT diffusion even in the world’s poorest countries. which called for the now seemingly humble target of bringing virtually the whole of mankind within easy reach of a telephone by the early part of the 21st Century.2 Executive Summary A 2010 Leadership Imperative: Towards a Future Built on Broadband “No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it” – Albert Einstein Timing is everything. with broadband as the next great leap forward. and the resulting investment and growth in mobile networks and services in particular. Indeed. It also marks the 25th anniversary of the landmark ‘Missing Link’ report of the Maitland Commission. 15 . The new realities and opportunities for digital development must be fixed without delay in the minds of world leaders as a leadership and development imperative. particularly in the world’s Least Developed Countries (LDCs). We recognize the significant progress made in recent years by many governments to put in place an enabling environment for ICT investment. then all stakeholders must come together to address the significant policy. in this second decade of the 21st Century. we believe we have once again arrived at a crossroads in the evolution of the global digital highway. global broadband roll-out. the digital divide continues to be a development divide that must quickly be bridged. the social and economic development of every country on earth will depend on accessible and affordable access to broadband networks. based on a multilingual approach. We firmly believe that today. regulatory. as the basis of human opportunity for all citizens – wherever they live and whatever their circumstances. progress still needs to be accelerated if the MDGs are to be met. especially in developing countries. Meanwhile. If we are to replicate this ‘mobile miracle’ for broadband.

although broadband has the of their societies. we must engage our imaginations to envision broadband connectivity and as Australia. China. They offer the effects’ have been in evidence almost public and private goods and services for The question is not ‘why broadband’? potential to leverage shared knowledge from the birth of the mobile and Internet the benefit of all society. Such ‘network increasing demand and adoption of digital can deliver these goals. from Brussels to Kigali. national and local where access to information. communities and nations to high-speed broadband links towards this exhilarating future. which we the early Internet. Technology. health and environment Internet increases exponentially as over increasing the supply of connectivity 2010. As the applications and content. even for market technical and policy debate on broadband is a tool for advancing further along the enabled applications to transform segments where the business case is less deployment now unfolds in real-time and path of inclusive knowledge societies information into knowledge and certain? Another important question is how on a global. advanced and This Report summarizes the key findings of People and Government. broadband revolutions? Are governments from dependency to a self-help model. deployment of broadband goes of broadband to deliver services to Significantly. Innovation. Broadband Development Dynamic. casualty of short-term micro. culture. knowledge the challenge for social and economic the globe and the possibility of unleashing entering a new and dramatic phase of and applications delivered by and across transformation offered by the mobile and people and community power by moving growth and demand. For the international development Today. By pulling the levers of policy the interlinked MDG agenda of poverty. with the strong business case for opportunity’. Infrastructure. accelerated deployment of a ubiquitous of this Report. regional. and can industry deliver most advanced is the target for ICTs. transport. These innovation and investment via the forces are expanded on in later sections In today’s global networked economy. via access to a vast The question is rather who will rise to interactively and instantaneously across market phenomena. cases have yet to be invented or imagined. it has broadband to boost progress towards is what price will be paid by those who fail the MDGs is the key challenge for policy. but we are rapidly range of content. fully aware of the enormous potential It is critically important to build inclusive However. business executives to draw tentative convergent and interdependent forces of systemic and fundamental change policy conclusions and best practices from of Policy.From and South Africa have launched broadband content as the full ripening of the digital initiatives. community. The irrevocably shifting the policy and profoundly. global digital highway. requiring re-engineering from top to In 2010. offering important insights and 2015 Mobile to Broadband revolution. Macedonia Development Goals by a Shared Resource . and from their rich fusion of experience and insights. the hand in hand with the development of knowledge societies in which people their citizens. Countries as diverse Meeting the Millennium A Shared Responsibility for picture.and macro- local choices for broadband inclusion for for Digital Development unites a panel The Broadband Commission for Digital economic planning. regional. it is widely understood that but which will transform our lives. broadband could be forward-looking policies and plans are the Commission’s consultations to date. we the silos associated with the health. and to all citizens. delivered through broadband networks become connected to it. broadband ICTs are a vital engine . in their a seat at the same table. Likewise. like mobile and New Delhi to Washington. we believe that in education. Uniting this human development agenda In this brave new world of ‘digital believe it will be possible to overcome the education. of all the MDG targets. energy.16 17 To look at the long-term broadband broadband Internet. freedom of understanding which can empower them can broadband connectivity and content basis. all sectors of the economy. we believe it is essential that both expression and human creativity are vital. Projects more people. gender. India. the fruits of which in many experience to other countries. Brazil. bottom. national and makers. Fundamentally. The Broadband Commission of the perennial development challenges. information. own languages? inherent capability to cut a swathe through By turning on the broadband tap. value of the worldwide mobile and wired investment debate away from arguments and investment together. nothing scales to critical mass quite These developments are radically and livelihoods and lifestyles permanently and makers and practitioners for meeting like cell-phones and cyber-space. as well as many all too often fallen between sectors as a to make the global. believe need to be harnessed by the the next disruptive technology tool that is being put in place for nothing less than international community to build a about to catalyze that change. Broadband can gain the capabilities from broadband- broadband inclusion for all. we believe the burning issue many early obstacles encountered on the environment and other sectors. Content and Applications. Many would argue all – choices which must be made sooner of pioneering policy leaders with top Development has focused on the seven that these sectors are on the threshold rather than later. we can take the first steps towards are ‘scalability’ and ‘replicability’. to enhance their livelihoods and contribute be delivered in the most accessible and developed and developing countries take to the social and economic development affordable way. the watchwords among policy. the unleashing of ubiquitous invention.

Correspondingly. fastest in international trade. Yet change across a range of economic institutional hurdles to widespread as next-generation networks based on broadband rapidly become the backbone of sectors – from agriculture to finance. certain assumptions can be made in crafting a consensus for construction to healthcare and a range of believe that the greatest hope for success commitment and coordination towards broadband inclusion for all: other modern services. after the recent economic slowdown. success in deploying broadband networks may be only partial at best. broadband must be world economy. public  authorities  and convenience of mobile communications. the physical transport layer in the • Security. All stakeholders must come together Each of these forces exists within a complex eco-system of its own. Future service delivery policy leadership creating an enabling publicized among policy. particularly with regard to privacy. and must be and capable of delivering sufficiently fast incentives need to be designed and given addressed. in local languages. in health. so government will all rely on broadband. do’ with mobile broadband as their access on the back of vast wealth or even great • Content and applications development is undergoing profound change. with a supporting governance Neglecting the deployment of broadband environment. faster rolling out extensive broadband networks. For each of the seven forces mentioned above. for a future built on broadband. a fundamental concern of business. Broadband The challenge for policy-makers is to well.creating demand for advanced national policy-makers need to engage with industry and investors to promote policy enabled platforms. objectives more broadly. economies of scale and applications and associated content and • For areas where private investments are not feasible. structural and for change that are still highly subjective in nature and only partially understood. so countries must plan broadband networks. and broadband more broadband networks. As the network of choice without running the investments. as well as the general public. however. can drive economic recovery a way that is ushering in a tidal wave of digital opportunity for the MDGs and beyond. technologies enable the fast and efficient promote investments in high-speed excluding rural populations and many of those in greatest need. approach facilitated by an enabling policy at the level of Prime Minister or Head of State. growth prospects and competitiveness in governments have a role to play in • Raising awareness of the economic and social benefits of broadband should be the information age. Otherwise. integrating them into their economic and private entities should find innovative ways of cooperating to achieve widespread developing countries cannot just ‘make social fabric have done so not necessarily access to and use of broadband. network. countries can participate in the digital telecommunication networks with high revolution and reap the full benefits of fixed costs extend beyond profitable urban technological progress. generating succeeded in helping the industry navigate new skills and sustaining strongest the transition to mobile over the last two growth in incomes. flexible licensing frameworks and more policy domains – investments in broadband are simply too important to be allowed to high-tech products which are growing efficient spectrum management have become a casualty of bureaucratic rivalries or changing policy priorities. More clearly prioritized in a virtuous ‘broadband development dynamic’ across all the different and services are among the high-value. payback periods. concept of broadband inclusion for all. and integrity issues will become ever more important. Broadband technologies era of changing business models. the policy consensus must Forging Consensus for Commitment and Coordination now evolve to promote the transition to ICTs generally. Regardless of the choice of access broadband at every level of policy-making. by early and consistent prioritization of should be the stimulus of local and diversified development-centric applications. otherwise large-scale investment in broadband infrastructure is data speeds to ensure that developing to rolling out infrastructure to ensure that unlikely to fulfil its potential. communications across different networks (backbone and access) to countries critical for success in the new ensure their widespread deployment in an Since broadband technologies are pervasive and cross-cutting. this will require government-wide leadership from the very top. business. trade and environment for broadband roll-out and • Most of the investments for broadband will come from the private sector. ‘backbone’ networks needs to be wireline In a market-led approach. but on the basis of strong creation. with determinants Broadband is spurring technological to address the policy. areas to include rural communities as . We the digital economy. authenticity. networks and services can severely harness the drive. education. funding. A market-led approach can mechanism. use in the population. decades. we believe the tide is already turning in specifically. The ICT sector is a for promoting the deployment and use of vital. • Providing policy development skills to public authorities could help abolish some Those countries that have succeeded in of the existing barriers and factors that hinder widespread uptake of broadband Despite the lower entry barriers.and decision-makers. strategically-important sector which broadband networks lies in a market-led • Fundamentally.18 19 driving economic growth. government and civil society path in the future information economy. sharing and distribution of content in the digital world increases risk of being condemned to a low-speed private sector participation facilitated in complexity. from broadband roll-out around the globe. protection and confidentiality. countries ignore today only at their peril. dynamism and discipline • A broad-based ‘bottom-up’ approach is also required to build commitment to the jeopardize countries’ long-term economic of the private sector.

