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CHE C 213

Fluid Flow Operations
Lecture Notes/Slides on

Agitation and Mixing
(Lecture 1, 2 and 3)
Dr. ASHISH M GUJARATHI
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Email: ashishg@bits-pilani.ac.in

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Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi
© ASHISH GUJARATHI, BITS PILANI
BITS Pilani

A Typical Chemical Plant

Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi
© ASHISH GUJARATHI, BITS PILANI
BITS Pilani

Lecture Plan
• Agitation and Mixing
– Introduction
– Applications
– Agitated Vessels
– Impellers
• Propeller
• Turbines
• High efficiency impellers
• Anchor Agitator
• Helical and Ribbon type impellers

Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Lecture Plan • Agitation and Mixing – Turbine Design – Flow Patterns – Vortex formation and Prevention .

Dr. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Agitation and Mixing • Applications – Many operations in Process industries depend on effective agitation and mixing of fluids – Mass transfer and multi-phase processes • Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer • Liquid-Liquid Mass Transfer • Liquid –Solid Mass Transfer • Solid –Solid Mass Transfer – Agitation and mixing are not synonymous . Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI.

. salt or hot water) is added to it .g. but it cannot be mixed until some other material (i. Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Agitation and Mixing • Agitation: – Agitation refers to forcing a fluid by mechanical means to flow in a specified way usually in circulatory pattern.e. A tankful of cold water can be agitated. • Mixing – Mixing refers to random distribution between separate phases • E.

cement. and water tumbled in a rotating drum for a long time • Though products are not equally homogeneous . BITS PILANI BITS Pilani • Mixing term is applied to a variety of operations (differing in degree of homogeneity) – Two gases that are brought together and thoroughly blended and – Sand. – In both the cases product is said to be mixed . Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. gravel.

immiscible with first to form an emulsion or suspension of fine drops – Promoting Heat Transfer between the liquid and a heating coil or jacket Often one Agitator serves purposes at the same time . BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Agitation and Mixing • Purposes of agitation – Suspending solid particles in liquid – Blending miscible liquids – Dispersing a gas through the liquid in the form of small bubble – Dispersing second liquid. Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI.

depending on the nature of agitation problem Impeller causes liquid to circulate through the vessel and return to impeller Baffles used to reduce tangential motion Rounded Bottom (Not Flat) . BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Agitated Vessel (with agitator) Inlet Connection Top of vessel (Either Open Or Sealed with Gasket in between Tank and rounded Proportions of tank top) Vary widely. Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI.

BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Agitation Equipments • Agitation Equipments – Gas Sparger. Dr. Centrifugal pump • Agitation of Liquid with Liquid – Double cone mixer or concrete mixer . Mixing rolls. Pan mixer or putty chasers for clay mixing • Mixing of solids with liquids . Bubble Column • Mixing of gas with liquid – Agitator. Screw Conveyer • Mixing of solids with solid – Colloid Mills. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. Jet Mixer.

Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Selection of Agitator • Impeller Agitator – Axial Flow impeller (a) Those that generate currents parallel with the axis of the impeller shaft – Radial flow impeller (b) Those that generate currents in a radial (a) (b) or tangential direction .

BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Selection of Impellers • The selection of impeller depends on viscosity – Low to moderate viscous liquids • Propellers (Viscosity < 3 Pa-s) • Turbines (Viscosity < 100 Pa-s) • High efficiency impellers – Very Viscous liquids • Anchor Agitator ( 50 < Viscosity < 500 Pa-s) • Helical and Ribbon type impellers (Viscosity > 500 Pa-s) Each type includes many variations and subtypes which are not discussed here . Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI.

four bladed propeller are generally used – Three bladed turbine are common with square pitch Longitudinal distance moved by the liquid in one revolution at certain angle of inclination of propeller blade Pitch = Propeller diameter – Propeller with a pitch 1. Dr.0 is : Square pitch . high speed impeller for liquids – 400-1750 rpm motor speed – Two. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Impellers: Propeller • Propeller (for Viscosity < 3 Pa-s) – Axial flow. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. three.

Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. Dr. Three Blade marine propeller . and the flow currents leaving the impeller continue until deflected by floor of the vessel. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Impellers: Propeller • Propeller – The direction of rotation is usually chosen to force the liquid downward.

