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Building International Relations:
Advancing Counseling and Fostering Human Development

Andres J. Consoli, Maria del Pilar Grazioso, and Marisela Lopez

More than ever, we have to acknowledge that our lives are intereonnected in this global village
and that what happens to a small number of people in one tiny corner might affect the well-being
of others. Isolation, ethnocentrism, and cultural encapsulation are not solutions to the problems
confronting our global village now and into the future, (S, Leung, 2003, p. 418)

If you area prospect or current professional counselor, a person who enjoys testing challenges and
equally enjoys intrinsic growth, development, and the numerous other benefits of helping people,
the international vistas for professional counseling are boundle,ss and beckoning. (P. Leung &
Emener, 1999, p. 152)

In this article we seek to address USA counseling professionals who are interested in
exploring international vistas. To this end, we review the vei^ definition of counseling, high-
lighting its valuational and, therefore, cultural nature. We then frame international interests
as a logical evolution and expansion of the ongoing, socially responsible, ethical commit-
ment to cultural competence. We offer a brief critique of globalization and internationaliza-
tion while situating counseling in the broad context of what has been termed the "global vil-
lage," Then we discuss the personal, training, and professional dimensions involved in
internationalizing counseling. Furthermore, we identify and describe counseling and psy-
chological organizations engaged in international endeavors. We conclude by offering brief
narratives of our personal and professional experiences in international relations,

In 1997 the Governing Council of the American Counseling Association (ACA)
adopted the following definition of the practice of professional counseling:
The application of mental health, psychological, or human development principles, through cog-
nitive, affective, behavioral or systematic intervention strategies, that address wellne,ss, personal
growth, or career development, as well as pathology.

This definition is based on scientific and professional knowledge and also on a set of val-
ues born out of a cultural context that gives meaning to the pursuit of such knowledge. Fur-
thermore, the definition implies a sociopolitical structure that supports the professional
practice of counseling. These acknowledgements are of utmost importance prior to coun-
seling "going overseas,"

Andrds Consoli is affiliated with San Francisco State University, Maria del Pilar Grazioso and Marisela L6pez
are with the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala,

Copyright © Love Publishing Company, 2006


The constructs of wellness, personal growth, develop- entirely the values endorsed by the majority in a nation, as
ment, and pathology named in the above definition are counseling also can be an instrument for emancipation and
indeed valuational constructs. As such, counseling no longer liberation, perhaps best expressed contemporarily by ele-
is seen as value-neutral but, instead, as a value-informed pro- ments of the advocacy and social justice movement within
fession. The values embraced by counseling reflect, more or the profession (Toporek, Gerstein, Fouad, Roysircar, &
less, the community of professionals practicing it and the Israel, 2006), Therefore, all counseling, national, cross-
cultural contexts in which their practices are embedded. national, or international, must contend with the particulars
Similarly, considering that culture has been described as of given societies or nations without becoming exclusively
affecting the way people think, feel, and behave (precisely the arms of a state or group of states, or unwitting uniformists
domains of the intervention strategies in the counseling defi- (Varenne, 2003),
nition above), counseling is, ultimately, a culture-bound pro- Recently the counseling profession in the USA has been
fession (Arredondo, 1999), And to the extent that a culture- working diligently to acknowledge the cultural diversity of
bound profession is bom out of a cultural context that its (potential) consumers, the cross-cultural nature of all
produces it and also promotes and affirms it, counseling can- counseling encounters, and the necessity for cultural com-
not be "exported" without being "imposed upon" a host petencies among its practitioners. The three domains on
nation. Such a supremacist approach is inappropriate and mis- which to base cultural competencies have been identified as
guided, generating resentment and backlash in the long run. awareness, knowledge, and skills. Briefly described, coun-
Counseling practice may reflect, isomorphically, the val- selors are expected to embrace a lifelong commitment to
ues endorsed by its cultural contexts, as counseling can be, become aware of their cultural heritage and privilege; be
at times, an instrument for social adjustment, conformity, knowledgeable about discrimination, oppression, and
and even oppression. At other times it may not reflect racism; and be skillful at understanding themselves as cul-
tural beings. Similarly, counselors are expected to become
aware of their clients' worldviews, be knowledgeable about
their clients' cultural heritage and the role that sociopolitical
counselinG processes have in their clients' lives, and acquire the neces-

ano Human sary knowledge through experiences that transcend their
professional role.

DeveixipmenT Last, counselors as professionals are expected to be
aware of the values, beliefs, and even biases informing their
strategies, interventions, and techniques; be knowledgeable
ISSN 0193-7375 of counseling's own characteristics that may or may not
is published monthly except June, July, and August as a service to
facilitate clients' adherence to treatment, as well as social
counseling and human services professionals in schools, agencies, men- and community barriers that may generate distress or
tal health centers, higher education, business and industry, and other pri- impede treatment access; and be culturally skillful verbally
vate settings. This journal is available in microfilm from Serials Acqui- and nonverbally, individually and institutionally (Arredondo
sitions, National Archive Publishing Company, P.O. Box 998, Ann et al,, 1996; Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992),
Arbor, MI 48106-0998, Subscription rates: individual, $42 per year;
institutions, $56 per year. Copyright © 2006, Love Publishing Com- This range of domains in cultural competencies is relevant
pany. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or part without written for counselors who are considering international engage-
permission is prohibited. Printed in the United States of America. Peri- ments. International engagements represent a logical conti-
odical postage is paid at Denver, Colorado. POSTMASTER: Send nuity of the cultural competency movement, and they are
address changes to:
destined to transform the very movement of cultural compe-
Love F>ublishing Company tence by moving it farther away from rhetoric and into inter-
Executive and Editorial Office national action. As Paulo Freire (1993) reflected toward the
P.O. Box 22353
Denver, Colorado 80222
end of his life while reassessing his classic Pedagogy of the
Telephone (303) 221-7333 Oppressed, an overemphasis on awareness may generate
complacency and take away from specific transformative
Rebecca Toporek Mark Pope
actions needed in the national as well as international arenas.
San Francisco State University University of Missouri-St. Louis
Without a doubt, attaining cultural competency is a tall
Matthew Englar-Carlson order that requires lifelong commitment at the individual
California State University-Fullerton
level, relevant research at the academic level, active engage-
Stanley F, Love Susan T Warhover ment at the professional level, and sustained advocacy at the
Publisher Editor organizational level. And now, practitioners in the health care

A Therefore. 1101) The call for cultural competence has been propelled by International encounters and relations can make us painfully professional forces and also by demographic forces. resources—these (or their consequences) are matters that structs. among the following examples.e-welcomeback. large-scale immigration of the last four decades. international serve. 2001. access and utilization involve (1) the racial-ethnic diversifi. demographic diversification. within a nation or those in other nations. & Berry. p. Leung. international effort. They can go a long year 2100. privilege. one third of the population in the USA consists of sional encapsulations. and prejudices. (Segall. Lonner. culture. is particulady useful to foster and affirm healthy lifestyles. Culture as the address disabilities. As Segall and colleagues observed. hunger.. counselors seeking to become linguistically and vast range of matters transcends national borders and culturally proficient to work with immigrants will find it requires a collective. non-for- of the people of that culture (including behaviors. Cultural humility is crucial when engag. Heppner (1997) indicated that population presents significant challenges in realizing equal counseling p. and increase their ability to live more highly functioning lives. Counseling that fish didn't discover water" (Segall. attributed to Marshall McLuhan). p. it is estimated that more than and in addressing contemporary matters that transcend 12% of the USA population is foreign born. ethnic and religious dialogues and conflicts.field have introduced the concept of cultural humility as an milieu we in which swim and that allows us to breathe and equally important dimension that tnodulates what might be exist is difficult to appreciate while we are immersed in it. Lonner. 1998. Interna- racial or ethnic minorities. (2001. phenomena to which counseling has much to offer and that ment of Psychology at Our Lady of the Lake University. Texas. assimilation. ultimately. beliefs. and informal ways of nurturing the former and redress- values. expectations. institutions. 1998). Antonio. must address immigrants they aspire to serve. oppression." all international efforts from Latin America and Asia. 33) going about this. cultural and profes- Presently. the intracultural and intercultural relations marked prove the language and cultural proficiencies of mental by pluralism or by discrimination. com. At the population One concrete example of engaging in such undertakings level. Values and culture can be elusive con. and service political opportunities and persecution. Perhaps the ing a global village that helps people improve their well- two most significant dimensions to bring about this equal being. Furthermore. 7) cation and multilingualism of the counseling workforce mir- roring the population that counseling professionals intend to We include. peace and human rights. Bojuwoye stated that must contend with the universals and the particulars of elements of a culture which define the identity and purpose human strengths and shortcomings and the formal. and (2) the increase in the cultural relevance of the matters that are born out of deficits and shortcomings and counseling services the profession has to offer. modify maladaptive environments. also out of strengths and opportunities. ciate that which we have taken for granted or ignored.sychology can play an important role in build- access to and utilization of counseling services. or margin- example is the 2-week intensive training program to im. perceived or experienced as unreasonable demands of the When we come into contact with the plurality of cultures almost omniscient cultural knowledge and that frames cul. made catastrophes. separation.g. natural and human- delivery—affirm the advantage and necessity of internation. ray-Garcia. alization. aware of our very own ethnocentrisms. As national societies become increasingly diverse and inter- ing internationally even—or perhaps precisely—when we national contacts become common. and it is estimated that by the tional relations are humbling indeed. San also impact counseling work. The concepts mentioned thus far—values. non-Hispanic whites will constitute only 40% of way in facilitating cultural competence in our local arena the population. longer assume an acultural or a unicultural stance. Similarly. 2003). mal. the migration within and between countries. yet it is only one way in the diverse world of healing practices (Bojuwoye. sional expertise. and fair distribution of alizing counseling. alleviate distress and maladjustment. etc. & Berry. primarily In the current "global village. 1998. prevent communicable diseases such as . them as a socially responsible profession in contemporary The rapid racial and ethnic diversification of the USA societies. because of the national boundaries. health providers who serve Spanish-speaking clients and the massive urbanization and population growth—all are their families offered between 2002 and 2005 by the Depart. www. Counseling can particulariy helpful to travel to the countries of origin of the address many of these matters and. and racism. we begin to appre- tural competence as a lifelong endeavor (Tervalon & Mur. "[I]t is a cinch the counseling profession can and must address. S. (state) terrorism and (civil) war. resolve crises. psychologists can no are invited to such encounters through recognized profes. (p. humility.) do not ing the latter. the accul- consists of the assistance centers for international health turative processes and concomitant acculturative stress workers in the USA (e. Another resulting in integration. philosophies. poverty. Professional counseling is a formal way of just disappear when people migrate to other environments of different cultures.

