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Advanced Diploma in Industrial Automation

Module 1: Practical Instrumentation for
Automation and Process Control

Topic 1.1

E-mail: idc@idc-online.com Web Site: www.eit.edu.au

AUSTRALIA CANADA IRELAND NEW ZEALAND SINGAPORE SOUTH AFRICA UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES

1
Introduction

In a time of constant and rapid technological development, it would be quite ambitious to
develop and present a course that claimed to cover each and every industrial measuring
type of equipment. This course is not intended to be an encyclopedia of instrumentation
and control valves, but rather a training guide for gaining experience in this fast
changing environment.

This course is aimed at providing engineers, technicians and any other personnel
involved with process measurement, more experience in that field. It is also designed to
give students the fundamentals on analysing the process requirements and selecting
suitable solutions for their applications.

1.1 Basic measurement and control concepts

The basic set of units used on this course is the SI unit system. This can be summarised in
Table 1.1.
Table 1.1
SI units
Quantity Unit Abbreviation
Length metre m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Current ampere A
Temperature degrees Kelvin °K
Voltage volt V
Resistance ohm Ω
Capacitance farad F
Inductance henry H
Energy joule J
Power watt W
Frequency hertz Hz
Charge coulomb C
Force newton N
Magnetic Flux weber Wb
Magnetic Flux webers/metre2 Wb/m2
Density

2 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control

1.2 Basic measurement performance terms and specifications

There are a number of criteria that must be satisfied when specifying process measurement
equipment. Below is a list of the more important specifications.

1.2.1 Accuracy
The accuracy specified by a device is the amount of error that may occur when
measurements are taken. It determines how precise or correct the measurements are to the
actual value and is used to determine the suitability of the measuring equipment.

Accuracy can be expressed as any of the following:

- error in units of the measured value
- percent of span
- percent of upper range value
- percent of scale length
- percent of actual output value

Accuracy generally contains the total error in the measurement and accounts for linearity,
hysteresis and repeatability. Figure 1.1 shows errors in measurement.

Reference accuracy is determined at reference conditions, i.e. constant ambient
temperature, static pressure, and supply voltage. There is also no allowance for drift over
time.

Figure 1.1
Accuracy terminology

1.2. this can prove an inhibiting factor.2.1 Hysteresis Hysteresis is the difference in the output for given input when the input is increasing and output for same input when input is decreasing. the cost of the equipment is certainly a selection consideration. Even if all the other specifications are met. equipment malfunction and even permanent damage or failure.2. Introduction 3 1. and at which the other specifications are guaranteed. Operation outside of this range can result in excessive errors. Hysteresis causes a device to show an inaccuracy from the correct value. Figure 1. When input of any instrument is slowly varied from zero to full scale and then back to zero.3 Budget/Cost Although not so much a specification.3 Advanced measurement performance terms and specifications More critical control applications may be affected by different response characteristics.3.2 Range of Operation The range of operation defines the high and low operating limits between which the device will operate correctly. 1. as it is affected by the previous measurement. This is generally dictated by the budget allocated for the application. In these circumstances the following may need to be considered: 1. its output varies as shown in Figure 1.2 Hysteresis . This is where the accuracy of the device is dependent on the previous value and the direction of variation.

then the signal needs to be linearised. and for the same input. the linearity needs to be assessed.4 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control 1. Continuous control applications can be affected by variations due to repeatability.3. Figure 1. This problem can be overcome by using the deadband in the controller as shown in Figure 1.3. . If a problem does exist. however repeatability becomes a problem when an accuracy of say. the problems arise due to the changes in the rate the output differs from the instrument. The gain of a non-linear device changes as the change in output over input varies. However if the change is due to the repeatability of the measuring device.2 Linearity Linearity expresses the deviation of the actual reading from a straight line.3 Repeatability Repeatability defines how close a second measurement is to the first under the same operating conditions. it will adjust its output accordingly.3. then the controller will over-control. 0. then input output plot is straight line else it will be non linear as shown in Figure 1. Repeatability is generally within the accuracy range of a device and is different from hysteresis in that the operating direction and conditions must be the same. In such an application. For continuous control applications. In a closed loop system changes in gain affect the loop dynamics. and a repeatability of 0.1% is required.4. When a control system sees a change in the parameter it is controlling.5% is present. If all outputs are in the same proportion to corresponding inputs over a span of values.3 Linearity 1.

4 Response When the output of a device is expressed as a function of time (due to an applied input) the time taken to respond can provide critical information about the suitability of the device. . This needs to be accounted for in the initial specification of allowable values. However in critical alarming applications where devices are used for point measurement. A slow responding device may not be suitable for an application.5 shows response of the system to a step input. Figure 1. the response may be just as important.5 Typical time response for a system with a step input. This typically applies to continuous control applications where the response of the device becomes a dynamic response characteristic of the overall control loop. Introduction 5 Figure 1. 1.4 Repeatability Ripples or small oscillations can occur due to overcontrolling. Figure 1.3.

which operates automatically to regulate the control of a process with a control variable. Temperature Coefficient of Resistance The change in electrical resistance per degree change temperature is called the temperature coefficient of resistance.6 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control 1. then permanent deformation will occur. Cold junction The thermocouple junction. Compensation A supplementary device used to correct errors due to variations in operating conditions. Closed loop Relates to a control loop where the process variable is used to calculate the controller output. Elastic The ability of an object to regain its original shape. Controller A device. Ambient The surrounding or environment in reference to a particular point or object. Calibration The procedure of comparing and determining the performance accuracy is called calibration. Gain This is the ratio of the change of the output to the change in the applied input. where the units for the input and output are identical and the gain is unitless. which is at a known reference temperature. In a closed loop system the control action is independent on desired output. when an applied force is removed.4 Definition of terminology Below is a list of terms and their definitions that are used throughout this manual. The temperature coefficient defines how much change in temperature there is for a given change in resistance (for a temperature dependent resistor). When a force is applied that exceeds the elastic limit. To configure a device so that the required output represents (to a defined degree of accuracy) the respective input. Gain is a special case of sensitivity. Excitation The energy supply required to power a device for its intended operation. . Attenuation A decrease in signal magnitude over a period of time. Coefficient( temperature) A coefficient is typically a multiplying factor.

this changes the slope of the input-output curve. for a specified change in the input to the device. the setpoint is the ideal process variable. but the input is restored. where the operating conditions have varied within the time span. Span Adjustment The difference between the maximum and minimum range values. Self Heating The internal heating caused within a device due to the electrical excitation. Resolution The smallest interval that can be identified as a measurement varies. Introduction 7 Hunting Generally an undesirable oscillation at or near the required setpoint is called hunting. Self-heating is primarily due to the current draw and not the voltage applied. Sensitivity This defines how much the output changes. Reproducibility The similarity of one measurement to another over time. Range The region between the specified upper and lower limits where a value or device is defined and operated. Ramp Defines the delayed and accumulated response of the output for a sudden change in the input. Steady state Used in closed loop control where the process no longer oscillates or changes and settles at some defined value. and is typically shown by the voltage drop as a result of power (I2R) losses. It is represented in the units of the process variable and is used by the controller to determine the output to the process. When provided in an instrument. Resonance The frequency of oscillation is maintained due to the natural dynamics of the system. The output of the controller can be overcontrolled due to the resolution of accuracy limitations. Setpoint Used in closed loop control. Hunting typically occurs when the demands on the system performance are high and possibly exceed the system capabilities. . Reliability The probability that a device will perform within its specifications for the number of operations or time period specified.

1. Time constant The time constant of a first order system is defined as the time taken for the output to reach 63. Stiffness This is a measure of the force required to cause a deflection of an elastic object. Thermal shock An abrupt temperature change applied to an object or device. Transmitter A device that converts one form of energy to another. Zero adjustment The zero in an instrument is the output provided when no. The two main types of variables that exist in the system are the measured variable and the controlled variable.8 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Stiction Shortened form of static friction. when subjected to a step input change.5 P&ID (Process and Instrumentation Diagram) symbols Graphical symbols and identifying letters for Process measurement and control functions are listed below: . nor long lasting. Transducer An element or device that converts information from one form (usually physical. More important is the force required (electrical or mechanical) to overcome such a resistance. A transducer can be considered to comprise a sensor at the front end (at the process) and a transmitter. and defined as resistance to motion. such as temperature or pressure) and converts it to another ( (usually electrical. or zero input is applied.2% of the total change. Transient A sudden change in a variable. Usually from mechanical to electrical for the purpose of signal integrity for transmission over longer distances and for suitability with control equipment. such as volts or millivolts or resistance change). The zero adjustment produces a parallel shift in the input-output curve. which is neither a controlled response. Vibration This is the periodic motion (mechanical) or oscillation of an object. this is some quantity of the system or process. The measured variable is the measured quantity and is also referred to as the process variable as it measures process information. The controlled variable is the controller output which controls the process. Variable Generally.

1 Instrument representation on flow diagrams . Figure 1. Introduction 9 First letter Second letter A Analysis Alarm B Burner C Conductivity Control D Density E Voltage Primary element F Flow G Gauging Glass (sight tube) H Hand I Current (electric) Indicate J Power K Time Control station L Level Light M Moisture O Orifice P Pressure Point Q Quantity R Radioactivity Record S Speed Switch T Temperature Transmit U Multivariable Multifunction V Viscosity Valve W Weight Well Y Relay (transformation) Z Position Drive Some of the typical symbols used are indicated in the figures below.

3 Letter codes and balloon symbols .10 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Figure 1.2 Instrument representation on flow diagrams (b) Figure 1.

