Advanced Diploma in Industrial Automation

Module 1: Practical Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Topic 1.1

E-mail: idc@idc-online.com AUSTRALIA CANADA IRELAND NEW ZEALAND SINGAPORE

Web Site: www.eit.edu.au SOUTH AFRICA UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES

1 Introduction

In a time of constant and rapid technological development, it would be quite ambitious to develop and present a course that claimed to cover each and every industrial measuring type of equipment. This course is not intended to be an encyclopedia of instrumentation and control valves, but rather a training guide for gaining experience in this fast changing environment. This course is aimed at providing engineers, technicians and any other personnel involved with process measurement, more experience in that field. It is also designed to give students the fundamentals on analysing the process requirements and selecting suitable solutions for their applications.

1.1

Basic measurement and control concepts
The basic set of units used on this course is the SI unit system. This can be summarised in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1 SI units

Quantity Length Mass Time Current Temperature Voltage Resistance Capacitance Inductance Energy Power Frequency Charge Force Magnetic Flux Magnetic Flux Density

Unit metre kilogram second ampere degrees Kelvin volt ohm farad henry joule watt hertz coulomb newton weber webers/metre2

Abbreviation m kg s A °K V Ω F H J W Hz C N Wb Wb/m2

2 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control

1.2

Basic measurement performance terms and specifications
There are a number of criteria that must be satisfied when specifying process measurement equipment. Below is a list of the more important specifications.

1.2.1

Accuracy
The accuracy specified by a device is the amount of error that may occur when measurements are taken. It determines how precise or correct the measurements are to the actual value and is used to determine the suitability of the measuring equipment. Accuracy can be expressed as any of the following: error in units of the measured value percent of span percent of upper range value percent of scale length percent of actual output value Accuracy generally contains the total error in the measurement and accounts for linearity, hysteresis and repeatability. Figure 1.1 shows errors in measurement. Reference accuracy is determined at reference conditions, i.e. constant ambient temperature, static pressure, and supply voltage. There is also no allowance for drift over time.

Figure 1.1 Accuracy terminology

Introduction 3 1.2 Hysteresis .2. Hysteresis causes a device to show an inaccuracy from the correct value.3 Advanced measurement performance terms and specifications More critical control applications may be affected by different response characteristics. equipment malfunction and even permanent damage or failure.2.2 Range of Operation The range of operation defines the high and low operating limits between which the device will operate correctly. 1.3. This is where the accuracy of the device is dependent on the previous value and the direction of variation. This is generally dictated by the budget allocated for the application. and at which the other specifications are guaranteed. In these circumstances the following may need to be considered: 1. this can prove an inhibiting factor.1 Hysteresis Hysteresis is the difference in the output for given input when the input is increasing and output for same input when input is decreasing. as it is affected by the previous measurement. When input of any instrument is slowly varied from zero to full scale and then back to zero.2. Figure 1. Operation outside of this range can result in excessive errors.3 Budget/Cost Although not so much a specification. its output varies as shown in Figure 1. Even if all the other specifications are met. the cost of the equipment is certainly a selection consideration. 1.

5% is present.4 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control 1. . and a repeatability of 0. This problem can be overcome by using the deadband in the controller as shown in Figure 1. the linearity needs to be assessed.4. If a problem does exist.3 Repeatability Repeatability defines how close a second measurement is to the first under the same operating conditions. The gain of a non-linear device changes as the change in output over input varies.3 Linearity 1. For continuous control applications. the problems arise due to the changes in the rate the output differs from the instrument. 0. and for the same input. then the controller will over-control. Repeatability is generally within the accuracy range of a device and is different from hysteresis in that the operating direction and conditions must be the same. then the signal needs to be linearised.2 Linearity Linearity expresses the deviation of the actual reading from a straight line.3. However if the change is due to the repeatability of the measuring device. In such an application. then input output plot is straight line else it will be non linear as shown in Figure 1.3. In a closed loop system changes in gain affect the loop dynamics. When a control system sees a change in the parameter it is controlling. Continuous control applications can be affected by variations due to repeatability. Figure 1. however repeatability becomes a problem when an accuracy of say. If all outputs are in the same proportion to corresponding inputs over a span of values. it will adjust its output accordingly.3.1% is required.

Figure 1.5 shows response of the system to a step input. Figure 1. the response may be just as important.Introduction 5 Figure 1.5 Typical time response for a system with a step input. A slow responding device may not be suitable for an application.4 Response When the output of a device is expressed as a function of time (due to an applied input) the time taken to respond can provide critical information about the suitability of the device. This typically applies to continuous control applications where the response of the device becomes a dynamic response characteristic of the overall control loop. .3. However in critical alarming applications where devices are used for point measurement.4 Repeatability Ripples or small oscillations can occur due to overcontrolling. This needs to be accounted for in the initial specification of allowable values. 1.

Closed loop Relates to a control loop where the process variable is used to calculate the controller output. Temperature Coefficient of Resistance The change in electrical resistance per degree change temperature is called the temperature coefficient of resistance.6 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control 1. . which is at a known reference temperature.4 Definition of terminology Below is a list of terms and their definitions that are used throughout this manual. when an applied force is removed. Ambient The surrounding or environment in reference to a particular point or object. To configure a device so that the required output represents (to a defined degree of accuracy) the respective input. Attenuation A decrease in signal magnitude over a period of time. In a closed loop system the control action is independent on desired output. Cold junction The thermocouple junction. Gain This is the ratio of the change of the output to the change in the applied input. where the units for the input and output are identical and the gain is unitless. then permanent deformation will occur. When a force is applied that exceeds the elastic limit. Excitation The energy supply required to power a device for its intended operation. Compensation A supplementary device used to correct errors due to variations in operating conditions. The temperature coefficient defines how much change in temperature there is for a given change in resistance (for a temperature dependent resistor). Elastic The ability of an object to regain its original shape. which operates automatically to regulate the control of a process with a control variable. Controller A device. Coefficient( temperature) A coefficient is typically a multiplying factor. Calibration The procedure of comparing and determining the performance accuracy is called calibration. Gain is a special case of sensitivity.

Self-heating is primarily due to the current draw and not the voltage applied. Span Adjustment The difference between the maximum and minimum range values.Introduction 7 Hunting Generally an undesirable oscillation at or near the required setpoint is called hunting. Setpoint Used in closed loop control. Hunting typically occurs when the demands on the system performance are high and possibly exceed the system capabilities. Ramp Defines the delayed and accumulated response of the output for a sudden change in the input. where the operating conditions have varied within the time span. Steady state Used in closed loop control where the process no longer oscillates or changes and settles at some defined value. . When provided in an instrument. It is represented in the units of the process variable and is used by the controller to determine the output to the process. this changes the slope of the input-output curve. Reliability The probability that a device will perform within its specifications for the number of operations or time period specified. but the input is restored. the setpoint is the ideal process variable. and is typically shown by the voltage drop as a result of power (I2R) losses. Self Heating The internal heating caused within a device due to the electrical excitation. Range The region between the specified upper and lower limits where a value or device is defined and operated. The output of the controller can be overcontrolled due to the resolution of accuracy limitations. for a specified change in the input to the device. Sensitivity This defines how much the output changes. Reproducibility The similarity of one measurement to another over time. Resonance The frequency of oscillation is maintained due to the natural dynamics of the system. Resolution The smallest interval that can be identified as a measurement varies.

or zero input is applied. which is neither a controlled response. Thermal shock An abrupt temperature change applied to an object or device. Transient A sudden change in a variable. The zero adjustment produces a parallel shift in the input-output curve. More important is the force required (electrical or mechanical) to overcome such a resistance. A transducer can be considered to comprise a sensor at the front end (at the process) and a transmitter. and defined as resistance to motion. such as temperature or pressure) and converts it to another ( (usually electrical. 1. Variable Generally. such as volts or millivolts or resistance change). The two main types of variables that exist in the system are the measured variable and the controlled variable. Stiffness This is a measure of the force required to cause a deflection of an elastic object.8 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Stiction Shortened form of static friction. nor long lasting. when subjected to a step input change.5 P&ID (Process and Instrumentation Diagram) symbols Graphical symbols and identifying letters for Process measurement and control functions are listed below: . The controlled variable is the controller output which controls the process. The measured variable is the measured quantity and is also referred to as the process variable as it measures process information. Zero adjustment The zero in an instrument is the output provided when no. Time constant The time constant of a first order system is defined as the time taken for the output to reach 63.2% of the total change. Transmitter A device that converts one form of energy to another. this is some quantity of the system or process. Transducer An element or device that converts information from one form (usually physical. Usually from mechanical to electrical for the purpose of signal integrity for transmission over longer distances and for suitability with control equipment. Vibration This is the periodic motion (mechanical) or oscillation of an object.

Introduction 9 First letter A B C D E F G H I J K L M O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Analysis Burner Conductivity Density Voltage Flow Gauging Hand Current (electric) Power Time Level Moisture Pressure Quantity Radioactivity Speed Temperature Multivariable Viscosity Weight Position Second letter Alarm Control Primary element Glass (sight tube) Indicate Control station Light Orifice Point Record Switch Transmit Multifunction Valve Well Relay (transformation) Drive Some of the typical symbols used are indicated in the figures below.1 Instrument representation on flow diagrams . Figure 1.

3 Letter codes and balloon symbols .2 Instrument representation on flow diagrams (b) Figure 1.10 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Figure 1.

Precautions also need to be made when changing the range of existing equipment.4 P& ID symbols for transducers and other elements 1.Introduction 11 Figure 1.1 Effects of selection criteria Advantages Wide operating range The range of operation not only determines the suitability of the device for a particular application but also can be chosen for a range of applications. should the process perform outside of specifications. the dynamics of the control loop can be affected. In the case of control systems.6. This also increases system reliability as sensing equipment can be interchanged as the need arises.6 1. Widening the operating range of the sensing equipment may be at the expense of resolution. . This can reduce the inventory in a plant as the number of sensors and models decrease. An increased operating range also gives greater over and under-range protection.

It therefore is no surprise that cost is an important selection criterion when choosing measurement equipment. and is often a trade off with cost. The accuracy determines the suitability of the measuring equipment to the application. The range is kept small to allow sufficient resolution. High sensitivity in the measuring equipment means that the signal can be read easily by a controller or other equipment. replace or assemble. Cost Any application that requires a control solution or the interrogation of process information is driven by a budget. with the associated procedures being simplified. High Accuracy This is probably one of the most important selection criteria. a fast speed of response can assist in triggering safety or shutdown procedures that can reduce the amount of equipment failure or product lost. In the case of continuous control. There are also savings in the time it takes to service. with the overrange protection ensuring a longer operating life. this also can improve the integrity and performance of a system. Maintenance is reduced with fewer pieces to wear.Operating environment (high temperature. In applications where the operating conditions are uncertain or prone to failure.Accuracy . Good Sensitivity Improved sensitivity of a device means that more accurate measurements are possible. lags can accumulate with the various control components and result in poor or slow control of the process.) . High over range protection is different to having a wide operating range in that it does not measure when out of range. The sensitivity also defines the magnitude of change that occurs. Simple Design and Maintenance A simple design means that there are less “bits that can break”. More robust designs are generally of simple manufacture.Range of operation . repair and replace. High accuracy means reduced errors in measurement. Often a fast response is achieved by sacrificing the mechanical protection of the transducer element. In a point or alarming application. The cost of a device is generally increased by improvements in the following specifications: .12 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Fast Response With a fast response. it is good practice to ‘build-in’ suitable protection for the measuring equipment. delays are not added into the system. pressure etc. High Over range Protection This is more a physical limitation on the protection of the equipment.

there are a number of factors that make it undesirable: .Labour required . Even though a device can be recalibrated. it has been proven that drift is more extreme when the thermocouple is varied over a wide range quite often. typically in furnaces that are repeatedly heated to high temperatures from the ambient temperature. Size This mainly applies to applications requiring specifically sized devices and has a bearing on the cost. Temperature correction eliminates the problems associated with these changes. In the case of thermocouples.Very accurate location of the measurement required (point measurement) Large devices have the added advantage of: . Self Generated Signal This eliminates the need for supplying power to the device.Limited obstruction to the process .Can be placed in tight spaces .Possible shutdown of process for access .Introduction 13 The technology used and materials of construction do affect the cost. Robust This has the obvious advantage of being able to handle adverse conditions. However this can have the added limitation of bulk. Drifting can occur over time. Temperature Corrected Ambient temperature variations often affect measuring devices.Accessibility Resolution The resolution is the smallest measurable difference between two consecutive measurements. but are generally chosen based on the improvement of the other selection criteria (typically those listed above). Good repeatability ensures measurements vary according to process changes and not due to the limitations of the sensing equipment. Repeatability The ability of the measurement system to give same output for same input repeatedly. Small devices have the added advantage of: . or on repeated operation of the device. .Area measurements Stable If a device drifts or loses calibration over time then it is considered to be unstable. and therefore power is required it generally needs to be conditioned. Most sensing devices are quite sensitive to electrical power variations.