Readers will recog. els are superior or inferior" (p. the massive migratory processes of the sovereignty of professionals and their nations and. ence (IUPsyS) to develop a Universal Declaration of Ethical nomic and financial interdependence among many nations. Principles for Psychologists. efforts are construed as "exporting" the knowledge and prac- tices acquired by USA professionals that are ultimately and GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONALIZATION perhaps inevitably—at least initially—ethnocentric and idio- We posit that globalization. employment instability. globalization is not limited to economic effects. These efforts can be easily (and appropri- nationalization if it is orchestrated around the "exportation" ately. counseling is well suited to prevent or inter. Ultimately. a noticeable economic phenomenon has focused on specifying universal or etic and particular or taken place and evolved into what is being called "the world emic dimensions of such statements. And having done so. framed positively as bicultural identity (local ships and redress domestic violence. domestic ring. These efforts afford ing gap between rich and poor. it has been perceived as the source of dis- nize in this range of examples a familiar. lowing. an internationalization characterized by partner- tries. particularly among young people (Arnett. COUNSELING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DECEMBER 2006 HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Truth to the people of another nation. sev- worked and why in a multitude of locales around the globe. equality in international partnerships acknowledge the downsides of globalization as presently must be addressed forthrightly. alizing counseling is one that presents internationalizing erate travel quickly from domestic locales to international efforts as. from our perspective) likened to neocolonialism. not from a perspective that certain paradigms or mod- as quoted by Andrews. political and economic instability. most 20th century have diversified the population of most coun. worldwide uniformity. and wrenching "Collaboration should be structured as between equal part- change" (U. we propose internationalizing efforts which. This ships constructed in cooperation and solidarity that tran- information exchange and niigratory processes have brought scend the dichotomy of teaching/leading and learning/fol- cultures into even closer proximity and contact. and help those living with cultural homogenization. vant to its members and target clientele group" (Harper & eration in means of transportation and communication. To the seling profession is called upon to foster personal and fam. and a widen- make joint international efforts a must. and unemployment. as understood here. Finally. once again. important. solidarity. Monetary Fund and with consumerism. This is particularly the case when internationalizing the most difficult issues that transcend any given nation. assimilation (Bochner. eral scholars have raised significant concerns with the rush and they can also generate sufficient global power to redress toward it. 2006). 1999). ars begun to articulate the psychological consequences of vene with delinquent gangs. 2003. Nevertheless. The expres. As S. similar to the current market" and the globalization of the world economy. rapid The perspective we seek to advance here on internation- dissemination of information. and global chronic diseases. But even some of its most ardent proponents have begun to To accomplish this. 412). p. entertainment. appropriately respectful of the arenas. Events and the news they gen. realities-as-usual transformed by the ever-increasing. a dominant nation brings the so-called characterized by cooperation. in of counseling. is not in syncratic to their history and organizational power structures the best of interest of the counseling profession.S. 159). the coun. Instead. Although it would be Further. to foster intimacy and relation. the possibility of comparing and contrasting what has With respect to the internationalization of counseling. yet mantling local social networks and has generated much these are but a few of the challenges and opportunities that resistance and rejection in many of the nations it impacts. nor is inter. Leung (2003) put it. Deen. efforts can be Meanwhile. This attempts by the International Union of Psychological Sci- development has brought about a dramatic increase in eco. await those who are interested in international relations. Federal Reserve Chairperson Ben Bernanke ners. mutuality. globalization. and redress bullying and its consequences. (Pedersen. extent that globalization has been associated with the free- ily development and career Aspirations while coping with market initiatives of the World Bank and the International the challenges of social insecurity. disrupted livelihoods. at the very least. this sophistication . equality. And only recently have schol- Furthermore. In addition. individualism. facilitating the further exchange of information. human development ented professional identity that would be sensitive and rele- and social advancement seem to lag behind the rapid accel. and subemployment. including the USA. ients' benefit but ultimately for the perpetuation of its own The USA society and most world societies have seen their dominant status and the subjugation of the other nation. 2002). apparently for the recip- and openness to be transformed by the encounter. to facilitate schooling and global identity) and negatively as identity confusion. ought to sion that "the world has shrunk" indeed characterizes many develop "a culture-centered ethical statement or country-ori- people's felt experience. silly and wasteful to ignore the sophistication achieved by Globalization is being expressed in significant trends toward professional counseling in the USA. all nations. conducted: "lost jobs. Globalization has been associated with cultural disenfran- The commonalities of the challenges and opportunities chisement. 2003).

ethical codes. P Leung & Emener. an into a wide range of counseling domains and the counseling openness to be transformed by the encounter. The present globalization and international. eling partner. to the chagrin of many counseling professionals. Through international collaboration. in which both participants bring to the table Europe. consultation. 1999). can countries: "I am no longer the same. are now some languages. that cultures cross boundaries. ization forces demand that these definitions be understood in also have much in common. been more limited. but rather the con- "either throwing out American psychology or imposing it trary: Differences arise out of intercourse. p. who have facilitated the profession's international advance- and inspiration for the development of counselor training. professional development. (p. diversity across nations. or counseling per value-driven. in Spanish. and that even the seling (consejeria) does not have an easy. 2003.. As Frank (1961) initially articulated several decades among nations. cross-cultural refers to principles and explanations may not" (Bojuwoye. these developments indigenous psychologies. the word coun- mostly sure that there will always be several "cultures" to any state. licensure. view that we know best (as in knowing what is best for our. (Varenne. And. 2001. disciplinary understanding. this forces Spanish speakers to add qualifiers such as homogeneity. while diverse. O. Perhaps field became further professionalized via formal associa- Ernesto Guevara de la Serna said it best in The Motorcycle tions.. had mostly a school counseling and vocational orientation. Peter and beyond (p. Pierre Tap. specializations. According to Takooshian. readily available most "homogenous" of populations contain significant dif." most significantly psychology and education. ment. We Guatemala. Varenne (2003) eloquently warned us that itating collective. 409-410) universally" is not the answer (Pedersen." developments of the discipline took place in Europe and the Therefore. healing practices throughout the world. By most selves and also for our international partners) while the other accounts. The dichotomy of intercourse between them that follows. translation that conveys the breadth and depth of the profes- ferences that are obscured by attempts to maintain this sion. experts themselves are seling programs have been developed in Argentina. integration. at their best when they are capable of building mutuality. They include Andres Bodas. cation of the "nations" and the "cultures" that they appear to commonalities and differences in the myriad of healing embody. Jean Guichard. making them equally significant. 2003. logical counseling {consejeria psicologica). p. 2003. 2003. psychology is really an indigenous psychology. yet humbling. to the diversity within one nation. and Anthony to approach an international partnership from the point of Watts. It requires a profound. Ivey. Hans Hoxter. Nonetheless. being articulated as guidance. fully recognize the value-driven nature of these affirmations there is not yet a consensus as to whether counseling is and posit that all international efforts are. ago. and Venezuela. Mexico.. among many other scholars. 410) professional counseling {consejeria profesional) or psycho- Takooshian (2003) described a "diversity within diversi. ties" by distinguishing multicultural from cross-cultural and The internationalizing efforts in counseling have brought international. ters is precisely what makes internationalization worth all and research in Latin America as conceived in the USA is the effort. all international collaborations are between USA during the first half of the 1900s. subsumed under a range of disciplines.S. Internationalizing efforts can their continuity rather than as discrete clusters of certain type advance counseling and foster human development by facil- of exchanges. counseling in the USA expanded a tolerant and respectful attitude and. Bojuwoye. and recognized Diaries. when he voiced to Alberto Granado. And though significant. among many others (see Harper & Deen. 148). mentation of counselor training. Nevertheless. before they parted ways after an international Counseling developments in other parts of the world have odyssey that had taken them through several South Ameri. accreditation. It is not different nations that come first. 397). counseling has been described as a young disci- does not. Herr. inescapably. "the internationalization of counseling and the key professionals United States has been a source of information. p. coun- that even under expert arrangements.should not be equated with superiority. "U. just like all human services. During this time. "international" could prove dangerous if it leads to the reifi- and synergy while affirming universals and particulars. the word counseling itself is not broadly COUNSELING AND INTERNATIONALIZATION known in many parts of the world and has no translation in Anthropologists. orientation. For example. . Nathan counseling services. Panama. 2003. most important. and counseling associations in Europe" Deen. and international refers to diversity 31). as Leong and Ponterotto (2003) remind pline. multicultural refers increased appreciation that "although concepts may differ. se outside the USA. Ultimately. his fellow trav. even simultaneous. and the practices around the globe. The instru- This opportunity to be changed by international encoun. Agnes Watanabe-Muraoka. early us. recognition relatively recent. Several scholars have written about the history of the As Harper and Deen (2003) have acknowledged. Lothar Martin. it would be preposterous Plant. We believe that international partnerships have a chance The second half of the 1900s saw a marked development at succeeding when people frame their encounter as one of of the counseling profession in the USA but not so much in mutual benefit.