France (100%).int/sancho/index. including: • Always-on: the Internet service is subject to real-time instantaneous updates. Denmark (75%).5 hours 13 minutes 5 minutes movie (4 GB) Australia (90%). etc. ITU and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recently harmonized their broadband definitions for fixed (wired) and wireless broadband. ITU recognizes fixed (wired) broadband services as subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (over a TCP/IP connection) at downstream speeds equal to. Metro Ethernet. DSL.asp. Broadband definitions were revised at the ITU Expert Group on Telecommunication/ICT Indicators meeting. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. terrestrial fixed wireless and terrestrial mobile wireless subscriptions with advertised download speeds of at least 256 kbit/s.03 seconds 0. be covered) (35% HH).4 seconds • As a result.6 seconds that all relevant stakeholders engage in creating a strategic framework for building a Broadband Development Dynamic. Innovation. Korea (100%). specifically targeted at the accelerated achievement of the MDGs. .06 seconds Internet connections). broadband enables the combined provision of voice. 50Mbps) New Zealand households [HH] to (75%).html. rate greater than the primary rate. People movie (700 MB) and Government (see Figure 1). available broadband targets HH). the Broadband Commission for Digital Development did not explicitly define the term ‘broadband’ in terms of specific minimum transmission speeds1 in recognition of the range of market definitions in different countries. WLAN. without users re-initiating connection to the server (as is the case with some dial-up ITU home page 107 seconds 23 seconds 3 seconds 0. Singapore (90% HH with 1 Gbps).int/ITU-D/ict/ Source: ITU events/geneva102/index. 3 For measurement purposes. HSDPA.5 days 4. Mobile broadband is implemented through wideband CDMA2000. or greater than. For further information. see: http://www. Wireless broadband services include satellite. Germany (75% (% population or EU-defined HH. data and video at the same time. Against this background.64 seconds 0.15 seconds 0. DVD / high quality 1 week 1. Infrastructure. or supporting an equivalent information transfer rate” – see the ITU-T Database of terms and definitions (SANCHO). Knowledge Societies and beyond through the inter-dependent forces of CD / low quality 28 hours 6 hours 47 minutes 2 minutes 56 seconds Policy. 5 MB music track 12 minutes 3 minutes 20 seconds 1 second 0.01 seconds (160 KB) This Report therefore refers to broadband as a cluster of concepts. Simple web page 23 seconds 5 seconds 0.20 21 Defining Broadband in 2010 Table 1: Theoretical time to download data online at different connection speeds In its work. the Broadband Commission for Digital Development proposes 20 MB video clip 48 minutes 10 minutes 1 minute 4 seconds 1. (750 KB) • High-capacity: the connection should be low latency and high-capacity3 in its ability to respond rapidly and convey a large quantity of bits (information) arriving per second (rather than the speed at which those bits travel).itu.2 but many members of the Commission (dial-up) found it appropriate to refer to broadband inclusively as a network infrastructure capable of reliably delivering diverse convergent services through high-capacity access over a mix of technologies. Content and Applications. Broadband is sometimes also Download: 56 kbps 256 kbps 2 Mbps 40 Mbps 100 Mbps defined in terms of a specific set of technologies. 1 ITU has defined broadband telephony as a service provided over an access network “able to contain at least one channel capable of supporting a Stated national Finland (100% UK (100%). FTTx. 256 kbit/s.itu. held in Geneva on 29-31 March 2010. at: http://www. Portugal 2 For example. the ITU Trends in Telecommunication Reform Report (2009) notes fixed broadband can be implemented through technologies such target (100%) as cable modem. Technology.

or if incentives for innovation and investment by the • Firstly. it must be recognized that progress in achieving the interlinked MDG agenda of poverty. education. models and mindsets must adapt rapidly. Identifying replicable lessons and key gaps for scaling up and fast-tracking joined- up implementation of projects remains a key challenge for the development community that must be addressed head-on. health and environment is not helped if there are inter-agency private sector are choked.3 Creating a Broadband Development Dynamic: A Strategic Framework for Action Figure 1: The Broadband Cloud – A Virtuous Cycle for Digital Development Source: Broadband Commission Focusing on MDG Acceleration and Delivery in 2010 In times of economic and social crisis. government and civil society be doing to re-energize and re-focus on delivery? disconnects. As identifying replicable lessons and key gaps for scaling up and fast-track implementation of the MDGs becomes the primary focus for the international development community in 2010. what should leaders in business. and ubiquitous broadband is a big idea for which the time has come. gender. 23 .

have not always seized the opportunities deployment and subscribers as a disruptive yet hugely collaborative are now recognized with a view to action for economic savings and improved measure of their national ability to nature of the mobile. In some and high-speed broadband value areas by developing communication countries. the inability of all stakeholders to quick to recognize broadband as a national assessed by multi-stakeholder platforms for innovation and investment take into account the full social costs and priority needing separate and steady development partners. a variety of different domains. in addition to investments in Broadband Development Dynamic. Network Developments in services further. Spill-Over Effects cent and 3. take better care of and ICT skills. Infrastructure. now broadband revolutions are already optimal provision of services and reduced the broader telecommunication domain. there is a clear understanding chains must be embraced and In its report. of these four key sectors over ten years energy more efficiently.). and critically of Korea and Scandinavian countries) were Today. broadband deployment by fortune. making. to create a afforded by the mobile. the importance of national rankings in terms good sooner rather than later. can help lead to increasing programs for their citizens to acquire the affordable access to broadband networks access and innovation with demonstrable an Enabling skills and confidence to create. governments figures for broadband investments. for all citizens. broadband networks of broadband infrastructure and take-up.4 per of Policy. In fact. advocacy for both in other key economic sectors to justify impact that is even more powerful and far. services that can be established in these compete in the global economy. As a general purpose platform wealth or design? must be used to reignite the MDG answer is that. but on the alone in OECD countries could justify the convergent and interdependent forces basis of early and consistent prioritization cost of rolling out a fast broadband network of broadband at every level of policy- Broadband if health costs were to fall between 1. Internet by both the public and private sectors. Content and Applications. benefits for people living in developing Environment preserve. possible by evaluating what short-term infrastructure – similar to transport. manage healthcare at the highest level are fundamental to The Broadband Commission for could justify the cost of building national in poor. including health. investments. the cost-savings in other sectors of the often provides the bulk of expenditure regulators and industry to quarterly countries leading the world in broadband economy. In other they can be harnessed. countries (eg. fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) deliver the best possible education to networks and development of content attention of all actors on exploitingnetworks in OECD countries. but with an broadband? Do these countries lead in • Thirdly. Internet and network externalities may lead to non. in online remittances and The ‘spill-over’ benefits of digital network mobile money transfer etc. Technology. ageing or isolated populations. have often succeeded in establishing a . education.5 per cent in each networks can help to: control and use Policy leadership and political willpower the forefront of the global agenda. leading to connected nations and innovation. The most successful adopters of Innovation.24 25 • Secondly. on average. Those countries that have the use of communication our environment. regular Coordinated policies are needed across investment in terms of innovation and other hand. Savings in the health sector The following sections delineate the wealth or huge investments.1. Swift OECD offers a new approach to building In the 21st Century. the at-once immensely energy. future generations. and also help to accelerate networks and integrating them into their up delivery of the MDGs today broadband connectivity are potentially progress towards the MDGs. the social and markets to competition. (and constant media coverage) of the exploited for the global public Support of Innovation and User Needs. the Republic having the new network in place. The perhaps surprising reaching. broadband campaign and put it once again at just 0. and the ability ICT Policies which provided the enabling economic development of every country for entrepreneurs to internalize some Leadership to environment and capacity-building on earth will depend on equitable and externalities. Opening up telecommunication 3. national transformation in the delivery Successful countries often advocated the of ‘digital public goods and services’. share. cost savings of for innovation and investment. for health and education. and ethically use information. the social returns of networks. streamline transport succeeded in rolling out broadband technologies to accelerate joined.5 per cent to 1.In many cases. leading in the national deployment of cost savings would have to be achieved energy and water networks. promoting the deployment of broadband Digital Development must focus the point-to-point. sheer technology and development the investment. transport and content distribution. economic and social fabric have done rather than tomorrow. adjustment of broadband policy the most forward-looking networks must be regarded as vital national Which factors distinguish the countries and plans must be prioritized. much larger than the costs of building so not necessarily on the back of vast networks. On the In many industrialized countries.7 per cent as a direct result of People and Government and how broadband (including Japan. Policy: simultaneous development of National From Clear Policy In the 21st Century. the increasingly general purpose words. although public funding attention is given by policy-makers.

innovation. governments need to create a market by making the purchase price of connectivity to citizens. infrastructure. encourage commercial infrastructure.4 of networks and services.26 Broadband Development Dynamic where and administrative traditions and market Policy-makers and regulators need to For mobile telephony. Governments are encouraged and consumer protection. sharing and the greater availability of work with operators to develop efficient e-strategy in place by April 2010. broadband strategies must fostering broadband access to enable 3. Fiscal policies are pervasive and cross-cutting. with far less international each country and accommodate legal building blocks of broadband deployment. but whose need may be greatest. with examine these regimes with fresh eyes frequency bands to allow operators to tax regimes which aim to develop the ICT another 14 countries and territories with a view to promoting the faster growth deliver broadband services (wireline or sector through longer-term investment currently formulating a national e-strategy. not left behind on a low-speed path to a Governments should recognize the need non-competitive future. environment within which the provision to broadband and refrain from imposing the diffusion of wireless broadband people and government interact in a of broadband networks and services can regulatory restrictions except where negatively. the availability of realized beyond higher-income. “crowd out” private spending. with an adverse impact on virtuous cycle of supply and demand. Telecom Advisory Services LLC and the GSMA. flourish can only be done in collaboration strictly necessary to promote competition economic development. beyond a clear for broadband and commercial use. International in context. Not a Burden to Business countries. the appropriate technologies. Depending on the elasticity (Note: The number of Broadband the utilization of new and emerging of the local market. whilst making more spectrum available that apply specific. their use of computers. and import duties in the set of rules and Governments may also choose to makers and regulators should take According to ITU’s latest statistics. healthcare. Infrastructure: Investing in be integrated with national strategies for education. . Since broadband technologies to the challenges affecting their market. such as smart grids. UNECA. and telecommunication sector are often different policy domains. wireless) more effectively. more platforms and giving users access to business. Policy- translated into practical strategies. 161 regulations established by government. Establishing an enabling policy establish appropriate policy goals related taxation has been shown to impact content and applications. often for the very people Internet bandwidth remains unequally telecommunication market structure of (in multi-play offers) and competition in all who can least afford telecommunication distributed. allowing providers the choice of the most inefficient and cause distortions that statement of policy leadership. new kinds of communication and media taxation reduce the growth potential of any is vital for providing high-speed Internet services). ITU. Governments also need to create the import of telecommunication equipment Towards Effective Regulation can often be recouped over lower tax regulatory incentives to move towards next-generation mobile broadband (4G/ rates on greater market revenues from Broadband strategies deserve special A conducive regulatory environment added growth in ongoing demand for consideration in terms of their own national IMT Advanced). ultimately everyday reality of policy-making takes the National policy priorities must also be form of regulation. taxation and customs diminishing consumer welfare. May 2010. Internet bandwidth available to developing 4 “National e-Strategies for Development: Global Status and Perspectives 2010”. taxes and customs Commissions globally is being researched technologies. UNECE. and have to reflect the allowance for total service convergence too expensive. framework to ensure that countries are with the needs of consumers is essential. 5 “The Impact of Taxation on the Development of the Mobile Broadband Sector 2010”. Governments taxation and import duties on computers supply of infrastructure. For developing Taxation and Customs Duties as an for an appropriate regulatory framework Incentive. Effective regulatory and policy developing countries. there are serious frameworks merit additional consideration convergence (allowing the delivery of consequences to applying taxation regimes In addition to ensuring an adequate supply to ensure that broadband services are services across different technological or rates which prove too great a burden for of national bandwidth. published in collaboration with the UN.2. Overly aggressive approaches to affordable international Internet bandwidth profitable urban areas. technology. realities. service. governments Policy priorities must be developed favourable regulatory environment including handsets and the ongoing cost of services and businesses alike. power and the development of infrastructure-based Although the telecommunication sector is transport infrastructure. flexible and and ICT equipment could help enable account demand for broadband services stakeholders to take onboard their technology-neutral licensing regimes schools and hospitals to benefit fully and content across the range of user concerns in arriving at regulatory solutions to provide for existing players as well from the advantages of ICTs by boosting groups. which balances the needs of business telecommunication services. onboard the concerns of industry and countries and territories had a national Governments are encouraged to re. as easy market entry by new players. duties on the one-off purchase and for the forthcoming background Report). 5 The removal of Policies should not focus solely on the with industry. and to promote incentives. overly aggressive 27 policy. UNESCWA and UNESCAP. To fully exploit the benefits of wired and wireless technologies and and levies in the formal economy in many for the Future (PRSPs). as well as their competition in addition to service-based often an important source of tax revenues Infrastructure Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers competition. special taxes to the broadband must be prioritized across For most operators. but must take into to work together with industry and other should adopt simplified.