6. Introduction 11 Figure 1. This also increases system reliability as sensing equipment can be interchanged as the need arises. Precautions also need to be made when changing the range of existing equipment. should the process perform outside of specifications. An increased operating range also gives greater over and under-range protection.1 Advantages Wide operating range The range of operation not only determines the suitability of the device for a particular application but also can be chosen for a range of applications.4 P& ID symbols for transducers and other elements 1. This can reduce the inventory in a plant as the number of sensors and models decrease. In the case of control systems. the dynamics of the control loop can be affected. . Widening the operating range of the sensing equipment may be at the expense of resolution.6 Effects of selection criteria 1.

In the case of continuous control. this also can improve the integrity and performance of a system. The sensitivity also defines the magnitude of change that occurs. a fast speed of response can assist in triggering safety or shutdown procedures that can reduce the amount of equipment failure or product lost. In applications where the operating conditions are uncertain or prone to failure. with the overrange protection ensuring a longer operating life. The cost of a device is generally increased by improvements in the following specifications: .Operating environment (high temperature. The range is kept small to allow sufficient resolution. Cost Any application that requires a control solution or the interrogation of process information is driven by a budget. repair and replace. It therefore is no surprise that cost is an important selection criterion when choosing measurement equipment.Accuracy . lags can accumulate with the various control components and result in poor or slow control of the process. In a point or alarming application. Simple Design and Maintenance A simple design means that there are less “bits that can break”. High accuracy means reduced errors in measurement.Range of operation .) . with the associated procedures being simplified. delays are not added into the system. Often a fast response is achieved by sacrificing the mechanical protection of the transducer element. replace or assemble.12 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Fast Response With a fast response. High Accuracy This is probably one of the most important selection criteria. More robust designs are generally of simple manufacture. Good Sensitivity Improved sensitivity of a device means that more accurate measurements are possible. High sensitivity in the measuring equipment means that the signal can be read easily by a controller or other equipment. High Over range Protection This is more a physical limitation on the protection of the equipment. and is often a trade off with cost. The accuracy determines the suitability of the measuring equipment to the application. High over range protection is different to having a wide operating range in that it does not measure when out of range. There are also savings in the time it takes to service. pressure etc. Maintenance is reduced with fewer pieces to wear. it is good practice to ‘build-in’ suitable protection for the measuring equipment.

. or on repeated operation of the device.Possible shutdown of process for access . However this can have the added limitation of bulk. Introduction 13 The technology used and materials of construction do affect the cost. Most sensing devices are quite sensitive to electrical power variations.Very accurate location of the measurement required (point measurement) Large devices have the added advantage of: . Repeatability The ability of the measurement system to give same output for same input repeatedly. In the case of thermocouples. but are generally chosen based on the improvement of the other selection criteria (typically those listed above). Temperature correction eliminates the problems associated with these changes. Small devices have the added advantage of: .Limited obstruction to the process . and therefore power is required it generally needs to be conditioned. Size This mainly applies to applications requiring specifically sized devices and has a bearing on the cost. typically in furnaces that are repeatedly heated to high temperatures from the ambient temperature. Temperature Corrected Ambient temperature variations often affect measuring devices. Even though a device can be recalibrated.Can be placed in tight spaces . Self Generated Signal This eliminates the need for supplying power to the device. it has been proven that drift is more extreme when the thermocouple is varied over a wide range quite often. Robust This has the obvious advantage of being able to handle adverse conditions. there are a number of factors that make it undesirable: . Good repeatability ensures measurements vary according to process changes and not due to the limitations of the sensing equipment. Drifting can occur over time.Accessibility Resolution The resolution is the smallest measurable difference between two consecutive measurements.Area measurements Stable If a device drifts or loses calibration over time then it is considered to be unstable.Labour required .

14 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Intrinsic Safety Required for specific service applications. Some of the factors affecting conductivity are: . Other applications are where the conditions are hazardous to the operation of the equipment. are not only the loss of production (if applicable). i. only to find the transducer needs to be relocated. and also the cost of loss of production should the device fail. Helpful if the application is not proven and constant adjustments and alterations are required. Large variations in the density can cause measurement problems unless accounted for.e. Reliable Performance This is an obvious advantage with any sensing device. when a product goes from a dry state to wet. to be affected by moisture in the material. It is quite common for sensing equipment. but generally is at the expense of cost for very reliable and proven equipment. A typical application may be the transducer for ultrasonic level measurement. especially electrical and capacitance. pressure or acidity. Unaffected by Conductivity The conductivity of a process material can change due to a number of factors. Non-contact sensing is used in applications where the material causes build-up on the probe or sensing devices. This also may include travel costs or appropriately certified personnel for hazardous equipment or areas. This also increases system reliability as sensing equipment can be interchanged as the need arises. Such conditions may be high temperature. It is not uncommon to weld in brackets for mounting. and if not checked can cause erroneous measurements. Simple to Adjust This relates to the accessibility of the device. The costs incurred should a device fail. and where precautions with sensing equipment are required. or when drying out from a wet state. Unaffected by Density Many applications measure process materials that may have variations in density. Non Contact This is usually a requirement based on the type of material being sensed. This requirement is typically used in environments where electrical or thermal energy can ignite the atmospheric mixture. Measuring equipment that is unaffected by density provides a higher accuracy and is more versatile Unaffected by Moisture Content Applies primarily to applications where the moisture content can vary. More expensive and reliable devices need to be weighed up against the cost of repair or replacement. but also can it to be used for a range of applications. but also the labour required to replace the equipment. The effect of moisture content can cause problems in both cases. Suitable for Various Materials Selecting a device that is suitable for various materials not only ensures the suitability of the device for a particular application. This can reduce the inventory in a plant as the number of sensors and models are decreased.

reduces the stress involved when installing new equipment. or deducing the spot measurement from a crude reading. Remote Sensing Sensing from afar has the advantage of being non-intrusive and allowing higher temperature and pressure ratings. This is more a criteria that determines the suitability of the device for the application. High Pressure Applications Equipment that can be used in high pressure applications generally reduces error by not requiring any further transducer devices to retransmit the signal.salinity . Polarity Insensitive Sensing equipment that is polarity insensitive generally protects against failure from incorrect installation. Introduction 15 . ON-OFF control can be performed simply with the one device. Generally. more than anything.temperature Mounting External to the Vessel This has the same advantages as non-contact sensing. Well Understood and Proven This. spot sensing is done with smaller transducers. and also determines the suitability of the device for the application. This permits maintenance and installation without affecting the operation of the process. with area or average sensing being performed with large transducers. High Temperature Applications This is very similar to the advantages of high pressure applications. No Calibration Required Pre-calibrated equipment reduces the labour costs associated with installing new equipment and also the need for expensive calibration equipment. However it is also possible to sense through the container housing. Dual Point Control This mainly applies to point control devices. Small Spot or Area Sensing Selecting instrumentation for the specific purpose reduces the problems and errors in averaging multiple sensors over an area. However the cost is usually greater than an average sensor due to the higher pressure rating. allowing for pressurised sensing. This is quite common in level control. both for its reliability and suitability. . With one device measuring two or even three process points. It can also avoid the problem of mounting and accessibility by locating sensing equipment at a more convenient location. This type of sensing also limits the number of tapping points required into the process.pH . Another useful advantage with this form of measurement is that the detection obstructions in chutes or product in boxes can be performed unobtrusively.

High Velocity Applications It is possible in high velocity applications to increase the diameter of the section. which is to be avoided. and can also account for the density variations. The absence of manifolds and valves results in a particularly safe installation. which assist in providing laminar flow. although the cost of the equipment may be slightly higher. Require Less Straight Pipe Up and Downstream This is generally a requirement applied to equipment that can accommodate a higher level of turbulence. Selecting equipment with low pressure losses results in safer operating pressures with a lower operating cost. . because of the expanding and reducing sections. If the pressure drops are significant. then it may require higher pressures. but at a reduced velocity.Reliable operation with no wear or blockages If the instrument does not have any moving or wearing components. FLOW APPLICATIONS Low Pressure Drop A device that has a low pressure drop presents less restriction to flow and also has less friction.16 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control No Moving Parts The advantages are: . then this provides improved reliability and reduced maintenance. Friction generates heat. Operate in Higher Turbulence Devices that can operate with a higher level of turbulence are typically suited to applications where there are limited sections of straight length pipe. which gives the same quantity of flow. Fluids Containing Suspended Solids These devices are not prone to mechanical damage due to the solids in suspension. Complete Unit Consisting of Probe and Mounting An integrated unit provides easy mounting and lowers the installation costs. Erosion (due to cavitation and flashing) is more likely in high pressure drop applications. Maintenance can be further reduced if there are no valves or manifolds to cause leakage problems. suitable straight pipe runs need to be arranged for suitable laminar flow. In these applications. However the device may contain straightening vanes. an important consideration when the process fluid is hazardous or toxic. Equipment of higher pressure ratings (and higher cost) is then required.Long operating life . Less Unrecoverable Pressure Drop If there are applications that require sufficient pressure downstream of the measuring and control devices. then the pressure drops across these devices needs to be taken into account to determine a suitable head pressure.

there may be a 2% change at one end of the scale.2 Disadvantages The following is a discussion of effects of the disadvantages and reasons for the associated limitations. Introduction 17 Price does not Increase Dramatically with Size This consideration applies when selecting suitable equipment. This change is effectively a change in the sensitivity or gain of the measuring device.6. but more importantly can avoid the requirement of having the plant shutdown for the purpose or duration of the installation. Detection of low flow rates requires particular consideration. Installed on Existing Installations This can reduce installation costs. 1. The errors are dependent on the magnitude of change and the direction of variation in the measurement. Linearity This affects the resolution over the range of operation. In point measuring applications this can affect the resolution and accuracy over the range. or when using abrasive process fluids. No Obstructions This primarily means no pressure loss. the selecting of equipment with good rangeability is vital. and even though the equipment may be rated for the range of temperature. Errors are also more likely and less predictable as they are subject to operator interpretation. One common cause of hysteresis is thermoelastic strain. Good Rangeability In cases where the process has considerable variations (in flow for example). Suitable for Large Diameter Pipes Various technologies do have limitations on pipe diameter. or the cost increases rapidly as the diameter increases. problems may occur with the fluidity of the process material. For a unit change in the process conditions. and accuracy is important across the entire range of operation. . and selecting a larger instrument sized for a higher range of operation. In continuous control applications where the device is included in the control loop. Indication Only Devices that only perform indication are not suited for automated control systems as the information is not readily accessible. with a 10% change at the other end of the scale. Unaffected by Viscosity The viscosity generally changes with temperature. Suitable for Very Low Flow Rates Very low flow rates provide very little energy (or force) and as such can be a problem with many flow devices. it can affect the dynamic performance of the system. It is also a useful criterion when avoiding equipment that requires maintenance due to wear. Hysteresis Hysteresis can cause significant errors.