and Fouad INTERNATIONALIZATION and Arredondo's (2007) insight that we gain a better under- The four dimensions discussed next illustrate a few standing of our own cultural competence through continu- aspects of what is required to internationalize counseling ous assessment. Traveling overseas others do not. Such examination and assessment has to be and the value of this undertaking. the erful catalyst for this interpersonal construction of the self. Lynch (2002) stated. 412). rubbing noses. and educational dimensions of the host international endeavors? Among the relevant matters when country. "when inward jour. its people. such contacts demand of visitors a sustained willing. ent countries (and even within the same country!): nodding ciated with the challenges of the international encounter but the head. cultural. beliefs. we must fine-tune it to provide better services. "What do from traveling abroad. We are reminded of the Jaluiri involve personal. tion are strongly encouraged to be prepared to face numer- tions. some people abroad distinguish between the overseas poli- terized by a curious discovery. values. window created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham (see Luft. bowing the torso. political. Leung. we people with whom we come into contact abroad. When participating in an international journey. professional. As superficial to make a difference with the parties involved. it should come as no surprise that we observed already (e. or three times. both the language of the host country. "It depends. 5). The international encounter can be a pow- As most counselor educators readily acknowledge. not alone. is the even more frequent attribution of wealth made by the mations (Kottler. p. ourselves struggling with an answer. better understanding of demographic. educational. and organiza. most international contacts are too brief and tural being. This "coping tact. stereotypes. 1999. much cultural mistrust overseas. "What is domestic atives or visitors. most important. These personal experiences are likely people in the USA think about its invasion of Iraq?" While to have left us with an indelible impression. Bochner. seling as a logical evolution and transformation of the cultural training. We are and. 1993). tional aspects of counseling and the counseling professional. We bring to the international encounter our education. 2003. more. And while USA-based counselors are likely to encounter neying goes hand in hand with outward journeys" (Moir.. people times disturbingly—make explicit our own implicit norms. one of us was asked. or violence like in the USA?" and shortly afterward. a tall order considering the difficulty of doing so a priori. Because we have framed the internationalization of coun. 2003. Further. who venture overseas tend to band together with compatriots such as appropriate interpersonal distance and human con- while continuing to speak their home language. and strong reactions. or cies and procedures of the USA government and its citizens. As we set foot on a foreign land. person of the counselor is his or her professional instrument. thanking or alternatively blaming us for may have been part of a formal education-abroad experi. have found it valuable to foster awareness of the self as a cul- Lykes. even a perturbing sense of difference. when feasible. positive and negative." Regardless. who are interested in international exposure and collabora- national vistas to explore their cultural self.g. This is continuity over time to yield a measurable impact. 2003). closely related motivational factors. and. his- How do we fine-tune ourselves to engage in and grow from torical. from immigrants in our home country. For example. As others have competency movement. in which under- standing of self must include relationships and views that The Person of the Counselor others have of us. in the most challenging of circumstances. own country. Simply think of what are customary greetings in differ- strategy" may temporarily relieve the stress and anxiety asso. perhaps charac. or a wish to "see the world. we join S. Leung's (2003) recommendation that we "confront our 'cultural encapsula- COUNSELING DIMENSIONS AND tion' by examining our own attitudes" (p. Counselors invite professional counselors who are contemplating inter. On a recent trip. particularly when engaging internationally. an unknown commonality. When preparing to go abroad. To be better prepared. and their cultures. . second. 2002. we experience deep. along with a commensurate understanding of our preparing for and building international relations are cul. These four dimensions done with others. S." many of us has come from encounters with foreign-born rel. and so on. peppered with questions about our nation and quickly find language proficiency. 99). international exposure will quickly—and at ness to transcend their comfort zones. 1969) as a tool for interpersonal awareness. personal transfor. become instant ambassadors of our home country. shaking hands. COUNSELING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DECEMBER 2006 International relations can be challenging. preconceptions and. policies. perhaps most disconcerting Bussy. social. beginning many of our The first direct exposure to international matters for answers with. "Awareness must both precede and International contacts of importance require intensity and accompany action in the international arena" (p. ultimately prevents visitors from engaging meaningfully kissing the cheeks once. their motiva. we may tural self-awareness. a forced relocation. with the host country. Fortunately. a long-anticipated family vacation. twice. actions ascribed or readily tied to the USA and its foreign ence. we seek a therefore. embrace the process of learning ous assumptions.

goals. who coined the term prox- and institutions. innovation. we invite you to be attentive to crucial details atically about the reasons that inform our international such as how greetings are extended. emerging opportunities. committee" (p. personal growth. on Spanish for teachers. how they show whether a person engages in a project as an individual or respect to elders. 327). From our experience. disposition. External motivators are likely to be related to demo. how. to become immersed in a different language. 42). productivity. reflecting on their successful. professional goals. nationality. and for energy essential for the project to move forward. channels and cities in the USA offer inexpensive opportunities Motivators can enable or become a barrier to a given pro. By working together. we recommend a classic on the tions have to be balanced against the demands of sponsors topic written by E. achieving a common goal might seem unrealistic other's professional life but also about our own cultures as unless it is accompanied by a commitment to communicate reflected in one another's eyes. But the personal characteristics of behavior. and political. & Rodrigues. Spanish. For example. we ought to assess how the values can help or hin. race. values related to individualism Corufia's postgraduate program in family interventions and and collectivism vary from culture to culture. einics. For an international partnership to succeed. der the promotion of wellness and human development many-faceted partnership between the Universidad de la internationally. or moral and social values. The leading internal forces might be self. the individual's motiva.amerispan. sta- dimensions of personal identity" (p. endeavor might help as well. language schools in other countries have been participated in various international projects. To 1996). communication. motivators rarely emanate Usually. The costs have been few and the delights many. mina. despair. 2005). symbols. For example. The how long eye contact is considered appropriate. mic backgrounds and diverse theoretical perspectives. communication involves language. Friedlahder. the USA have affordable language courses. Fouad and administrative. and on Spanish for social ognizing readiness. Many television tion and achievement standards. Furthermore. 2005). may differ depending on people can be without being impolite. ing when we are required to resort to our second language. Rec. International from one source and can be utilized to set priorities for the collaboration is most challenging and potentially most reward- initiative and personal investment in the project (Arredondo. Whether external or internal. advancement in tunately. levels of skepticism. Counselors participating in handled by a single individual in each program rather than a international vistas are likely to come from different acade. and Guzmdn (2002). styles. how they view emotional or physical pain. SUNY Albany's counseling program. AmeriSpan ancies in internal and external motivators can help us deal (www. motivation. Escudero Car- tiatives. how late sources of motivation. and those of colleagues who have Lately. competing factors. determination. and how they play a part in the collaborative be found at http://123teachme. second-language acquisition has not been a priority in one's professional career. charisma. and a sense introduce a myriad of verbal and nonverbal communication of being overwhelmed. Therefore. A directory of independent language schools can and/or mistrust. financial. in the professional. the personal is inextricably involved connected to motivators and to the development of new ini. we should ask ourselves system. acknowledged that cultural values must be understood within the context of creating their alliance has been "intensively personal. passion. If you are interested in investi- higher-education institution. however. stability. pursuit of the a second language will find that most community colleges in organization's mission. such as a funding agency or a and how pain is displayed. we have learned not only about each sequently. we must learn its language. how they show interest or need to be strongly motivated to infuse the passion and attention through listening behavior. educational and technologi- Arredondo (2007) noted that "interpersonal interactions cal roadblocks might lead to frustration. 42). motivators are developing immersion programs in the given language of interconnected with how clearly the has offered programs on medical with understandable resistance expressed as conflict. Unfor- graphic changes. trust workers. Therefore. represents an organization. Con. understand a culture better. the host country and also specialized programs geared and strategies are stated. ranza. shaped by gender. age and other participating individuals—leadership. or the USA or in the counseling profession (Fabian. 328) meaningfully while acknowledging cultural diversity. likely to provide the strength and endurance to move forward. and gestures are ity to solve problems as well as to state expectations—are highly culture-bound and unconsciously scripted" (p. In the context of international collaboration. the study of interpersonal distance. Acknowledging possible discrep. best each culture (Chung. (p. persistence. ject. personal interactions presents its own challenges. In light of this. And communication in the context of international inter. . Hence. gating these matters further. image. we people stand from each other. mission. For example. personal satisfac. T. creativity. abil- "communication patterns. As colleagues engaged in international collaborations Because personal and institutional values are strongly consistently rediscover. Mclnerney. Hall (1969). Those who are ready to acquire or further interest. toward a given profession. how close or how far engagement.

