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GLOBALIZATION GLOSSARY

C

Civil Society. Relationships not controlled by the state or, more commonly, all forms of association
outside of state and market. Currently also denotes work of nongovernmental organizations. Used by
critics and movement activists to refer to source of resistance to and the sphere of social life to be
protected against globalization.

Cold War. Hostile relationship, reflected in arms race and competition for global influence, between
Soviet bloc and U.S.-led NATO, 1945-1991. "Iron curtain" across central Europe marked key division in
"bipolar" world until fall of Berlin Wall, 1989. End variously traced to internal difficulties of Soviet
regime, pressure from U.S. arms buildup, and resistance to Communism in eastern Europe.

Colonialism. Permanent rule of one country or region by another, usually based on conquest. Feature
of European expansion since sixteenth century, as Western powers took control of people and territory
across much of globe. Last wave in Africa, late-nineteenth century. South American colonies gained
independence in nineteenth century, African and Asian after WW II.

Commodification. Tendency to turn goods and services, even land and labor, into products for sale in
market; used critically to describe loss of human qualities in capitalist production and exchange

Communism. Ideology centered on eliminating class inequality via collective ownership of means of
production; form of one-party government controlling economy and society in name of such ideology.
Rooted in work of Karl Marx and other nineteenth-century critics of industrial capitalism. After heyday in
mid-twentieth century, influence declined with demise of Soviet Union and other Communist regimes
(1989-91).

Comparative Advantage. Standard economic concept accounting for gains from trade due to tendency
of countries to export goods they produce relatively efficiently. "A country has comparative advantage
in producing a good if the opportunity cost [value of opportunities forgone in making a choice] of
producing that good in terms of other goods is lower in that country than it is in other countries" (P.
Krugman and M. Obstfeld, International Economics: Theory and Policy, 1997, p. 14). In particular
cases, used to justify specialization by countries in international division of labor.

Core. Wealthy countries with dominant role in world economy. Geographic equivalent of capitalist
ruling class. World-system theory designation for areas that control capital, operate with leading-edge
technology and free labor, are supported by strong states, can set global terms of trade and exploit
regional division of labor.

Cosmopolitanism. Attitude of concern for world as whole, interest in universal principles; commonly
contrasted with nationalism, particularism

Cultural Imperialism. Form of cultural hegemony enabling some states to impose worldview, values,
and lifestyles on others. Term used by critics of American global influence to describe how U.S.
dominates others, e.g., by disseminating ideology of consumerism, hedonistic popular culture, or
particular model of free-market society.

F

Foreign Direct Investment. Investment by firm based in one country in actual productive capacity or
other real assets in another country, normally through creation of a subsidiary by a multinational

149). 88). Term originates with American Protestant conservatives in early twentieth century. in politics. . [It] is a domain of knowledge. . hence consolidation of world society. a loss in the degree of control exercised locally . . and 6. 1. click here or here. . Canada). values. Rules and institutions for managing and regulating actions or processes of global import. p. Mittelman. . Worldview or movement centered on restoring religious tradition or sacred text as guiding force in society. a devaluation of a collectivity's achievements . Group of seven major economic powers (US. 5. Integration on the basis of project pursuing "market rule on a global scale" (P. organization of social life on global scale. G G7. For views related to 5. p. engaged in regular consultation on financial stability and economic growth (occasionally G8 in deference to Russia. Globalization is emerging as a political response to the expansion of market power . Exemplified by policies of Islamic Republic of Iran (1979-). 4. . 2000). nation-states. or a premise in shaping. France. . Concrete global interdependence and consciousness of the global whole in the twentieth century" (R. Globalization. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. Albrow. p. "A social process in which the constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding (M. since used for type of evangelicalism. UK. of livelihoods and modes of existence. "As experienced from below. ." (J. p.H.corporation. Friedman. the dominant form of globalization means a historical transformation: in the economy. Robertson. human activities" (M. object of international reform efforts pursuing design of democratic transnational institutions and control over economic activity (see also Issues. [m]aking or being made global (i) by the active dissemination of practices. 2000. Global governance. technology and other human products throughout the globe (ii) when global practices and so on exercise an increasing influence over people's lives (iii) when the globe serves as a focus for. . usually in opposition to ideas or practices considered modern. Measure of globalization of capital. 1992. "[T]he inexorable integration of markets. the spread of free-market capitalism to virtually every country in the world " (T. . Effects on growth and inequality in developing countries disputed.. . p. The Global Age. . 1999. . 7-8). and technologies to a degree never witnessed before-in a way that is enabling individuals. "The historical transformation constituted by the sum of particular forms and instances of . Expansion of global linkages.L. 6. Commonly applied to efforts of Islamist groups or regimes favoring conservative morality and strict application of Islamic law. deeper and cheaper than ever before . faster. . 1996. and in culture. Globalization. #6) . Germany. . 2. xxiii. and growth of global consciousness. 3. "The compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole . Appeal partly attributed to dislocations due to globalization. Japan. Development and Social Change. . McMichael. 3). Italy. see University of Toronto G8 Information Centre) Globalization. corporations and nation-states to reach around the world farther. . 8). Waters. specifically. . in turn influences global debate about process. The Globalization Syndrome. Fundamentalism. 1995.