This also increases system reliability as sensing equipment can be interchanged as the need arises. It is quite common for sensing equipment. More expensive and reliable devices need to be weighed up against the cost of repair or replacement. Large variations in the density can cause measurement problems unless accounted for. only to find the transducer needs to be relocated. A typical application may be the transducer for ultrasonic level measurement. Some of the factors affecting conductivity are: . This requirement is typically used in environments where electrical or thermal energy can ignite the atmospheric mixture. Unaffected by Conductivity The conductivity of a process material can change due to a number of factors. when a product goes from a dry state to wet. This can reduce the inventory in a plant as the number of sensors and models are decreased. and if not checked can cause erroneous measurements. especially electrical and capacitance. Reliable Performance This is an obvious advantage with any sensing device. Non Contact This is usually a requirement based on the type of material being sensed. and also the cost of loss of production should the device fail.14 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Intrinsic Safety Required for specific service applications. This also may include travel costs or appropriately certified personnel for hazardous equipment or areas. Such conditions may be high temperature. Measuring equipment that is unaffected by density provides a higher accuracy and is more versatile Unaffected by Moisture Content Applies primarily to applications where the moisture content can vary. to be affected by moisture in the material.e. The effect of moisture content can cause problems in both cases. or when drying out from a wet state. The costs incurred should a device fail. but also can it to be used for a range of applications. but generally is at the expense of cost for very reliable and proven equipment. Unaffected by Density Many applications measure process materials that may have variations in density. Simple to Adjust This relates to the accessibility of the device. i. Suitable for Various Materials Selecting a device that is suitable for various materials not only ensures the suitability of the device for a particular application. but also the labour required to replace the equipment. Non-contact sensing is used in applications where the material causes build-up on the probe or sensing devices. pressure or acidity. Other applications are where the conditions are hazardous to the operation of the equipment. and where precautions with sensing equipment are required. Helpful if the application is not proven and constant adjustments and alterations are required. It is not uncommon to weld in brackets for mounting. are not only the loss of production (if applicable).

High Temperature Applications This is very similar to the advantages of high pressure applications. both for its reliability and suitability. allowing for pressurised sensing. Another useful advantage with this form of measurement is that the detection obstructions in chutes or product in boxes can be performed unobtrusively. This permits maintenance and installation without affecting the operation of the process. Well Understood and Proven This. spot sensing is done with smaller transducers. Remote Sensing Sensing from afar has the advantage of being non-intrusive and allowing higher temperature and pressure ratings. Generally. with area or average sensing being performed with large transducers. reduces the stress involved when installing new equipment. Dual Point Control This mainly applies to point control devices. However it is also possible to sense through the container housing. It can also avoid the problem of mounting and accessibility by locating sensing equipment at a more convenient location. or deducing the spot measurement from a crude reading. Polarity Insensitive Sensing equipment that is polarity insensitive generally protects against failure from incorrect installation. more than anything.pH . This is more a criteria that determines the suitability of the device for the application. This type of sensing also limits the number of tapping points required into the process. High Pressure Applications Equipment that can be used in high pressure applications generally reduces error by not requiring any further transducer devices to retransmit the signal.Introduction 15 . This is quite common in level control. ON-OFF control can be performed simply with the one device.salinity . Small Spot or Area Sensing Selecting instrumentation for the specific purpose reduces the problems and errors in averaging multiple sensors over an area. and also determines the suitability of the device for the application. No Calibration Required Pre-calibrated equipment reduces the labour costs associated with installing new equipment and also the need for expensive calibration equipment. With one device measuring two or even three process points.temperature Mounting External to the Vessel This has the same advantages as non-contact sensing. . However the cost is usually greater than an average sensor due to the higher pressure rating.

High Velocity Applications It is possible in high velocity applications to increase the diameter of the section. Maintenance can be further reduced if there are no valves or manifolds to cause leakage problems. Selecting equipment with low pressure losses results in safer operating pressures with a lower operating cost. then the pressure drops across these devices needs to be taken into account to determine a suitable head pressure. suitable straight pipe runs need to be arranged for suitable laminar flow. an important consideration when the process fluid is hazardous or toxic. In these applications. which is to be avoided. Less Unrecoverable Pressure Drop If there are applications that require sufficient pressure downstream of the measuring and control devices. The absence of manifolds and valves results in a particularly safe installation. However the device may contain straightening vanes. although the cost of the equipment may be slightly higher. If the pressure drops are significant. and can also account for the density variations. Complete Unit Consisting of Probe and Mounting An integrated unit provides easy mounting and lowers the installation costs. . Require Less Straight Pipe Up and Downstream This is generally a requirement applied to equipment that can accommodate a higher level of turbulence. FLOW APPLICATIONS Low Pressure Drop A device that has a low pressure drop presents less restriction to flow and also has less friction.Reliable operation with no wear or blockages If the instrument does not have any moving or wearing components. but at a reduced velocity. Erosion (due to cavitation and flashing) is more likely in high pressure drop applications. Operate in Higher Turbulence Devices that can operate with a higher level of turbulence are typically suited to applications where there are limited sections of straight length pipe. Fluids Containing Suspended Solids These devices are not prone to mechanical damage due to the solids in suspension. Friction generates heat. which gives the same quantity of flow. then it may require higher pressures. which assist in providing laminar flow. because of the expanding and reducing sections. Equipment of higher pressure ratings (and higher cost) is then required.16 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control No Moving Parts The advantages are: . then this provides improved reliability and reduced maintenance.Long operating life .

2 Disadvantages The following is a discussion of effects of the disadvantages and reasons for the associated limitations. the selecting of equipment with good rangeability is vital. and accuracy is important across the entire range of operation. it can affect the dynamic performance of the system. 1. It is also a useful criterion when avoiding equipment that requires maintenance due to wear. No Obstructions This primarily means no pressure loss. with a 10% change at the other end of the scale. Linearity This affects the resolution over the range of operation. there may be a 2% change at one end of the scale. Suitable for Large Diameter Pipes Various technologies do have limitations on pipe diameter. One common cause of hysteresis is thermoelastic strain. Detection of low flow rates requires particular consideration. or the cost increases rapidly as the diameter increases. and selecting a larger instrument sized for a higher range of operation. In continuous control applications where the device is included in the control loop. Hysteresis Hysteresis can cause significant errors.6. Indication Only Devices that only perform indication are not suited for automated control systems as the information is not readily accessible. In point measuring applications this can affect the resolution and accuracy over the range. . Errors are also more likely and less predictable as they are subject to operator interpretation. Suitable for Very Low Flow Rates Very low flow rates provide very little energy (or force) and as such can be a problem with many flow devices. This change is effectively a change in the sensitivity or gain of the measuring device. or when using abrasive process fluids. Unaffected by Viscosity The viscosity generally changes with temperature. For a unit change in the process conditions. but more importantly can avoid the requirement of having the plant shutdown for the purpose or duration of the installation. Good Rangeability In cases where the process has considerable variations (in flow for example). The errors are dependent on the magnitude of change and the direction of variation in the measurement.Introduction 17 Price does not Increase Dramatically with Size This consideration applies when selecting suitable equipment. Installed on Existing Installations This can reduce installation costs. problems may occur with the fluidity of the process material. and even though the equipment may be rated for the range of temperature.

Shock and Vibration These effects not only cause errors but also can reduce the working life of equipment. As with cabling. In applications requiring area or average measurements then too small a sensing device can be a disadvantage in that it does not “see” the full process value. high current. This is also a requirement in noisy environments. Poor over range protection in the device may not be a problem if the process is physically incapable of exceeding the operating conditions. Signal Conditioning Primarily used when transmitting signals over longer distances. even under extreme fault conditions.18 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Sensitive to Temperature Variations Problems occur when equipment that is temperature sensitive is used in applications where the ambient temperature varies continuously. Poor Over range Protection Care needs to be taken to ensure that the process conditions do not exceed the operating specifications of the measuring equipment. Special conditions may also apply to the location of the cable in reference to high voltage. these devices should be avoided with such applications. Transducer Work Hardened The physical movement and operation of a device may cause it to become harder to move. Size Often the bulkiness of the equipment is a limitation. Typical applications would involve piezoelectric devices. Special Cabling Measurement equipment requiring special cabling bears directly on the cost of the application. Protection may need to be supplied with additional equipment. Although temperature compensation is generally available. However the accuracy can also change due to large variations in the operation of the device due to the process variations. . this bears directly on the cost and also may require extra space for mounting. Dynamic Sensing Only This mainly applies to shock and acceleration devices where the impact force is significant. and cause premature failure. Another concern with cabling is that of noise and cable routing. then periodic calibration needs to be considered as a maintenance requirement. but some other devices do have similar problems. Subsequently. Unstable This generally relates to the accuracy of the device over time. and other low power or signal cabling. high temperature. unstable devices require repeated calibration over time or when operated frequently. If it is unavoidable to use such equipment. particularly when the transducer signal requires amplification. This particularly applies to pressure bellows.

Removal/replacement . In addition are the procedures and experience required for personnel working in such environments. More pertinent in selecting such device is the longer response and update times incurred in using such equipment. Material Build-up Material build-up is primarily related to the type of process material being measured. or degrade the operating efficiency of a device over time. which become a periodic expense. Sampled Measurement Only Measurement equipment that requires periodic sampling of the process (as opposed to continual) generally relies on statistical probability for the accuracy. Access Access to the process and measuring equipment needs to be assessed for the purpose of: . There are obvious limitations in installing and servicing such equipment.Calibration If the equipment is fragile then there is the risk of it being easily damaged due to repeated handling. Pressure Applications This applies to applications where the measuring equipment is mounted in a pressurised environment and accessibility is impaired. Sampled measurement equipment is mainly used for quality control applications where specific samples are required and the quality does not change rapidly. Maintenance High maintenance equipment increases the labour. There are a number of ways to avoid or rectify the problems associated with material build-up: . This may also have a bearing on the orientation required when mounting equipment.Routine maintenance The initial mounting of the measuring equipment may be remote from the final installation. depending on the application and process environment.Cleaning . as such the accessibility of the final location also needs to be considered. This can cause significant errors. Requires Compressed Air Pneumatic equipment requires compressed air. The cost of the installation is greatly increased if no compressed air is available for such a purpose.The initial installation . It is quite common in plants with numerous demands for instrument air to have a common compressor with pneumatic hose supplying the devices.Introduction 19 Stray Capacitance Problems This mainly applies to capacitive devices where special mounting equipment may be required. More common is the requirement to tap into the existing supply but this still requires the installation of air lines. Some typical maintenance requirements may include the following: .