Dr. in diameter – In deep tanks two or more propellers may be mounted on same shaft. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Impellers: Propeller • Propeller – Propellers rarely exceeds 18 in. usually directing the liquid in the same direction – Because of persistence of flow currents • Propellers are effective in very large vessels Six Blade propeller and Shaft .

Dr. < 100 Pa-s) – Pushes liquid radially and tangentially with almost no vertical motion at the impeller – Also called as paddles: 2-4 bladed paddles are common – In Process vessels they turn at 20 – 150 rpm – Length of Paddle : 50-80% of vessel diameter – Width of blade: 1/6 – 1/10 of the length . Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Impellers: Turbines • Simple straight blade turbine (Visco.

so that they scrap the surface. Dr. Useful in prevailing deposits on a heat transfer surface – Baffles • Necessary to reduce swirl around the vessel .) – Anchor Agitator: • Blades conform to the shape of dished or hemispherical vessel.. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Impellers: Turbines • Turbine (continued.

Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. d) . BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Impellers: Turbines • Disc turbines – Multiple straight blades mounted on a horizontal disc (Fig. c): • Creates a zone of higher shear rate – Especially useful for dispersing a gas in a liquid – Concave blade turbine is also used when good overall circulation is important (Fig.

e) • Used when good overall circulation is important. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. Dr. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Impellers for high viscosity liquids • High efficiency impellers – Pitched Blade turbine (Fig. because it provides some axial flow in addition to radial flow High efficiency impeller HE3 A 310 fluid foil impeller .

BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Impellers : Turbines • Impellers for highly viscose liquids – Double flight helical ribbon (a) • Used widely in Polymerization reactors – Anchor Impellor (b) (Bottom mixing) . Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI.

etc. Dr. number And proportions of baffles. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. Side View Da 1 H J 1 E 1 W 1 L 1 = =1 = = = = Dt 3 Dt Dt 12 Da 3 Dt 5 Da 4 . BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Turbine Design:Typical Dimensions The Designer of Agitated vessels has an unusually large number of choices to make as to Type and Location of Impeller. Motor Speed. Speed of Agitator. Proportions of vessels.

Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. Dr. baffles and impeller • The velocity at any point in the tank depends on three components and the flow pattern in tank depends upon variations in these components . BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Flow Patterns • The way liquid moves in an agitated vessel depends on – Characteristics of liquid i.e. viscosity. size and properties of the tank.

Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. Dr. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Flow Patterns • Velocity components – Radial and acts in a direction perpendicular to shaft of impeller – Longitudinal and acts in a direction parallel to the shaft – Tangential or rotational and acts in a direction tangent to a circular path around the shaft • Overall flow pattern in the tank/vessel depends on variations in these 3 Velocity Components .

the radial and tangential components are in horizontal plane and the longitudinal component are in a vertical – Radial and longitudinal components are useful and provide the flow necessary for mixing action – When shaft is vertical and located at central. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Flow Patterns • Velocity components and Vortex Formation – In usual case of vertical shafts. tangential component is disadvantageous – Tangential flow follows a circular path around the shaft and creates a vortex . Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. Dr.

Dr. Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Vortex in a reactor • Unbaffled vessel with vortex • At high impeller speeds. Vortex may touch impeller: Undesirable Shaft Cylindrical Vessel Side View Top View Swirling flow pattern with radial-flow turbine in an unbaffled vessel .

Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. Dr. the agitator may be mounted in the side of the tank. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Prevention of Swirling • Circulatory flow or swirling can be prevented by – Mounting impeller off-center (in small tanks) – Moving shaft away from the centerline of tank. then tilted in plane perpendicular to the direction of move – In larger tank. with a horizontal plane but an angle with a radius .

BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Prevention of Swirling Fig. Dr. Flow Pattern with off-center propeller . Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI.

Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. – This devices are useful when high shear at the impeller is desired. – Loop Reactor?? . BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Draft Tubes • Draft Tubes – When direction and velocity of flow to the section of the impeller are to be controlled. Dr. draft tubes are used.

Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI. and those for turbines are mounted immediately above the impeller Turbine Draft tube Propeller draft tube . BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Draft tubes • Draft tubes for propellers are mounted around the impeller. Dr.

Dr. BITS PILANI BITS Pilani Second part of lecture slides would be uploaded soon! . Ashish M Gujarathi © ASHISH GUJARATHI.