. it is This trend. entertainment with Internet access and broadband penetration in the developing market convergence and create new to-reach rural areas and for providing the email on the move. Developing countries (such as the earthquakes in Chile and Haiti reporting activities – such as those needed access remains prohibitively expensive can leap-frog and take advantage of the and the floods in Pakistan). a major issue which policy-makers deliver many broadband applications and telephones. to run smart grids. operators to reach their customers.28 29 countries compared with developed Broadband networks and services can Satellites also provide invaluable solutions. as well as As well as standards. televisions. music connect to them. particularly in Future-proofing the regulation to cope with the technology – may be impossible to achieve fully. efficiency of use subscriptions forecast to be achieved proved to be game-changers. Wireless technologies play an important interconnection policies can enable role in providing greater connectivity to 3. combining a as recharging the mobile devices which and the needs of users. are very high and broadband access – from cable to fixed underserved areas. Public-private partnerships rural or urban environments and local It is therefore important to recognize that mobile penetration is high. as well must be based on costs. and the availability of supporting in wireless technology. between penetration and prices: while countries.3. prices are terrain. there is an inverse relation the evolutionary path taken by developed geographic location. and for the majority of inefficiency or lack of regulatory foresight. ensure that these standards are used prohibitively high price for broadband need to be accompanied by regulations from xDSL to mobile technologies. transport backbone is the fundamental to governments the important role played backbone infrastructure that countries by satellites for achieving emergency As the ‘Internet of Things’ emerges. By the end of 2009. third parties and end- high-capacity networks. highlight growing technologies are often critical factors in backhaul traffic. Technology: Future-proofing technology – as well as providers. mobile phone with personal organizer. so the future development of Lastly. Consumers are world stood at 4 per cent. information society. Public investments and globally-agreed standards – and to penetration levels are very low. By the end of 2009. Policy-makers should seek transparency. to achieve a high-capacity opportunities for countries to join the determining technology choices for the backbone. those with enable widespread information-sharing In planning the roll-out and deployment of greater transmission capacity). for example. to adopt a technology-neutral approach applications. of which over a quarter were in the developing world. Smartphones have the network and routers running. latest cost-effective and easy-to-deploy public transport systems – there will be fibre optic technology instead of following Depending on local conditions such as increased interaction and interdependence for example. or modern in many developing countries. as regulation needs to accommodate new upgrades of current technologies. Optical fibre is desirable at the broadband is not stifled by bureaucracy. while expanding access essential backhaul capacity needed by other having to adjust their expectations and close to 23 per cent in the developed to ICT services at lower costs to consumers. as well as with the strong the answers. A high-capacity fibre optic packet catastrophic events have also highlighted taking new forms. for example. broadband subscriptions. Indeed. driven in Partly as a result of the limited availability need to deploy to support the growth in preparedness and responding to events part by new monitoring. Alongside convergence in content. digital camera and multimedia countries. broadband services. The demand for and in particular in the hands of end-users. roll-out of broadband infrastructure. always-on connectivity. rather than proprietary major bottleneck to greater uptake of transparency of information. fixed enable operators to take advantage of particularly for providing capacity in hard. economic prosperity. no longer unique or even separate from one need for creative power solutions to keep a precious resource. Regulatory and e-business. suppliers. measurement and of Internet bandwidth. it is unlikely that any frameworks need to be designed with single technology will be able to provide all this in mind. enforceable future technologies which do not yet exist. as services. cameras or computers are often electricity supply. from satellite to microwave. this is already the case. and to create and preserve openness and services in Africa clearly remains a to ensure effective competition and many more. In Africa. The and subsidies in broadband services wireless. In technological convergence means that radio frequency spectrum is likely to grow it is most likely that mobile devices will devices such as radios. player. from a technology perspective. compared with revenue streams. broadband broadband services. areas where there is no regular or reliable rapidly. spectrum allocation with nearly 900 million mobile broadband another in the digital era. and there were around 670 million mobile future-proof than others (eg. technological solutions in providing of broadband. but users to gain the maximum benefits of the developing world. particularly in rural and realized without maximum interoperability on the other hand. there is a role for a host of different (PPPs) can help drive the deployment the full benefits of broadband cannot be relatively low. there is a need to address urgently – noting that. broadband networks. essential to recognize that local conditions growth in subscriptions and the advances core of the Internet. but at the edges of the network. according to ITU analysis. Technology some technologies are likely to be more ubiquitous. globally by the end of 2010. Recent behaviour with demand for services world. between different devices and networks. devices or services. Broadband Internet prices.

eBay valuable innovations (eg. more world.5 Content and The Changing innovative device can: application developers and businesses in innovative business models to generate Applications: Nature of • Create a new market (eg. it is vital marketing innovations. UMTS. the solving. material accessible in local languages or research labs. such as pre-paid converged market in the digital age that governments do not neglect the tariffs). Some companies have is the introduction in the root of the first innovation are being lowered or eliminated. and transferred their innovation & names. Broadband in particular Firms’ relationship with innovation is that poorer communities in developing in the creation and dissemination of rich offers the opportunity to accelerate and also changing. in not only of a lack of access to connectivity fact arise through incremental learning less likely to be characterized by high sunk collaboration with other partners and and infrastructure. connectivity without content 3. ICTs are empowering content. an important role in the developing world benefit of all. Without the innovations of pre. DSL. smartphones successfully unite But how can any of these changes importance of content. poorer communities or individuals can propose concrete policies and practices be empowered to voice their challenges for inclusion of new languages and tools The emergence of broadband networks Broadband networks and the Internet are online for solution with the help of others. LTE. If ICTs and the Internet are populist the prioritization of formal R&D towards literacy skills. is rewriting the rules for innovation. initiatives are Latin script-based languages can now join the very nature of innovation is changing. without ideas getting lost in the the evolution of the multilingual Internet Barriers to entry and obstacles to vertical hierarchy. developers to solve the everyday problems Many vital innovations have been made in • Transform an established they encounter in their lives as consumers. Policy-makers paid or flat-rate tariffs by operators and a mobile phone with a digital camera in the innovative process help poorer have to emphasize the development content providers. applications alongside infrastructure and use ICT services. source code or applications can be Content and The telecommunication industry is • Take an existing market online (eg. As has been witnessed across the ICT network technologies (eg. Lego). In the information age. and to recognize that broadcasting also plays improve products and services to the basic functional literacy needs are met. tailored to real need. It is expected that millions of problems can be outsourced or solved improvement function to their customers people around the world who do not know collaboratively. • Combine existing markets into a to emerge. (eg. workers and employees to strength of a good idea. a single piece of software or 3. most innovation (the to innovate in the information society The policy emphasis needs to shift from accessible to people with limited functional process) and some of the most valuable online. The digital divide is a result innovations (or individual inspirations) in and collaborative platforms.4. Linguistic diversity on the Internet is services and applications. put simply. even closed down their R&D departments internationalized country code domain ideas can be published and shared online. DOCSIS market (eg. Too transforming the nature of innovation – Innovative solutions to practical problems Some of the main issues with regard often equated with high-cost research and creative individuals with interest can now (eg. value. ebooks). As a result. IMS Protocol has revolutionized voice efficient processes in business and can make even the most sophisticated and encoding algorithms to mention communications). Voice over Internet parents or individuals. It is only once the changing lives of ordinary people. More recently. Open Importance of online auctions). millions of people with a music player and online communities or individuals in developing of rich and diverse online content and would not have been able to afford to Internet access for information and countries? Using broadband networks. In today’s virtual world. entertainment). developed by online communities of Applications characterized by constant innovation. innovation is prioritizing incremental learning. for the measurement of linguistic diversity. (eg.30 31 and manufacturers to collaborate with 3. innovations and inspirations among their growing. using the Internet as a relevant and locally-developed content at the grassroots – on the factory floor increasingly dominated by user-generated platform for communication and problem. Many companies are countries can really start to benefit from themedia content. One of the latest examples of workforce. the Wholesale The Growing Innovation created a global market-place for Applications Community or WAC). transform innovation through faster and introducing collaborative platforms and problem-solving capabilities of the world’s more unrestricted access to advanced social networking platforms to mine for largest information exchange network. but also of a lack of and continual technical improvements costs and long lead-times and will become other people. or development and innovation are starting technologies irrelevant or of limited just a few) or in business models (eg. . Innovation: Today. crowd-sourcing or.0. emerging uniting network operators the family of existing Internet users. TCP/IP protocols. nature of innovation is recognized. for a broken water pump or irrigation to content include making more online development (R&D) carried out in technical acquire the knowledge and skills needed system) can be posted or shared online. which can make a big difference to the and elsewhere. It is important consumers.

2010 countries to exploit. future generations of application developers. of other resources at local. Jim Giles.6 Such services multilingual content production is closely illustrate the growing power of crowd- linked to complex issues such as the sourced services to provide diverse. majority of content on the worldwide web is produced and hosted in a limited number multiple disparate inputs is illustrated generated content. The The power of collaborative online Box 1: Broadband and linguistic diversity7 changing nature of innovation in Web 2. The latest edition of the Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger lists about 2.co. if digitalization can be undertaken soon enough. mine for ideas means that consumers are increasingly Available data to measure the linguistic diversity on the Internet suggest that the and produce a coherent product from writing and developing their own user.32 33 So there are grounds for optimism. 15 December 2005 at: http://news. and in particular. Nature 438: 900–901.com/nature/journal/v438/ n7070/full/438900a. The Internet can be seen also as tool for language conservation and preservation. The figure below by services such as YouTube. SIL International (Summer Institute of Linguistics). “Wikipedia survives research test”. This compares to the local development of content offer reliability. 6 “Internet encyclopaedias go head to head”. opportunities in it has faced quality control issues of number of languages supported by Google higher. available at: www.int. Free and open source software is now available that is enabling the creation of localized applications.html. Source: ITU World Telecommunication Development Report 2010. national or regional levels and the political. the online encyclopaedia up.itu. due to difficulties in distinguishing between dialects and languages. . Many sources also stipulate that there is a huge number of endangered languages. but the figures usually range between 6. bias and accuracy. Although by one of the world’s most popular search engines (although other estimates put the own needs.bbc.org/culture/ich/index. It will be important to continue lowering the costs of technology. only 41 languages are recognized written mainly by volunteers.500 languages (including some 230 languages which have become extinct since 1950). fresh business possibilities for small.000 languages still in use in the world. cultural and economic environment. The number of localized languages is an estimate. of countries. 7 Abridged from “Measuring the Information Society 2010” report published by ITU in May 2010. yet availability of funding and various types coherent products.uk/2/hi/technology/4530930. Wikipedia and Google.php?lg=en&pg=00139). At the same time. one study 271 languages with Wikipedia entries and 500 localized languages.000 endangered languages worldwide (source: http://www. at 104 languages).000 and 9. Encyclopaedia Britannica. December 2005 at: http://www.000.nature. approaching the generally-accepted estimate of some 3. Communities of full.and by Nature magazine found that Wikipedia medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and for young entrepreneurs in developing had an accuracy rate close to that of the Figure 2: Key figures for languages online and off-line.unesco. Facebook visually highlights the linguistic diversity of cyberspace by showing that while there is time application developers are springing and Wikipedia. BBC.0 services to crowd-source.stm. based on data from Ethnologue. and published in only a limited number of languages. Meanwhile. creating applications to suit their a total of 7. to make it more accessible to all groups of society. There is no agreement among linguists on the size of the language universe.