Electrolytic Corrosion The application of a voltage to measuring equipment can cause chemical corrosion to the sensing transducer. Susceptible to Electrical Noise In selecting equipment. Licensing requirements may also apply with such material. Radiation The use of radioactive materials such as Cobalt or Cesium often gives accurate measurements. however in extreme mismatches. Matching of the process materials and metals used for the housing and sensor can limit the effects. to ensure that it is suitably enclosed and installation safety requirements are also required for personal safety.Automated or self cleaning (water sprays) Constant Relative Density Measurement equipment that relies on a constant density of process material is limited in applications where the density varies. typically a probe.20 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control . but will cause increased errors in the measurement. having interchangeable equipment can reduce costs and increase system availability. However. Accuracy Based on Technical Data The accuracy of a device can also be dependent on how well the technical data is obtained from the installation and data sheets. For ‘one-off’ applications. High Resistance Devices that have a high resistance can pick up noise quite easily. The added expense and availability of specialised services should also be considered. which require special safety measures. Applications requiring such calculations are often subject to interpretation. Variations in the density will not affect the continued operation of the equipment. Precautions are required when housing such equipment. Not Easily Interchangeable In the event of failure or for inventory purposes. Any new equipment that is not easily replaced by anything already existing could require an extra as a spare. this may prove an inhibiting factor.Regular maintenance . More Expensive to Test and Diagnose More difficult and expensive equipment can also require costly test and diagnosis equipment. Generally high resistance devices require good practice in terms of cable selection and grounding to minimise noise pickup. Requires Clean Liquid Measuring equipment requiring a clean fluid do so for a number of reasons: .Location (or relocation) of sensing equipment . A typical example would be level measurement using hydrostatic pressure. corrosion is quite rapid. problems arise from the hazards of using radioactive materials. this should be seen as an extra cost and possibly more equipment or configuration time is required to eliminate noise problems.

. Filters There are two main disadvantages with filters: . Although this may seem like a major limitation. reverts partly to a gas. labour and materials in the initial installation. due to pressure changes. Unidirectional Measurement Only This is mainly a disadvantage with flow measurement devices where flow can only be measured in the one direction. For those technologies that sense through the process material. requirements may be imposed on the orientation when mounting the sensing transducer. Mechanical Failure Failure of mechanical equipment cannot be avoided. This can cause major errors in measurements. or time to repair. and it is of such a construction that debris may block the line or a valve downstream. A typical application for mounting an instrument vertically would be a variable area flowmeter. Note that the flow profile is dependent on viscosity and turbulence. Flow is probably the best example of illustrating the problems caused if a measurement transducer should fail. then this can make the process inoperative until shutdown and repaired. the phase change can result in reflections and possibly make the application unmeasurable. In selecting such devices.Maintenance and cleaning . but from a control point of view can indicate that the filter is in need of cleaning or replacement. Limited Life Due to Wear Non-critical service applications can afford measuring equipment with a limited operating life. Not Suitable with Partial Phase Change Phase change is where a fluid. consideration needs to be given to the accuracy of the measurement over time. however the effects and consequences can be assessed in determining the suitable technology for the application. few applications use bi-directional flows. as it is effectively a very large change in density.Constant density of process fluid .Introduction 21 . In applications requiring the swirling of fluids and pressure changes there is usually an operating range of which the fluids viscosity is required to be within.Sensing equipment with holes can become easily clogged . If the device fails. Viscosity Must be Known The viscosity of a fluid is gauged by the Reynolds number and does vary with temperature. Flow Profile The flow profile may need to be of a significant form for selected measuring equipment.Solids cause interference with sensing technology Orientation Dependent Depending on the technology used. This may involve extra work.Pressure loss across filter The pressure loss can be a process limitation.

Figure 1.10 Instruments and control valves in the overall control system .22 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Acoustically Transparent Measuring transducers requiring the reflection of acoustic energy are not suitable where the process material is acoustically transparent.7 Measuring instruments and control valves as part of the overall control system Figure 1. 1.10 shows how instrument and control valves fit into the overall control system structure. The topic of controllers and tuning forms part of a separate workshop. These applications would generally require some contact means of measurement.

Introduction 23 1. ventilation and air conditioning) Applications Heat transfer Billing Axial fans Climate control Hot and chilled water flows Forced air Fumehoods System balancing Pump operation and efficiency Petrochemical Applications Co-generation Light oils Petroleum products Steam Hydrocarbon vapours Flare lines. stacks Natural Gas Gas leak detection Compressor efficiency Fuel gas systems Bi-directional flows Mainline measurement Distribution lines measurement Jacket water systems Station yard piping Power Industry Feed water Circulating water High pressure heaters Fuel oil Stacks Auxiliary steam lines Cooling tower measurement Low pressure heaters Reheat lines Combustion air Emissions Monitoring Chemical incinerators Trash incinerators Refineries Stacks and rectangular ducts Flare lines .8 Typical applications Some typical applications are listed below. HVAC (Heating.

24 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control .

Instrumentation & Control Process Control Fundamentals .

.............. 15 Indicators............................................................................................... 1 Performance Objective ...... 16 Correcting Elements/Final Control Elements ....................................................................................................................................................... 2 Process Control ............................................... 3 Control Theory Basics ....................................................................................................................... 14 Analog Signals...............Table of Contents Introduction...........................8 Control Algorithm................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl............................................................................................ 18 Actuators...........................................8 Load Disturbance .......................................................6 Setpoint ........................................................................................ 11 Learning Objectives....................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Primary Elements/Sensors.............................. Process Variables......................................................................................... 14 Digital Signals ................................................................................................... 5 Three Tasks.............................. 4 Learning Objectives.............................................................................................. and Manipulated Variables.............................................................................................................. 2 Increase Efficiency ............................... 14 Pneumatic Signals .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Controllers................ 1 The Importance of Process Control ................................................................................................. 4 The Control Loop.............................................................................................................................................................................................7 Error ............................................................6 Measured Variables........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Ensure Safety ................9 Closed and Open Control Loops .... 1 Learning Objectives...............................................................................................................6 Process Variable............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 The Importance of Process Control.....................................................com ii .........................................10 Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Transducers and Converters...............................................................................................................................................................................5 Process Control Terms ............................................................................................................................................... 13 Transmitters............................................................................................. 15 Recorders....................................................................................................................... 13 Signals ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Process..................................................................................................................7 Offset..........................................................................................................................................8 Manual and Automatic Control ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Control Loop Equipment and Technology......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Reduce Variability ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................33 Limits of Proportional action ................. 37 Open Loop Analysis......................................................................................... 37 Closed Loop Analysis ....................................................................... 20 Pumps ........ 23 ISA Symbology Review ...................................................................................Closed Loop...........................51 iii Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28 Discrete Controllers ...........................................28 Multistep Controllers..........................................................................................................................46 Single Control Loops ............................... Integral Mode .............................. 22 Identification Letters.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 Learning Objectives....................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Piping and Connections ............................................31 Gain ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 39 Summary ..........................................................................................................................................................................27 Learning Objectives...................................................................................................................................................... 41 Derivative Action ....................................................................................................................................................................47 Examples Of Single Control Loops....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26 Controller Algorithms and Tuning .....................................................................................................34 Proportional Action.............31 Proportional Mode ..... 40 Derivative Mode ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Reset Windup ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................34 Determining the Controller Output.....................................33 Proportional Band ...........................................................49 Level Control Loops ..49 Flow Control Loops..............................50 Temperature Control Loops ..............................................................................................................................................................................................29 Continuous Controllers ........................................................................................................................................................27 Controller Algorithms............ 35 ............................................................................................................................................................................................48 Pressure Control Loops......................................................47 Feedback Control ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents ISA Symbology .........................29 Why controllers need tuning?............ 9 1 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................ 41 Rate Summary. 37 Integral Action ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33 Proportional Gain ....................... 23 Tag Numbers..............................................................com ........................... 44 Process Control Loops...............................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops ................................................................... 56 Selective Control....................54 Cascade Control ...........52 Multivariable Loops ................................................................................................ 57 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.................................................................. 57 Fuzzy Control ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 55 Batch Control ...................................................................................com iv .............................................................................53 Feedforward plus Feedback ..........................................................................................52 Feedforward Control ............. 56 Ratio Control ........................................................................................................

temperature. When you see the workbook exercise graphic at the bottom of a page. The following five sections are included in this module: The importance of process control Control theory basics Components of control loops and ISA symbology Controller algorithms and tuning Process control systems As you proceed through the module. you will be able to determine needed control loop components in specific process control applications.Introduction Control in process industries refers to the regulation of all aspects of the process. Workbook exercises help you measure your progress toward meeting each section’s learning objectives. Precise control of level. go to the workbook to complete the designated exercise before moving on in the module. note the application boxes (double-bordered boxes) located throughout the module. Also. Application boxes provide key information about how you may use your baseline knowledge in the field. pressure and flow is important in many process applications. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE After completing this module. This module introduces you to control in process industries. Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. answer the questions in the activities column on the right side of each page.com v . and identifies different ways in which precise control is ensured. explains why control is important.

you will be able to: Define process Define process control Describe the importance of process control in terms of variability. and potentially hazardous process. handling. ensure quality and safety. temperature. efficiency.The Importance of Process Control Refining. combining.com 1 . and safety Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated. and many other factors must be carefully and consistently controlled to produce the desired end product with a minimum of raw materials and energy. Small changes in a process can have a large impact on the end result. Process control technology is the tool that enables manufacturers to keep their operations running within specified limits and to set more precise limits to maximize profitability. Variations in proportions. flow. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section. Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. demanding. turbulence. and otherwise manipulating fluids to profitably produce end products can be a precise.

the food and beverage industry. and the refinery would lose money. or slurry state to to create end products. For example. the temperature of the materials. gaseous. The raw materials. the gasoline may get too much of the high-octane components. For example. 2. in a gasoline blending process. gaseous. and the power industry. Manufacturers control the production process for three reasons: Reduce variability Increase efficiency Ensure safety Reduce Variability Process control can reduce variability in the end product. The opposite situation would be customers receiving a lower grade at a higher price. which ensures a consistently high-quality product. Process is defined as the changing or refining of raw materials that pass through or remain in a liquid. . are transferred. refers to the methods of changing or refining raw materials to create end products. which either pass through or remain in a liquid. as many as 12 or more different components may be blended to make a specific grade of gasoline. heated or cooled. filtered. 1 2 3 4 5 Pharmaceutical Satellite Oil and Gas Cement Power 2 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. measured.The Importance of Process Control The Importance of Process Control Activities PROCESS Process as used in the terms process control and process industry. 1. Manufacturers can also save money by reducing variability. and the pressure under which the materials are held can significantly impact the quality of an end product. the oil and gas industry. Process industries include the chemical industry. factors such as the proportion of one ingredient to another. Which of these industries are examples of the process industry? Select all options that apply. or handled in some other way to produce the end product. If the refinery does not have precise control over the flow of the separate components.com. or slurry (a mix of solids and liquids) state during the process. stored. As a result. how well the ingredients are mixed. the pharmaceutical industry. mixed. PROCESS CONTROL Process control refers to the methods that are used to control process variables when manufacturing a product. customers would receive a higher grade and more expensive gasoline than they paid for. the water treatment industry.

With accurate.e. For example. Precise process control may also be required to ensure safety. When there is variability in the end product (i. may result if manufacturers do not maintain precise control of all of the processg variables.THE IMPORTANCE OF PROCESS CONTROL Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. a control point might be the temperature at which a chemical reaction takes place. COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE . which adds to the cost. PV limit to ensure quality The Importance of Process Control Reducing variability can also save money by reducing the need for Activities 3.The Importance of Process Control product padding to meet required product specifications. What are the main reasons for manufacturers to control a process? Select all options that apply. 1 2 3 4 PV limit to ensure quality PV Setpoint 5 Reduce variability Ensure safety Reduce costs Increase efficiency Increase productivity Low Variability PV Setpoint High Variability Increase Efficiency Some processes need to be maintained at a specific point to maximize efficiency. the setpoint (desired or optimal point) can be moved closer to the actual product specification and thus save the manufacturer money. Manufacturers save money by minimizing the resources required to produce the end product. dependable process control. manufacturers are forced to pad the product to ensure that specifications are met. The consequences of a run-away process can be catastrophic.com 3 . when process control is poor).. Ensure Safety A run-away process. such as an out-of-control nuclear or chemical reaction. Padding refers to the process of making a product of higher-quality than it needs to be to meet specifications. For example. Accurate control of temperature ensures process efficiency. maintaining proper boiler pressure by controlling the inflow of air used in combustion and the outflow of exhaust gases is crucial in preventing boiler implosions that can clearly threaten the safety of workers.

you will be able to: Define control loop Describe the three tasks necessary for process control to occur: • Measure • Compare • Adjust Define the following terms: • Process variable • Setpoint • Manipulated variable • Measured variable • Error • Offset • Load disturbance • Control algorithm List at least five process variables that are commonly controlled in process measurement industries At a high level. Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Common terms and concepts relating to process control are defined in this section.com 4 .Control Theory Basics This section presents some of the basic concepts of control and provides a foundation from which to understand more complex control processes and algorithms later described in this module. differentiate the following types of control: • Manual versus automatic feedback control • Closed-loop versus open-loop control Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section.