to enable students to participate in solu- tions to pressing global problems. it is imperative for international counselor educators. experiences. and international With respect to curriculum. Healy (1986) offered a logical continuum against Further. 2004) suggested four distinct efforts for successful Beyond traveling abroad for stated that "the changing world in which we now live 1997. when ing paragraphs we offer ways in which the efforts and the developing and implementing their curricular and instruc- tional exchanges. (2002. or at least not as erance of international activities to responsiveness to these intended. participating in international collaborations can dents. even with the visa complications that arose professionally. connect to our surroundings in entirely new ways. Curriculum development self-reliant precludes alternatives such as where the self is efforts to add sure and education.peacecorps. may not be readily understood elsewhere. and better communi. Part of this training should be to expose students to global mental health issues and challenges first hand. or even more integrated views that affirm both perspectives. counseling programs weigh bilingual abilities and relevant ening winds of cultural difference" (p. or World Bridges (www. As recruitment becomes successful. In addition. and methods to prepare students For the internationalization of counseling to become a and faculty for meeting the challenges of life in the global reality. 2005). lacy—that is. immigrants. it must involve counselor education and training community" (p. recruitment of international students. cation abroad program. ate a climate that celebrates and puts to good use the interna- formations and the need for mental health intervention at the tional interest. and the capacity of a given program to cre- Counselor training should focus on worldwide social trans. Encounters with those who have campus-wide international week. 2004). the LISA has continued to attract foreign stu- In sum. from undergradu. and challenges we after 9/11 (Altbach & Bassett. 2002). In addition. making it difficult for USA-trained 1. Faculty members are different worldviews. The lessons. to ultimately committing to them. the Peace Corps (www. For intended to enhance the skills of college graduates in a example. as tourists and as life learners. (p. Raising awareness and making connections professionals to be accepted abroad. Global Service Corps (www. traditions. check out Cross-Cultural Solutions (www. a curriculum 2. Lynch alerted us that endeavors. 6). crucial concepts learned in the USA curriculum which programs can benchmark themselves. A major obligation At the undergraduate level. organizational. there has been an increase in of the international educator is to avoid the category fal- education-abroad programs aimed at providing an interna. Student recruitment. spanning a tol.8 COUNSELING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DECEMBER 2006 International engagement does not have to be limited to the USA (Altbach. the mic institutions in other countries and the establishment of richness of those countries and their people can lead us to branch campuses abroad (Altbach. In the follow. Furthermore. Johnson.self. We grow Some counseling programs have given priority to the from what we learn and from whom we meet. Marsella and Pedersen (2004) level. 284) requires that counseling psychology alter its training curricu- lum assumptions. 91) . traveling experience in their admission criteria. content. individualism. Marsella (1998) believes that the ate to graduate studies and beyond. the unwarranted exportation of Western. 414). more motivated to while serving as onsite coordinators of their university edu- contribute to international endeavors. (Lee. hosting one third of the estimated 2 million interna- present a rewarding opportunity to grow personally. diversity. As Moir. Similarly. As we have seen a dramatic increase in collaboration with acade- travel to other countries. Johnson and Greiner (in bases of USA professional practice—namely. individual. the last two decades cators and facilitators in international partnerships. and to promote global culturalsolutions.cross global workforce. and students Bussy (2003) wisely According to Altbach (2002). opportunities to use our counseling global awareness and intercultural competencies are skills do not necessarily involve formal counseling. defining well-being in various cultures. our perception of "how the with international interests or perspectives. They also readily recognize that "this directly and must do so comprehensively. and perspectives allow us given the opportunity to reside in many countries for a year to become more culturally self-aware. not just tional students. to keep in mind the implicit ethics of continuum above can be materialized by training programs. or thought of as a collective . 29) servicecorps. men- tional perspective and cross-cultural skills to students from tal health constructs to other cultures. and wealth of its members. advising and support that overemphasizes the individual self as autonomous and 3. Many campuses in the face when taking the road less traveled can profoundly affect USA have an office of international programs and hold a how we view the world. the our professional persona. is no easy matter" (p. International field placements construed in peace and understanding. Similarly. the Counselor Education and Training faculty members. the challenges lie with the curriculum. and empiricism—may not resonate well with internationalization: people in other nations. societal. group. 413). some world should be" begins "to bend and blow under the fresh. p.

competencies and areas for growth. For example. ideally in a different language. and internationally (Lee. Furthermore. motivations and also with an accurate perspective of their Programs with an interest in their own internationaliza. Further. and ethical counselor. motivation. cultural diversity. As of now. significant transformations have immersed personally and professionally and also to acquire occurred in disparate areas such as "the nature of employment. 1997). embrace a commitment to social change that promotes ating a model that. the motivation tity" (Lee. spectives in all courses and acknowledgement of "the global www. who received Fulbright scholarships the purpose of comparing and contrasting them. social isolation. Marsella and Pedersen (2004) offered 50 concrete ways of may want to partake in formal and informal international internationalizing the professional curriculum. instead of empowering individuals. & McDavis. 282). rates of innovation and expanding technology. major changes in patterns of local. advance ways to lessen the impact of these social transforma- national program without a clear understanding of their tions on the lives of individuals and communities. p." among others (p. tive review of the cultural counseling competencies as a ref- 2005). ness. p. programs have to create opportunities for meaningful inter- national experiences. it will require individuals with the aware- specific area in which changes can make a sizable differ. students need much support to cope with women. too few graduate programs The Professional Counselor incorporate into their curriculum opportunities for full pro. students—and faculty For counselors and mental health professionals to members. Faculty members issues related to licensure. migration and refugees. found in the work of Ellen and Ben McWhirter (McWhirter tries other than the USA. 2004). Professional identity international scholars exchange program. educationally related areas. and actual needs of the recipients (Lynch. to teach. or an social and professional representation. in a Chilean community. Though well intended. There is the danger. social and community barriers that may generate distress or that faculty members from a "more developed" country will impede treatment access while being culturally skillful ver- export its intellectual goods to a "less developed" nation bally and nonverbally. as a result of pervasive mental selors are expected to translate their strategies to facilitate health needs but little access to educational resources adherence in clients' treatment and also to diminish the (McMinn & Voytenko. 284) permitted some of its students to do a semester-long intern- ship abroad. 1997. the Fulbright Scholar Program from matters pertaining to associations. regional. and 2/(4)). and skills to promote human development locally. issues related to ested in international work would benefit from a self-reflec- poverty and racism must be addressed in training (Casas. individually and institutionally with more or less (frequently less) concern for the values (Arredondo et al. and national iden- ness. 1992). conduct research. not only from a theoretical perspective but also as a erence point to enter the international arena with their best prospective advocate. 2006). the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES. This is perhaps the single most inlernationally. where they have had a chance to become Throughout the world. and train professionals In addition to recruiting internationally focused students. as we further international for desiring such engagement has to be explored and appre. For example. strives to "save" them. the University of Northern Colorado has tionships to address both contemporary and future global challenges. knowledge. for & McWhirter. and skills to establish collaborative rela- ence. departments and their awards scholarships for USA faculty or professionals to lec- mission statements and values. 1996. homesick. A concrete example of how to do this is to pair students about the program's impact on the counseling field (see The in a counseling ethics course with those in a similar course in Counseling Psychologist. we have the opportunity to ciated.. knowledge. the roles of men and Once overseas. important language skills and accrue teaching experience.cies. and advocacy are . If Ihe counseling profession is to continue having an impact fessional immersion abroad. eligibility requirements). for that matter—may fall into the trap of perpetu. Arredondo. professional counselors who are inter- more. critical thinker. 16{2). Several articles have been written 420). collaboration among counselors. to ture or conduct research abroad in psychology and other university campuses and their relationship with their immedi. And. and the like. An example of a different country and discuss similarities and differences. while working internationally. not expect that practicing overseas would have the same ment and retention of international faculty members. consult. tion may want to consider applying strategies similar to Professionals who have been practicing in the USA should those utilized in the recruitment of students to the recruit. they must have the awareness. as identified above. to extracurricular activities. empowerment. (Lee. Sue. provides descriptions of available awards and implications of course goals and materials. Therefore. nation- There is much reason to foster counseling training in ally. This program is administered by ate surroundings and beyond to the infusion of global per. and differences in cultural practices. Professional coun- many developing countries. Or international collaboration supported by this program can be to require students to identify counseling ethic codes in coun. These range opportunities. 1997. ethical standards. Some students might want to participate in an inter. 2002).

She also has worked do not have the same resources and know-how while abroad. activities and partic- may want to consider attending an international conference ipation. They describe body functions and structures. it was not in this particular the content of psychology counseling and is working as a traditional healer. http://www3. Since an individual's functioning of one of the organizations detailed later in the article. environmental factors. M. a classification of health and health-related domains that tional vistas will find a smorgasbord of possibilities. individual and societal perspectives. "it is erroneous to make the assumption that relationship of community psychology with post-war narra- what works at home" will work in an international arena tives (Lykes. Although this endeavor have been raised in regard to free access to data roofing material may have been appropriate in other regions and the journal articles or publications that were made pos- of Guatemala. People sible by grants funded by federal and state agencies. Another example of international collaboration is the Lcttin est to become familiar with pertinent literature published American Guide for Psychiatric Diagnosis (Berganza. ICF is Counseling professionals who are interested in interna. and the Rede Brasileira de Nuances in the provision of services while abroad also Bibliotecas da Area de Psicologia to create the Bihlioteca necessitate consulting cultural brokers to help us understand Virtual de Salud-Psicologia (Virtual Library on Health- these nuances and facilitate the counseling process. the Universidade de Sao Paulo. in which individuals and vant example of the possibilities brought about by interna- aid organizations fail to conduct a relevant needs assessment. (Chung. McWhirter among professional counselors are the limited access to and has studied the cultural factors that have influenced domes- mastery of technology. nal articles readily accessible and available free of charge zation that replaced many modest homes in Guatemala with via the Internet. ICF also includes a list of may want to subscribe to a journal published in a faces journals published in Latin America. And many countries have not sultation.htm). relations and collaboration can be found in efforts of the erature and guidelines in the USA emphasize the need to World Health Organization to develop the International counsel people in their native language.bvs-psi. The domains are classified from body. of Mayan children and women with PTSD following the ate and access systems in their home country. Of the many facets of This failure results in "assistance" that a given community open access. tional relations and collaboration. 1999). 2005. An slept outside their houses because the heat the metal roofs example in Latin America is the effort by the Brazilian Con- generated inside was simply unbearable (M. they may want to publish the fruits of their enacted professional measures such as licensure. issues of dual roles daily. A frequent error committed abroad The movement currently known as open access is a rele- has been termed asistencialismo. the ICF activity according to their cultural practices. Even though counselors know how to negoti. Based on its website portrayal. 2002) available from the World Psychiatric . 2003).int/icd/currentversion/ because their native language is not used for this type of fr-icd. personal communication. Disability and Health (ICF) possible or appropriate in another country. The strongest arguments in favor of this new homes having shiny new metal roofs. Juanita states that (http://www3. December 2. Paula T. shared endeavors in the very journal to which the interested While practicing overseas. region. Blanche. They may want to con- duct literature searches on a topic or country of their inter. & Jorge.264). The initial contact may countries in Latin America have not adopted ethical codes to lead to future exchanges. 2005). or that is simply inappropriate.who. rently version 10. cur- counsel in Spanish.A. this is not always Classification of Functioning. & Hamber. which is not their native language. generally they civil war in Guatemala (Lykes. Psychology. overseas and also perhaps to correspond with some of the Mezzich. or language of their While lit. In time. p.10 COUNSELING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DECEMBER 2006 experienced differently in most countries. an indigenous woman from Central America who studies free of charge and in full text. They and disability occurs in a context. the Instituto de Psicologia of Tzaquitzal. professional counselors are professional now subscribes. which makes available. Brinton Lykes communication. which are impossible to avoid but Another example that captures the power of international are the givens of her social and contextual reality. describes how people live with their health condition. which comple- even if she counsels another indigenous woman from her ments the well established International Statistical Classifi- ethnic group who speaks her same native language. with Guatemalan and South African communities and the Furthermore. Hernandez selho Federal de Psicologia. The scientific and professional literature contains many Examples of roadblocks to international collaboration examples of international endeavors. 1994). the intermittent access to global tic violence in Chile (McWhirter. For example. Juanita. and the infrequent availability of resources has developed mental health projects to facilitate the healing and libraries. We is that one that seeks to make scientific and scholarly jour- are reminded of a housing project by an international organi. perhaps the most relevant to the present article does not wish nor need. collaboration. they cation of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD. some authors identified in those searches.cfiTi). likely to encounter significant roadblocks and challenges.who. or reciprocal con- guide some of their professions. www.