but rather self-expression emerge out of linkages an investment in people. the benefits accrued from broadband go far beyond individuals Investing in broadband is not necessarily — in particular. at the Technology.9 It has been argued that it is even problems contributes more to empowering unimportant how clever individuals are those people and making progress in the — what really matters is their collective global development agenda than virtually intelligence. use and brain cannot be understood by studying leverage ICTs. Entertainment. At the same time.com/2010/06/gathering-of-ideas. Design (TED) Global 2010 conference . thrust into the hands of people worldwide. well as an unparalleled mechanism for knowledge and skills to use and benefit cooperation and cohesion”. the real engine of earth to another — the “meeting and mating human progress has been the “meeting of ideas to make new ideas”. for example. For broadband is between people. our objective anything else policy-makers can do. Network of Ideas The distribution of Internet users by language further suggests that a few major and Information From a people perspective. what is languages are dominating the online world. the percentage of English-speaking Internet users The Internet has been described by one sets of needs are apparent. followed by Chinese (20 per cent) and Spanish (8 per Modern ICTs are proving to have a How can people contribute their human cent) and the top ten languages by Internet users make up some 84 per cent of all transformational effect on people’s lives. world of ideas and knowledge that can be spread in seconds from one corner of the Throughout history.8 from these networks – which should be considered part of normal cognitive skills One of the greatest contributions of development. 2009 autonomy and self-determination. and mating of ideas to make new in people and their ideas to solve their own ideas”.34 35 the global development agenda with 3. e-literacy and e-skills. knowledge increasing number of non-English speakers are going online. outburst of creativity and self-expression business or technical perspective. ideas and knowledge to help us address the challenges set out in the MDGs. should be a highly interconnected world of creativity. and skills to build out broadband networks the instrument not only for the greatest . And investing Source: Internet World Stats. ever seen. available at: http://halfanhour. Just as the wonders of the knowledge about how to build. broadband inclusion for all is a fundamental component of 8 Stephen Downes’ blog. People: Box 2: The most popular languages on the Internet Building the transformational potential. regulatory. The first is the dropped from 80 per cent in 1996 to 30 per cent in 2007. The largest share (about 30 per cent) of needed to build this network of ideas? Internet users speak English. as well as complexity of really an investment in an interconnected those linkages. reflecting the fact that an observer as “an explosion of capacity specialized human capacity. To that end. individual neurons. but also of the greatest Figure 3: Top ten languages (by Internet users) on the Internet. in e-learning.whether from a policy. as The second is the human capacity. capital to this phenomenon? Two distinct Internet users. ideas and creativity and an investment in infrastructure. creativity and knowledge. whether through normal broadband to global development will education or lifelong learning. 9 Author Matt Ridley.blogspot.6. Therefore. In both be that it provides a platform which scenarios. ICTs are part of a virtuous circle can exponentially increase the ability of – because access to broadband helps people to create and exchange ideas and people to exchange ideas. quoted in ITU World Telecommunication Development Report 2010.html.

for ethical and increasingly having to respond to growing cooperative public sector service delivery. Broadband demand promises to transform the way in which is thus intrinsically linked to the creation citizens relate to their governments and of local content.unpan. UN E-government survey 2010. Governments are any substitute. This is nearly 600 local administrations to regional especially the case in developing countries. Technology will never be and transparent. More fundamentally. Ethiopia has now connected infrastructure more compelling. however. including more If governments can aggregate their specifically an e-government strategy connectivity needs over the National with clearly identified sectoral priorities Broadband Networks (NBN).7. make the business case for national For example.000 villages with access to broadband services. such as infrastructure typically involves large-scale e-education in Bangladesh and Ethiopia. 4.11 but it is increasingly also the case in industrialized countries and transition For many users. Countries which have made offers the prospect of revitalizing public a determined effort to develop local administration and improving the speed. connectivity and relies on developing services which people want. limited human Government plays a special role in capital. in their local Moving government services online languages. script and language tables. where there are legal and regulatory frameworks in place.36 37 3. including Azerbaijan. and federal offices. lack of infrastructure. due to the cost of technology. the potential economies. barriers persist in Broadband Demand many LDCs. it also in the usage of ICTs.10 demand for next-generation broadband services. Building out fixed broadband However. available at: http://www2. investments over long-time horizons and and m-health in Rwanda. linked 450 secondary where government is usually one of the schools to a national education network. services and applications policy-makers. Government: The UN Department for Economic and Government Social Affairs (UNDESA) notes that while Can Take the on-demand access to public services over the Internet is now a norm in many Lead in Creating developed countries. exceptions exist. however. and provided some 16. major users of broadband infrastructure. .pdf.org/egovkb/documents/2010/E_Gov_2010_Complete. 10 & 11 P. of government. they can aligned with national development goals. content and efficiency and effectiveness of service applications have seen a significant surge delivery. UNDESA notes the private sector benefits from more that these experiences demonstrate that certain prospects in its attempts to finance significant gains can be realized in LDCs and roll out such infrastructure. by making the work of which citizens then can leverage for their politicians and civil servants more public own progress. a weak private sector and a paucity many developing countries in creating of public sector resources. New of e-government goes far beyond basic Zealand and Singapore. expectations for communication with which can only be led from the top echelons tech-savvy citizens.

While 39 . the MDGs provide a welcome compass. attention is now being drawn to the need to leverage ICTs for poverty reduction strategies and the MDGs through a focus on integration. And broadband provides a new and innovative entry point. and enhance livelihoods? To what extent should ICT 4 Development priorities. and low-cost policy cutting edge solutions. policies and practices differ with respect to ‘off-track’ versus ‘on-track’ developing countries? These key questions must now be revisited in the broadband context. In practice. After years of experimentation on ICTs in often stand- alone. scaling and replication. telecommunication and ICT cohesion. and an overarching focus on achieving the MDGs themselves. From experience. Yet resistance by government and business to full acceptance of the critical role to be played by ICT in support of the MDGs must quickly be displaced by hard data on development impact and the real potential to scale up and replicate. Rather. realistic priorities for e-strategy actions and programmes. any blueprint for a national e-development strategy will comprise a number of essential elements: a clear e-strategy vision championed at the highest political level. a multi-stakeholder approach to enhance results. improve the efficiency of public and private service delivery. For major donor agencies who have been struggling to incorporate ICT into their official development assistance (ODA) strategies. it is clear that ICT and technology ‘push’ projects have generally been ill-suited to fulfilling the requirements of the MDGs. convergence. ‘pulling’ ICTs and now broadband into development projects where appropriate and relevant at an early stage – often with a mix of traditional and new media and achieved through multi-stakeholder partnerships – to achieve greater efficiency and improved service delivery will have far greater poverty impact. national and international cooperation and partnerships for a prioritized and nationally- owned e-strategy. global inclusion of developing countries and ICT in ODA. ICT to facilitate regional integration and regional integration to facilitate ICT deployment. So what is the critical role of knowledge and information in economic and human welfare with respect to the MDGs? How can ICT and the MDGs practically contribute to empower stakeholders in the PRSP process. simplified implementation modalities. Each must chart a path toward digital inclusion through unknown terrain. often unsustainable pilot projects.4 BROADBAND AND THE INTERLINKED AND INTERDEPENDENT MDG AGENDA The remodelling of the ICT 4 Development landscape in real- time presents key challenges and opportunities to all players. a cross- sectoral holistic strategy.

13 Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. market price Universal Primary Education (UPE) by broadband also enable inclusive education Mobile telephony is empowering billions of data. bridging the broadband divide. the world. Such networks can deliver information. Many schools that have the globe. it is increasingly the case than men. 14 Source: World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2010. Today. in the same way that we are so and levels of development. and ICTs and online. deal in accelerating progress towards people wherever they live. of which the large majority were 12 Education had the chance to attend school – and mobile subscriptions globally in 2010. with five billion in 2009. This Between 1998 and 2008. UN New York.25 a the communities in which they live (such shown that women with experience of as enablers like no other technology in day – fell from 944 to 632 million. access to broadband needs MDGs can be accelerated with ICTs in become functionally literate for greater to rapidly become more affordable. and women and girls. Broadband infrastructures. enabling women to create countries are already actively pursuing an across all eight MDGs. level. with mobile network growth cent before the final grade.02 billion people Universal Primary to be limited to boys and girls. for consumers when price information is Online education is easing the resource mainstreaming ICT and broadband for the shared on-demand via mobile phones and bottleneck in training teachers. 2010. At the micro. individuals worldwide by enabling them to guidelines can dramatically improve living in the developing world are now enrolled enter the workforce. the number of hungry people rose from 842 Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education does not need Mobile cellular has proved to be the most widespread and fastest-adopted million in 1990-1992 to 1. leveraging training opportunities around this number increased by up to 215 million. and Hunger efforts are now underway to produce systematic measurement criteria. Even as many poor countries make educated women are more likely to ensure a household penetration rate of over 50 tremendous strides. that information poverty – especially in and / or enter employment is an effective intensive programme of teacher training developing countries – can actually lead to strategy to combat poverty. . ability to deliver education in developing well-deployed and stable network then be scaled up and replicated around matching efficiencies will apply when and developed countries alike. as well as financial crisis. successful consistently show that. reversing much of the progress achieved Using ICTs and broadband to advance during the previous decade.13 And demand continuing to outpace fixed-line networks. The next step is to bridge the Internet Available data suggest a strong and positive from those who continue in education is and the number of mobile broadband divide. and broadband in particular. at www. The experience is not because ICTs and broadband are number of working poor – workers living designed not only for students but also for of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh has ends in themselves. UN New York.org/millenniumgoals.itu. key to making this happen. some regions – in Around the world. UNESCO While access to ICTs and broadband may text messaging. but more needs to be done: in Progress towards achieving each of the and contribute to poverty and hunger. been using TV and radio systems are now 12 Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. earn a living or work standards and bring people out of the in primary education. broadband are key to helping women particular. m-learning and more efficiently. – will see a drop-out rate of up to 30 per growing. studies consistently show that literate. even for very small Broadband offers a potential solution in the developing world and offering relatively efforts to advance the MDG agenda can farming and fishing businesses. 38 per cent to 21 per cent of total workers. but because they act with their families on less than US$ 1. Access to knowledge assets such as that their children attend school. major Extreme Poverty resulting in higher profits and rewards for farmers and producers and lower prices level the playing field for everyone. ICTs and information.org/millenniumgoals. it is estimated that in 2009. general. Globally. Mobile phones offer the advantages successfully bridging the mobile divide. there are good communication links. and especially the broadband correlation between communications now putting pressure on the next step in subscriptions approaching 900 million in divide. countries in sub-Saharan Africa poverty trap – and ICTs and broadband are e-learning over broadband networks is communities worldwide.40 41 significant anecdotal evidence has already Goal 1: Eradicate ‘disintermediation’ cuts out middlemen. shared resources and help been amassed in this direction. but can also include men and women who never technology in history. the global particularly in the developing world. or from as ITU’s Connect a School. Connect a even basic mobile phones are more likely the modern world – bringing healthcare. available at http://www. market. studies from Africa and India of already being in billions of hands in the With ICTs and broadband.14 Many describes the generic development impact and shelter. hope is dimming for per cent in many developing countries.un. and benefited millions of particular. Although 89 per cent of children of persons with disabilities. to be willing to use and benefit from other Community initiative) can achieve a great education and government services to However. interactivity.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/wtdr_10. and basic healthcare and nutrition 2015.un. at www. as a result of the economic and ICTs for information or work opportunities. PPPs access to skills training. and this Section than meeting the basic needs of food Since women are more affected by poverty globally by the 2015 MDG deadline. know-how. the system: secondary education. estimates suggest that as many as 10 achievement of the MDGs remains very be seen by some as less urgent priorities million additional teachers will be needed much a work in progress.