The valve opens to let some liquid out of the tank.g. valves. controllers.Control Theory Basics The Control Loop Imagine you are sitting in a cabin in front of a small fire on a cold winter evening. The control loop will now remain static until the temperature again rises above or falls below your comfort level. sensors. . In the control loop. and adjustment. Activities 1. but the three tasks of measurement. Many different instruments and devices may or may not be used in control loops (e. The controller then sends a signal to the device that can bring the tank level back to a lower level—a valve at the bottom of the tank. LIC Maximum level LT A Simple Control Loop 5 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.1. comparison. pumps).com. and finds that the values are equal. The three tasks associated with any control loop are measurement. a level transmitter (LT) measures the level in the tank and transmits a signal associated with the level reading to a controller (LIC). requiring three tasks to occur: Measurement Comparison Adjustment In Figure 7. and adjustment are always present. The controller compares the reading to a predetermined value. transmitters. You feel uncomfortably cold.. comparison. the maximum tank level established by the plant operator. a variable (temperature) fell below the setpoint (your comfort level). and you took action to bring the process back into the desired condition by adding fuel to the fire. Is this statement true or false? THREE TASKS Control loops in the process control industry work in the same way. in this case. Thisis an example of a control loop. so you throw another log on the fire.

1. 3. PROCESS VARIABLE A process variable is a condition of the process fluid (a liquid or gas) that can change the manufacturing process in some way. The sensor is inserted into the process. so you throw another log into the fire. A process variable is a condition that can change the process in some way.Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms As in any field. and a contoller compares the temperature reading from the sensor to the setpoint. Imagine you are in a cabin in front of a small fire on a cold winter evening. In the example of the tank in Figure 7. Set points can also be maximum or minimum values. Activities 2. A temperature sensor can be used to help maintain the temperature at setpoint. If the level of a liquid in a tank must be maintained within 5 ft of 50 ft. the process variable is level. For example.com 6 . the process variable was temperature. then the setpoint is 100 °C. process control has its own set of common terms that you should be familiar with and that you will use when talking about control technology. the process variable is temperature. Is this true or false? 4. what is the liquid’s setpoint? 1 2 3 4 45 ft 55 ft 5 ft 50 ft Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. then the controller determines that the process is above setpoint and signals the fuel valve of the burner to close slightly until the process cools to 100 °C. If the temperature reading is 110 °C. In this scenario. In the example of you sitting by the fire. Common process variables include: Pressure Flow Level Temperature Density Ph (acidity or alkalinity) Liquid interface (the relative amounts of different liquids that are combined in a vessel) Mass Conductivity SETPOINT The setpoint is a value for a process variable that is desired to be maintained. level in tank cannot exceed 20 feet. You feel uncomfortably cold. if a process temperature needs to kept within 5 °C of 100 °C. For example.

A load disturbance is an undesired change in one of the factors that can affect the setpoint. the manipulated variable would also be flow (Figure 7. Sometimes the measured variable is not the same as the process variable. and the process fluid level is the process variable. PROCESS VARIABLES. The measured variable is the condition of the process fluid that must be kept at the designated setpoint. which must be held close to 100 °C. The change in error is also an important value.2). In the example described. the measured variable is also the process variable. AND MANIPULATED VARIABLES In the temperature control loop example. The magnitude of error at any point in time compared to the previous error provides the basis for determining the change in error. the error is +10 °C.com . The objective of any control scheme is to minimize or eliminate error. The factor that is changed to keep the measured variable at setpoint is called the manipulated variable. In the temperature control loop example.Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms MEASURED VARIABLES. Any error can be seen as having three major components. 6. For example. These three components are shown in the figure on the folowing page Magnitude The magnitude of the error is simply the deviation between the values of the setpoint and the process variable. In this example and in most instances. it is imperative that error be well understood. ____________________ is a sustained deviation of the process variable from the setpoint. 7 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Is this statement true or false? Controller Variables ERROR Error is the difference between the measured variable and the setpoint and can be either positive or negative. the measured variable is temperature. the error is the difference between the 110 °C measured variable and the 100 °C setpoint—that is. In this scenario. Setpoint Process variable or measured variable Manipulated variable Activities 5. a manufacturer may measure flow into and out of a storage tank to determine tank level. Therefore. flow is the measured variable.

In the temperature control loop example. adding cold process fluid to the vessel would be a load disturbance because it would lower the temperature of the process fluid.com 8 . then an offset of 0. LOAD DISTURBANCE A load disturbance is an undesired change in one of the factors that can affect the process variable. The relationship in a control algorithm can be expressed as: Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. V in the equation below is the fuel valve position.5 °C consistently.Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms Duration Duration refers to the length of time that an error condition has existed. and e is the error. Rate Of Change The rate of change is shown by the slope of the error plot. Using the temperature control loop example. even though the setpoint is 100 °C. In the temperature control loop example. CONTROL ALGORITHM A control algorithm is a mathematical expression of a control function.5 °C exists. if the control system held the process fluid at 100. Activities Rate of Change of Error (Slope of Error Plot) PV Magnitude of Error Duration SP Components of Error OFFSET Offset is a sustained deviation of the process variable from the setpoint.

questions such as “How far should the valve be opened or closed in response to a given change in setpoint?” and “How long should the valve be held in the new position after the process variable moves back toward setpoint?” need to be answered. 9 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. For example. rather than machines. a human operator might have watched a level gauge and closed a valve when the level reached the setpoint. such as an automatic valve actuator that responds to a level controller. people. are called automatic control systems. MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL Before process automation. Summing block Process variable Error Manipulated variable f(e) Valve position Feedback Algorithm Example Control algorithms can be used to calculate the requirements of much more complex control loops than the one described here. control operations in which no human intervention is required.3). . performed many of the process control tasks. In more complex control loops.com . Is this statement true or false? The fuel valve position (V) is a function (f) of the sign (positive or negative) of the error (Figure 7.Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms V = f ( ± e) Activities 7. Conversely. Automatic control systems are control operations that involve human action to make adjustment. Control operations that involve human action to make an adjustment are called manual control systems.

regardless of the actual temperature of the process fluid. and action is taken not in response to feedback on the condition of the process variable. a water valve may be opened to add cooling water to a process to prevent the process fluid from getting too hot.CONTROL THEORY BASICS 10 Fundamentals of Control ©2006 PAControl. and action is taken to correct any deviation from setpoint. based on a pre-set time interval.Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms CLOSED AND OPEN CONTROL LOOPS A closed control loop exists where a process variable is measured. 1 2 3 4 5 Process variable is not measured Process variable is not compared Process variable is measured and compared to a setpoint Action is taken without regard to process variable conditions Action is taken with regard to process variable conditions COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE . but is instead taken without regard to process variable conditions. Activities 8. An open control loop exists where the process variable is not compared. For example. compared to a setpoint.com . Under what circumstances does an open control loop exist? Select all options that apply.

and equipment used to develop and maintain process control loops.. local. and for each one: • Provide a brief explanation of its method of operation • Describe its impact on the control loop • List common applications in which it is used Given a piping and instrumentation drawing (P&ID).g. transmitters) • Location symbols (e. pumps.g. this section describes how process control equipment is represented in technical drawings of control loops. electrical) Accurately interpret instrument letter designations used on P&IDs Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section.g. panel-front) • Signal type symbols (e. control valves.com 11 . In addition.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology This section describes the instruments. technologies. correctly label the: • Instrument symbols (e. the basic method of operation for the following control loop components: • Primary element/sensor • Transducer • Converter • Transmitter • Signal • Indicator • Recorder • Controller • Correcting element/final control element • Actuator List examples of each type of control loop component listed above State the advantages of 4–20 mA current signals when compared with other types of signals List at least three types of final control elements.. pneumatic. you will be able to: Describe the basic function of and.. where appropriate.

Identify three examples of a primary element/sensors in process control? Select all options that apply. Is this statement true or false? 12 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. In some cases. Resistance Temperature Detectors Thermocouples Control Valve Converter Pitot tubes 2. may perform more than one of the basic control functions. Primary elements will not make direct contact with the process fluid. The resistance is measured. and from this measurement. Other technologies have been developed so that communication can occur among the components that measure. For example. as the temperature of a process fluid surrounding the RTD rises or falls. comparison. when a conductive fluid passes through the magnetic field in a magnetic flow tube. and adjust. some kind of instrument is measuring changes in the process and reporting a process variable measurement. Some of the greatest ingenuity in the process control field is apparent in sensing devices.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology Control Loop Equipment and Technology The previous section described the basic elements of control as Activities measurement. and adjustment. In practice.com . The primary element (magnetic flow tube) outputs a voltage that can be measured and used to calculate the fluid’s flow rate. such as a modern pressure transmitter. a single process control instrument. they are also called primary elements. capacitance cells Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) Thermocouples Orifice plates Pitot tubes Venturi tubes Magnetic flow tubes Coriolis flow tubes Radar emitters and receivers Ultrasonic emitters and receivers Annubar flow elements Vortex sheddar Primary elements are devices that cause some change in their property with changes in process fluid conditions that can then be measured. temperature is determined. there are instruments and strategies to accomplish each of these essential tasks. With an RTD. 1. strain gauges. Examples of primary elements include: Pressure sensing diaphragms. 1 2 3 4 5 PRIMARY ELEMENTS/SENSORS In all cases. compare. the fluid generates a voltage that is directly proportional to the velocity of the process fluid. Because sensing devices are the first element in the control loop to measure the process variable. the electrical resistance of the RTD increases or decreases a proportional amount.

TRANSMITTERS A transmitter is a device that converts a reading from a sensor or transducer into a standard signal and transmits that signal to a monitor or controller. For example. inside a capacitance pressure device. A converter is a device that converts one type of signal into another type of signal. Is this statement true or false? Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Activities 3.com 13 . A ____________ is a device that translates a mechanical signal into an electrical signal. a converter used to convert a 4–20 mA current signal into a 3–15 psig pneumatic signal (commonly used by valve actuators) is called a current-to-pressure converter. a converter may convert current into voltage or an analog signal into a digital signal. a transducer converts changes in pressure into a proportional change in capacitance. CO [carbon monoxide]. In process control.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology Control Loop Equipment and Technology TRANSDUCERS AND CONVERTERS A transducer is a device that translates a mechanical signal into an electrical signal. and pH) transmitters 4. For example. A transmitter is a device that converts a reading from a transducer into a standard signal and transmits that signal to a monitor or controller. Transmitter types include: Pressure transmitters Flow transmitters Temperature transmitters Level transmitters Analytic (O2 [oxygen].

An RTD temperature sensor and transmitter are installed in the process vessel. imagine a process that must be maintained at 100 °C. or zero. Analog Signals The most common standard electrical signal is the 4–20 mA current signal. For example. This signal can be converted to a temperature reading or an input to a control device. With this signal. The common industry standard pneumatic signal range is 3–15 psig. the transmitter outputs a 4–20 mA signal that is proportionate to the temperature changes. The transmitter will transmit a 12 mA signal when the temperature is at the 100 °C setpoint. Other common standard electrical signals include the 1–5 V (volts) signal and the pulse output. The current signal is a kind of gauge in which 4 mA represents the lowest possible measurement. a transmitter sends a small current through a set of wires. Pneumatic signal 2. the lower costs involved in running electrical signal wire through a plant as opposed to running pressurized air tubes has made pneumatic signal technology less attractive. 5. since the advent of electronic instruments in the 1960s. and 20 mA represents the highest possible measurement. Identify the signal types that are used in the process control industry? Select all options that apply. Analog signal 3. Digital signal Pneumatic Signals Pneumatic signals are signals produced by changing the air pressure in a signal pipe in proportion to the measured change in a process variable. and the transmitter is set to produce a 4 mA signal when the process temperature is at 95 °C and a 20 mA signal when the process temperature is at 105 °C.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology Control Loop Equipment and Technology SIGNALS Activities There are three kinds of signals that exist for the process industry to transmit the process variable measurement from the instrument to a centralized control system. However. Pneumatic signalling is still common. 1. such as a burner fuel valve. 1 2 3 4 5 Hydraulic signals Digital signals Analog signals Pneumatic signals Electro-magnetic signals 14 Fundamentals of Control . As the sensor’s resistance property changes in response to changes in temperature. The 3 corresponds to the lower range value (LRV) and the 15 corresponds to the upper range value (URV).

