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Centrifugal Separation

By:
Engr. Rizwan Nasir

Definition
™Centrifugal Separation is the most widely
used method for separating fluids with
different densities. It is also used in
separating solids from liquids or solids
from gasses.
™The separation of two immiscible liquids in
a centrifuge within a much shorter period
of time than could be accomplished by
gravity.

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By introducing a fluid with a high tangential velocity into a cylindrical or conical vessel. Application A centrifuge is used to separate particles or even macromolecules: ™ Cells ™ Cream separation and oil dehydration ™ Proteins ™ Nucleic acids Basis of separation: ™ Size ™ Shape ™ Density Methodology: ™ Utilizes density difference between the particles/macromolecules and the medium in which these are dispersed 2 . By the use of the centrifuge. In this case the fluid is introduced into some form of rotating bowl and is rapidly accelerated. Basic Principal Centrifugal fields can be generated in two distinctly different ways: 1. 2. as in the hydro cyclone and in the cyclone separator.

2. In it usually large small equipments are equipments are used used. 3. In gravity there 1. 3 . In centrifuge is a low there is high acceleration. In centrifuge separation rate separation rate is low. This method has been used in the laboratories and primitive industries for over a century. Centrifuge ™In Centrifuges the centrifugal force is mechanically generated by turning the equipment containing the fluid in a circular path causing the fluids to separate. In gravity the 2. acceleration. In it usually 3. Difference Between Gravity & Centrifuge Gravity Centrifuge 1. is high.

The slow gyratory motion. 2. Method of liquid removal. 4. 2. The significance of the critical speed of rotation. which can cause large deflection of the shaft and vibration. which can occur when the bowl or basket is tilted. Method of solids cake removal. Orientation of the bowl/basket—horizontal or vertical 3. 3. 4 . which will be determined by the dimensions of the bowl. Disc bowl. Type of bowl — solid. known as precession. the material of construction and the speed of operation. perforated basket. MECHANICAL DESIGN Features of the mechanical design of centrifuges are: 1. Design Features ™ Operating features 1. 5. Mode of operation—batch or continuous. The mechanical strength of the bowl.

™Sedimentation centrifuges are used when it is required to produce a clarified liquid. Classification of Centrifuges ™ Centrifuges may be grouped into two distinct categories those that: 1. Utilize the principle of sedimentation. and the liquid filters through the deposited cake of solids and is removed Classification of Centrifuges ™The choice between a sedimentation or filtration centrifuge for a particular application will depend on the nature of the feed and the product requirements. solid. Filtration centrifuges: which separate the phases by filtration. 5 . b. a. dry. and ™Filtration centrifuges to produce a pure. Utilize the principle of filtration 2. The walls of the centrifuge basket are porous. Sedimentation centrifuges: in which the separation is dependent on a difference in density between the solid and liquid phases (solid heavier).

(d) Pusher. sometimes also a knife. perforate basket. vertical axis. (e) Disc machine. Cont. (iii) Opening bowl (solids ejecting). (i) Batch. Classification of Centrifuges Filtration centrifuges (a) Batch discharge. 6 .. (c) Decanter—scroll discharge.. knife discharge at speed. vertical axis. (b) Knife discharge. (c) Peeler: horizontal axis. (b) Tubular bowl. perforate basket. (d) Imperforate bowl—skimmer pipe discharge. (iv) Valve discharge. (ii) Nozzle discharge. pendulum suspension. (e) Scroll discharge. ™ Sedimentation centrifuges (a) Bottle spinner.

7 . ™A common application is the removal of water and suspended solids from lubricating oil. Tubular Bowl Centrifuge ™Tubular bowl High-speed.. vertical axis. ™The bowl is driven at speeds of around 15. ™These solids are deposited on the inner wall of the bowl. tubular bowl centrifuges are used for the separation of immiscible liquids. and for the separation of fine solids. ™the material fed to these machines contains traces of denser solids in addition to the two liquid phases. such as water and oil. ™100 mm diameter and 1 m long Cont.000 rpm (250 Hz) and ™The centrifugal force generated exceeds 130. and the machine is dismantled periodically to remove them.000 N.

Cont.. 8 ....Cont.

Applications ™ Pharmaceutical Industries ™ Edible Oil Industries ™ Gum/Resin Plants ™ Printing Ink Industries ™ Blood Fractionation ™ Paint Industries ™ Fuel/Oil Purification ™ Effluents Disc bowl ™ The conical discs in a disc bowl centrifuge split the liquid flow into a number of very thin layers. and for solids classification. ™ The solids may be allowed to accumulate within the bowl and then be discharged manually (“batch bowl”) ™ Disc bowl centrifuges are used for separating liquids and fine solids. ™ Disc centrifuges vary considerably according to the type of discharge. ™ The liquids can discharge freely or through centrifugal pumps. 9 . which greatly increases the separating efficiency.

eg. Disc Bowl Typical applications 9 Clarifying beverages 9 Clarifying biodiesel 9 Biodiesel and glycerin separation 9 Clarifying vegetable oils. olive oil 9 Clarifying mineral oils recovered from sludge 9 Clarifying recycled process water in the food industry 9 Purifying pharmaceutical products 10 .

Decanting centrifuges ™The widely used decanting type continuous centrifuge. up through the conical section and towards the discharge ports. 11 . is mounted on a horizontal axis. known as the centrate. ™The feed pipe discharges the mixture near the centre of the machine. which pushes the solids from the cylindrical section of the bowl. ™ The liquid phase. ™ The settled solids accumulate at the bowl wall and are then discharged by means of a helicoidally shaped screw known as a scroll. ™The mixture of solids and liquids is fed to the machine through a stationary pipe which passes through one of the support bearings. finds its way back down the centrifuge bowl where it flows out over a “weir plate" and falling by gravity down the discharge pipe. ™The heavier solids settle on to the wall of the imperforate or solid bowl under the influence of the centrifugal Decanting centrifuges ™ This separation effect occurs in just the same way as it would in a settling tank but in the case of the centrifuge the tank is in the form of a stainless steel bowl that is spun at high speed.

Decanting centrifuges 12 .