we have found it helpful not to oversched- ule ourselves upon our return and to reach out to experi." which featured articles from China. The GLDP—its ily Counselors (lAMFC) maintains an International Develop- acronym in Spanish—honors specific cultural and contex. EB-ACA and the British Association for ACA (www. and psychiatric nosology. rated the word international in their title. ment Committee. an international focus. and they do so in a comprehensive manner. Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development enced colleagues for support and understanding. released a special issue in September 2005 entitled lectually. In addition to bilingual programming in . In addi- many societies in the world and to which counseling has tion. To whatever "Global Perspectives on Vocational and future of counseling ser- and learning institutes and publishes a quarterly newsletter. two have incorpo. Fiji. Italy. under the leadership of Canada. as a free download (www. The International Association of Marriage and Fam- wpanet. its intensity can be disconcerting. "Counseling Around what is being done in other countries about this pervasive the World.wpanet. and South Korea (Gerstein & /Egisd6ttir. Counseling and Psychotherapy. a monthly newspaper torical and current international efforts and in identifying distributed to all its members. though it has mostly A range of counseling and psychological organizations addressed the needs of international students in the USA.php). ACA has a standing International Committee. 2005). The January 2006 issue opportunities for networking. and counseling in Latin divisions. Professional counselors engaged in international activi. now at an international level. another division within the keep their moorings while documenting their own process. plans to feature international articles describing the working in Europe.ncda. Turkey. current status. the Association for Coun- tions. Needless to say. (IAAOC). (AMCD) AMCD publishes the Journal of Multicultural Counseling Counseling Organizations and Publications and Development (JMCD). As detailed earlier. selor Education and Supervision (ACES). a division of ACA. a special section in July 2005 entitled as extensive as the pressing needs of our humanity. JMCD has pub- With an International Focus lished articles with an international focus. From time to time. lishes the Journal of Mental Health Counseling.counseling. While one may anticipate such experience intel- below). EB-ACA organizes an annual conference development. Among the 19 divisions within ACA. and Ukraine. Patricia Arredondo. ple articles.ccacc. a division within ACA. much to offer. and leadership in focused on counseling around the world and featured multi- areas of their interest." extent possible. Counselors (AMHCA) are particularly skillful in addressing such challenging social phenomena. In 1990 the Public ACA co-hosted its first international convention together Offender Counselor Association (POCA) became the In in national Association of Addictions and Offender Counselors Montreal. with the Canadian Counseling Association (www. It maintains a European branch America. ACA publishes Counseling Today. As a continuation relevant matters is as lengthy as anybody's imagination and to the special issue. delinquent gangs of youths are American Mental Health Counselors Association found in most inner cities throughout the world. and publications have advanced an international agenda. the list of possible topics or India. pub- ing forces with many other disciplines. NCDA publishes the journal Career Develop- experiencing cultural shock upon returning to your country ment Quarterly. We remind you of the likelihood of development. Another "Counseling Outside of the United States: Looking in and example is the participation in disaster-response teams that Reaching out!" featured articles from Brazil. in cooperation with lAEVG (see of origin. JMHC ran sionals in the USA may be interested in learning firsthand a special issue in April 2005 entitled. The section on Trends in the Jour- referred to as EB-ACA (www. Israel. among others. including the counseling profession in 27 coun- tries. The following inventory is by no means exhaustive but ACA Publications. phenomenon. AMHCA (www. Italy. travel abroad offering their counseling expertise on trauma. For example. the experiences of professional counselors in Russia American Counseling Association (ACA) and Vietnam. For example. Some divisions have interest networks with tual dimensions in the diagnostic processes. and Task Force should aid readers in gaining a sense of the breadth of his. 11 Association (www. has a standing International Committee that is con- This strategy may be helpful over time to benchmark our cerned with international policies and practices in career process and progress. case formula. Ghana. nal of Counseling and Development (the flagship journal of htm) whose purpose is to support counselors living and ACA). there are some matters that cut across has an Interest Network on International Conventions. vices in another is structured into branches. scholarship. Counseling profes. and regions. Taiwan. National Career Development Association (NCDA) ties may find it helpful to engage in journaling as a way to NCDA (www. ACA.

The Task Force was charged guidance practitioners (2003). ments pertaining to standards of counselor qualifications While president of ACA (2005-06). the NBCC international fellows. Dr. the IAC held its first counselors. Educational and Vocational Guidance (formerly the Educa- possible translations of the words counseling and counselor tional and Vocational Guidance Bulletin). its three official languages—French. As of this writing. and IJEVG sets a limit of no more than 10% of its articles in lan- Venezuela. and some of the few ship development programs: the International Vanguard of authors who submit articles in French or German elect to Counsellors (IVC). career development. IAEVG has not held its annual The Task Force's final report included information on coun. most recently in Bris- International Association for Educational and bane. August 26. Behavior: A Resource for Counsellors. or in the title of a journal. the university 15-member executive council. Inc. as the name of an organization that spells nal are conceptual. and resources for professionals providing ser. selling (IRTAC). NBCC-I presently IJEVG accepts for review manuscripts written in any of is working to establish divisions in Great Britain. & Affiliates (NBCC) created NBCC International as a regional surveys.) or contribute to topics of broad inter- division of NBCC to strengthen the counseling profession national interest (e. three or four times a year. in its masthead. In 2003. public aware- ness. In cooperation in how counseling is practiced around the world and in ad. I are quality assurance. one of her presidential initiatives was a countries. in 2007. and in Buenos Aires. 2005). English. and German. as stated into Spanish. IJEVG published a special issue on inter- vancing the professionalization of counseling. an international focus is the International Association for CIR is a one-year residency program designed to familiarize Counselling (www. practical or research contributions pro- it that way. seling perspectives in Argentina. international conference in the USA. IAEVG organizes an annual with identifying counseling programs and associations in international conference. the IAC is an international nongovernmen- In addition. with NCDA-CDg. and the USA. 2006). and a publication entitled Preveiiting Suicidal international meeting in Neuchatel. guages other than English per year. Switzerland. ethical issues.iac-irtac. it has published important docu- special section of the program delivered entirely in Queensland. IVC.g. in conjunction with affirming the interdisciplinary nature of these services. Romania.. The meetings have continued yearly. articles in relation to work and leisure. career counselling and guidance and career education. in working with Spanish-speaking populations in the USA. effectiveness in guidance and counseling services ated the Task Force to Explore Opportunities for ACA in (2001). Italy. the IJAC promotes the exchange of information about counselling ' We have preserved the spelling of counselling and counsellor where the activities throughout the world. etc. Australia.12 English and French. prehensive umbrella organization with members from 60 According to its website description. ment of Counselling since 1978. comparative studies. Over the years. the World Health Organization. National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) which have preferably either an international content (e. and a range of publications. the IAC Vocational Guidance (lAEVG) has published the International Journal for the Advance- The IAEVG (www. theoretical developments. and competencies for educational and vocational Latin America (Consoli.iaevg. NBCC-I administers three leader. and the translate their articles into English once they are accepted international counselor-in-residence (CIR). is a com. Arredondo cre. The IAC aims to further the twinning. IAEVG publishes a journal. NBCC-I has programs in the making. Malawi. the National Board for Certified Counselors. Papers published in the jour- word appears in a direct quote. in 1966. Switzerland. The foci of NBCC- interest can be included. Japan. professionalism. (1999).). In contains vices in Spanish to Latinos/as in the USA. Argentina. per- IVC is a web-based coalition for professionals interested sonal communication. has sponsored a fellows International Association for Counselling (IAC) program recognizing selected international students who One of the best known organizations in counseling with have the potential to become leaders in the counseling field.nbccinternational. The latter include an understanding and practice of counseling and guidance while international counseling dictionary and. Turkey. Formerly known as the counselors from outside the USA with counselor-credential- International Round Table for the Advancement of Coun- ing mechanisms in the USA and elsewhere. and credentialing. a mental health atlas for Founded by Hans Zacharias Hoxter. founded in 1951. Mexico. NBCC-I and national matters related to career counseling in 2005. such as tal organization registered in Belgium and governed by its the mental health facilitator certification. cultural sensitivity. viding an international perspective on the following areas: . Upcoming meetings will be in Latin America and compiling materials to benefit those Padova. which. in conjunction with ACES.g. In addition. in 2006. the International Journal for counseling programs and associations in Latin America. Mexico. Important national developments of wider worldwide (www. editor of IJEVG. multi.or cross-cultural perspectives. etc.' for publication (Raoul Van Esbroeck.