An indicator is a human-readable device that displays information about the process.) 6. The ___________ is a human-readable device that displays information about the process or the instrument it is connected to. Digital signals are discrete levels or values that are combined in specific ways to represent process variables and also carry other information. Which of the following are examples of a digital signal? Select all options that apply. Profibus. INDICATORS While most instruments are connected to a control system. (See Module 8: Communication Technologies for more information on digital communication protocols. and the Modbus® protocol. while others have control buttons that enable operators to change settings in the field. such as diagnostic information. An indictor makes this reading possible.15 psig 15 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. operators sometimes need to check a measurement on the factory floor at the measurement point. such as a digital read-out device.com . Proprietary protocols are owned by specific companies and may be used only with their permission. Indicators may be as simple as a pressure or temperature gauge or more complex. The methodology used to combine the digital signals is referred to as protocol.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology Control Loop Equipment and Technology Digital Signals Activities Digital signals are the most recent addition to process control signal technology. Open protocols are those that anyone who is developing a control device can use. Open digital protocols include the HART® (highway addressable remote transducer) protocol. FOUNDATION™ Fieldbus. Manufacturers may use either an open or a proprietary digital protocol. Some indicators simply display the measured variable. 1 2 3 4 5 Profibus 4 .20 mA 1-5v Fieldbus 3 . DeviceNet. 7.

Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology

Control Loop Equipment and Technology RECORDERS Activities
A recorder is a device that records the output of a measurement devices. Many process manufacturers are required by law to provide a process history to regulatory agencies, and manufacturers use recorders to help meet these regulatory requirements. In addition, manufacturers often use recorders to gather data for trend analyses. By recording the readings of critical measurement points and comparing those readings over time with the results of the process, the process can be improved. Different recorders display the data they collect differently. Some recorders list a set of readings and the times the readings were taken; others create a chart or graph of the readings. Recorders that create charts or graphs are called chart recorders. 8. A recorder is a device that records the ________________ of a measurement or control device.

CONTROLLERS
A controller is a device that receives data from a measurement instrument, compares that data to a programmed setpoint, and, if necessary, signals a control element to take corrective action. Local controllers are usually one of the three types: pneumatic, electronic or programmable. Contollers also commonly reside in a digital control system.
Computer-based central controller DCS Pneumatic, electronic, or programmable local controller

Transmitter

Single-loop controller

Valve

Power supply

Controller (CPU)

I/O card

Controllers

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Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology

Control Loop Equipment and Technology Controllers may perform complex mathematical functions to compare Activities
a set of data to setpoint or they may perform simple addition or subtraction functions to make comparisons. Controllers always have an ability to receive input, to perform a mathematical function with the input, and to produce an output signal. Common examples of controllers include: Programmable logic controllers (PLCs)—PLCs are usually computers connected to a set of input/output (I/O) devices. The computers are programmed to respond to inputs by sending outputs to maintain all processes at setpoint. Distributed control systems (DCSs)—DCSs are controllers that, in addition to performing control functions, provide readings of the status of the process, maintain databases and advanced man-machine-interface. 9. Which of the following have the ability to receive input, to perform a mathematical function with the input, and produce an output signal?
1 2 3 4

Actuators Transmitters Transducers Controllers

Setpoint P I D Analog Rack Mount Controller (Electronic)

10. Which of the following is the most common final control element in process control industries?

Pipestand Controller (Pneumatic or Electronic)

1 2 3 4

Agitator Pump motor Valve Louver

Single Loop Digital Converter (Electronic)

Distributed Control System (Electronic)

Types of Process Controllers

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Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology

Control Loop Equipment and Technology Activities
11. _______________ is a part final control device that causes a physical change in the final control device when signaled to do so.
Smart Transmitter

Digital Valve Controller (Smart Positioner)

Smart Transmitter (Provides PID Output)

Types of Process Controllers

CORRECTING ELEMENTS/FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS
The correcting or final control element is the part of the control system that acts to physically change the manipulated variable. In most cases, the final control element is a valve used to restrict or cut off fluid flow, but pump motors, louvers (typically used to regulate air flow), solenoids, and other devices can also be final control elements. Final control elements are typically used to increase or decrease fluid flow. For example, a final control element may regulate the flow of fuel to a burner to control temperature, the flow of a catalyst into a reactor to control a chemical reaction, or the flow of air into a boiler to control boiler combustion. In any control loop, the speed with which a final control element reacts to correct a variable that is out of setpoint is very important. Many of the technological improvements in final control elements are related to improving their response time.

ACTUATORS
An actuator is the part of a final control device that causes a physical change in the final control device when signalled to do so. The most common example of an actuator is a valve actuator, which opens or closes a valve in response to control signals from a controller. Actuators are often powered pneumatically, hydraulically, or electrically. Diaphragms, bellows, springs, gears, hydraulic pilot valves, pistons, or electric motors are often parts of an actuator system.

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You should be familiar with ISA symbology so that you can demonstrate possible process control loop solutions on paper to your customer.1 instrumentation symbol specification). Intergral and Derivative control TY 123 YIC 123 TT 123 FT 123 Piping and Instrumentation Drawing (P&ID) Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Figure 7. SP Activities 12.com 19 . What does the acronym P&ID stand for? 1 2 3 FIC 123 TIC 123 4 Piping and Instrument Designing Piping and Instrumentation Drawing Process Control and Installation Drawing Proportional. Drawings of this kind are known as piping and instrumentation drawings (P&ID). Systems. The ISA has developed a set of symbols for use in engineering drawings and designs of control loops (ISA S5.5 shows a control loop using ISA symbology.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology The Instrumentation. and Automation Society (ISA) is one of the leading process control trade and standards organizations.

A double line indicates that the function is in an auxiliary location (e.. such as those carried out by a controller (Figure 7.g. LOCATION Activities 13.6: Discrete Instruments A single horizontal line running across the center of the shape indicates that the instrument or function is located in a primary location (e.g.8). located behind a panel board). a circle represents individual measurement instruments.6). A square with a circle inside represents instruments that both display measurement readings and perform some control function (Figure 7. Which of the following is a symbol of a transmitter in an auxiliary location? 1 Control Room Auxiliary Field Not Accessible Figure 7.g.com . The absence of a line indicates that the function is field mounted. such as transmitters. Many modern transmitters are equipped with microprocessors that perform control calculations and send control output signals to final control elements. and detectors (Figure 7.7). Which of the following is a symbol of a field-mounted control/display element? Control Room Field Not Accessible Flow/ Square Root Shared Control/Display Elements 1 A hexagon represents computer functions. DISPLAY AND CONTROL TYPES 2 3 4 14. a control room). Control Types 2 3 4 Control Room Auxiliary Field Not Accessible Computer Functions (Controllers) 20 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. sensors. and a dotted line indicates that the function or instrument is inaccessible (e. an instrument rack).Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology SYMBOLS In a P&ID...

Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology Activities 15. Which of the following is a symbol of a controller located behind a panel? 1 2 3 4 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.com 21 .

Which of the following is a symbol of a pneumatic valve? Valves 1 Pumps Directional arrows showing the flow direction represent a pump (Figure 7.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology A square with a diamond inside represents PLCs (Figure 7. Pneumatic valve Manual valve Electric valve 17.10). 2 3 4 Pumps Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. PLC Types Activities 16. An actuator is always drawn above the valve (Figure 7. The symbol displayed below denotes a PLC in a primary location. Is this statement true or false? Control Room Auxiliary Field Not accessible PLCs Two triangles with their apexes contacting each other (a “bow tie” shape) represent a valve in the piping.9).11).com 22 .

4–20 mA connections) A slashed line represents pneumatic signal tubes A line with circles on it represents data links Other connection symbols include capillary tubing for filled systems (e.. impulse piping) A dashed line represents electrical signals (e.g. The symbols displayed below represent a data link and a process connection. Is this statement true or false? Process connection Electrical signal Pneumatic signal Data link Capillary tubing for filled systems Hydraulic signal line Guided electromagnetic or sonic signal Piping and Connection Symbols 23 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.12): A heavy solid line represents piping A thin solid line represents process connections to instruments (e.. remote diaphragm seals)..com .g.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology Piping and Connections Piping and connections are represented with several different symbols (Figure 7. hydraulic signal lines. and guided electromagnetic or sonic signals. Piping Activities 18.g.

For example. valve.org.isa. pressure. flow transmitter 123). switch. The initial letter on an ISA symbol indicates the measured variable. Is this statement true or false? 20. transmitter. What does the third letter on an ISA symbol indicate? TAG NUMBERS Numbers on P&ID symbols represent instrument tag numbers. low. Often these numbers are associated with a particular control loop (e.g. sensor. indicator) Some modifiers (e. Activities 19. TT for temperature transmitter) indicate: The variable being measured (e.. temperature) The device’s function (e. The initial letter indicates the measured variable.g. flow. See Figure 7..Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology IDENTIFICATION LETTERS Identification letters on the ISA symbols (e. high. “PT” represents a pressure transmitter.g.1 on page 26 shows the ISA identification letter designations. Identification letters 1 2 3 4 Device function or a modifier Measured variable Readout Type of process fluid FIC 123 Tag number Identification Letters and Tag Number Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. The second letter indicates a modifier. readout..13...g. or device function. The third letter usually indicates either a device function or a modifier.g. “FIC” on an instrument tag represents a flow indicating controller.com 24 . multifunction) Table 7. You can find identification letter symbology information on the ISA Web site at http://www.

louver Multifunction Momentary User’s choice Orifice. time schedule Level User’s choice User’s choice User’s choice Pressure. or presence Position. dimension X axis Y axis Z axis Well Unclassified Unclassified Relay.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology Measured Variable A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Analysis Burner. force Unclassified Event. mechanical analysis Weight. compute. damper. restriction Point. state. convert Driver. intermediate User’s choice Indication Ration (fraction) Glass. viewing device High Differential Sensor (primary element) Modifier Readout Alarm User’s choice User’s choice Control User’s choice Device Function Modifier Activities ISA Identification Letters 25 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. totalizer Record Switch Transmit Multifunction Valve. frequency Temperature Multivariable Vibration. test connection User’s choice Scan Time rate of change Light Control station Low Middle. combustion User’s choice User’s choice Voltage Flow rate User’s choice Hand Electrical Current Power Time.com . vacuum Quantity Radiation Speed. actuator Unclassified Multifunction Safety Integrate.

In Figure 7.14 shows the elements of ISA symbology used in a P&ID.14.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology ISA SYMBOLOGY REVIEW Figure 7. Flow indicating controller that performs a square root flow calculation (primary location) Activities Temperature indicating controller (field mounted) 21.COMPONENTS OF CONTROL LOOPS AND ISA SYMBOLOGY Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. signal is transmitted out from the temperature transmitter? FIC 123 SP Data link Electrical signal 1 2 3 TIC 123 PLC 4 Data link Mechanical signal Electrical signal Pneumatic signal Flow transmitter Temperature computer TY 123 YIC 123 Pneumatic line FT 123 Impulse Tubing Pipe TT 123 Temperature transmitter Pneumatically actuated valve Electrically actuated valve P&ID with ISA Symbology COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE .com 26 . what kind of .

you will be introduced to some of the strategies and methods used in complex process control loops. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section. you will be able to: Differentiate between discrete. and the interaction of numerous setpoints in an overall process control plan can be subtle and complex. and demonstrated the symbology used to represent those elements in an engineering drawing. multistep. In this section. and continuous controllers Describe the general goal of controller tuning. PI and PID control in the following types of loops: • Pressure loop • Flow loop • Level loop • Temperature loop Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated. defined individual elements within control loops.com 27 . Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Identify the basic implementation of P. The examples of control loops used thus far have been very basic. control loops can be fairly complex. Describe the basic mechanism. In practice. advantages and disadvantages of the following mode of controller action: • Proportional action • Intergral action • Derivative action Give examples of typical applications or situations in which each mode of controller action would be used.Controller Algorithms and Tuning The previous sections of this module described the purpose of control. The strategies used to hold a process at setpoint are not always simple.