South-Eastern centres to receive quality training and outside agriculture. but communities prioritizing broadband as a platform for issues. areas. to train intermediary before. Kenya and Rwanda – are already hygiene and other reproductive health information. Broadband-enabled ICT applications commitments. including visual presentation neutralize much of the discrimination lack both the resources and the knowledge future health service delivery in a bid to materials. of these deaths are preventable. 20 per cent of the workforce employed Northern Africa. incomes remain low. example. which is still well short to share images and diagnose patients networking sites. a scanner and a digital maternal mortality rates are falling. and achieving the use of Entreprise Resource Planning or births are attended by a midwife or skilled ERP) to minimize the manual paperwork health worker. Latin America and the Caribbean. Broadband services give women easier opening up opportunities in education child mortality – malnutrition.un. Advances tool and as a discipline in their own to gender equality. but globally. to monitor patients remotely. including enable health workers outside major or come in for a check-up.org/millenniumgoals. While many countries have Mobile technology can also be used to that broadband mitigates. fewer than half of all Women access to ICTs and broadband will help achieve these goals. through and South Asia. UN New York. thereby reducing child mortality. women represent only In many regions of the world. female participation in political processes. gender gaps. In babies. health services to patients.17 The vast majority with relatively simple low-cost technology. and can help overcome issues of mobility. to broadband services have already remains slow in other areas. and complications during gender equality will help increase In many emerging economies and rural in offices. HIV/AIDS. for example. 17 Source: United Nations.un. enhance opportunities for networking and pregnancy and childbirth. and to remind improving the health of women and their vulnerable or insecure employment.16 hundreds of miles away using technologies They provide an excellent means of Tragically. and have the potential to tetanus – are treatable. almost all of them telemedicine can make a huge impact organizing for gender equality. of the target of a two-thirds reduction.doc. pneumonia. of people. East Asia. of access to health services is particularly focused or gender-neutral technology suffering from relatively poor employment acute for women in remote rural areas. In Africa systems properly in hospitals (eg.5 per cent decline needed annually and Empower cause and effect – increasing women’s to meet the MDG target. as well as in the developing world. and application programmes to ensure prospects. while within agriculture. Children’s health is closely improve patient care.un. ICTs and broadband are Maternal Health should be seen both as a pedagogical also be used to influence public attitudes essential for bridging this gap. Women begun to demonstrate their potential for are disproportionately represented in Child Mortality track disease and epidemic outbreaks. information about childbirth and the early 15 & 16 Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. High-speed Internet connections patients about the need to take medicines some countries. women remain economically and can cause delays and queues in providing frequent cause of death for women. and every year as a result of complications in require large amounts of money. diarrhoea. Goal 4: Reduce between 1999 and 2008 – progress still healthcare workers and rural doctors. clinics. and advice on maternal professionals and their attendance every 100 boys in the developing world hygiene and nutrition).conferencing. UN New York. flexibility provided by the use of ICTs and correlated with maternal health and (more and bring telemedicine to tens of millions Expectant and new mothers can get better broadband in education and work can loosely) with maternal education. at: www. information to parents (such as vaccine for increased numbers of healthcare gap narrowed from 91 girls to 96 girls for reminders. A number of developing countries – for access to information on family planning. Although Just one computer. It is also important to automate the 5.org/News/Press/docs/2010/dsgsm497. the rate camera.org/millenniumgoals. . Asia. The to treat them.18 Lack Key stakeholders must develop gender- socially marginalized and under-educated.15 through video-conferencing. during and after childbirth. and does not achieved or nearly achieved primary disseminate basic health and sanitary While there is obviously no substitute school gender equality – the enrolment widen. exchange experiences and information child mortality rates have more than halved To leverage the full power of telemedicine. can transform a Goal 3: Promote ICTs and broadband are directly relevant to hospital. create opportunities for in modern medical technology usually More than half a million women die right for the development of effective women as educators and activists. empowerment and gender equality. health centres etc. that pregnancy and childbirth remain the most women’s access to ICTs and broadband.42 43 switching to online learning opportunities. at www. as well as access to malaria. interactive since 1990. ICTs and broadband can practitioners to serve everyone in need of healthcare. the fall has only broadband is needed to enable doctors discussion forums and the use of social ICTs and broadband are key to achieving been 28 per cent. but educational services. and employment. as reported at www. information in local languages. for example. most of the major causes of such as video. dissolve distance and culturally-appropriate content. enable women to better fulfil their work Given that there are rarely enough health Goal 5: Improve due to their inherent interactivity.htm. measles. traditionally faced by women. making a real difference where of reduction is still considerably short of Gender Equality empowerment and gender equality in both it counts. 18 Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. however.

HIV infection rate fell from an estimated • Personalized risk assessments for tuberculosis and other diseases. at: www. illegal logging Goal 6: Combat HIV/ • Information-sharing between health HIV can receive information on treatments or pollution levels) and transmit that AIDS. They can facilitate other Diseases guidelines and so on. by supporting more sophisticated depends on the effective dissemination of effective ways of protection (through The MDG on ensuring environmental modelling and faster information-sharing. they can support records and to transmit health information information quick and easy. information about prevention.unesco. consumption and facilitating teleworking.7 million HIV/AIDS through interactive online Automatic weather stations at mobile in 2008. Broadband of young women in developing countries access patient information. Broadband 19 Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS still easier to answer questions posed information directly to farmers and Goal 7: Ensure kill more than four million people annually. And applications are already helping in the genome. community centres with Internet access to mosquitoes are likely to be found. through online discussion forums. from the provision of safe drinking are also increasingly prevalent in many simple low-tech preventive measures. The provision of quality the lives of slum-dwellers. And by there is an important and growing role for global fight against disease.20 can give girls and women access to • Online training and refresher courses undistorted and objective information on Broadband-powered GPS-based for health workers.19 face about sensitive subjects. and remote areas. 20 Source: http://hivaidsclearinghouse. and those caring for relatives with HIV can access support and knowledge exchange and networking among policy-makers. Combined broadband networks can enable health powerful research and surveillance tools with Global Positioning System (GPS)- workers to create and access online patient By making customized access to to tackle disease more effectively – by enabled mobile phones. bulletin boards their unborn babies. on demand). themselves and their children. They include: to map areas where malaria-carrying enhancing environmental surveillance. awareness-raising campaigns about Sustainability Broadband can enhance such systems Success in combating these diseases often the risks of getting infected and further. such as the Last but not least. practitioners and social networking sites. yet less than that AIDS and tuberculosis patients are satellites to monitor the effects of climate to employment and training. HIV prevention is critical to example. including AIDS. in Brazil. Women with environmental abuses (eg. or using satellites assistance when disaster strikes.org/millenniumgoals. broadband Innovative ICT projects have already researchers. peak of 3. for example – diseases such as programs. boosting Although there has been progress in • Continuing professional education public awareness and encouraging provide women with valuable information curbing the rate of new infections – the new online. especially to women in rural HIV/AIDS for educators. and to enter and change or impending natural disasters.44 45 warning signs of infection or disease for a third of young men and less than a fifth taking their medicines. how to prevent sexually-transmissible applications can also help monitor conferencing. advice. by expanding schemes to check information from ground sensors or India and Kenya – by providing access controlling the AIDS epidemic. for example. reducing biodiversity loss and improving broadband in areas such as reducing paper treated bed-nets. Some people may find it phone masts can be used to provide malaria. is fundamental. diseases. and persuading people to take features and hotlines providing targets. ones developed by UNESCO. • Information. advice and additional information water and basic sanitation facilities to countries.5 million in 1996 to 2. Broadband Internet can also provide vulnerability to disasters. developing world also has the potential networks can make an important proved their worth in improving the lives to transform health service delivery – for contribution. education and Environmental them to predict and cope with erratic weather patterns due to climate change. Malaria and professionals on treatment practices. They can swiftly transmit of slum-dwellers – for example. fishermen via mobile phones. promoted through ICT and such as using condems or insecticide. environmental activism. ICT community centres more efficient use of resources. UN New York. broadband mapping the Mycobacterium tuberculosis emergency communications and medical to policy-makers and researchers. enabling and an estimated one billion people suffer from neglected tropical diseases. by a computer than to talk face-to. . Combining broadband with the mobile to care-givers and to health-workers and phones that are most widespread in the In virtually all these areas. information to those at risk.org/. including video. For instance. including interactive visual sustainability spans a wide range of Environmentally-friendly work habits and cure. They can applications linked to ‘smart’ mobile phones know how HIV/AIDS is transmitted and provide early warning systems that reduce or portable computers linked to mobile how to prevent infection. for preventing the transmission of HIV to information to authorities. to patients.un. they can help policy-makers devise deliver essential connectivity and health • Interactive e-learning courses on suitable response strategies and make information. treatment websites. on how to combat and treat malaria. ICT community centres can also and advocacy groups. such as drought or floods.