local) places.. International Olympic Committee. #5) N Neoliberalism. term of opprobrium used by critics of capitalist ideology to denote emphasis on market expansion as value in itself. distorted representation of non-Western culture by Western intellectuals. equal treatment. or associations. Said in Orientalism to criticize Western treatment of Arab culture as reflective of historical domination. political. Anderson) INGO. now possessing globally recognized claims to autonomy and identity fostered by supportive movements. work and health. used to express active and creative engagement of groups in distinctively adapting global ideas or products I IGO. Variously interpreted by states. Hybridization. click here. and civil rights. musical styles) from different cultures or origins in particular contexts. Definition of nations as finite. specifically. H Human Rights. Characteristics often under threat of displacement due to development. M Multiculturalism. Examples: Amnesty International. as defined in Universal Declaration adopted by UN in 1948. For details.Glocalization. Members can be individuals. Influentially used by E. Mixing of elements (e. For Declaration. Process by which transsocietal ideas or institutions take specific forms in particular (i. Nongovernmental organization. Imagined communities. Many domestic NGOs connected internationally. Historically. O Orientalism. International nongovernmental organization. globally. NATO. Red Cross. hence subject of global debate. companies. Examples: UN. INGO.. click here. Intergovernmental organization. Indigenous Peoples. among others. vision of cultural diversity deliberately fostered and protected (see also Issues. economic. sovereign communities. currently. held to cause destruction of "collective structures which may impede the pure market logic. advocacy of free enterprise in competitive global markets and movement of goods and capital unburdened by tariffs and regulations. . First (original) residents of certain areas. supplemented by 1960s Covenants on social." NGO.g. Doctrine asserting value of different cultures coexisting within single society. Late-twentieth century variant of theory that competition among businesses in market with limited state regulation best fosters growth. stressing deliberate creation of binding tradition and shared identity (B. commonly. scholarship by Western experts on Asia. Rights of persons to freedom of speech and conscience. Cf. attributed to political bias and assumed superiority.e. International Organization for Standardization. imagined rather than face-to-face or primordial. Formed by and membership restricted to states.

diminishing corruption. Periphery. 1990. U Universalism. subject to unequal exchange. Click here for text. criticized by economists for ignoring comparative advantage doctrine. e. R Realism. Normative principle with mixed practical effect. V. T Time-Space Compression. For IMF review of criticism. universalism.P Particularism. regarded as basis of accountability. Harvey. limiting imports. Criticized for inducing economic decline. or criticized on grounds of. recognizing interests of developed and developing countries. Poor. popular among critics of trade for countering job loss and environmental harm. Sustainable Development. S Structural Adjustment. through communication and transportation technology. Commonly contrasted with. Values or practices valid only for specific group in own setting as basis for distinct identity. lowering inflation. resulting in apparent shrinking of time to the present and globe to a single space. via shift to renewable resources and local community participation in development projects. international system is "anarchy." and international politics is separate from domestic. and increasing economic efficiency. Transparency. quotas. Example: universal human rights. The Condition of Postmodernity. devaluing currency. Evolving global standard for state institutions and international organizations. etc. requiring open processes according to general rules subject to monitoring. wealthy countries. or advocacy thereof. decreased social protection. exploited regions. Effort to shield domestic producers against foreign competition via tariffs. p. World-system theory concept denoting militarily weak regions economically dominated by capitalist core. particularism. Protectionism. Increased pace of life and overcoming of spatial barriers. Statement of principles calling for worldwide environmental protection by 1992 UN "Earth Summit" conference in Rio de Janeiro. Theory asserting primacy of states and state interests in international affairs. limited to raw material exports. historically dominated by strong.g. or doctrine emphasizing importance thereof. claims that states act rationally in pursuit of power. click here. 240. Ferraro) Rio Declaration. required by IMF of countries in debt as condition for debt restructuring (acronym: SAP). influential but disputed (cf. or criticized on grounds of.. W . reliant on labor-intensive production. Cf. D. Widely reduced under global free trade agreements. Compromise reached in international negotiation. also view emphasizing importance thereof. Principles considered valid for all across globe. Policy of promoting growth consistent with protection of environment. altering everyday experience of social relations and awareness of global interdependence. Policy of reducing government expenditures. Commonly contrasted with.

1-3. 1974-. Holds that proliferation of models and principles for global action. World-system theory. Copyright 2000-2001 . The Modern World-System. click here. click here. to profit from control of cheap labor and unequal exchange. Holds that sixteenth-century capitalist expansion from European core founded now fully global hierarchy of regions and geographic division of labor.World polity theory. Vol. for relevant journal. shape globe through institutional enactment. Wallerstein. enabling owners of capital. See I. including sovereign state and individual. for papers by Wallerstein and colleagues. supported by strong states. creating similarity across societal boundaries.Frank Lechner .