publications. Argentina (www. international activities. Goh. Much of the effort behind these congresses is attributable to • The African Counselling Association (AfCA) (also the University of Scranton in Pennsylvania.esaca. develop counseling theory and practice Guatemala. interdisciplinary audience and wel. sion. and the second on counseling at the national and European Union lev. state of the art reports on guid. This Congress has celebrated sion. counsellor comes submissions dealing with diverse theoretical education and supervision. 13 theories and models of guidance and counselling. Further International Counseling Efforts Surprisingly. The EAC has set as one of its goals to develop the Buenos Aires. This program was developed in collaboration that is appropriate for the African context. with faculty from different higher education institutions in ing relationships with counseling organizations both in the USA and South America who contributed their teaching. we refer interested readers to federations in sellors of Asia (APECA-Asia) (www. counselor education and counselor supervi. European Counselling seeks to increase ties are afforded by sister organizations such as those self- the quality and effectiveness of counseling in its identified with psychology rather than counseling per se. region of influence. endeavors. Skovholt. accomplishments. one in Venezuela in 2005. information conduit about psychology around the world. Social Workers (IFSW) (www. Another effort is the master's program in psychological selors and counselor educators with an interest in to ensure official recognition of the profes. and the Uni- referred to as the African Counselling Network or versidad Iberoamericana in Mexico. objectives of AfCA are to establish a network of coun. In addition to counseling organizations. addressed matters ranging from poverty to professional coun- ested in the advancement of counseling in Africa.apa. programs. USA.hkpca. counseling and mental health at the Universidad del Valle de seling in Africa. and Thomas • The European Association for Counselling (EAC) detail the tions. and lessons learned by (www. and to form partnerships in policy development two meetings. special applications. fession. venues. (see below). ESACA is hosted by the Kenya Although it is beyond the scope of this article to address sis- Association of Professional publishes the Asian American Psychological Association (APA) Journal of Counselling twice yearly.apa.tandf. and outside of Africa. briefly has an Office of International • Another journal that publishes articles on counseling Affairs (www. International Efforts in Psychology tating access to counseling information on HIV/AIDS. A non-periodical publica- ACN) (www. The APA (www. IJAC requires all submissions to be in English A number of academic institutions have sought to and publishes all of its articles in English only (http:// advance an international perspective in the counseling pro- www. and serves as an to an international. and recognize the achievement of African coun- selors. and counselling services in developing countries. APA's participation and representation in international nal of Guidance and Counselling. opment. disseminate information on advising. and opportuni- ation (ESACA) (www. These Psychology of the College of Education and Human Devel- are outlined briefly as related disciplines such as the International Federation of was founded in 1976 and holds a biennial describes as its mission to assist the the people involved in the MICI (2005). geocities. form work. ter organizations other than those in psychology described • The Association of Psychological and Educational 122a) is a group of tion entitled Selected Topics in Professional Counseling has individuals from Africa and worldwide who are inter. The third is planned for 2007 in els. It • The Hong Kong Professional Counselling Association (HKPCA) (ww. started in 1989 and convened With an International Focus biennially ever since that time by faculty members in the University of Minnesota's Counseling and Student Person- A number of additional counseling organizations with an nel Psychology Program. and consulting to train professionals counseling.ifsw. Romano. in the Department of Educational international focus are found throughout the BJGC "is addressed. which coordinates the matters beyond its national borders is the British Jour. mentoring. special popula- around the world" ( orientations from practitioners and researchers from ance and counselling in specific settings. promotes international exchanges. american Counseling Congress. further development of counseling as a profession in Another effort is the development of the biennial Inter- Europe. and • The Eastern and Southern Africa Counselling Associ.iac-irtac. Hansen. the first one in Mexico in 2003. The seling identity to mental health prevention programs. An important focus of AfCA has been on facili. One such effort is the Minnesota International Additional Counseling Organizations Counseling Institute (MICI).

& Luna. known by its and behavior of individuals and how individual thought and acronym in Spanish. the International Congress of Applied Psychology every 4 years. The APA has published the Revista Interamericana de Psicologia has a standing committee. which contained five articles four issues per year. 2002) that entries in a lan- have been victims or perpetrators of human rights abuses. The journal has been published since 1951. IAAP hosts contacts in more than 70 countries. and on cultural differences in attribution in International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology Western Samoa. now PsycINFO) had declined from Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychol. Applied Psychology: An Inter- Forum" (Pedersen & Leong. with articles that examine the effects of Fretz. ment of knowledge in psychology. others. which This is perhaps the only international journal that accepts fosters the development of international psychology as a sci. In addition. Australia. which recognizes extra- ordinary humanitarian services and activism by psycholo. guage other than English in a well established electronic The APA grants yearly the Award for the Distinguished database (PsycLIT. SIP Congress of Psychology took place in 1889. in 2006. Germany. publishes The Counseling Psychologist (TCP). and In addition. Division 17.14 COUNSELING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DECEMBER 2006 publishes the newsletter Psychology International. name International Association of Psychotechnology and tionalpsychology. founded in 1944. considered the oldest international primarily in the field with underserved populations. Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP) specifically the ways in which culture affects the thinking The Interamerican Society of Psychology. Portuguese. Psicologia). CIRP has played an larly noteworthy in light of the finding by Adair and collab- important role in formally protesting when psychologists orators (Adair. IAAP also has published an Encyclope- focusing on counseling psychology in China and Israel. The member- . and French. American Samoa.iaccp. and publishes articles in any of its four official languages: ence and profession and advises APA governance about Spanish. The International Association of Applied Psychology gists. and public interest. and has the science and practice of applied psychology and facili- several standing committees that address immigration/ tates interaction and communication about applied psychol- refugee issues. founded in 1972. 2004) and is plan- perfectionism in India. the Committee on International since 1967. IACCP sponsors Division 12: Clinical the biennial International Congress of Cross-Cultural Psy- Division 13: Consulting chology. and the USA. with Leong & Blustein. Greece. chology. trauma/disaster. seeks to fa- that have sustained sizable international efforts over time: cilitate communication among people who are interested in Division 9: Social Issues the intersection of culture and psychology. changed to its current designation in 1955. was founded in 1951 and is the longest running Interamerican society in psychology (www. The 2006 Congress was held in Athens. 2000). with a current frequency of three issues per year. in 2008. The Society of Counseling Psy- the 2010 Congress in Melbourne. TCP published a special issue entitled different national and cultural contexts on psychological "Toward a Global Vision of Counseling Psychology" (F.interna. SIP (for Sociedad Interamericana de behavior define and reflect aspects of For example. which contains a special section entitled "International IAAP publishes a journal. South Africa. started Division 48: Peace in 1970 and issued six times a year. among ogy around the world. addresses the interrela- tionships between culture and psychological processes. Greece. It International Union of Psychological Science (lUPsyS) organizes a biennial congress. English. PsyS) was founded in the Interamerican Congress The International Union of Psychological Science (lU of Psychology. IAAP is structured into 16 divisions. The journal. 12%-14% in the 1980s to 6% in the 1990s. SIP ogy to individuals who have made sustained and enduring has published three consecutive volumes on the training of contributions to international cooperation and the publishes the International Psychol. Relations in Psychology (CIRP). it is scheduled Division 14: Industrial-Organizational to be held in Bremen. on dia of Applied Psychology (Spielberger. started in 1988 by Bruce national Review. was founded in 1920 under the The Division of International Psychology (www. psychologists in the Americas. on training psychology students in ning to publish a Handbook of Applied Psychology. Hosted in Spetses. although the first International ico in July 2007 and the XXXII Congress in Guatemala. organization in psychology. Coelho. www. IAAP promotes ogy Bulletin. The XXXI Congress will take place in Mex. IACCP publishes Division 16: School (see below) the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. This is particu- international matters. including professional and volunteer work conducted (IAAP. The International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychol- Takooshian (2003) noted other divisions within the APA ogy (IACCP) (www. The APA also grants the International Association of Applied Psychology (lAAP) International Humanitarian Award.sipsych. the official newsletter of Division 52.iaapsy. Most noticeably. 1997). It maintains a liaisons-international network with including Division 16: Counseling Psychology.