Because the water starts cooling again when the burner turns off. A common example of a discrete controller is a home hot water heater. the burner turns off. Which one of the following is an everyday example of a discrete controller? Select the options that apply. Each type of contoller has advantages and disadvantages and will meet the needs of different applications. the three types of controllers are: Discrete controllers Multistep controllers Continuous controllers Activities 1.15).Controller Algorithms and Tuning Controller Algorithms The actions of controllers can be divided into groups based upon the functions of their control mechanism. it is only a matter of time before the cycle begins again. This type of control doesn’t actually hold the variable at setpoint. the burner turns on.com . but keeps the variable within proximity of setpoint in what is known as a dead zone (Figure 7. 1 2 3 4 DISCRETE CONTROLLERS Discrete controllers are controllers that have only two modes or positions: on and off. When the temperature of the water in the tank falls below setpoint. When the water in the tank reaches setpoint. Grouped by control mechanism function. Refrigerator Electric iron Air conditioner Rice cooker Dead zone Process variable action Control action Discrete Control 28 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.

Activities 2.16). the controller adjusts its output according to the parameters that have been set in the controller. the oscillation around setpoint can be less dramatic when multistep controllers are employed than when discrete controllers are used (Figure 7.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Controller Algorithms MULTISTEP CONTROLLERS Multistep controllers are controllers that have at least one other possible position in addition to on and off. Multistep controllers operate similarly to discrete controllers. Is this statement true or false? Process variable action Control action Figure 7. How long should the correction be applied? The duration of the adjustment to the controller output is determined by the integral mode of the controller How fast should the correction be applied? The speed at which a correction is made is determined by the derivative mode of the controller.16: Multistep Control Profile CONTINUOUS CONTROLLERS Controllers automatically compare the value of the PV to the SP to determine if an error exists. The tuning parameters essentially determine: How much correction should be made? The magnitude of the correction( change in controller output) is determined by the proportional mode of the controller. If there is an error. the multistep controller takes intermediate steps.com 29 . but as setpoint is approached. Therefore. A controller with three or more set positions is called a continuous controller. Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.

the controller makes a change in its output.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Controller Algorithms When there is an error.com 30 . It determines: How much? Proportional Mode How long? Integral Mode How fast? Derivative Mode Setpoint LIC I/P P I D SP PV Activities Controller LT PV SP Load Automatic Feedback Control Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.

20% Gain = 20% / 10% = 2 Change in Input to Controller . Examples: Change in Input to Controller .5% Gain = 5% / 10% = 0. in turn. Activities GAIN Controller tuning is performed to adjust the manner in which a control valve (or other final control element) responds to a change in error. The change in the controller output divided by the change in the input to the controller is known as __________ .com . The system remains stable (PV does not oscillate around the SP). The next three sections in this module discuss electricity.5 convey measurements and instructions to other instruments in a control loop to maintain the highest level of safety and efficiency. 3. and signals in greater detail so you can understand the importance of electricity in process control. but not so great a change as to cause instability or cycling.10% Change in Controller Output . 31 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. we are interested in adjusting the gain of the controller such that a change in controller input will result in a change in controller output that will. cause sufficient change in valve position to eliminate error. In particular. circuits.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Why Controllers Need Tuning? Controllers are tuned in an effort to match the characteristics of the control equipment to the process so that two goals are achieved: is the foundation of process control measurement in that electricity: The system responds quickly to errors.10% Change in Controller Output . Gain is defined simply as the change in output divided by the change in input. transmitters.

Fast or slow processes have no impact on controller gain settings.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Why Controllers Need Tuning? Gain Plot .The Figure below is simply another graphical way of representing the concept of gain.The following examples help to illustrate the purpose of setting the controller gain to different values.com .5 0 0 50 100 Input % Graphical Representaion of Gain Concept Examples . Is this statement true or false? Output % 50 Gain=0. LIC I/P LIC I/P LT LT Controllers May be Tuned to Help Match the Valve to the Process Fast Process May Require Less Gain To Achieve Stability Small volume liquid process Slow Process May Require Higher Gain To Achieve Responsiveness Large volume gas process Fast and Slow Processes May Require Different Controller Gain Settings 32 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Gain Kc =∆ Output % / ∆ Input % 100 Gain=2 Gain=1 Activities 4.

Proportional Band Activities 5. PB = 100/Gain Also recall that: Gain = 100%/PB Proportional Gain. Identify the major disadvantage of proportional action. The setting for the proportional mode may be expressed as either: 1. Proportional Gain (Kc) answers the question: "What is the percentage change of the controller output relative to the percentage change in controller input?" Proportional Gain is expressed as: Gain. proportional action is typically expressed as proportional gain. Proportional Gain 2.com . (Kc) = ∆Output% / ∆Input % PB= ∆Input(%Span) For 100%∆Output 33 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. 1 2 3 4 PROPORTIONAL GAIN In electronic controllers. (Kc) = ∆Output% /∆Input % PROPORTIONAL BAND Proportional Band (PB) is another way of representing the same information and answers this question: "What percentage of change of the controller input span will cause a 100% change in controller output?" PB = ∆Input (% Span) For 100%∆Output Tends to leave an offset Reset Windup during shutdown Possible overshoot during startup Can cause cycling in fast process by amplifying noisy signals Converting Between PB and Gain A simple equation converts gain to proportional Band: added.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Proportional Mode PROPORTIONAL ACTION The proportional mode is used to set the basic gain value of the controller.

DETERMINING THE CONTROLLER OUTPUT Controller Output . If proportional gain is 0. however. a proportional controller will signal the outflow control valve to open by <1 / 2.Proportional action will not return the PV to setpoint.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Proportional Mode Gain=2 100 PB= 50% Gain=1 PB=100% Gain=0. % X Gain Gain = 100%/PB EXAMPLE ∆Input = 10% PB = 50%.In a proportional only controller. Output Change. It will. Does Not Return the PV to Setpoint .Proportional action responds only to a change in the magnitude of the error. so Gain = 100%/50% = 2 34 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.5 / 5> % of its full range. and a level reading is 5% above setpoint.5. % = (Error Change. %) (Gain) Example: If the setpoint is suddenly changed 10% with a proportional band setting of 50%.com . return the PV to a value that is within a defined span (PB) around the PV.5 PB=200% Activities 6. the output will change as follows: Calculating Controller Output ∆Controller Output = ∆Input. the output is a function of the change in error and controller gain. Output % 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 Input % Relationship of Proportional Gain and Proportional Band LIMITS OF PROPORTIONAL ACTION Responds Only to a Change in error .

Notice that the process variable is still not on set point.2 mA Activities PROPORTIONAL ACTION . but an error remains between SP and PV.. Low Gain Example . The loop is very stable.2)(12 psi span) = 2. This is the frequency at which cycling may exist. the process will become unstable. i.4 psi OR (0.Every loop has a critical or natural frequency.com . If the loop gain is too high at this frequency.In the example below.Low Gain Example High Gain Example .Controller Algorithms and Tuning Proportional Mode ∆Controller Output = ∆ Input X Gain ∆Controller Output = 10% X 2 = 20% Expressed in Units: Controller Output Change = (0. This critical frequency is determined by all of the loop components. 10 9 8 7 % 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PB= 200% Time IVP PV SP Proportional Control Closed Loop .e.CLOSED LOOP Loop Gain . which is causing instability.2)(16 mA span) = 3. 35 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.In the example. the PV will cycle around the SP. the proportional band is small resulting in high gain. the proportional band is high (gain is low).

36 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.PB settings have the following effects: Small PB (%) High Gain (%) Large PB (%) Low Gain Minimize Offset Possible cycling Large Offset Stable Loop Tuning . Proportional mode alone will not return the PV to SP. What will be the result if the proportional gain is set too high? Select all options that apply.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Proportional Mode 10 9 8 7 SP 6 %5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PB=10% TIME PV IVP Activities 7. Advantages . 1 2 3 4 Large offset Minimized offset Possible cycling Stable loop Proportional Control Closed Loop . Proportional gain is expressed as the percentage change in output divided by the percentage change in input. % / ∆Output.Error Settings . % ) x 100 = 100/Gain Gain= ∆Input % / ∆Output % ∆ Controller Output = (Change in Error)(Gain) 1.com .reduce PB (increase gain) until the process cycles following a disturbance. Proportional band is expressed in terms of the percentage change in error that will cause 100% change in controller output. Proportional Mode Responds only to a change in error 2. controller output is a function of a change in error.For the proportional mode.Simple Disadvantages . then double the PB (reduce gain by 50%).High Gain example Proportional Summary . PB = (∆Input.

i. 37 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. This is accomplished by repeating the action of the proportional mode as long as an error exists. 100 90 80 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SP Duration PV Activities 8. may be expressed in terms of: Repeats Per Minute .e. Minutes Per Repeat . or reset action. how long has the error existed? The controller output from the integral or reset mode is a function of the duration of the error.com .Integral.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Integral Mode INTEGRAL ACTION Duration of Error and Integral Mode .Another component of error is the duration of the error. With the exception of some electronic controllers.How many minutes are required for 1 repeat to occur. Setting . INTEGRAL(RESET) OPEN LOOP ANALYSIS Purpose. the integral or reset mode is always used with the proportional mode.The purpose of integral action is to return the PV to SP..How many times the proportional action is repeated each minute. _____________ action is the type of control algorithm that eliminates offset.

The faster the reset action.In the example the rest is too fast and the PV is cycling around the SP.In this example the loop is stable because the total loop gain is not too high at the loop critical frequency. Select all options that apply. Slow Reset Example .com . 3 Repeats per loop 100 4 Minutes per repeat 90 80 70 60 % 40 50 PV SP 30 20 10 0 PB=80% Repeat=2.Adding reset to the controller adds one more 9. Which of the following are integral or reset actions expressed in gain component to the loop. CLOSED LOOP Fast Reset Example .Controller Algorithms and Tuning Integral Mode CLOSED LOOP ANALYSIS Activities Closed Loop With Reset .0 Repeats/min TIME 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 IVP SLOW RESET. CLOSED LOOP 38 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. the greater terms of? the gain. 1 Repeats per setting Notice thatthe process variable does reach set point due to the reset 2 Repeats per minute action. 100 90 80 70 60 50 % 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IVP PB=80% Repeat=10 Repeats/min TIME 10 PV SP FAST RESET.

Controller Algorithms and Tuning Integral Mode RESET WINDUP Defined . 1 2 3 4 Output% IVP ARW Tends to leave an offset Reset windup during shutdown Possible overshoot during start up Can cause cycling in fast process by amplifying noisy signals 0 INPUT(ERROR) Reset Windup . Select all options that apply.Reset windup is common on shut down because the process variable may go to zero but the set point has not changed. large process variable overshoot may occur because the reset speed prevents the output from reaching its desired value fast enough.Controllers can be modified with an anti-reset 39 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Anti Reset Windup .com .Ant-Reset Windup Shutdown .Reset windup is described as a situation where the controller output is driven from a desired output level because of a large difference between the set point and the process variable. 100 Activities 10. Identify the major disadvantages of integral action. therefore this large error will drive the output to one extreme.Shutdown and Startup Startup . 100 SP Input % PV ARW 0 Shutdown Input(Error) Startup Reset Windup .At start up.