If it is unavoidable to use such equipment. Dynamic Sensing Only This mainly applies to shock and acceleration devices where the impact force is significant. Special Cabling Measurement equipment requiring special cabling bears directly on the cost of the application. high temperature. high current. then periodic calibration needs to be considered as a maintenance requirement. this bears directly on the cost and also may require extra space for mounting. Shock and Vibration These effects not only cause errors but also can reduce the working life of equipment. In applications requiring area or average measurements then too small a sensing device can be a disadvantage in that it does not “see” the full process value. Poor over range protection in the device may not be a problem if the process is physically incapable of exceeding the operating conditions. Transducer Work Hardened The physical movement and operation of a device may cause it to become harder to move. unstable devices require repeated calibration over time or when operated frequently. Unstable This generally relates to the accuracy of the device over time. Although temperature compensation is generally available. Typical applications would involve piezoelectric devices.18 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Sensitive to Temperature Variations Problems occur when equipment that is temperature sensitive is used in applications where the ambient temperature varies continuously. Poor Over range Protection Care needs to be taken to ensure that the process conditions do not exceed the operating specifications of the measuring equipment. Special conditions may also apply to the location of the cable in reference to high voltage. Subsequently. even under extreme fault conditions. As with cabling. However the accuracy can also change due to large variations in the operation of the device due to the process variations. and other low power or signal cabling. Another concern with cabling is that of noise and cable routing. Signal Conditioning Primarily used when transmitting signals over longer distances. Size Often the bulkiness of the equipment is a limitation. . and cause premature failure. but some other devices do have similar problems. Protection may need to be supplied with additional equipment. This particularly applies to pressure bellows. particularly when the transducer signal requires amplification. This is also a requirement in noisy environments. these devices should be avoided with such applications.

Sampled Measurement Only Measurement equipment that requires periodic sampling of the process (as opposed to continual) generally relies on statistical probability for the accuracy. There are a number of ways to avoid or rectify the problems associated with material build-up: . Access Access to the process and measuring equipment needs to be assessed for the purpose of: . Sampled measurement equipment is mainly used for quality control applications where specific samples are required and the quality does not change rapidly. In addition are the procedures and experience required for personnel working in such environments. Some typical maintenance requirements may include the following: . It is quite common in plants with numerous demands for instrument air to have a common compressor with pneumatic hose supplying the devices. This may also have a bearing on the orientation required when mounting equipment. which become a periodic expense. Introduction 19 Stray Capacitance Problems This mainly applies to capacitive devices where special mounting equipment may be required. More common is the requirement to tap into the existing supply but this still requires the installation of air lines. More pertinent in selecting such device is the longer response and update times incurred in using such equipment. Pressure Applications This applies to applications where the measuring equipment is mounted in a pressurised environment and accessibility is impaired. or degrade the operating efficiency of a device over time.Cleaning .Removal/replacement .The initial installation . The cost of the installation is greatly increased if no compressed air is available for such a purpose.Routine maintenance The initial mounting of the measuring equipment may be remote from the final installation. as such the accessibility of the final location also needs to be considered. This can cause significant errors. depending on the application and process environment. Maintenance High maintenance equipment increases the labour. Requires Compressed Air Pneumatic equipment requires compressed air. There are obvious limitations in installing and servicing such equipment. Material Build-up Material build-up is primarily related to the type of process material being measured.Calibration If the equipment is fragile then there is the risk of it being easily damaged due to repeated handling.

which require special safety measures. this may prove an inhibiting factor.Regular maintenance . Not Easily Interchangeable In the event of failure or for inventory purposes. The added expense and availability of specialised services should also be considered. Radiation The use of radioactive materials such as Cobalt or Cesium often gives accurate measurements.20 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control . Precautions are required when housing such equipment. Requires Clean Liquid Measuring equipment requiring a clean fluid do so for a number of reasons: . Electrolytic Corrosion The application of a voltage to measuring equipment can cause chemical corrosion to the sensing transducer. Applications requiring such calculations are often subject to interpretation. For ‘one-off’ applications. this should be seen as an extra cost and possibly more equipment or configuration time is required to eliminate noise problems. but will cause increased errors in the measurement. Any new equipment that is not easily replaced by anything already existing could require an extra as a spare. to ensure that it is suitably enclosed and installation safety requirements are also required for personal safety. Accuracy Based on Technical Data The accuracy of a device can also be dependent on how well the technical data is obtained from the installation and data sheets. High Resistance Devices that have a high resistance can pick up noise quite easily.Automated or self cleaning (water sprays) Constant Relative Density Measurement equipment that relies on a constant density of process material is limited in applications where the density varies. Matching of the process materials and metals used for the housing and sensor can limit the effects.Location (or relocation) of sensing equipment . corrosion is quite rapid. having interchangeable equipment can reduce costs and increase system availability. Generally high resistance devices require good practice in terms of cable selection and grounding to minimise noise pickup. typically a probe. problems arise from the hazards of using radioactive materials. Licensing requirements may also apply with such material. However. Variations in the density will not affect the continued operation of the equipment. A typical example would be level measurement using hydrostatic pressure. Susceptible to Electrical Noise In selecting equipment. More Expensive to Test and Diagnose More difficult and expensive equipment can also require costly test and diagnosis equipment. however in extreme mismatches.

due to pressure changes. few applications use bi-directional flows. consideration needs to be given to the accuracy of the measurement over time. and it is of such a construction that debris may block the line or a valve downstream. In applications requiring the swirling of fluids and pressure changes there is usually an operating range of which the fluids viscosity is required to be within. as it is effectively a very large change in density. Not Suitable with Partial Phase Change Phase change is where a fluid. Note that the flow profile is dependent on viscosity and turbulence. This may involve extra work.Sensing equipment with holes can become easily clogged . but from a control point of view can indicate that the filter is in need of cleaning or replacement. Flow is probably the best example of illustrating the problems caused if a measurement transducer should fail. This can cause major errors in measurements. For those technologies that sense through the process material. then this can make the process inoperative until shutdown and repaired. the phase change can result in reflections and possibly make the application unmeasurable.Solids cause interference with sensing technology Orientation Dependent Depending on the technology used. or time to repair. however the effects and consequences can be assessed in determining the suitable technology for the application. Although this may seem like a major limitation. If the device fails. requirements may be imposed on the orientation when mounting the sensing transducer. Limited Life Due to Wear Non-critical service applications can afford measuring equipment with a limited operating life.Maintenance and cleaning . Flow Profile The flow profile may need to be of a significant form for selected measuring equipment. labour and materials in the initial installation.Pressure loss across filter The pressure loss can be a process limitation. Viscosity Must be Known The viscosity of a fluid is gauged by the Reynolds number and does vary with temperature. A typical application for mounting an instrument vertically would be a variable area flowmeter. Introduction 21 . Mechanical Failure Failure of mechanical equipment cannot be avoided. Filters There are two main disadvantages with filters: .Constant density of process fluid . Unidirectional Measurement Only This is mainly a disadvantage with flow measurement devices where flow can only be measured in the one direction. In selecting such devices. . reverts partly to a gas.

22 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control Acoustically Transparent Measuring transducers requiring the reflection of acoustic energy are not suitable where the process material is acoustically transparent. 1.7 Measuring instruments and control valves as part of the overall control system Figure 1.10 shows how instrument and control valves fit into the overall control system structure. These applications would generally require some contact means of measurement. Figure 1.10 Instruments and control valves in the overall control system . The topic of controllers and tuning forms part of a separate workshop.

ventilation and air conditioning) Applications . System balancing . Compressor efficiency . Mainline measurement . Fuel gas systems . Hydrocarbon vapours . Stacks . Fumehoods . Low pressure heaters . Station yard piping Power Industry . Fuel oil . Hot and chilled water flows . Forced air . Distribution lines measurement . Gas leak detection . Co-generation . Flare lines. Heat transfer . Trash incinerators . Billing . Circulating water . Introduction 23 1. Auxiliary steam lines . Pump operation and efficiency Petrochemical Applications . Flare lines . stacks Natural Gas . Stacks and rectangular ducts . Jacket water systems . Petroleum products . High pressure heaters . Cooling tower measurement . Axial fans . Reheat lines . Steam . Chemical incinerators . Combustion air Emissions Monitoring .8 Typical applications Some typical applications are listed below. Climate control . Bi-directional flows . Feed water . HVAC (Heating. Refineries . Light oils .

24 Instrumentation for Automation and Process Control .

Instrumentation & Control Process Control Fundamentals .