am.html). founded in 1972. Maria del Pilar Grazioso relates her tions With an International Focus experiences as a Guatemalan professional who earned a mas- Several more psychological and multidisciplinary organi. sal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists Another multidisciplinary organization is the Society for (www. with six issues per the purpose of ISTSS is to share informa- and the 2012 meeting will be in It publishes the journal Cross-Cultural Research. The International Congress of Psychology A multidisciplinary organization is the International Soci- meets every 4 years. daughter of Guatemalan immigrants to the outgrowth of the International School Psychology Committee USA. an international compilation of human-subject ploration of Psychotherapy Integration (http://cyberpsych. IUPsyS has 70 national mem.sccr. to encourage the use of school practice as a mental health professional. Additional Psychological and Multidisciplinary Organiza. Of note. The third account is by ogy (ISPA) (www. lUPsyS publishes the Psychology: lUPsyS Global org). to promote communication among professionals I was born and grew up in iupsys/arts/arts-home. founded in 1982 as an Marisela Lopez. jumped on a bus for a 36-hour ride to Sampa (Sao Paulo) for to help children and families. Students' Organization (IPSO) (www. and is a doctoral candidate at the Univer- chology is the International Association of School Psychol. in the Master's Program in Counseling Psychology and Men- tal Health at the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (UVG). jing. research protections. and the recently founded International Psychology Meeting Calendar (www. invites an exchange of opin. South Africa. This is a yearly publication to check out the Society for Psychotherapy Research since 2000.efpsa. Stress since 1988. the 2008 meeting will be in Berlin. ISPA has published School Psychology International since bers. As of 2005. My interest in inter- psychologists in countries where they currently are not being national issues began early. These intensive workshops provide training nent reflections with internationalizing Both of these organizations are international and tional psychology. Eight ally trained immigrant from Argentina who settled in Cali- ARTS have been convened since 1992. ISPA has an Interest a month-long visit with a Brazilian family 1 had met earlier . a few recent reprints from UP. ety for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) (www. to promote the psychological rights of children all over over by Italian immigrant great-grandparents. dents' Associations (EFPSA) (www. containing abstracts from several international (www. IACCP. ship with the National Association of School org). IUPsyS. We offer readers some of our own experiences and perti- and lAAP. and sev. An International Project in the Making chological principles within the context of education all over Andres Consoli the world. A section of Also within psychology are international student organi- UP. licenciatura degree in clinical psychology and began my dren in the world's schools. ter's degree in the USA. Advanced Research and Training Seminars (ARTS) The Advanced Research and Training Seminars (ARTS) INTERNATIONALIZING EFFORTS: ( Germany. Argentina. currently six times a year. sidad de San Luis. alternate conferences in the USA and or the Society for the Ex- congresses. in an extended family presided used. and to initiate and promote cooperation with other fondly and intriguingly of their home country. the International Platform.html) is a fruitful PERSONAL ACCOUNTS international collaboration among the APA. An example in psy. and includes the International in 1987. lUPsyS has published the tnternational Journal of 1982 and does so currently five times a year Psychology since 1966. Program at UVG. various countries. Cross-Cultural Research (SCCR) (www.psychotherapyresearch. disseminates international zations such as the European Federation of Psychology Stu- news concerning psychology. At age 14 I organizations working for purposes similar to those of ISPA. The first opportunities for scholars from low-income countries and account is of Andres Consoli's experiences as a profession- promote their attendance at international where 1 earned a who are committed to improving the mental health of chil. eral databases. In the second account. established ions on psychological topics. ISTSS holds an international One important endeavor currently undertaken by an ad hoc meeting annually and has published the Journal ofTraumatic joint committee of lUPsyS is the development of a Univer. reviews of books relevant to interna.istss. tion about the effects of trauma.html). currently coordinates the Master's zations maintain an international focus. who spoke the world.ispaweb. who was born and raised in the USA and now is living of the APA's Division 16: School Psychology and in partner. reaching close to fornia more than two decades ago and is a visiting professor 200 professionals from more than 50 countries.psychologystudents. in Guatemala and attending the master's program at org/sepi/). Founded in 1985. The aims of ISPA are to promote the use of sound psy. China. The 2004 ICP was celebrated in Bei. 15 ship consists of organizations representing psychology in Group named the International Crisis Response Network. Those who are interested in psychotherapy may want Resources in CDRom format.

served as a personal atten. versity celebrated my cultural being and shared their own ences that opened my eyes to alternative ways of construct. non-exclusive ways of years. and landscape stands out." those of a professional trained in ceived in Brazilian society with respect to physical appear. relating. who supported my striving toward a disserta. and the Esalen Institute (Big Sur) transformed by the experience in ways that words cannot in California. where I received a scholarship to the universal nature of our human plight and human resilience train at Fountain House. I who I am as a person.16 COUNSELING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DECEMBER 2006 in the year while vacationing in Bariloche. This sense of duty along with my joy de vivre to embark on a trip of discovery. From there I hitchhiked to Washington. Perhaps most During the last two decades I have strived to bring liberating to me was the broad latitude of acceptance I per. and what I call "joy de vivre." message of embracing the beauty of the diversity in people. While offered me the opportunity to reflect on how I became an I appreciated the emphasis on relatedness and social engage. no narrow bridge to dis- He presently maintains a productive research agenda on covery. My discovery of how much a part of ment that my culture of origin had impressed upon me. On Becoming an International Person: where the well-documented phenomenon of reentry culture A Dance of Interconnectedness shock omnisciently awaited me! Maria del Pilar Grazioso These international experiences made me equally humble The invitation to contribute to the writing of this article and proud of my cultural upbringing and nationality. as my great-grandparents did more than offer in redressing human suffering and fostering human 100 years before me." challenges to agonize over. with the licenciatura degree. ance. when growing has involved "growing pains. international person. Reasons of the heart brought me back to the USA in friends. ing meaning. with me in profoundly inspiring Even though 1 consider 1987. With Jeana Dressel and Jane Carlisle from UCSB's Counseling this family I immersed myself in a different language and and Career Services and C. our home was always open to friends from around dant to people with physical disabilities. as a professional has also recognized the indelible mark of having grown up in a to do with my international being has been enlightening. Also. a self-help program for those recov. lescence. Hector Fernandez Alvarez. we have many accomplishments to celebrate and traveling—inwardly and outwardly. International engagements have made me a better Georgia. bilingual abilities were most appreciated." tices. By military dictatorship with traditional gender roles and preju. even dicial attitudes born out of discriminatory religious prac. DC. Argentina. Then I traveled to Europe for 6 months. particularly Guatemala. I left Argentina and my comfort zone strengths. With each venture was there that I felt that my international experiences and my worldview was enhanced through what I received. the world who came to visit and with whom we communi- gual counselor in a family services agency. and by When I graduated as a teacher and then as a psychologist Larry Beutler. and ultimately living. My teenage awkwardness with my body was lifted by based on my liberation theology upbringing) contribute a celebration of the body. engaging in international encounters. while training at a drug and alcohol rehabilitation counselor educator and an even more committed citizen of the facility. I admired people walking in the cities. and created by connecting with others. I have been San Jose. Professionally. I was born in Ecuador and lived there moving to the USA. it was analogous to a trip tion and also took the risk with me of "going international. After 4 memorable sentence: "There are two. San Francisco. South America and North America who can (actually must. as As I retrace the memories of my early life.fountainhouse. I felt "grown up. as a sister. followed by a month-long stay in Clayton. particularly by observed. and Americas. I viewed myself then. as an educator. worked as a bilin. I practiced as a residential counselor in during my first years. I had the opportunity to travel as a tourist and also chology at the University of California. parents. and continue to do so today. after myself Guatemalan. together my "life gifts. It as a student. Barr Taylor from Stanford Uni- experienced firsthand significant familial and cultural differ. exchanging in the . and back to Argentina. describe. Upon returning to Guatemala with my a group home for autistic adults." ment me on my courage to engage internationally." meaningfully to advancing a discipline that has much to A decade later. and as a friend. Santa Barbara. My travels took me to the USA for a year with stints in One thing is clear: I am no longer the same. returning home. and eventually cated periodically." abroad: The world has no frontiers. who never missed an opportunity to compli. while reaffirming the importance of local solutions. Throughout my early childhood and ado- completed master's and doctoral degrees in counseling psy. And it has stoked in me a profound conviction of then on to New York City. my parents' a "recovering prejudist. aspirations led me to respond enthusiastically to Marfa del my therapist at that time and lifelong mentor. wished me Pilar Grazioso's invitation to collaborate in advancing coun- well with a gift of a copy of Cesare Pavese's diary and a seling in Central America. Upon Don Atkinson. Enjoy them both. ering from mental illness (www. where I have resided ever since. I have grown. The boundaries of geographical frontiers melted as international collaboration in psychotherapy research.