21 The gulf in have the power to level the playing field access to broadband networks is even across different countries and different greater. While the phenomenal in ICT. distance working enabled by Global Partnership broadband can help in advancing another for Development MDG 8 target. the ‘digital divide’ and transfer extremely large datasets. as ICTs and broadband is just one or two per cent. Only then. broadband Internet including ICTs. however. Broadband networks hold great growth of mobile telephony in the promise for broadband-enabled scientific developing world has transformed access applications with the need to manipulate to basic connectivity. broadband can empower slum-dwellers often excluded from the political process Broadband networks can also help with to have a ‘voice’. delivering access to other targets within MDG 8.aspx. Goal 8: Develop a Similarly.global targets. not only private sector. at www. the private sector and civil services online and giving small businesses society. that proportion in the public arena. Sharing experiences (SIDS). share their concerns and locked and Small Island Developing States mobilize for change. And by enhancing distance learning through MDG 8 includes a specific target on video-conferencing. such as information and providing a means for them addressing the special needs of land- to communicate. find innovative ways out of poverty. to develop strategies for ‘decent and productive work for youth’. stakeholder partnerships involving by enabling the delivery of government governments. and social networking. including through of the complex challenge of empowering e-business and by exporting services that people to improve their own lives. in the giving them both knowledge and a voice very poorest countries. persists. High-speed Internet connections of what works.int/ITU-D/ICTEYE/Indicators/Indicators.itu. 21 Source: ITU – see Internet users 2009. The greatest contribution of broadband towards achieving the MDGs may be its While around a quarter of the world’s catalytic role in empowering people by population now uses the Internet. will people be able to in e-commerce. Perhaps most importantly. can be delivered through communication networks. such as call centres and business processing. with full access to the in slum areas the opportunity to participate information society. broadly universal and widespread access Progress will depend on thinking to broadband should be a key concern of creatively about how to speed up access policy-makers in setting the next round of to broadband. including building multi. learning from others and can enable these countries to overcome changing people’s expectations of their geographic disadvantages and link up with living conditions and livelihoods are all part the rest of the world. interactive discussion extending the benefits of new technologies. Beyond 2015.46 47 Internet can do far more than this. in cooperation with the can help improve skills of all kinds. types of economies. especially where the Internet and broadband are concerned. .

computing Broadband burden and demography of ageing and the Internet). what is certain is the need for coordinated international action – to enable countries to monitor. A disproportionate number of these people live in developing countries with only limited resources to cope with the impact of climate change. unless the origins. It is clear is that. mechanisms and extent of further decisive action is taken soon. living in areas at risk from more frequent and more severe natural disasters (such as floods. per cent of GHG emissions – mainly in the power demands of devices (such as and phones or computers) and the operation of ICT networks (through the operation of data Broadband and Climate centres or telecommunication equipment). since ICTs are cross-cutting Climate change is one of the biggest technologies used in other industrial challenges facing humanity today. Despite the scientific. sectors. Defined in its narrowest namely: climate change. Change Beyond However.5 associated with healthcare. and the growing costs estimated to account for between 2-2. the shifting sense (as telecommunications. it now seems likely that contribution of ICTs to GHG emissions human activities are accelerating this is likely to rise in parallel with the strong . plan for and respond to the inevitable impact of climate change on their peoples. This section reviews some of the key global challenges of the 21st Century ICTs have a critical role to play in combating that broadband connectivity and climate change through the reduction of content are uniquely placed to address. ultimately contributing to a sudden and rapid warming of the planet. the representative figure for the the MDGs Although climate change is a natural broader ICT sector may be higher than this phenomenon and debates continue over baseline estimate. the climate change. the ICT sector has been populations. GHG emissions. partly through the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) and carbon-based emissions. statistical and political uncertainties surrounding climate change.5 49 natural phenomenon in an artificial way. cities and communities. Hundreds of millions of people are now increasingly vulnerable to the knock-on effects of climate change. Human activities may also interfere with the planet’s natural mechanisms for responding and adapting to climate change. hurricanes and landslides).

silverspringnet. global population. between developed connectivity is also essential for medical many promising initiatives are underway innovate for – the future. Demographic Trends”. September 2006.95 per associated with ageing (eg. dementia. combined supply systems by as much as 30 per persons. The ongoing needs may be for information. IMF magazine.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2006/09/picture. diabetics’ sugar levels or blood services. Shifting Burden and markets.to 24-year-olds in the late 1990s. will reduce the emissions of other sectors Broadband and the savings. storing and transmitting with increased life expectancy.ftthcouncil.who. leveraging reductions in GHG emissions “unprecedented.24 In 2009.pdf. 26 http://www. quoted in “Global WP_ConnectingSmartGrid-1109.50 51 market growth and growing use of data developed and developing countries This global demographic trend is split independently for longer. lifelong-learning and Even more importantly. the demand efficient ICTs. are leading cent (in the case of India. pensions. for the analysis of degenerative diseases the SMART2020 report). 23 “SMART2020: Enabling the Low Carbon Economy in the Information Age”.smart2020. 25 “Ageing and Population”. through greater adoption of more energy. In 1990. GHGs by 5-9 per cent (for the United infrastructure is important for catering teleconsultation and medical imaging. States)22 or the power needs of electrical to the range of different needs of elderly High-bandwidth computing is needed Declining fertility and birth rates.27 to more serious monitoring of cardiac longer an option. Prepared by Larry Rosenberg and David Bloom (Harvard University). labour cardiac arrest or epileptic seizure). according to generation matures. 22 “Connecting Smart Grids & Climate Change”. taxation. nearly two-thirds are available). World Population Prospects 2004. Investments in smart ICTs offer on earth. this had grown to one in ageing of the real-world global population conferencing) could substitute for carbon. February 2010. Broadband and ICT services worldwide. November 2009.23 In addition.pdf. to 737 million persons. An excellent example is the Demography of Ageing for housing. however. However. also insignificance compared with the longer. older of 12. quoted at: http://www. enabling them to live in the provision.28 Sensor ICTs.pdf. of whom live in developing countries. consumption. and ICT solutions can result in This ageing in the world population will pressure. populations are generally ageing elderly people take their treatments – the this rise. Greater adoption of more people in less developed countries aged health. a stroke. available at: http://www. participate in online services. older persons Broadband and the prioritizing the use of more energy.com/pdfs/SSN_ 27 United Nations. alike the opportunity to invest in – and sharply. enduring and Always-on real-time connectivity is The World Health Organization (WHO) across different industrial sectors at pervasive”. and more traditional means of delivering function. which could reduce Populations for healthcare services. but a necessity. have a profound impact on all aspects can also be used to notify distant health In addition. profound. reading e-books) and the literate generation used to shopping cent of the world population) was over Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s). The use of advanced technologies (eg. the availability of broadband of social and economic growth – on personnel in case of crisis (eg. video. growing sector in their own right. The Climate Group/GeSI. The initial upfront countries. earlier and more rapidly – the number of main reason why medical treatments fail.un.25 By 2050. of elderly persons. at: http://www. networks can be used to monitor the long- offer significant promise for combating term costs of coping with the effects of In developing countries.int/whr/2001/annex/en/.pdf. at: http://www. and broadband in particular. . 26 affecting nearly all countries essential for the monitoring and surveillance has observed that huge inequities exist once. because ICTs are reach 2 billion in 2050 or 22 per cent of the retraining.un. As the current digitally-literate for recording. to the FTTH Council Europe Conference. the number of term situation of elderly persons in poor climate change – ICTs can also be part climate change. at: http://www. and spending time online is likely to 60. ‘Green ICTs’ or ‘smart meagre pension payments (where these ICTs’ are a recent. for the sake and developing countries. but important and fast.htm. news/hot_news_from_the_ftth_conference_in_lisbon!/?cid=37&nid=527&catid=8. costs of investing now in more energy. available at: http://www. A computer- one in every twelve persons (or 8. investment. Broadband technologies 60+ is not expected to exceed the number the formation of skin lesions and bedsores energy efficient ICT-based solutions is no are more energy-efficient than other. will outnumber children (less than 14 Broadband infrastructure is likely to prove Growing Cost of efficient technologies such as broadband years of age). they will continue to detailed images using advanced software to ageing in the global population. pervasive cross-cutting technologies. Broadband essential for long-distance diagnosis. from mundane matters such as of the solution. UN population division.to 24-year-olds until 2045. health outcomes. In developed “compliance monitoring” to ensure that in the ICT sector which should help curtail of future generations. efficient broadband technologies pale into people aged 60+ exceeded the number according to Philips Medical.eu/home/latest_ files/02_Smart2020Report.org/esa/population/publications/ageing/ageing2009chart. Monitoring and alert systems lower overall carbon-based emissions. Some of their most basic to be understood. Silver Spring Networks. indulge these habits in retirement or seek every nine persons and the so-called is likely to be reflected online in the virtual intensive activities (such as printing paper alternative online careers to supplement “older population” of the world amounted world in ways that are as yet only beginning books or air travel). virtualization (eg. global population aged 60+ is projected to entertainment.org/esa/population/publications/WPA2009/WPA2009_WorkingPaper. The UN Population Division vital in the delivery of healthcare services Healthcare offers policy-makers an effective means of has concluded that population ageing is to growing numbers of elderly persons.imf. of 12.org/_assets/ 28 Presentation by Philips Healthcare. 24 World Health Report 2001. epidemiology and the need Broadband infrastructure is also use of smart grids.

within and between countries. services. transmission and storage of is potential for greater doctor-to-patient patients’ medical records and imagery. interaction between hospitals/doctors and E-health can reduce the costs on the end-users at home to improve awareness system via remote consultation and and education about health outcomes intervention . globally. more than half of all as SMS alerts. Electronic health over US$ 6.000 billion in backbones connecting major hospitals 2006. the records can help treat patients along ageing of populations.6 billion people in low. an industry ‘high-tech’. In its World Health Report 2008. countries. . Healthcare is now the Broadband does not necessarily mean world’s largest service industry. more rural areas). appointments or patient healthcare expenditure is made from out. however.and middle. the financing of healthcare may be haphazard.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2008/pr38/en/index. scientific progress complex referral chains. with people who are well. healthcare are rising in many countries around the world. speeding up and medical advances in diagnosis and treatment and potentially improving health treatment mean that the annual costs of outcomes. including significantly. with a technologies are likely to prove cost. diseases and high-tech specialist care. of the population over age 60 rises Most types of healthcare. reminders) can be used effectively to of-pocket payments.52 53 financing of and access to healthcare offers key advantages in the recording.who. the travel below the poverty line each year. the WHO off and generally healthier having the best noted that healthcare is often delivered access to the best health care. Population growth. World Health Report 2008: http://www. can be enhanced by investments in improved infrastructure.000. In countries efficient and reduce ongoing costs for the with high broadband penetrations.html. with health viewed as a product of biomedical The roll-out of broadband infrastructures intervention. while the according to a model that concentrates on poor may be left to fend for themselves. However.30 The WHO has called for a investments.29 preservation and availability of patients’ The WHO records that. annual known medical history and risk factors government expenditure on health varies for maximum information disclosure in from as little as US$ 20 per person to diagnosis and treatment. Broadband that alone was worth US$ 4. focus on community support. with the power of prevention for health may require significant upfront largely ignored. there digitization.especially as the proportion and steps to prevent illness and disease. Even beyond positive cost savings. can be used effectively to deliver lower-bandwidth services to local Meanwhile. In many costs to remote clinics). primary healthcare. while expenditures improve the delivery of health services on health push over 100 million people and reduce secondary costs (eg. Simple services (such income countries. broadband return to holistic primary healthcare. the digitization of vital patient medical records 29 & 30 Press release. systems for financial protection populations (such as basic monitoring or are in disarray – the WHO estimates that communications with outlying clinics in for 5.

societies where all citizens have the skills and confidence to create. provides a variety of services. Action broadband – like water.6 55 achievement of the MDGs and other internationally-agreed development goals and key knowledge society priorities such as those of the WSIS by 2015. RECOMMENDATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE d) Special consideration should be given SOCIETIES to the direct application of broadband solutions to address the cross-cutting and AND Building global commitment to cross-sectoral aspects of the MDG agenda. governments should adopt national broadband strategies. recognizing that. and roads in the industrial age – is not just a The United Nations General Assembly tool for communication. and preserve information and knowledge to improve their lives. to accelerate the communities and stakeholders. in the information age. built into account the requirements of diverse on broadband. PLAN OF ACTION the international community to act on a common vision of the power e) A mid. b) At the national level. sustainability is essential in demonstrating PROPOSED the benefits of broadband diffusion for a) At the global level. connecting broadband with the MDGs new business and social models. resolutions of its Second Committee and to acknowledge the work of the c) National ICT Policies should be Commission in support of Article 19 encouraged to build inclusive knowledge of the Declaration of Human Rights. taking of technology and innovation. and and knowledge society priorities. and for All’ and its mapping to achieving should be made available to all members of the MDGs in relation to the relevant society. broadband inclusion for all by Specifically. in the context of the new digital realities and opportunities of the networked society and economy. in their own languages. world leaders at scale-up and replication across all eight the 2010 MDG Summit must galvanize MDGs. is essential . but a social asset is asked to note the recommendations that provides one of the most cost-effective of the Broadband Commission for and efficient means for delivering services Digital Development and in particular to citizens and comprises a nation’s core the concept of ‘Broadband Inclusion functions. share. electricity. Governments need to Action Point 1 promote policies in universal access and CONNECTING these policies should include broadband BROADBAND access as an essential element of universal WITH THE MDGS access and services. evidence pertaining to impact.and long-term perspective.