.........................................9 Closed and Open Control Loops ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Learning Objectives.......10 Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ...................................................................................5 Process Control Terms ................................ 2 Reduce Variability ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Load Disturbance ........ 1 Performance Objective ................................................................................................................................................................ 15 Indicators................................................................6 Setpoint ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Process Control ............................... 2 Process.................................................................. 14 Analog Signals................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Transducers and Converters........................................................ 14 Digital Signals .................................................................................................................................................... 4 Learning Objectives.................................................................................Table of Contents Introduction......................................................................................................7 Error ............................................... 3 Ensure Safety ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Pneumatic Signals .... 12 Primary Elements/Sensors........... 1 The Importance of Process Control........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Process Variable.................................... 1 The Importance of Process Control ................................................................................................. 18 Fundamentals of Control ii © 2006 PAControl..................................... 4 The Control Loop............................................. 18 Actuators.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Increase Efficiency ..................................................................................... 11 Control Loop Equipment and Technology.............................8 Control Algorithm..........................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Measured Variables.......................................................... 15 Recorders................................................................................................................................ and Manipulated Variables........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Correcting Elements/Final Control Elements ........................................................................ 16 Controllers..................................................................7 Offset............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com ........................................................... 3 Control Theory Basics ......................................................8 Manual and Automatic Control .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Transmitters............................... 5 Three Tasks................................. 1 Learning Objectives............................................................... Process Variables........................ 13 Signals ..................

....................................................................................................................................................................................50 Temperature Control Loops ............................................................................................ 26 Controller Algorithms and Tuning ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 Learning Objectives......................................................................................................................................................... 23 ISA Symbology Review ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................34 Determining the Controller Output.............................................................................................51 iii Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl...................33 Proportional Gain ..31 Proportional Mode ....27 Learning Objectives...............Closed Loop......28 Discrete Controllers .................................................................................34 Proportional Action....................................................................................................................................................................... Table of Contents ISA Symbology .............. 40 Derivative Mode .................................................................................................................................................................................com ........................................................................................................................................ 37 Open Loop Analysis.......................47 Feedback Control .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Piping and Connections ............................................... 38 Reset Windup ..28 Multistep Controllers.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Pumps .. 44 Process Control Loops........................................................................................... 37 Closed Loop Analysis ........ 22 Identification Letters............................................48 Pressure Control Loops........................19 Symbols ....................................................................... 39 Summary . 41 Derivative Action ...............................................................................................................................49 Level Control Loops ............................................................................................................................................................49 Flow Control Loops...................................................................................33 Limits of Proportional action ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 Gain .........................................................................................................47 Examples Of Single Control Loops.................46 Single Control Loops ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 .............................................................. 37 Integral Action .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................29 Why controllers need tuning?....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Integral Mode ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33 Proportional Band ...................................................... 23 Tag Numbers..............................................................................................................................................27 Controller Algorithms.................................................................................................................................................................................. 41 Rate Summary.................29 Continuous Controllers .....................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................54 Cascade Control ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 57 Fundamentals of Control iv © 2006 PAControl................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops ....................................................53 Feedforward plus Feedback ................................................ 57 Fuzzy Control .......................................................................................................... 56 Ratio Control ........................................... 56 Selective Control......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com ................................................................................................................................... 55 Batch Control ............................52 Multivariable Loops ...................................................................52 Feedforward Control ............

explains why control is important.com . The following five sections are included in this module: ❑ The importance of process control ❑ Control theory basics ❑ Components of control loops and ISA symbology ❑ Controller algorithms and tuning ❑ Process control systems As you proceed through the module. you will be able to determine needed control loop components in specific process control applications. note the application boxes (double-bordered boxes) located throughout the module. Fundamentals of Control v © 2006 PAControl. answer the questions in the activities column on the right side of each page. Application boxes provide key information about how you may use your baseline knowledge in the field. pressure and flow is important in many process applications. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE After completing this module. Also. This module introduces you to control in process industries. go to the workbook to complete the designated exercise before moving on in the module.Introduction Control in process industries refers to the regulation of all aspects of the process. Precise control of level. When you see the workbook exercise graphic at the bottom of a page. and identifies different ways in which precise control is ensured. Workbook exercises help you measure your progress toward meeting each section’s learning objectives. temperature.

and potentially hazardous process. and otherwise manipulating fluids to profitably produce end products can be a precise. flow. and safety Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated. demanding. combining. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section. and many other factors must be carefully and consistently controlled to produce the desired end product with a minimum of raw materials and energy.com . Process control technology is the tool that enables manufacturers to keep their operations running within specified limits and to set more precise limits to maximize profitability. ensure quality and safety. Small changes in a process can have a large impact on the end result. Fundamentals of Control 1 © 2006 PAControl. you will be able to: ❑ Define process ❑ Define process control ❑ Describe the importance of process control in terms of variability. efficiency.The Importance of Process Control Refining. temperature. handling. Variations in proportions. turbulence.

For example. For example. the water treatment industry. The Importance of Process Control The Importance of Process Control PROCESS Activities Process as used in the terms process control and process industry. which ensures a consistently high-quality product. Process is defined as the refers to the methods of changing or refining raw materials to create changing or refining of raw materials end products. If the refinery does not have precise control over the flow of the separate components. or slurry state to during the process. are transferred. 2 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. The opposite situation would be customers receiving a lower grade at a higher price. As a result. cooled. filtered. or handled in some other way to produce the end product. gaseous. Manufacturers can also save money by reducing variability. . or slurry (a mix of solids and liquids) state liquid. the oil and gas industry. how well the ingredients are mixed. and the pressure under 2. gaseous. and the refinery would lose money. Manufacturers control the production process for Select all options that apply. 1. mixed. customers would receive a higher grade and more expensive gasoline than they paid for. measured. as many as 12 or more different components may be blended to make a specific grade of gasoline. the gasoline may get too much of the high-octane components. the pharmaceutical industry.com. the temperature of the materials. the food and beverage industry. and the power industry. which either pass through or remain that pass through or remain in a in a liquid. Which of these industries are examples which the materials are held can significantly impact the quality of of the process industry? an end product. factors such as the proportion of one ingredient to another. stored. The raw materials. PROCESS CONTROL Process control refers to the methods that are used to control process variables when manufacturing a product. three reasons: ❑ Reduce variability 1 Pharmaceutical ❑ Increase efficiency 2 Satellite ❑ Ensure safety 3 Oil and Gas 4 Cement Reduce Variability 5 Power Process control can reduce variability in the end product. in a gasoline blending process. Process industries include the chemical industry. heated or to create end products.

when process control is poor). dependable process control.com . For example. such as an out-of-control nuclear or chemical reaction. When there is variability in the end manufacturers to control a process? product (i. Ensure Safety A run-away process.THE IMPORTANCE OF PROCESS CONTROL Fundamentals of Control 3 © 2006 PAControl. which adds to the cost. Precise process control may also be required to ensure safety. to pad the product to ensure that specifications are met. What are the main reasons for needs to be to meet specifications. Manufacturers save money by minimizing the resources required to produce the end product. the setpoint 1 Reduce variability (desired or optimal point) can be moved closer to the actual product specification and thus save the manufacturer money. COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE . 2 Ensure safety 3 Reduce costs 4 Increase efficiency PV limit to ensure quality PV limit to ensure quality 5 Increase productivity PV Setpoint Low Variability PV Setpoint High Variability Increase Efficiency Some processes need to be maintained at a specific point to maximize efficiency. maintaining proper boiler pressure by controlling the inflow of air used in combustion and the outflow of exhaust gases is crucial in preventing boiler implosions that can clearly threaten the safety of workers. With accurate. may result if manufacturers do not maintain precise control of all of the processg variables..e. For example. manufacturers are forced Select all options that apply.The Importance of Process Control The Importance of Process Control Reducing variability can also save money by reducing the need for Activities product padding to meet required product specifications. The consequences of a run-away process can be catastrophic. Padding refers to the process of making a product of higher-quality than it 3. Accurate control of temperature ensures process efficiency. a control point might be the temperature at which a chemical reaction takes place.

Fundamentals of Control 4 © 2006 PAControl.com . Common terms and concepts relating to process control are defined in this section. differentiate the following types of control: • Manual versus automatic feedback control • Closed-loop versus open-loop control Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated. you will be able to: ❑ Define control loop ❑ Describe the three tasks necessary for process control to occur: • Measure • Compare • Adjust ❑ Define the following terms: • Process variable • Setpoint • Manipulated variable • Measured variable • Error • Offset • Load disturbance • Control algorithm ❑ List at least five process variables that are commonly controlled in process measurement industries ❑ At a high level.Control Theory Basics This section presents some of the basic concepts of control and provides a foundation from which to understand more complex control processes and algorithms later described in this module. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section.