The purpose of an anti-reset option is to allow the output to reach its desired value quicker.Possible Cycling Slow Reset 1./Repeats) 2.Fast Return To Setpoint 3. Advantages . 40 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl./Repeat) 2..Large Min.Stable Loop Trailing and Error Tuning .Controller Algorithms and Tuning Integral Mode windup (ARW) device.Eliminates error Disadvantages .Small Min.Reset windup and possible overshoot Fast Reset 1..com . Activities SUMMARY Integral (Reset) Summary .High Gain (Large Repeats/Min. The units are in terms of repeats per minute or minutes per repeat. then slow the reset action to a value that is 1/3 of the initial setting. therefore minimizing the overshoot.Low Gain (Small Repeats/Min.Increase repeats per minute until the PV cycles following a disturbance.Output is a repeat of the proportional action as long as error exists.Slow Return To Setpoint 3.

Activities 11. For example. This action is the role of the derivative mode. If there is a change in the slope of the PV.Some large and/or slow process do not respond well to small changes in controller output. 1 Repeats per minute 100 Hours 2 90 Seconds 3 80 Slope= Rate of Error Change(Y/X) Minutes 4 70 5 Milliseconds 60 50 % 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TIME Y X PV SP Derivative Action is based on the rate of change in Error (Y/X) 41 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. The derivative action is initiated whenever there is a change in the rate of change of the error (the slope of the PV). To improve response. a large initial change in controller output may be applied. The magnitude of the derivative action is determined by the setting of the derivative . in minutes). The Derivative setting is expressed in terms of minutes.com . In oper ation. The mode of a PID controller and the rate of change of the PV. the controller 12. a large liquid level process or a large thermal process (a heat exchanger) may react very slowly to a small change in controller output. the the controller first compares the current PV with the last value of the PV.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Derivative Mode DERIVATIVE ACTION Derivative Mode Basics . The derivative mode immediately increases the output by that amount. ___________ action is a control algorithm that is tied to the rate of change in the error. Which of the following are derivative or etermines what its output would be at a future point in time rate actions expressed in terms of? (the future point in time is determined by the value of the derivative setting.

To illustrate the effect of rate action. Small Rate examples.Let's start a closed loop example by looking at a temperature control system. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 PB=50% Reset=0 Rate=0 TIME PV SP IVP Activities 13. the PV never becomes equal to the SP because there is no reset. IN this example. There is no reset at this time.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Derivative Mode Example . Is this statement true or false? 100 IVP 90 80 70 PV 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 PB=50% Reset=0 Rate=1 min TIME PV SP No Rate. Because temperature is a slow process the setting time after a change in error is quite long. The proportional gain of 2 acting on a 10% change in set pint results in a change in controller output of 20%. The addition of derivative or rate alone to a close loop control can cause the process variable to match the set point. Rate Effect . The addition of rate alone will not cause the process variable to match the set point. Notice the very large controller output at time 0. The output spike is the result of rate action. Closed Loop 42 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. in this example. Recall that the change in output due to rate action is a function of the speed (rate) of change of error. And.com . the time scale has been lengthened to help illustrate controller actions in a slow process. which in a step is nearly infinite. Assume a proportional band settingof 50%. we will add the are mode with a setting of 1 minute.

Controller Algorithms and Tuning Derivative Mode Effect of Fast Rate . Controller Option to Ignore Change in SP . the output will be very erratic if rate is used on fast process or one with noisy signals. will have the greatest change when the input changes rapidly. Applications .Many controllers. as a result of rate. This feature eliminates a major upset upset that would occur following a change in the setpoint.com . The controller gain is now much higher. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PB= 50% Reset=0 Rate= 10 min 0 100 200 300 400 PV SP IVP Activities TIME P+D. The controller output. and to ignore changes in SP. especially digital types. High Rate Setting. The point here is that increasing the rate setting will not cause the PV to settle at the SP.It is now clear that reset must be added to bring process variable back to set point.Let's now increase the rate setting to 10 minutes. As a result. 43 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.Because this component of the controller output is dependent on the speed of change of the input or error. are designed to respond to changes in the PV only. Closed Loop Analysis Need for Reset Action . both the IVP (controller output) and the PV are cycling.

Rapid output reduces the time that is required to return PV to SP in slow process.Stable Loop Activities Small (Minutes) Trial-and-Error Tuning Increase the rate setting until the process cycles following a disturbance.Dramatically amplifies noisy signals. 44 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.Low Gain 2. Disadvantage .High Gain 2. The units are minutes. The action is to apply an immediate response that is equal to the proportional plus reset action that would have occurred some number of minutes I the future. Settings Large (Minutes) 1.com .Controller Algorithms and Tuning Derivative Mode SUMMARY Derivative (Rate) Sumary . can cause cycling in fast processes.Rate action is a function of the speed of change of the error.Large Output Change 3.Small Output Change 3. Advantages .Possible Cycling 1. then reduce the rate setting to one-third of the initial value.

where noise (temporary error readings that do not reflect the true process variable condition) may be present. In processes where no offset can be tolerated. If a small offset has no impact on the process. Table 7. customers can use full PID control. PI. Controlled Variable Flow Level Temperature Pressure Analytical Proportional Control Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PI Control Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PID Control No Rare Yes Rare Rare Activities 14. process operators can: Achieve rapid response to major disturbances with derivative control Hold the process near setpoint without major fluctuations with proportional control Eliminate offset with integral control Not every process requires a full PID control strategy. PI control is used where no offset can be tolerated.2: Control Loops and Control Algorithms COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE . and where dead time is an issue. What type of control is used in an application where noise is present.2 shows common types of control loops and which types of control algorithms are typically used. then proportional control alone may be sufficient.CONTROLLER ALGORITHMS AND TUNING Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. and where excessive dead time (time after a disturbance before control action takes place) is not a problem.com 45 .Controller Algorithms and Tuning Controller Algorithms Proportional. but where no offset can be tolerated? 1 2 3 4 P only PD PI PID Table 7. no noise is present. and PID Control By using all three control algorithms together.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section. design. you will be able to: Explain how a multivariable loop is different from a single loop. Because in some processes many variables must be controlled.g. and limitations Perform the following functions for each type of standard process control loop (i.. flow. including a description of equipment requirements and considerations.. control systems must be designed to respond to disturbances at any point in the system and to mitigate the effect of those disturbances throughout the system. benefits.e. and temperature): • State the type of control typically used and explain why it is used • Identify and describe considerations for equipment selection (e. Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. level. noise) • Identify typical equipment requirements • Diagram the loop using ISA symbology Explain the basic implementation process. Differentiate feedback and feedforward control loops in terms of their operation. and each variable can have an impact on the entire system.com 46 . speed. for each of the following types of control: • Cascade control • Batch control • Ratio control • Selective control • Fuzzy control Describe benefits and limitations of each type of control listed above Give examples of process applications in which each type of control described in this section might be used Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated.Process Control Loops In this section. you will learn about how control components and control algorithms are integrated to create a process control system. pressure.

if necessary. 1 2 3 4 Discrete control loop Multi-step control loop Open loop Feedback control loop Controller Process fluid Steam valve Transmitter Feedback Loop An everyday example of a feedback loop is the cruise control system in an automobile. What type of control loop takes action in response to measured deviation from setpoint? FEEDBACK CONTROL A feedback loop measures a process variable and sends the measurement to a controller for comparison to setpoint. Activities 1. 47 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Figure 7. the speed drops below setpoint and the controller adjusts the throttle to return the car’s speed to setpoint.18 illustrates a feedback loop in which a transmitter measures the temperature of a fluid and. When the car begins to climb a hill.com. The advantage of a feedback loop is that it directly controls the desired process variable.Process Control Loops Single Control Loops Control loops can be divided into two categories: Single variable loops and multi-variable loops. opens or closes a hot steam valve to adjust the fluid’s temperature. If the process variable is not at setpoint. . A setpoint is established for speed. The disadvantage to feedback loops is that the process variable must leave setpoint for action to be taken. Feedback loops are commonly used in the process control industry. control action is taken to return the process variable to setpoint.

large natural gas storage facilities) tend to change more slowly than low-volume systems (Figure 7. How does a high-volume pressure control loop react as compared to a small-volume pressure control loop? 1 2 3 4 Same rate Quicker Slower Extremely fast Process fluid Fluid pump A Pressure Loop Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. they can respond to changes in load or to control action slowly or quickly. some general Activities statements can be made about pressure. Pneumatic controller Relief valve Pressure transmitter 2. level.Process Control Loops Examples of Single Control Loops While each application has its own characteristics.21). PRESSURE CONTROL LOOPS Pressure control loops vary in speed—that is. and temperature loops..g. flow.com 48 . The speed required in a pressure control loop may be dictated by the volume of the process fluid. High-volume systems (e.

a transmitter. . filters are added between the transmitter and the control system. and a valve or pump are used in flow control loops (Figure 7. temperature measurements are often taken with flow measurements and compensation for temperature is accounted for in the flow calculation. Sometimes. many flow transmitters have a damping function that filters out noise. flow control equipment must have fast sampling and response times. Therefore. a flow sensor. Is this statement true or false? Flow transmitter Valve Process fluid Fluid pump A Flow Loop 49 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. To compensate for noise. Pneumatic controller 3.22). Flow control loops are generally considered to be slow responding loops. Typically.Process Control Loops Examples of Single Control Loops FLOW CONTROL LOOPS Activities Generally. a controller. they can produce rapid fluctuations or noise in the control signal.com. Because the temperature of the process fluid affects its density. flow control loops are regarded as fast loops that respond to changes quickly. Because flow transmitters tend to be rather sensitive devices.

ultrasonic. including radar. Because it is often critical to avoid tank overflow. Redundant control systems are sometimes used in level applications because preventing tank overflow is often critically important. larger vessels take longer to fill than smaller ones) and the flow rate of the input and outflow pipes.com 50 . Manufacturers may use one of many different measurement technologies to determine level.Process Control Loops Examples of Single Control Loops LEVEL CONTROL LOOPS Activities The speed of changes in a level control loop largely depends on the size and shape of the process vessel (e. Is this statement true or false? Differential pressure transmitter A Level Loop Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. The final control element in a level control loop is usually a valve on the input and/or outflow connections to the tank (Figure 7. float gauge.g. and pressure measurement.. Converter Level controller 4.23). redundant level control systems are sometimes employed.

although it is not uncommon to see temperature sensors wired directly to the input interface of a controller. temperature loops tend to be relatively slow. Controller 5. Feedforward control strategies are often used to increase the speed of the temperature loop response. cool process fluid is added to the mix to maintain temperature (Figure 7.24). Sometimes.Process Control Loops Examples of Single Control Loops TEMPERATURE CONTROL LOOPS Activities Because of the time required to change the temperature of a process fluid. What type of control strategy is often used to increase the speed of a temperature control loop? 1 2 3 4 Feedforward control Feedback control Cascade control Ratio control Process fluid Valve Temperature transmitter A Temperature Loop 51 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Temperature transmitters and controllers are used.com . RTDs or thermocouples are typical temperature sensors. The final control element for a temperature loop is usually the fuel valve to a burner or a valve to some kind of heat exchanger.

The primary controller will manipulate the setpoint of the secondary controller to maintain the setpoint temperature of the primary process variable (Figure 7. the primary process variable may be the temperature of the fluid in a tank that is heated by a steam jacket (a pressurized steam chamber surrounding the tank). . The standard procedure is to tune the secondary loop before tuning the primary loop because adjustments to the secondary loop impact the primary loop. To control the primary variable (temperature). it is important to take into account the presence of multivariable loops.com .17). 52 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops MULTIVARIABLE LOOPS Activities Multivariable loops are control loops in which a primary controller controls one process variable by sending signals to a controller of a different loop that impacts the process variable of the primary loop. For example. A multivariable control loop contains a primary and secondary controller assigned to different process variables? Is this statement true or false? Primary controller Transmitter SP Transmitter Secondary controller Valve Multivariable Loop When tuning a control loop. 6. Tuning the primary loop will not impact the secondary loop tuning. the primary (master) controller signals the secondary (slave) controller that is controlling steam pressure.

the user must have a mathematical understanding of how the manipulated variables will impact the process variable. The added complexity and expense of feedforward control may not be equal to the benefits of increased control in the case of a variable that causes only a small load disturbance. Figure 7. humidity.19 shows a feedforward loop in which a flow transmitter opens or closes a hot steam valve based on how much cold fluid passes through the flow sensor. consistency of raw materials. However.com 53 . In general. Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Flow transmitter 7.Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops FEEDFORWARD CONTROL Activities Feedforward control is a control system that anticipates load disturbances and controls them before they can impact the process variable. For feedforward control to work. rather than corrected. it is difficult to account for all possible load disturbances in a system through feedforward control. buildup in pipes. What type of control loop anticipates and controls load disturbances before they can impact the process variable? 1 2 3 4 Controller Feedback control loop Feedforward control loop Ratio control loop Single variable loop Cold process fluid Steam valve Feedforward Control An advantage of feedforward control is that error is prevented. and moisture content can all become load disturbances and cannot always be effectively accounted for in a feedforward system. Factors such as outside temperature. feedforward systems should be used in cases where the controlled variable has the potential of being a major load disturbance on the process variable ultimately being controlled.