ICT skills. growth and investment through innovative have in the past resulted in stalled or that will harness the power of network security. financing requirements. between rich and poor and among classes grassroots involvement and ownership is f) Policy objectives for broadband inclusion and regions. education and health services. . products and services. additional taxation on the ICT sector. flexibility. investment and uptake. protection. We believe that there content can aspire to the goal of ‘digital broadband as a development accelerator. these benefits must be for interoperability between broadband level of Prime Minister or Head of State there is little or no possibility of attracting better explained to citizens and consumers.and goods such as digital health (e-health environmental sustainability. of all public services for government f) Advocacy efforts should be prioritized transformation centrally and locally using e) Governments should consider policies i) While in many cases. broadband roll-out to key public institutions safety. public goods. Promoting in ubiquitous broadband with regard to it. They ways obscured the catalytic effect that broadband across multiple sectors. what matters for much on the demand side in all its forms. e-learning and e-literacy. and m-health).56 57 in forming a consensus for broadband a) Fundamentally. they demonstrably accelerate the for all via transformational change in public-private partnerships. and Indigenous Peoples. in supporting technologies (such as development made possible via access c) National success stories have shown electricity) and investments in community- to knowledge that can narrow gaps that a top-down approach matched with based access models. private sector entities and a proliferation of is a need for complementary investments opportunity’ – that is social and economic public-private partnerships. government and must recognize that the success of spectrum. networks. but is also an engine for In addition. as to ensuring the development of global innovative financing mechanisms and request all Governments at various levels on the supply side. over the intermediate and long- stimulus with broadband inclusion multi-stakeholder partnerships. a prerequisite to building consensus and developing countries to deliver adequate hospitals and health clinics) is an effective commitment to broadband inclusion for all. need to be taken into term. may also consider proactive subsidies by broadband inclusion for all will ultimately while improving framework conditions b) Political will and leadership at the government in services in countries where have on the MDGs. etc. broadband-embedded devices may healthcare costs. h) Special attention must also be paid. should play a pivotal role in exploring created by broadband inclusion for all. new national development oriented vision. is required: a future-oriented networked private investments. including procedures. Given changing demographics. so increasing the availability and affordability l) While the benefits of constructing TRANSFORMATIONAL applying broadband to address economic of radio frequency spectrum as a critical broadband networks and promoting CHANGE and social challenges such as rising enabler for wireless broadband growth. it will to invest. the cross-cutting for building a global market in broadband broadband to substantially improve the aimed at stimulating private sector and cross-sectoral benefits of broadband devices. k) Broadband policies should be expanded economy. quality and cost of loan and incentive structures. the youth. as well as spill-over effects of service delivery. healthcare. Governments development is how much value will be including education. ageing populations and Fair competition and new services. benefit for society in the new applications incentives can be created by governments infrastructure. libraries. convenience. software and solutions access. Governments consideration in allocating radio frequency provision of high-profile digital public healthcare. for example. standards and the interoperability incentive strategies. Action Point 2 d) Broadband is an unrivalled tool for g) Special attention must be paid to BENEFITTING FROM social integration and e-inclusion. A clear national policy must enabled service and applications for remembering that one of the main reasons h) We urge all relevant stakeholders to be developed that not only contributes vulnerable. broadband connectivity and multilingual national development policies that build on cycle of investment from both public and and policy priorities. notably by equipment manufacturers. necessary for constructing a national digital must include the provision of broadband. education. stimulus through the promotion of digital j) We believe that broadband policies should g) Ultimately. to all their citizens. disadvantaged and remote for fostering broadband is the great overall continue to pose the key questions of what to the expansion of basic broadband groups. under a technology. avoiding unsustainable investments and in many effects. thinking and prioritization. privacy and security is be impossible for both developed and (such as schools. post offices. which have been shown in be expanded to include hardware and models based on universal access to Broadband must be clearly embedded in some cases to contribute to a virtuous software needs. as not always appear obvious in the short- Maximizing social and economic climate change must be a primary focus for well as regulatory reform and fair licensing term. transparency. neutral approach. private-public partnership strategy. broadband initiatives will depend as service. and in-demand society and economy require future. without broadband infrastructure in place. We availability of public e-services. boosting trust and confidence and services which can be delivered over to encourage and enable the private sector national competitiveness. to expedite the delivery where possible of global networks.

innovative new legal content business models. capacity development and end-users (eg. of aggregating connectivity on among competing providers of access. confidentiality and and reward innovative and creative fixed infrastructure. offering interconnection and based networks in the global Internet a) All relevant stakeholders must models for the Internet (eg. As copyright and intellectual property as well as education. no matter how small or broadband networks toward transparent typically use optical fibre to achieve very stability and prosperity. agreement on the definition of abuses and distribution will become a central concern international cooperation based on multi- . It is likely creation. and a level playing. and services in local languages. the issue of and the establishment of related laws that broadband deployment is not stalled of digital signatures. security are becoming more important and ideas for applications. content and services. which needs turn would lead to a burgeoning of local broadband networks. will be further exacerbated in the broadband the development of technical solutions. to be financed adequately by the users cultural industries. bearing in mind of digital production. technology-neutral high speeds. by creating demand for local USING TRANSPARENT. This will require necessarily those who may benefit from Internet are to be realized for all. the core of the Internet will and confidence for economic and social at very low rates. In general. where economically and physically an enabling environment based on trust enabling the online exchange of content Addressing issues of convergent feasible. if sufficient capacity is available and among other issues. The as enablers not barriers. provides unprecedented opportunities all countries will grow as populations managed state-of-the-art broadband economies of scale. and cross-sectoral nature of broadband. diffusion and distribution via reduce the cost of content distribution. deliver clear c) The global spread of broadband connectivity needs of public sectors in c) It should be recognized that intelligently. issues investments in such capacity can benefit economic characteristics in areas lacking international rules and regulations. Those who invest b) Digital networks have given rise to must be addressed at the national. there will be no AND APPLICATIONS of significantly lowering the costs of Action Point 3 possibility for sustainable growth in data CREATION access. knowledge and applications of applications so it is implicit that radio access can provide favourable pose challenges for existing national and e) As broadband usage increases. Policy-makers must access to this capacity is possible through that there are already several existing recognize the need for balance between m) To benefit from the cross-cutting and adequate and fair mechanisms. In unprecedented opportunities afforded traditional business models may need to addition. awareness-raising mechanisms need to be found to ensure for enforcing the meaning and utility right infringements multiply. At the same time. Spotify) interoperability at the national.58 59 e-government and e-business. global through lack of investment. of online privacy. The interconnection of fibre. that. advantages including interoperability. and Internet usage. far better understanding of the value chains social integration. for promoting cultural diversity through come to expect their governments to infrastructure is the prerequisite for future field for all stakeholders. This in and government services over Without such infrastructure. f) Global standards. law enforcement. so innovative international cooperation will be required era. FAIR. the provision of a multitude of content expedite and deliver public administration new content services and applications. designed to act national broadband networks. Today. regional is most likely to deliver success where recognize that in the digital economy. with piracy. and fair. broadband culture. Whether wide. Such anyone offering services and applications ENABLING CONTENT a development also has the potential over the Internet). provides a platform for a wider range area terrestrial or satellite. green growth and access and transport will likely be derived of attacks and / or malware propagation. applications and services. dispersed a community might be. and mutual support in the event for all relevant stakeholders that requires a economic revitalization. Hulu. remuneration for content creation and and regulations. radio infrastructure clearly has by flows of ideas and information and change to tackle the challenges associated a) Higher capacity access to the Internet an ongoing role to play. international cooperation programmes to the creation and diffusion of content. the are being created which suggest that and global levels. that creators in the digital world are entitled governments should consider ways should deliver ‘fair’ access to resources to fair compensation. reasonable network management practices address these issues. almost limitless access to content. customers and Action Point 4 and help in the creation of jobs. competitive. fibre connections can be implemented. regional in communications capacity are not e) If the full benefits of the broadband unprecedented levels of content piracy that and international levels. leading to b) The maximum benefits of broadband remedies. COMPETITIVE. Developing the right conditions for TECHNOLOGY. d) It is also important to recognize broadband content and applications d) Policy-makers should also note that NEUTRAL MODELS that no single technology will provide digitization has enormous potential to ubiquitous broadband services.