THREE TASKS Control loops in the process control industry work in the same way. a variable (temperature) fell below the setpoint (your control loop are measurement. comparison. comfort level).. Control Theory Basics The Control Loop Imagine you are sitting in a cabin in front of a small fire on a cold Activities winter evening. and adjustment are always present. LIC LT Maximum level A Simple Control Loop 5 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. and you took action to bring the process back into the comparison. The controller compares the reading to a predetermined value. the maximum tank level established by the plant operator. requiring three tasks to occur: ❑ Measurement ❑ Comparison ❑ Adjustment In Figure 7. and finds that the values are equal. and adjustment. in this case. transmitters. but the three tasks of measurement. The control loop will statement true or false? now remain static until the temperature again rises above or falls below your comfort level.1.g. pumps). a level transmitter (LT) measures the level in the tank and transmits a signal associated with the level reading to a controller (LIC). The valve opens to let some liquid out of the tank. The controller then sends a signal to the device that can bring the tank level back to a lower level—a valve at the bottom of the tank. You feel uncomfortably cold. In the 1.com. Thisis an example of a control loop. valves. . Many different instruments and devices may or may not be used in control loops (e. Is this desired condition by adding fuel to the fire. The three tasks associated with any control loop. controllers. sensors. so you throw another log on the fire.

and a contoller compares the temperature reading from the sensor to the setpoint. then the setpoint is 100 °C. level in tank cannot exceed 20 feet. then the controller determines that the process is above setpoint and signals the fuel valve of the burner to close slightly 4. If the temperature reading is 110 °C.1.Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms As in any field. if a process temperature needs to kept within 5 °C of 100 °C. what is the liquid’s setpoint? 1 45 ft 2 55 ft 3 5 ft 4 50 ft Fundamentals of Control 6 © 2006 PAControl. the process variable was temperature. ❑ Conductivity In this scenario. In the example of the tank in Figure 7. Imagine you are in a cabin in ❑ Ph (acidity or alkalinity) front of a small fire on a cold ❑ Liquid interface (the relative amounts of different liquids that are winter evening. For example. Is this true or false? SETPOINT The setpoint is a value for a process variable that is desired to be maintained.com . of 50 ft. Set points can also be maximum or must be maintained within 5 ft minimum values. process control has its own set of common terms that you should be familiar with and that you will use when talking about Activities control technology. 2. A process variable is a condition of the process fluid (a liquid or gas) that can change the manufacturing process in some way. The sensor is inserted into the process. You feel combined in a vessel) uncomfortably cold. A process variable is a condition that can change PROCESS VARIABLE the process in some way. the process variable is temperature. the process variable is level. Common process variables include: ❑ Pressure ❑ Flow ❑ Level ❑ Temperature ❑ Density 3. For example. A temperature sensor can be used to help maintain the temperature at setpoint. If the level of a liquid in a tank until the process cools to 100 °C. so you ❑ Mass throw another log into the fire. In the example of you sitting by the fire.

Any error can be seen as having three major components. flow is the measured variable. the measured variable is also the process variable. In the example described. The factor that is changed to keep the measured variable at setpoint is called the manipulated variable. AND Activities MANIPULATED VARIABLES 5. change in one of the factors that can Setpoint affect the setpoint. 7 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. the error is the difference between the 110 °C measured variable and the 100 °C setpoint—that is. Sometimes the measured variable is not the same as the process variable. PROCESS VARIABLES. A load disturbance is an undesired manipulated variable would also be flow (Figure 7. ____________________ is a In the temperature control loop example. In this scenario. In the temperature control loop example.com . the 6. In this example and variable from the setpoint. which must be held close to 100 °C. Therefore. For example. a manufacturer may measure flow into and out of a storage tank to determine tank level. The magnitude of error at any point in time compared to the previous error provides the basis for determining the change in error. in most instances. The objective of any control scheme is to minimize or eliminate error. Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms MEASURED VARIABLES. The measured variable is the condition of the process fluid that must be kept at the designated setpoint. Is this statement true or false? Process Manipulated variable or Controller variable measured variable Variables ERROR Error is the difference between the measured variable and the setpoint and can be either positive or negative. the error is +10 °C. and the process fluid level is the process variable. These three components are shown in the figure on the folowing page Magnitude The magnitude of the error is simply the deviation between the values of the setpoint and the process variable.2). The change in error is also an important value. it is imperative that error be well understood. the measured variable is sustained deviation of the process temperature.

CONTROL ALGORITHM A control algorithm is a mathematical expression of a control function. The relationship in a control algorithm can be expressed as: Fundamentals of Control 8 © 2006 PAControl. even though the setpoint is 100 °C.Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms Activities Duration Duration refers to the length of time that an error condition has existed.com .5 °C consistently. In the temperature control loop example. if the control system held the process fluid at 100. In the temperature control loop example. V in the equation below is the fuel valve position. Rate of Change of Error (Slope of Error Plot) PV Magnitude of Error Duration SP Components of Error OFFSET Offset is a sustained deviation of the process variable from the setpoint. Using the temperature control loop example. LOAD DISTURBANCE A load disturbance is an undesired change in one of the factors that can affect the process variable.5 °C exists. Rate Of Change The rate of change is shown by the slope of the error plot. and e is the error. then an offset of 0. adding cold process fluid to the vessel would be a load disturbance because it would lower the temperature of the process fluid.

MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL Before process automation. Automatic control systems are The fuel valve position (V) is a function (f) of the sign (positive or control operations that involve negative) of the error (Figure 7. . are called automatic control systems. a human operator might have watched a level gauge and closed a valve when the level reached the setpoint. people. Control operations that involve human action to make an adjustment are called manual control systems. 9 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. In more complex control loops. questions such as “How far should the valve be opened or closed in response to a given change in setpoint?” and “How long should the valve be held in the new position after the process variable moves back toward setpoint?” need to be answered. such as an automatic valve actuator that responds to a level controller. performed many of the process control tasks. Conversely.com .3). control operations in which no human intervention is required. human action to make adjustment. rather than machines. For example. Is this statement true or false? Summing block Process Error Manipulated variable variable Valve f(e) position Feedback Algorithm Example Control algorithms can be used to calculate the requirements of much more complex control loops than the one described here. Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms V = f ( ± e) Activities 7.

CONTROL THEORY BASICS 10 Fundamentals of Control ©2006 PAControl. An open control loop exists where the process variable Select all options that apply. 4 Action is taken without regard to process variable conditions 5 Action is taken with regard to process variable conditions COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE . Control Theory Basics Process Control Terms CLOSED AND OPEN CONTROL LOOPS Activities A closed control loop exists where a process variable is measured. 8. For example. and action is taken not in response to feedback on the condition of the process variable. a water 2 Process variable is not compared valve may be opened to add cooling water to a process to prevent the 3 Process variable is measured process fluid from getting too hot. and action is taken to correct any deviation an open control loop exist? from setpoint. is not compared. but is instead taken 1 Process variable is not measured without regard to process variable conditions.com . based on a pre-set time interval. Under what circumstances does compared to a setpoint. and compared to a setpoint regardless of the actual temperature of the process fluid.

pumps.g. this section describes how process control equipment is represented in technical drawings of control loops. electrical) ❑ Accurately interpret instrument letter designations used on P&IDs Fundamentals of Control 11 © 2006 PAControl. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section. correctly label the: • Instrument symbols (e. panel-front) • Signal type symbols (e. and for each one: • Provide a brief explanation of its method of operation • Describe its impact on the control loop • List common applications in which it is used ❑ Given a piping and instrumentation drawing (P&ID). transmitters) • Location symbols (e.g.com . control valves. the basic method of operation for the following control loop components: • Primary element/sensor • Transducer • Converter • Transmitter • Signal • Indicator • Recorder • Controller • Correcting element/final control element • Actuator ❑ List examples of each type of control loop component listed above ❑ State the advantages of 4–20 mA current signals when compared with other types of signals ❑ List at least three types of final control elements... and equipment used to develop and maintain process control loops. you will be able to: ❑ Describe the basic function of and. where appropriate. In addition. pneumatic.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology This section describes the instruments. technologies. local..g.

The primary element (magnetic flow tube) outputs a voltage that can be measured and used to calculate the fluid’s flow rate. control functions. Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology Control Loop Equipment and Technology The previous section described the basic elements of control as Activities measurement. Because sensing devices are the first element in the control loop to measure the process variable. and from this measurement. the fluid generates a voltage that is directly proportional to the velocity of the process fluid. temperature is determined. strain gauges. there are instruments and strategies to accomplish each of these essential 1. For example. comparison. such as a element/sensors in process control? modern pressure transmitter. With an RTD. as the temperature of a process fluid surrounding the RTD rises or falls. Examples of primary elements include: ❑ Pressure sensing diaphragms. In practice. 2 Thermocouples 3 Control Valve PRIMARY ELEMENTS/SENSORS 4 Converter In all cases. and adjustment. the electrical resistance of the RTD increases or decreases a proportional amount. In some cases. capacitance cells ❑ Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) ❑ Thermocouples ❑ Orifice plates ❑ Pitot tubes 2. some kind of instrument is measuring changes in the 5 Pitot tubes process and reporting a process variable measurement. Primary elements will not make direct contact with the process fluid. Identify three examples of a primary tasks. The resistance is measured. when a conductive fluid passes through the magnetic field in a magnetic flow tube. Is this ❑ Venturi tubes statement true or false? ❑ Magnetic flow tubes ❑ Coriolis flow tubes ❑ Radar emitters and receivers ❑ Ultrasonic emitters and receivers ❑ Annubar flow elements ❑ Vortex sheddar Primary elements are devices that cause some change in their property with changes in process fluid conditions that can then be measured. and adjust. Some of the greatest ingenuity in the process control field is apparent in sensing devices. 1 Resistance Temperature Detectors compare. a single process control instrument.com . 12 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. may perform more than one of the basic Select all options that apply. they are also called primary elements. Other technologies have been developed so that communication can occur among the components that measure.

capacitance. Transmitter types include: a reading from a transducer into a ❑ Pressure transmitters standard signal and transmits that signal ❑ Flow transmitters to a monitor or controller. TRANSMITTERS A transmitter is a device that converts a reading from a sensor or transducer into a standard signal and transmits that signal 4. A transmitter is a device that converts to a monitor or controller. A ____________ is a device electrical signal. CO [carbon monoxide]. a that translates a mechanical signal transducer converts changes in pressure into a proportional change in into an electrical signal. and pH) transmitters Fundamentals of Control 13 © 2006 PAControl. A converter is a device that converts one type of signal into another type of signal. For example. inside a capacitance pressure device. Is this ❑ Temperature transmitters statement true or false? ❑ Level transmitters ❑ Analytic (O2 [oxygen]. a converter used to convert a 4–20 mA current signal into a 3–15 psig pneumatic signal (commonly used by valve actuators) is called a current-to-pressure converter. In process control. a converter may convert current into voltage or an analog signal into a digital signal.com . For example.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology Control Loop Equipment and Technology TRANSDUCERS AND CONVERTERS Activities A transducer is a device that translates a mechanical signal into an 3.