Bemak. Dr. needs increased. academic developmental and emotional disabilities. have participated actively. gram in Counseling Psychology at the Universidad del Valle chology and Mental Health at the Universidad del Valle de de Guatemala have shared what they valued the most about Guatemala (UVG)—one as consultant. High expectations/demands in terms of academic ity in 2001 led to the conceptualization of this project and achievement the motivation to pursue a possibility for training in coun. Dr. Their ability to share up-to-date information program director. In 2003. which led to this program. UVG's rector." with faculty members who already had further enabled me to observe and admire through their established joint counseling programs between USA and lenses their growth in an endless journey to amusement. disparity. began the academic year by reminding us how much cultural This article is as an example of fruitful. visiting university web pages. graduates from the international Master's Pro- and developing the Master's Program in Counseling Psy. in building Recently. from accrediting institutions. This collaborative and constructivist program. The three authors commitment toward social development. ing. and at the same in research in counseling and psychotherapy. working for 5 years at the Meyer Center for Devel. students and the country which continues to grow and evolve. 6. academic activities. they were present here and now. the program recently graduated its communication among academic and professional organiza. the master's program was geared toward according to international writing standards. 5. translated the AMCD's 2003 . first cohort of six mental health counselors. I was privileged to develop strong friendships conference that set the framework for an integrative and to have been mentored by outstanding professionals approach in counseling and psychotherapy. counseling educa- Houston. and continue to do so. firsthand the life experience of immigrants. and graduate 3. Under the lead- time my social awareness of poverty. inequity. The motivation to move forward in mentoring. administrator. resources. 1 realized that these needs had no country The curriculum moved from "transporting" a USA syllabus of origin. Because most of these professionals are abroad. writ- seling. What began as a conversation during an APA activ. and competence is part of our professional development and respectful international collaboration. the faculty began to ward. A The students wanted faculty members to take into consider- significant number of immigrants come to the USA from this ation the differences in access to technology. Because trained educators and counseling profession. The emphasis on ethical standards and procedures the third as student. began our academic year with an opening endeavors. unteering with Hispanic immigrant youth. As I continued to participate in international confer. Arredondo. the students have been presenters hours in electronic and personal consultations with faculty at international conferences. international faculty: colleague. Fred opmental Pediatrics at Texas Children's Hospital. counselor in training. another as 1. and mental health administrators approved the teaching of intensive courses. Traveling with my husband and my children has from "sister schools. and training supervisor. In 2005. trust. lack of training in writing skills als were lacking. productive. com. from syllabus being taught in the USA. developing syllabi geared toward training local professionals ment to reach out and foster development through my pro. and professional international Center. that the bridge to discovery is wide. thanks to continuing Now in its fourth year. that used mostly USA educational and teaching materials to Upon returning to Guatemala. Advised and tions. world has no frontiers. While the initial with congruent values. dif. and spending endless mentored by their faculty. and advisor in training and research. Hector Fernandez Alvarez from the Aigle ences. the ground and has continued to grow. I experienced Michael Loos. Andres Consoli. and 2. Latin American universities. Mary Maples. While earning a master's degree from the University of During the first stage of the program. 1 have been able to move for. professor. as well as with representatives ferences. when the mas- has given me the outlook that the sky is the limit. Mary Alice Bruce. it also accommodate to Guatemalan needs. The program got off ferent countries. and region. Argentina. Generousity and flexibility from faculty members issues that we have discussed and referred to throughout the who were experts in the profession article. My professional In 2002. Andres Consoli began with an introductory course and academic development was enriched. and vol. that the ter's program was officially authorized. 17 markets. culturally competent manner. and similarities. curriculum was CACREP-informed and departed originally pany. mentor. in an integrative. and publishing Guatemala is a multiethnic. materials in their language. Through their patience. and Michael Waldo were key. and guidance. pluricultural and multilingual Central American country with a population of 12 million. tors and professionals including Patricia Arredondo. Respect for the multicultural characteristics of the assistant. fession. ership of Roberto Moreno Godoy. I felt a renewed commit. support. Robert Chope. and recognition training culturally sensitive counselors who could meet the that not all ethical principles are lived the same way in dif- mental health care needs of their clients. illustrates many of the 4.

By learning Spanish in ing to different countries. I taught in a Western tradition. and cultural dimension that must be taken into consideration. social. As we have moved into a new stage of the program. I welcome terms. I still found myself in need of ing personal experiences of the persecution and violence . it. and from the opportuni. provides an opportunity to compare and con. The country's Florida. I realized how necessary language is and the ability the opportunity to join hands in building a global village we have as Latinos and Latinas to help others through the where peace. social customs. self-exploration as part of the master's program in Guatemala. I continue to embrace the dance. Yet. When hearing psychology discussed in Spanish. in their home country. (McWhirter. Guatemala's history has been characterized by polit- Latin America. I continue to be privileged and honored lish. walk the path with me. I was also my first course taught in Spanish. We with an international perspective. in Guatemala. beliefs and values were foreign to me. the solidarity and willingness to continue build. 1994). Having been born and raised in the USA has given history. p. I believed on specific issues and encourages a tolerance for ambiguity. I needed to learn the therapeutic language as well. and wellness prevail among its citizens. I knew the subject. everyday to have the encouragement and guidance of my advisors. Language is a critical was to share my experience of growth. but I knew it in Eng- my doctoral studies. I Guatemalan culture of my family and a mixture of the Latino realized that being Latina is not enough. As students in cultural traditions" (Altarriba & Santiago-Rivera. we can Latina culture. but we rarely witness it. 119) that I had a good understanding of what it was to be multi- cultural or. with Andres Consoli. I was exposed to these differences in cultural Once I was in Guatemala. Spanish I knew would be fine. I found later that ordinary interactions between Global multiculturalism increases our understanding of the people in Guatemala were much more expressive than my larger picture. This international influence from birth matically learn or internalize the political. found that I was listening to a completely different lan- music. Guatemalan. In travel. from until I realized that I was not as bilingual as I thought I our diversity. and eco- is what has given me the drive to keep learning and growing nomic issues of those born in a Latin American country. we can begin to restructure our line the USA. equity. ing and developing through an egalitarian learning process The first course I took in the program—Theories of Psy- motivates us to move forward. While living ally and has shaped my professional endeavors. our Hispanic American. from the challenges. training. me the opportunity to grow up with the dual influence of the By immersing myself so completely in this culture. and poetry of international interconnection well into guage. and have begun to conduct quali. ish-speaking countries with the accompanying cultural com- tative research aimed at informing and improving our cur. but I did not do well with psychological and academic mentors. Although a long road still lies English to Spanish to be so difficult. we think within would be qualified to work with anyone who spoke Spanish. Use of the Spanish language training materials in Spanish. 1 was thrilled— appreciate how much we have learned from each other. We do not auto- cultures in the USA. ponents is not the same. Although my cultural heritage was effectiveness with our increasingly diverse clients. 2000. I quickly learned the difference history. Although I was bilingual because my family ical and economical instability. an understanding of Latino or By becoming involved in an international program. including interactions with clients. would be. have an in-press book with learned as a Latina in the USA and the one learned in Span- some of their coursework. and wildly disparate socioeconomic between being a Latina born in the USA and one born in levels. experiences in the USA. self-awareness. I was able to communicate at an informal. I ties to overcome them. at the very least. I believed that the ahead of us. co-edited ACA improving my proficiency. and friends who. I feel a responsibility to learn that many people suffer from oppression and poverty this community that has inspired and influenced me person. and some social and Most of my educational development has been in Miami. along with violence. from Miami. Speaking Spanish socially is not enough. we work with clients from diverse cultures. trast global and local concerns. helps us sharpen our focus As a Latina born and growing up in the USA. I learned the norms and nonverbal cues as a Latina of thinking and broaden our understanding. But I learned the values and standards as a augment our awareness of diversity but. Spanish language. we are shaped by our educational setting. Fortunately. Hear- spoke Spanish at home. We are I had the misperception that because 1 was Latina. cultural expressions were unknown to me. "This reasoning stems from the idea that language is the pri- with the hope that future counselors in training will see the mary means of transmitting information about beliefs and immense possibilities in going international. and.18 COUNSELING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DECEMBER 2006 Multicultural Competences into Spanish. level. Language Embracing International Learning in the counseling profession is extremely relevant because Marisela Lopez through language we establish the therapeutic relationship One of the reasons I dived into collaborating in this article and transmit support and knowledge. even those who spoke only Spanish. I didn't expect the change from rent practices and training. most important. I was not a Guatemalan. chotherapy—coincidently enough. therefore.

. words: "Blessed be your travels.. My Altbach. Toporek. it is a relevant beings perform and within which their personal behaviors endeavor to pursue in light of the countless world challenges are rewarded and sanctioned. E. takes place. perspectives. 408) facing us and to which the counseling profession has much Being Latina in the USA means that I was from a culture to offer. C3. p. but it is an everyday reality for many adapt to my clients. A. professional. perspective was that of a Hispanic American. & Luna. 19 was heartbreaking. G. ways of presenting oneself to others. This integration has Berganza. in that understanding the cultural history of our clients pro.. Embracing an international education has been for me a vides helpful insights into the person. 42-78. C. organizational level. (2002). also about the organization of the fields within which human engagement. S.). Pedersen (Ed. Also. Fed chief gives seminar on history of globalization. M. Thousand Oaks. P. (2005). n4-lH3. wonderful start to an ongoing reflection and lifelong process My experiences in this graduate program allowed me to of learning and contributing to international endeavors. 21-22. Perspectives in International Higher Education. 2003. 35. What did it mean to be a Ladina? It gle step" and Antonio Machado's famous line. to what many of our immigrant community clients have Altarriba. and with access to certain privileges. (1999). J. (2004. Successful Diversity Management Initiatives: A blue- fession. 25. self. P. C . 24. Stadler. (Varenne. & Bassett. J. in Guatemala I we hope you have found in this article at least one. "Traveler. 37. The brain skills necessary to become an effective counselor. H. 102-108. E. In Guatemala I rations. Multicultural counseling competencies as tools to every experience completely immersed without the option address oppression and racism. counseling from a new perspective. if not belonged to a group viewed as dominant. Latin American given me the benefit of living and knowing two different Guide for Psychiauic Diagnosis (GLDP).symbols and their meaning. upper middle more. Arredondo.seling Changing from one culture to another helped me see competencies. American Psycholo- developed a better understanding of my own cultural values gist. S. In the street I was addressed as Sehorita with much international experience. Connection: The Journal of the New Eng- stnall extent! land Board of Higher Education. and sustained advocacy. I was able to live Publications. 29-31. 185-190. R. (1996)." I hadn't realized the implications of not only having to leave one's country but also to adjust to being in the non. what was known to me.. How international is p. Being part of an international program has taught me the Altbach. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. P. and this trade. August 26).. I was able to comprehend CONCLUSION diversity from a completely new perspective. 19(5). and prejudices and also how these issues relate to our pro. educational.. (2006. The New York Times. it is from rhetoric into international action through cotntnitment. R. Now I atn more aware of the adaptation that using linguistic and cultural factors in counseling the Hispanic client. In P. & dynamic and more experiential than just reading about it. you make the road as you go. p. Culture is not only about . reflect on what it means to be a Latina from the USA as well as a Guatemalan and." For readers and positions. This was a hands-on experience and made learning more Arredondo. Jones. Altbach.. I was able to Bochner. Arredondo. I reconnected with my roots and Arnett. A. What a wel. 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