minimize these dangers. such as e-commerce and social encouraged among media professionals. agriculture. including into account local languages. transportation. among others. a) We urge public and private partners Accelerating access to broadband through community ICT centres connected to make full use of technologies and to broadband networks. drought and wildfire activity. and work. Specific targets should be set for participation from the local community. d) We note that the global increase of devastating earthquakes. Embracing coherent and efficiency. . as requires a well-organized administrative CHANGE recommended by the United Nations system that stimulates not only the Division for the Advancement of Women government’s engagement. especially imagination in a spirit of equity. networking sites. infrastructure and services for women applications such as smart grids. to. conduct meaningful commercial services to women and girls. play an active role in local and national trafficking. working away from their home countries. users and service environment and content distribution b) Governments should encourage livelihoods and economic activities. including financial and business literacy ethical guidelines is essential in the face enabled services by women and skills for women and girls. Governments Local communities should be encouraged improved efficiency. but also Utilizing broadband technology and Action Point 6 in 2005. and take active steps to government affairs.reconstruction efforts that and affordable communications to those broadband-based services at school can be enhanced via broadband networks. empowerment and the social ICT centres. Thus. infrastructure and the use of broadband. education. broadband networks. services. GIRLS at least 50 per cent of women and girls have broadband access by 2015. administration. and other essential ICT skills. c) Policy-makers should also recognize hurricanes. the importance of broadband for women in g) Governments should be encouraged to which may result from global warming. or to use broadband and ethical guidelines should be infrastructure in health. taking verification of climate change data. self-regulatory. training. and monitoring. and in luring them into prostitution or and mutual respect. emergency disaster BROADBAND ACCESS participating in the MDG assessment may to voluntarily engage in projects by response. receive job potential dangers posed by broadband should be upheld with efficiency and of renewable energy sources such as water. floods. Such training. will enable women to set up and voluntary. aspects and principles. networks. Access to information for support their children’s education. while developing e) Policy-makers should encourage the which use broadband connectivity creative multilingual content and universal use of broadband networks to eradicate to ultimately benefit all nations in the a) Active steps should be taken to access to ICTs is central for achieving functional illiteracy and promote career drive towards energy conservation accelerate access to broadband an equitable presence in. reporting and FOR WOMEN AND consider setting the target of ensuring that identifying and promoting the best practices in local ICT development. measuring and the provision of broadband access and services to women and girls and track BROADBAND TO HELP evaluation of climate change data. have the unpaid economy and domestic female create policies to ensure that women and emphasized the critical need for instant and workers in fulfilling their work commitments. professional ‘virtual’ services enabled by broadband and economic development of both online businesses. remote and girls. in order to promote gender which can be provided in community definition and adoption of best practices to maximize energy savings via the use of equality. the b) We encourage investment strategies girls. innovation for energy conservation and ACCELERATING broadband-enabled training. justice wind and solar energy in the deployment of activities. investment in broadband infrastructure to providers with due respect to freedom help women become better educated and of expression. improve f) Governments must recognize the all remains a fundamental right which c) We encourage the widespread utilization their access to healthcare. EMPLOYING broadband networks will be an invaluable tool for better monitoring. girls have access to the same opportunities interactive emergency response. to promote gender equality and g) Promoting and preserving ethical working and intelligent transport systems social and economic development. enforce their legal rights. public men and women. disaster and bring reliable remittance services as men and boys in terms of access to relief and post. to enhance their ongoing information producers.60 61 stakeholder partnerships is needed as e) We believe the universal deployment of d) Governments should set targets for Action Point 5 these issues are often multi-sectoral in nature. their progress through the collection f) Implementing local broadband projects COMBAT CLIMATE of reliable sex-disaggregated data. of increasing globalization. cyberspace. and access training. tsunamis.

of the global Partnership on Measuring based on technology outreach platforms satellite services are of particular relevance ICT for Development.62 63 broadband-based society and methods for Action Point 7 support such as training and promotion is Action Point 8 SUPPORTING necessary to facilitate their use. broadband access to rural and remote areas indigenous peoples. This work needs and which may benefit from broadband c) Where broadband networks are built and importance in this regard. multiple sectors of the local society and c) A core list of ICT indicators. INCLUSION FOR ALL EVALUATION AND d) Special attention should be given to the MONITORING d) A set of specific indicators should be Supporting wider broadband inclusion provision of broadband for education as created that will allow broadband progress for all for least developed countries and well as for disadvantaged and vulnerable Modelling. children and ethnic minorities. with particular reference to relative targets and timelines for broadband to combine hard/quantitative data (eg. The same applies to rural and a number of broadband-related indicators. identify and carry out various broadband . with relevant stakeholders. in cooperation WIDER BROADBAND needs and literacy issues. Hard targets and timelines. Using the tools that get regional Internet backbones. equipment. In this to promote wider broadband inclusion. h) Broadband should also be considered has been agreed upon by the international UN system and Member State programmes The innovative use of ‘digital dividends’ as a solution wherever disaster relief and statistical community under the framework or initiatives for development that are should be considered. social and usage indicators cost etc) and soft/qualitative ones (eg. a) Efforts should be renewed to mobilize cultural/linguistic diversity. as well as to be expanded to develop measurable scalability. appropriate to the broadband environment. and vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. deployment. International connectivity Society (WSIS) targets. MODELLING. An initial step should be to in underserved communities. for example via global comparisons are needed. evaluation and monitoring of to be measured. value and content created from broadband. with the development of infrastructure. and for disadvantaged groups. youth and economic. including economy. use broadband development with concrete forged between broadband (point to point) between neighbouring countries have and impact. a partnership should beproves that communication linkages comparable indicators on ICT access. the Partnership on Measuring ICT for the potential offered by satellite systems Development. applications and services. such as PARTNERSHIP FOR BROADBAND solutions such as mobile broadband and of the world who need it most. with strong fibre optic backhaul to serve f) The specific needs of LDCs should DEVELOPMENT LDCs and other countries in special need also be taken into account while planning b) Effective implementation of broadband should be noted. investment. indicators on all aspects of an inclusive. reap the full rewards of innovation and with maximum spill-over benefits across PPPs to reduce delivery costs. post-conflict reconstruction are priorities . taking into consideration local languages. Landlocked a powerful tool for elaborating sustainable and regions’ progress in broadband a) Urgent and renewed attention is needed Developing Countries and Small Island development in LDCs.socio-economic prosperity and continuous the World Summit on the Information of broadband will take us beyond development. commitments. penetration. inclusion. relative indicators and private sector and ICT communities to investment at minimum income levels cooperatively with LDCs. b) An economic analysis relevant to and regional network infrastructure can be evaluating and monitoring Member States’ Least Developed Countries. Such indicators will need countries in special need and extending groups. partnership that can be facilitated by BUILDING A GLOBAL regard. the particular suitability of special especially in the regions and populations a system-wide UN response. b) Examples could include identification of remote areas. as well as in rural and remote Internet Service Provider (ISP) associations to be developed in a multi-stakeholder Action Point 9 areas. recognizing that the and broadcasting (point to multipoint) been key promoters and levers to promote such as those identified to monitor cross-sector and cross-cutting nature infrastructure. and disadvantaged groups. History policy needs reliable evidence and Building a global partnership for the job done best. education BROADBAND modelling the social and economic impact of broadband diffusion. etc). continued other mobile broadband technologies. persons with disabilities. To assess global for development in cooperation with the for adequate returns on broadband equipment and service providers to work improvements. are required for the MDG agenda. women and girls. as well as agreement in capitalizing on the consensus agreed Developing States should be undertaken on annual actions to help meet and in MDG 8 to build a global partnership to determine sustainable business models g) Encouragement should be given to measure such progress. public and private support for a significant e) Support should be given to partnerships a) It is likely that new methods for modelling improvement of basic ICT infrastructure to facilitate the setting up of local Internet the social and economic evidence of in countries where such infrastructure is exchange points (IXPs) and national impact of broadband diffusion will need most lacking.

192 Member States of the UN. ideally using an online repository. global disaster prevention. In practice. Inclusion of a discrete line item in all Action Point 10 technical assistance projects. a) A number of follow-up mechanisms e) Best practices and case studies to the Broadband Commission for Digital Development are recommended that of investment projects in developing would comprise innovative. Platform for Sustainable Broadband collected is useful to the Commission. The resolving educational problems and Business Models. the civil society and ICT community. compile this information.64 65 projects that require global cooperation. • A multi-stakeholder Think Tank for case studies for replicability and scalability. practical support system at the United to consider embedding broadband in the Nations level which will enable the best UN Development Assistance Framework practices of broadband use to be shared (UNDAF). NEXT STEPS FOR BROADBAND d) This task should be pursued under the PARTNERSHIPS AND umbrella of building a global partnership for development between the private PROJECTS sector. and b. Project criteria such as knowledge-sharing through • A Public Private Partnership should be defined so that the information broadband. A baseline measurement of the innovative and multi-stakeholder follow. dynamic and countries should be collected and flexible working methods: summarized. this would be a two- and spread globally. with of new technologies. including making available the benefits Next steps for partnerships. part actionable item: a. we recommend the creation private partnerships. Commission for Digital Development. catalytic impact of broadband technology up mechanisms at the national. c) A baseline evaluation of the catalytic f) Broadband Commissioners may support impact of broadband technology as b) It is strongly recommended that the pilot projects which will demonstrate an enabler for the achievement of the principal follow-up actions suggested by the use of broadband technologies in inter-dependent MDG agenda should the Broadband Commission for Digital supporting the MDGs. Broadband 4 Development. be developed in order to quantify the Development are firmly and effectively socio-economic impact of these public anchored in the United Nations’ g) Finally. Agreement of a universal policy for broadband in the UN System. The Broadband Commission • A High-Level Advocacy Group for Digital Development should consider modelled on the Broadband forming a project or a working group to . with a d) The successful deployment of twin focus on advocacy and investment broadband would be assisted by a c) We request the UN Secretary-General in broadband. including national inter-dependent MDG agenda should be broadband committees. especially ICTs concrete coordination including (MDG8). forthcoming ‘MDG Accelerator and of National Broadband Plans in all the Sustainability Framework’. regional as an enabler for the achievement of the and global levels. developed in order to quantify the socio- economic impact of these PPPs. Commission should then analyze good disease eradication.

Indrajit Banerjee.66 67 Acknowledgements The Co-Chairs and Vice-Chairs would like to thank the Secretaries of the Commission – namely. Béatrice Pluchon. Sarah Parkes. Youlia Lozanova. Janet Burgess. Toby Johnson. . Piers Letcher. for their unfailing efforts in the preparation of this Report. under the supervision of Daniel Lutz. The InDesign version of this Report was prepared by Nkumbe Njume-Ebong. Vanessa Gray. Jose Maria Diaz Batanero. Susan Schorr. Jaroslaw Ponder. Ana-Dory Rodriguez. Doreen Bogdan-Martin and Denis Gilhooly – and the core team of Patricia Benoit-Guyot. We also thank all Commissioners and Focal Points for their dedicated and extraordinarily substantive input throughout this process. Robert Shaw and Susan Teltscher. as well as Paul Budde. Phillippa Biggs.

68 69 4G Fourth-Generation Mobile Telephony AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome CDMA Code Division Multiple Access DOCSIS Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification DSL Digital Subscriber Line ERP Entreprise Resource Planning EV-DO Evolution-Data Optimized FTTH Fibre-To-The-Home GDP Gross Domestic Product GHG Greenhouse Gas GPS Global Positioning System GSM Global System for Mobile Communications HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access ICT Information and Communication Technology IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem IMT International Mobile Telecommunications IP Internet Protocol IPRs Intellectual Property Rights ISP Internet Service Provider ITU International Telecommunication Union IXP Internet exchange point LDCs Least Developed Countries LTE Long-Term Evolution MDGs Millennium Development Goals NBN National Broadband Network ODA Official Development Assistance OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development LIST OF PPP Public-Private Partnership PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper R&D Research & Development SIDS Small Island Developing States SMEs ACRONYMS Small. Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCWA UN Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia ABBREVIATIONS UPE Universal Primary Education WAC Wholesale Applications Community WHO World Health Organization WLAN Wireless Local Area Network WSIS World Summit on the Information Society .and Medium-sized Enterprises TCP Transmission Control Protocol UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UNDESA UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs UNECA UN Economic Commission for Africa AND UNECE UN Economic Commission for Europe UNESCAP UN Economic & Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNESCO United Nations Educational.

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