1. a transmitter sends a small current through a set of wires. Analog Signals The most common standard electrical signal is the 4–20 mA current signal. With this signal. since the advent of electronic instruments in the 1960s. industry? Select all options that apply. Other common standard electrical signals include the 1–5 V (volts) signal and the pulse output. Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology Control Loop Equipment and Technology SIGNALS Activities There are three kinds of signals that exist for the process industry to 5. For example. the transmitter outputs a 4–20 mA signal that is proportionate to the temperature changes. 14 Fundamentals of Control . The transmitter will transmit a 12 mA signal when the temperature is at the 100 °C setpoint. such as a burner fuel valve. The 3 corresponds to the lower range value (LRV) and the 15 corresponds to the upper range value (URV). or zero. the lower costs involved in running electrical signal wire through a plant as opposed to running pressurized air tubes has made pneumatic signal technology less attractive. Analog signal 3. and the transmitter is set to produce a 4 mA signal when the process temperature is at 95 °C and a 20 mA signal when the process temperature is at 105 °C. Pneumatic signalling is still common. Digital signal 1 Hydraulic signals 2 Digital signals Pneumatic Signals 3 Analog signals 4 Pneumatic signals Pneumatic signals are signals produced by changing the air pressure in a signal pipe in proportion to the measured change in a process 5 Electro-magnetic signals variable. Pneumatic signal 2. This signal can be converted to a temperature reading or an input to a control device. and 20 mA represents the highest possible measurement. Identify the signal types that are transmit the process variable measurement from the instrument to a used in the process control centralized control system. However. imagine a process that must be maintained at 100 °C. As the sensor’s resistance property changes in response to changes in temperature. The current signal is a kind of gauge in which 4 mA represents the lowest possible measurement. An RTD temperature sensor and transmitter are installed in the process vessel. The common industry standard pneumatic signal range is 3–15 psig.

(See Module 8: Communication Technologies for more information on digital communication protocols.com . Indicators may be as simple as a pressure or temperature gauge or more complex.20 mA control buttons that enable operators to change settings in the field. process or the instrument it is connected to. Manufacturers may use either an open or a proprietary digital protocol. An of a digital signal? indicator is a human-readable device that displays information about Select all options that apply. Proprietary protocols are owned by specific companies and may be used only with their permission. 3 1-5v 4 Fieldbus 5 3 . while others have 2 4 . the process. FOUNDATION™ Fieldbus. An indictor makes this reading possible. DeviceNet.15 psig 15 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. such as a digital read-out device. Digital signals are discrete levels or values that are 6. Profibus. Which of the following are examples measurement point. The methodology displays information about the used to combine the digital signals is referred to as protocol. The ___________ is a combined in specific ways to represent process variables and also carry human-readable device that other information. operators sometimes need to check a measurement on the factory floor at the 7. Open protocols are those that anyone who is developing a control device can use. such as diagnostic information. Some 1 Profibus indicators simply display the measured variable. and the Modbus® protocol. Open digital protocols include the HART® (highway addressable remote transducer) protocol. Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology Control Loop Equipment and Technology Digital Signals Activities Digital signals are the most recent addition to process control signal technology.) INDICATORS While most instruments are connected to a control system.

Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology

Control Loop Equipment and Technology
RECORDERS Activities
A recorder is a device that records the output of a measurement 8. A recorder is a device that records
devices. Many process manufacturers are required by law to provide a the ________________ of a
process history to regulatory agencies, and manufacturers use measurement or control device.
recorders to help meet these regulatory requirements. In addition,
manufacturers often use recorders to gather data for trend analyses.
By recording the readings of critical measurement points and
comparing those readings over time with the results of the process,
the process can be improved.
Different recorders display the data they collect differently. Some
recorders list a set of readings and the times the readings were taken;
others create a chart or graph of the readings. Recorders that create
charts or graphs are called chart recorders.

CONTROLLERS

A controller is a device that receives data from a measurement
instrument, compares that data to a programmed setpoint, and, if
necessary, signals a control element to take corrective action.
Local controllers are usually one of the three types: pneumatic,
electronic or programmable. Contollers also commonly reside
in a digital control system.

Computer-based Pneumatic, electronic, or
central controller programmable local controller

DCS

Transmitter Single-loop Valve
controller

Power I/O card
supply Controller
(CPU)

Controllers

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Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology

Control Loop Equipment and Technology
Controllers may perform complex mathematical functions to compare Activities
a set of data to setpoint or they may perform simple addition or
subtraction functions to make comparisons. Controllers always have 9. Which of the following have the
an ability to receive input, to perform a mathematical function with ability to receive input, to perform
the input, and to produce an output signal. Common examples of a mathematical function with the
controllers include: input, and produce an output signal?
❑ Programmable logic controllers (PLCs)—PLCs are usually
computers connected to a set of input/output (I/O) devices. The
computers are programmed to respond to inputs by sending 1 Actuators
outputs to maintain all processes at setpoint. 2 Transmitters
3 Transducers
❑ Distributed control systems (DCSs)—DCSs are controllers that,
4 Controllers
in addition to performing control functions, provide readings of
the status of the process, maintain databases and advanced
man-machine-interface.

10. Which of the following is the most
Setpoint
common final control element in
process control industries?
P I D

Pipestand Controller Analog Rack Mount Controller 1 Agitator
(Pneumatic or Electronic) (Electronic) 2 Pump motor
3 Valve
4 Louver

Single Loop Digital Converter Distributed Control System
(Electronic) (Electronic)

Types of Process Controllers

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Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology

Control Loop Equipment and Technology
Activities
11. _______________ is a part
final control device that causes a
physical change in the final control
device when signaled to do so.

Smart
Transmitter

Smart Transmitter
Digital Valve Controller (Provides PID Output)
(Smart Positioner)
Types of Process Controllers

CORRECTING ELEMENTS/FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS
The correcting or final control element is the part of the control
system that acts to physically change the manipulated variable. In
most cases, the final control element is a valve used to restrict or cut
off fluid flow, but pump motors, louvers (typically used to regulate air
flow), solenoids, and other devices can also be final control elements.
Final control elements are typically used to increase or decrease fluid
flow. For example, a final control element may regulate the flow of
fuel to a burner to control temperature, the flow of a catalyst into a
reactor to control a chemical reaction, or the flow of air into a boiler
to control boiler combustion.
In any control loop, the speed with which a final control element
reacts to correct a variable that is out of setpoint is very important.
Many of the technological improvements in final control elements are
related to improving their response time.

ACTUATORS
An actuator is the part of a final control device that causes a physical
change in the final control device when signalled to do so. The most
common example of an actuator is a valve actuator, which opens or
closes a valve in response to control signals from a controller.
Actuators are often powered pneumatically, hydraulically, or
electrically. Diaphragms, bellows, springs, gears, hydraulic pilot
valves, pistons, or electric motors are often parts of an actuator system.

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Intergral and 123 123 Derivative control YIC TY 123 123 TT 123 FT 123 Piping and Instrumentation Drawing (P&ID) Fundamentals of Control 19 © 2006 PAControl. What does the acronym P&ID designs of control loops (ISA S5. 1 Piping and Instrument Designing Drawings of this kind are known as piping and instrumentation 2 Piping and Instrumentation drawings (P&ID). Figure 7.com .Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology The Instrumentation. Systems. The ISA Activities has developed a set of symbols for use in engineering drawings and 12.1 instrumentation symbol stand for? specification). and Automation Society (ISA) is one of the leading process control trade and standards organizations.5 shows a control loop using ISA symbology. You should be familiar with ISA symbology so that you can demonstrate possible process control loop solutions on paper to your customer. Drawing 3 Process Control and Installation SP Drawing FIC TIC 4 Proportional.

. such as those carried out 2 by a controller (Figure 7. Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology SYMBOLS Activities In a P&ID. 13.g. A double line indicates that the 3 function is in an auxiliary location (e.8).6). The absence of a line indicates that the function is field mounted.g.. a control room).7). Which of the following is a symbol of such as transmitters. 4 A square with a circle inside represents instruments that both display measurement readings and perform some control function (Figure 7.6: Discrete Instruments A single horizontal line running across the center of the shape 2 indicates that the instrument or function is located in a primary location (e. Which of the following is a symbol of a field-mounted control/display element? Flow/ Square Control Room Not Accessible Root Field 1 Shared Control/Display Elements A hexagon represents computer functions. a circle represents individual measurement instruments. an instrument rack).. a transmitter in an auxiliary LOCATION location? 1 Control Room Auxiliary Field Not Accessible Figure 7. Many modern transmitters are equipped with microprocessors that perform control calculations and send control output signals to final control elements. and a dotted line indicates that the function or instrument is inaccessible (e. sensors. DISPLAY AND CONTROL TYPES 14. and detectors (Figure 7. located behind a panel board).g. Control Types 3 4 Control Room Auxiliary Field Not Accessible Computer Functions (Controllers) 20 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.com .

com .Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology Activities 15. Which of the following is a symbol of a controller located behind a panel? 1 2 3 4 Fundamentals of Control 21 © 2006 PAControl.

11).10).Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology A square with a diamond inside represents PLCs (Figure 7. Is this statement true or false? Control Room Auxiliary Field Not accessible PLCs Two triangles with their apexes contacting each other (a “bow tie” shape) represent a valve in the piping. The symbol displayed below denotes a PLC in a primary location. Which of the following is a symbol of a pneumatic valve? Valves 1 Pumps 2 Directional arrows showing the flow direction represent a pump (Figure 7. Pneumatic valve Manual valve Electric valve 17. An actuator is always drawn above the valve (Figure 7.com . Activities PLC Types 16.9). 3 4 Pumps Fundamentals of Control 22 © 2006 PAControl.