Feedforward controller 8.Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops FEEDFORWARD PLUS FEEDBACK Activities Because of the difficulty of accounting for every possible load disturbance in a feedforward system. . and send a unified signal to the final control element. Is this statement true or false? Summing controller Feedback controller Flow transmitter Process fluid Steam valve Temperature transmitter Feedforward Plus Feedback Control System 54 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Figure 7.com.20 shows a feedforward-plus-feedback loop in which both a flow transmitter and a temperature transmitter provide information for controlling a hot steam valve. A controller with a summing function totals the input from both the feedforward loop and the feedback loop and sends a unified signal to the final control element. Controllers with summing functions are used in these combined systems to total the input from both the feedforward loop and the feedback loop. This is how a single control signal is sent to the final control element in a feedforward plus feedback system. feedforward systems are often combined with feedback systems.

In practice. Ratio control is the term used to describe a system in which the controller of the primary loop determines the setpoint of a secondary loop. temperature) they are applied to. This section will acquaint you with some of the methods of control currently being used in process industries. pressure. Secondary controller Primary controller Process fluid Temperature transmitter Flow transmitter Valve Cascade Control Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.com 55 .Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops This module has discussed specific types of control loops. and some of the applications (e. what Activities components are used in them. however. flow. many independent and interconnected loops are combined to control the workings of a typical plant. Is this statement true or false? CASCADE CONTROL Cascade control is a control system in which a secondary (slave) control loop is set up to control a variable that is a major source of load disturbance for another primary (master) control loop. 9. The controller of the primary loop determines the setpoint of the summing contoller in the secondary loop (Figure 7..g.25).

Level. Ratio control is used in many applications and involves a contoller that receives input from a flow measurement device on the unregulated (wild) flow. a limited amount of one flavor (e. even though the water supply itself may not be controlled.. Ratio control might be used where a continuous process is going on and an additive is being put into the flow (e. 10. typically.g. temperature.Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops BATCH CONTROL Activities Batch processes are those processes that are taken from start to finish in batches. Start-up presents control problems because. and often mass measurements are used at various stages of batch processes. chlorination of water). flow. Another disadvantage is that as recipes change.com . orange drink or apple drink) is mixed at a time. all measurements in the system are below setpoint at start-up. The controller performs a ratio calculation and signals the appropriate setpoint to another controller that sets the flow of the second fluid so that the proper proportion of the second fluid can be added. For example. pressure. Batch processes often involve getting the correct proportion of ingredients into the batch. Typically. mixing the ingredients for a juice drinks is often a batch process. A disadvantage of batch control is that the process must be frequently restarted. Which term describes a control system in which controlled flow is added proportionately to an uncontrolled flow? 1 2 3 4 Selective control Cascade control Ratio control Fuzzy control RATIO CONTROL Imagine a process in which an acid must be diluted with water in the proportion two parts water to one part acid. control instruments may need to be recalibrated. This type of control system is called ratio control (Figure 7. If a tank has an acid supply on one side of a mixing vessel and a water supply on the other. For these reasons. it is not practical to have a continuous process running.g. a control system could be developed to control the ratio of acid to water. Water flow Acid flow Ratio Control 56 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl..26).

but none of the responsibility. Selective control is most often used when equipment must be protected or safety maintained. Fuzzy control is a relatively new technology. 11. and learn from the result. In which type of control system will the more important of two variables be maintained? 1 2 3 4 FUZZY CONTROL Fuzzy control is a form of adaptive control in which the controller uses fuzzy logic to make decisions about adjusting the process. ___________ control is the term used to describe a control system in which the controller uses computer logic to make decisions about adjusting the process. Fuzzy logic is a form of computer logic where whether something is or is not included in a set is based on a grading scale in which multiple factors are accounted for and rated by the computer. formulate a theory of how to make improvements. For example. fuzzy control removes from operators some of the ability. even at the cost of not maintaining an optimal process variable setpoint. if fuel flow outpaces air flow. COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE . The essential idea of fuzzy control is to create a kind of artificial intelligence that will account for numerous variables. adjust the process. Because a machine makes process control changes without consulting humans. Fuzzy control Cascade control Ratio control Selective control 12. then uncombusted fuel can build up in the boiler and cause an explosion.Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops SELECTIVE CONTROL Activities Selective control refers to a control system in which the more important of two variables will be maintained. Selective control is used to allow for an air-rich mixture. in a boiler control system. to control a process.com 57 . but never a fuel-rich mixture.PROCESS CONTROL LOOPS Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.

Which of the following options best represents the reasons to control a process? (Select three options that apply) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Reduce variability Increase productivity Increase efficiency Reduce cost Ensure safety 2. Helps ensure increase in efficiency of the process. Helps ensure an increase in the reaction rate of the process. Which of the following are advantages of reducing variability in a process application? (1) (2) (3) (4) Helps ensure a consistently high-quality end product. Process is defined as the method of changing or refining raw materials to create end products.com . Helps ensure safety Page 58 Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl.1— THE IMPORTANCE OF PROCESS CONTROL 1. Is this statement true or false? (1) (2) True False 3.Module 7: Workbook Exercises EXERCISE 7.

A process liquid level needs to be held within 5 ft of 150 ft in a large tank. match the terms in Column A with their values in Column B. The controller compares the level reading to the set point and opens or closes an inflow or outflow pipe depending on the liquid level. Keeping in mind the given scenario. A pressure transmitter monitors the liquid’s level using a pressure reading and sends the result to a controller. Which of the following tasks is associated with process control? (Select three options that apply) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Measurement Comparison Quality Analysis Adjustment Calculation 2.2 — CONTROL THEORY BASICS 1.Module 7: Workbook Exercises EXERCISE 7. (1) (2) (3) (4) Inferred process variable Manipulated variable Measured variable Set point (A) (B) (C) (D) 150 ft Pressure Flow of liquid to the tank Level Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl. Which of the following variables are commonly measured or monitored in process control applications? (Select three options that apply) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Pressure Viscosity Nitrogen content Flow rate Temperature 3.com Page 59 .

regardless of the process temperature. 6.com . Match each term to its correct definition.Module 7: Workbook Exercises 4. sends the result to a controller to compare to the setpoint. __________ is a continuing error due to the inability of a control system to keep the measured variable at set point. Match each term to its correct description. automatic control _____ _____ _____ An operator turns off the heater coil when the temperature transmitter outputs a certain reading. (1) (2) (3) Load disturbance Offset Pressure Page 60 Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl. A control operation that directly involves human action. An undesired change in a factor that can affect the process variable. A mathematical expression of a control function 5. A temperature sensor measures process temperature. (1) (2) (3) (A) (B) (C) Closed-loop. __________ is a deviation from set point due to load disturbance. manual control Open-loop. A controller turns off the heater coil at set intervals. (1) (2) (3) Error Offset Rate of change 7. automatic control Closed-loop. and the controller turns off the heater coil. A value or range of values for a process variable that must be maintained to keep the process running properly. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Load disturbance Control algorithm Manual control Manipulated variable Set point The factor that is changed to keep a measured variable at set point.

A pump motor is the most commonly used final control element. (1) (2) (3) recorder transmitter converter 2.Module 7: Workbook Exercises EXERCISE 7.com Page 61 . (1) (2) (3) an indicator a volt-meter an actuator 5. Is this statement true or false? (1) (2) True False Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl. Profibus and Modbus 4-20 mA and 1 – 5 V 4. (1) (2) (3) Analog signal Pneumatic signal Digital signal (A) (B) (C) 3 –15 psig Fieldbus. (1) (2) (3) (4) Recorder Controller Final control element Actuator _____ _____ _____ _____ 6. Match the signal type in Column A with its example/application in Column B. 4–20 mA is the most common standard analog signal used in the process control industry today. The basic function of a __________ is to convert a reading from a transducer into a standard signal and transmit that signal to a controller or computer monitor. Match each control loop equipment to its correct description. A customer would use __________to read the temperature of a process fluid on a display.3 — COMPONENTS OF CONTROL LOOPS AND ISA SYMBOLOGY 1. Is this statement true or false? (1) (2) True False 3.

(1) (A) Programmable logic control (2) (B) Temperature transmitter (3) (C) Pneumatically actuated valve (4) (D) Electrically actuated valve Page 62 Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl.com .Module 7: Workbook Exercises 7. Match the ISA symbols in Column A with its respective description in Column B.

com Page 63 . A type of control that is prone to leaving an offset.Module 7: Workbook Exercises EXERCISE 7. Derivative gain (Dgain) is typically set to zero in flow applications since flow applications are usually noisy and derivative control will react to readings that are in fact noise. Identify the two effects on a process variable if the proportional gain (Pgain) is set too high? (Select all that apply) (1) (2) (3) (4) Minimize offset Large offset Stable loop Possible cycling 3. thus preventing the process from holding set point. A type of control that produce erratic output in noisy applications. A type of control that repeats the action of the proportional mode as long as an error exists. The percent change in error that will cause a 100% change in controller output. 2. Match each term to its correct definitions.4 — CONTROL ALGORITHMS AND TUNING 1. Is this statement true or false? (1) (2) True False Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Proportional band Proportional/integral (PI) control Proportional control Derivative control Integral control A type of control that corrects error and eliminates offset.

Module 7: Workbook Exercises
EXERCISE 7.5 — PROCESS CONTROL LOOPS
1. Which control system anticipates load disturbances and controls them before they can impact the process variable? (1) (2) (3) (4) Selective control Fuzzy control Feed forward control Cascade control

2.

Match the component label in Column A to its ISA symbol representation in Column B. (1) Flow transmitter (A)

(2)

Temperature transmitter

(B)

(3)

Flow controller

(C)

(4)

Valve

(D)

3.

If R1 = 60 , R2 = 100 the circuit? (1) (2) (3) slow fast variable speed

, and R3 = 100

, what is the equivalent resistance (Req) in

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Workbook Exercises
© 2006 PAControl.com.

Module 7: Workbook Exercises - Answers
Exercise 7.1 – The Importance of Process Control 1. 2. 3. 1, 3, 5 1 1

Exercise 7.2 – Control Theory Basics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1, 2, 4 1, 4, 5 D, C, B, A B, E, D, A, C C, A, B 1 2

Exercise 7.3 – Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2 1 C, A, B 1 C, D, B, A 2 B, C, D, A

Exercise 7.4 – Control Algorithms and Tuning 1. 2. 3. C, A, D, B, E 1, 4 1

Exercise 7.5 – Process Control Loops 1. 2. 3. 3 B, C, D, A 1

Workbook Exercises
© 2006 PAControl.com

Page 65

Module 7: Activity Answers
The Importance of Process Control 1. 2. 3. True 1,3,5 1,2,4

Control Theory Basics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. True True True 4 3 False False 2,4

Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 1,2,5 False 3 True 2,3,4 1 1,4 2 4 3 1 2 1 2 3 True 4 True True 1 3

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Activity Answers
© 2006 PAControl.com

1.3 3 2.5 2.3.Module 7: Activity Answers Controller Algorithms and Tuning 1.4 False 2 False 1 2. 12. 7. 6. 12. 4 3 False True 1 True 2 True False 3 4 1 Activity Answers © 2006 PAControl.4 2. 13. 9. 7. 11.com Page 67 . 11. 14. 6. 2. 10. 3.2. 4. 2. 5.3 2 4 False 3 Process Control Loops 1. 5. 8. 10. 4. 8. 9. 3.

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