12): 18. Piping Process connection Electrical signal Pneumatic signal Data link Capillary tubing for filled systems Hydraulic signal line Guided electromagnetic or sonic signal Piping and Connection Symbols 23 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. ❑ A heavy solid line represents piping Is this statement true or false? ❑ A thin solid line represents process connections to instruments (e... impulse piping) ❑ A dashed line represents electrical signals (e. The symbols displayed below represent a data link and a process connection. 4–20 mA connections) ❑ A slashed line represents pneumatic signal tubes ❑ A line with circles on it represents data links Other connection symbols include capillary tubing for filled systems (e. Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology Piping and Connections Activities Piping and connections are represented with several different symbols (Figure 7. remote diaphragm seals).g.g. hydraulic signal lines.com . and guided electromagnetic or sonic signals.g..

The initial letter indicates the measured variable. multifunction) Table 7. Often 1 Device function or a modifier these numbers are associated with a particular control loop (e. switch.1 on page 26 shows the ISA identification letter designations. What does the third letter on an ISA symbol indicate? TAG NUMBERS Numbers on P&ID symbols represent instrument tag numbers.g.g. sensor.. The initial letter on an ISA symbol transmitter) indicate: indicates the measured variable.org. For example. “FIC” on an instrument tag represents a flow indicating controller.13. readout. Is ❑ The variable being measured (e. 20. transmitter.com . flow transmitter 123). You can find identification letter symbology information on the ISA Web site at http://www.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology IDENTIFICATION LETTERS Activities Identification letters on the ISA symbols (e. “PT” represents a pressure transmitter. high.g. low. See Figure 7. 2 Measured variable 3 Readout Identification 4 Type of process fluid letters FIC 123 Tag number Identification Letters and Tag Number Fundamentals of Control 24 © 2006 PAControl.isa. indicator) ❑ Some modifiers (e...g.g. temperature) this statement true or false? ❑ The device’s function (e. The second letter indicates a modifier. The third letter usually indicates either a device function or a modifier. TT for temperature 19. pressure... or device function. valve. flow.

time schedule Time rate of change Control station L Level Light Low M User’s choice Momentary Middle. dimension Z axis Driver. louver analysis W Weight. or Relay.com . combustion User’s choice User’s choice User’s choice C User’s choice Control D User’s choice Differential Sensor (primary E Voltage element) F Flow rate Ration (fraction) G User’s choice Glass. totalizer R Radiation Record S Speed. state. test connection Q Quantity Integrate. damper. intermediate N User’s choice User’s choice User’s choice User’s choice O User’s choice Orifice. restriction P Pressure. vacuum Point. actuator ISA Identification Letters 25 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. viewing device H Hand High I Electrical Current Indication J Power Scan K Time. Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology Measured Variable Modifier Readout Device Function Activities Modifier A Analysis Alarm B Burner. frequency Safety Switch T Temperature Transmit U Multivariable Multifunction Multifunction Multifunction Vibration. compute. mechanical V Valve. force Well X Unclassified X axis Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Event. Y presence Y axis convert Z Position.

In Figure 7. 21. what kind of signal is transmitted out from the Flow indicating controller that performs a square root flow temperature transmitter? calculation (primary location) Temperature indicating controller (field mounted) 1 Data link FIC SP TIC 2 Mechanical signal 123 Data link 123 3 Electrical signal Electrical PLC 4 Pneumatic signal signal YIC TY 123 Flow 123 transmitter Pneumatic line Temperature TT computer 123 FT 123 Temperature transmitter Impulse Tubing Pipe Pneumatically Electrically actuated valve actuated valve P&ID with ISA Symbology COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE .COMPONENTS OF CONTROL LOOPS AND ISA SYMBOLOGY Fundamentals of Control 26 © 2006 PAControl.Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ISA Symbology ISA SYMBOLOGY REVIEW Activities Figure 7.com .14.14 shows the elements of ISA symbology used in a P&ID..

❑ Identify the basic implementation of P. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section.Controller Algorithms and Tuning The previous sections of this module described the purpose of control. you will be introduced to some of the strategies and methods used in complex process control loops.com . ❑ Describe the basic mechanism. advantages and disadvantages of the following mode of controller action: • Proportional action • Intergral action • Derivative action ❑ Give examples of typical applications or situations in which each mode of controller action would be used. and demonstrated the symbology used to represent those elements in an engineering drawing. and continuous controllers ❑ Describe the general goal of controller tuning. you will be able to: ❑ Differentiate between discrete. The strategies used to hold a process at setpoint are not always simple. In practice. In this section. multistep. defined individual elements within control loops. control loops can be fairly complex. and the interaction of numerous setpoints in an overall process control plan can be subtle and complex. The examples of control loops used thus far have been very basic. PI and PID control in the following types of loops: • Pressure loop • Flow loop • Level loop • Temperature loop Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated. Fundamentals of Control 27 © 2006 PAControl.

15). When the temperature of the water in the tank falls below setpoint. Grouped by control mechanism function. the burner turns on. but keeps the variable within proximity of setpoint in what is known as a dead zone (Figure 7. This type of control doesn’t actually hold the variable at setpoint. Dead zone Process variable action Control action Discrete Control 28 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Controller Algorithms The actions of controllers can be divided into groups based upon the Activities functions of their control mechanism. A common example of a discrete controller is a home hot water heater. the burner turns off. it is only a matter of time before the cycle begins again. When the water in the tank reaches setpoint. Because the water starts cooling again when the burner turns off. Which one of the following is an applications. the three everyday example of a discrete types of controllers are: controller? ❑ Discrete controllers Select the options that apply.com . ❑ Multistep controllers 1 Refrigerator ❑ Continuous controllers 2 Electric iron 3 Air conditioner DISCRETE CONTROLLERS 4 Rice cooker Discrete controllers are controllers that have only two modes or positions: on and off. Each type of contoller has advantages and disadvantages and will meet the needs of different 1.

the false? oscillation around setpoint can be less dramatic when multistep controllers are employed than when discrete controllers are used (Figure 7.com . Multistep controllers set positions is called a continuous operate similarly to discrete controllers. The tuning parameters essentially determine: How much correction should be made? The magnitude of the correction( change in controller output) is determined by the proportional mode of the controller. A controller with three or more possible position in addition to on and off. Is this statement true or the multistep controller takes intermediate steps. Process variable action Control action Figure 7. Therefore. controller. but as setpoint is approached.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Controller Algorithms MULTISTEP CONTROLLERS Activities Multistep controllers are controllers that have at least one other 2. How long should the correction be applied? The duration of the adjustment to the controller output is determined by the integral mode of the controller How fast should the correction be applied? The speed at which a correction is made is determined by the derivative mode of the controller.16).16: Multistep Control Profile CONTINUOUS CONTROLLERS Controllers automatically compare the value of the PV to the SP to determine if an error exists. If there is an error. Fundamentals of Control 29 © 2006 PAControl. the controller adjusts its output according to the parameters that have been set in the controller.

com . It determines: How much? Proportional Mode How long? Integral Mode How fast? Derivative Mode Setpoint LIC I/P P I D Controller LT PV SP Load Automatic Feedback Control Fundamentals of Control 30 © 2006 PAControl.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Controller Algorithms When there is an error. the controller SP PV Activities makes a change in its output.

5 convey measurements and instructions to other instruments in a control loop to maintain the highest level of safety and efficiency. 31 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. The next three sections in this module discuss electricity. The change in the controller output is the foundation of process control measurement in that electricity: divided by the change in the input to the ❑ The system responds quickly to errors.5% Gain = 5% / 10% = 0. and signals in greater detail so you can understand the importance of electricity in process control.10% Change in Controller Output . GAIN Controller tuning is performed to adjust the manner in which a control valve (or other final control element) responds to a change in error.10% Change in Controller Output . but not so great a change as to cause instability or cycling. cause sufficient change in valve position to eliminate error. we are interested in adjusting the gain of the controller such that a change in controller input will result in a change in controller output that will. in turn. Examples: Change in Input to Controller . Gain is defined simply as the change in output divided by the change in input. ❑ The system remains stable (PV does not oscillate around the SP). Controller Algorithms and Tuning Why Controllers Need Tuning? Controllers are tuned in an effort to match the characteristics of the Activities control equipment to the process so that two goals are achieved: 3. circuits. transmitters. In particular.20% Gain = 20% / 10% = 2 Change in Input to Controller .com . controller is known as __________ .

Controller Algorithms and Tuning Why Controllers Need Tuning? Gain Plot .The Figure below is simply another graphical way of Activities representing the concept of gain.The following examples help to illustrate the purpose of setting the controller gain to different values. LIC I/P LIC I/P LT LT Controllers May be Tuned to Help Match the Valve to the Process Fast Process May Require Less Gain To Achieve Stability Small volume liquid process Slow Process May Require Higher Gain To Achieve Responsiveness Large volume gas process Fast and Slow Processes May Require Different Controller Gain Settings 32 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.5 0 0 50 100 Input % Graphical Representaion of Gain Concept Examples . Fast or slow processes have no impact Gain Kc =∆ Output % / ∆ Input % on controller gain settings.com . 4. Is this statement true or false? 100 Gain=2 Gain=1 Output % 50 Gain=0.

(Kc) = ∆Output% / ∆Input % PB= ∆Input(%Span) For 100%∆Output 33 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. proportional action is typically expressed as startup proportional gain. PB = 100/Gain Also recall that: Gain = 100%/PB Proportional Gain. The setting for the proportional mode may be expressed of proportional action. as either: 1.com . (Kc) = ∆Output% /∆Input % PROPORTIONAL BAND Proportional Band (PB) is another way of representing the same information and answers this question: "What percentage of change of the controller input span will cause a 100% change in controller output?" PB = ∆Input (% Span) For 100%∆Output Converting Between PB and Gain A simple equation converts gain to proportional Band: added. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Proportional Mode PROPORTIONAL ACTION Activities The proportional mode is used to set the basic gain value of the 5. Identify the major disadvantage controller. Proportional Band 1 Tends to leave an offset 2 Reset Windup during shutdown PROPORTIONAL GAIN 3 Possible overshoot during In electronic controllers. Proportional Gain (Kc) answers the question: 4 Can cause cycling in fast process "What is the percentage change of the controller output relative to the by amplifying noisy signals percentage change in controller input?" Proportional Gain is expressed as: Gain. Proportional Gain 2.

return the PV to a value that is within a defined span (PB) around the PV.Proportional action will not return the PV to setpoint. the output is a function of the change in error and controller gain. DETERMINING THE CONTROLLER OUTPUT Controller Output . % = (Error Change. It will. Output Change.com .In a proportional only controller. the output will change as follows: Calculating Controller Output ∆Controller Output = ∆Input. Does Not Return the PV to Setpoint . Controller Algorithms and Tuning Proportional Mode Gain=2 PB= 50% Gain=1 PB=100% Gain=0.Proportional action responds only to a change in the magnitude of the error. and a level reading is 5% above setpoint. %) (Gain) Example: If the setpoint is suddenly changed 10% with a proportional band setting of 50%. If proportional gain is 0. 0 0 50 100 150 200 Input % Relationship of Proportional Gain and Proportional Band LIMITS OF PROPORTIONAL ACTION Responds Only to a Change in error . however.5 / 5> % of its full range.5 PB=200% Activities 100 6. Output % a proportional controller will signal 50 the outflow control valve to open by <1 / 2. so Gain = 100%/50% = 2 34 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.5. % X Gain Gain = 100%/PB EXAMPLE ∆Input = 10% PB = 50%.

4 psi OR (0..In the example. the PV will cycle around the SP.com . the proportional band is small resulting in high gain. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Proportional Mode ∆Controller Output = ∆ Input X Gain Activities ∆Controller Output = 10% X 2 = 20% Expressed in Units: Controller Output Change = (0. the process will become unstable.In the example below. 35 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Low Gain Example . but an error remains between SP and PV. the proportional band is high (gain is low). This critical frequency is determined by all of the loop components. The loop is very stable. 10 9 8 7 % 6 SP 5 4 PV 3 2 IVP 1 PB= 200% 0 Time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Proportional Control Closed Loop . This is the frequency at which cycling may exist. which is causing instability.Low Gain Example High Gain Example . Notice that the process variable is still not on set point.2)(16 mA span) = 3. i.2)(12 psi span) = 2.Every loop has a critical or natural frequency. If the loop gain is too high at this frequency.2 mA PROPORTIONAL ACTION .e.CLOSED LOOP Loop Gain .

PB = (∆Input. 36 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. controller output is a function of a change in error. Proportional Mode Responds only to a change in error 2.For the proportional mode.com .PB settings have the following effects: Small PB (%) Minimize Offset High Gain (%) Possible cycling Large PB (%) Large Offset Low Gain Stable Loop Tuning . then double the PB (reduce gain by 50%).High Gain example Proportional Summary . Proportional gain is expressed as the percentage change in output divided by the percentage change in input. % ) x 100 = 100/Gain Gain= ∆Input % / ∆Output % ∆ Controller Output = (Change in Error)(Gain) 1. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Proportional Mode 10 IVP Activities 9 8 7.Simple Disadvantages .reduce PB (increase gain) until the process cycles following a disturbance. Proportional band is expressed in terms of the percentage change in error that will cause 100% change in controller output.Error Settings . Advantages . %5 4 PV 1 Large offset 3 2 Minimized offset 2 3 Possible cycling 1 PB=10% 4 Stable loop 0 TIME 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Proportional Control Closed Loop . Proportional mode alone will not return the PV to SP. % / ∆Output. What will be the result if the 7 proportional gain is set too high? SP 6 Select all options that apply.

i.How many minutes are required for 1 repeat to occur. With the exception of some electronic controllers. This is accomplished by repeating the action of the proportional mode as long as an error exists.. Minutes Per Repeat . 37 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.com . or reset action. the integral or reset mode is always used with the proportional mode.Another component of error 8. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Integral Mode INTEGRAL ACTION Activities Duration of Error and Integral Mode . 100 90 80 70 60 PV % 50 40 30 20 SP Duration 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 INTEGRAL(RESET) OPEN LOOP ANALYSIS Purpose.Integral. The controller output from the integral or reset mode is a function of the duration of the error.How many times the proportional action is repeated each minute. how long has the error existed? control algorithm that eliminates offset. _____________ action is the type of is the duration of the error. Setting . may be expressed in terms of: Repeats Per Minute .The purpose of integral action is to return the PV to SP.e.

com . CLOSED LOOP 38 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. the greater or reset actions expressed in the gain. 100 90 80 70 SP 60 50 % PV 40 30 IVP 20 PB=80% 10 Repeat=10 Repeats/min 0 TIME 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 FAST RESET.In this example the loop is stable because Select all options that apply. the total loop gain is not too high at the loop critical frequency. 2 Repeats per minute 3 Repeats per loop 100 90 4 Minutes per repeat 80 SP 70 60 50 % PV 40 30 20 IVP PB=80% 10 Repeat=2. terms of? Slow Reset Example .Adding reset to the controller adds one more 9.In the example the rest is too fast and the PV is cycling around the SP. Which of the following are integral gain component to the loop. CLOSED LOOP Fast Reset Example .0 Repeats/min 0 TIME 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SLOW RESET. 1 Repeats per setting Notice thatthe process variable does reach set point due to the reset action. The faster the reset action. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Integral Mode CLOSED LOOP ANALYSIS Activities Closed Loop With Reset .

100 SP Input % PV ARW 0 Shutdown Input(Error) Startup Reset Windup . Anti Reset Windup .Reset windup is common on shut down because the process variable may go to zero but the set point has not changed. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Integral Mode RESET WINDUP Activities Defined . difference between the set point and the process variable.Shutdown and Startup Startup . Identify the major disadvantages output is driven from a desired output level because of a large of integral action. large process variable overshoot may occur because the reset speed prevents the output from reaching its desired value fast enough.At start up. Select all options that apply.Ant-Reset Windup Shutdown .com . 100 1 Tends to leave an offset 2 Reset windup during shutdown 3 Possible overshoot during start up 4 Can cause cycling in fast process Output% by amplifying noisy signals IVP ARW 0 INPUT(ERROR) Reset Windup .Reset windup is described as a situation where the controller 10. therefore this large error will drive the output to one extreme.Controllers can be modified with an anti-reset 39 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.

The units are in terms of repeats per minute or minutes per repeat.Increase repeats per minute until the PV cycles following a disturbance.Slow Return To Setpoint 3. The purpose of an anti-reset option is to allow Activities the output to reach its desired value quicker.Possible Cycling Slow Reset 1.. then slow the reset action to a value that is 1/3 of the initial setting./Repeat) 2.. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Integral Mode windup (ARW) device.Large Min. therefore minimizing the overshoot.Reset windup and possible overshoot Fast Reset 1.Low Gain (Small Repeats/Min.Stable Loop Trailing and Error Tuning ./Repeats) 2. Advantages . 40 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.Eliminates error Disadvantages .com .High Gain (Large Repeats/Min. SUMMARY Integral (Reset) Summary .Output is a repeat of the proportional action as long as error exists.Small Min.Fast Return To Setpoint 3.

a large initial change in controller output may be applied. To improve response.com . The derivative action is initiated whenever there is a change in the rate of change of the error (the slope of the PV). Which of the following are derivative or (the future point in time is determined by the value of the derivative rate actions expressed in terms of? setting. process (a heat exchanger) may react very slowly to a small change in controller output. the controller etermines what its output would be at a future point in time 12. ___________ action is a control respond well to small changes in controller output. the the controller first compares the current PV with the last value of the PV. If there is a change in the slope of the PV.Some large and/or slow process do not 11. The magnitude of the derivative action is determined by the setting of the derivative . The mode of a PID controller and the rate of change of the PV. The Derivative setting is expressed in terms of minutes. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Derivative Mode DERIVATIVE ACTION Activities Derivative Mode Basics . The derivative mode immediately increases the output by that amount. For example. In oper ation. algorithm that is tied to the rate of a large liquid level process or a large thermal change in the error. This action is the role of the derivative mode. 1 Repeats per minute 100 2 Hours 90 80 3 Seconds Slope= Rate of Error Change(Y/X) 70 4 Minutes 60 5 Milliseconds 50 PV % Y 40 X 30 20 SP 10 0 TIME 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Derivative Action is based on the rate of change in Error (Y/X) 41 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. in minutes).

the PV never becomes equal to the SP because there is no reset. this time. Controller Algorithms and Tuning Derivative Mode Example . And. Closed Loop 42 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. 100 90 80 IVP 70 60 SP 50 40 PV 30 20 PB=50% 10 Reset=0 Rate=0 0 TIME 0 100 200 300 400 100 IVP 90 80 70 PV 60 SP 50 40 PV 30 20 PB=50% 10 Reset=0 Rate=1 min 0 TIME 0 100 200 300 400 No Rate. The proportional gain of 2 acting on a 10% change in set Is this statement true or false? pint results in a change in controller output of 20%. we will add the are mode with a setting of 1 minute.com . There is no reset at process variable to match the set point. Recall that the change in output due to rate action is a function of the speed (rate) of change of error. Notice the very large controller output at time 0. Rate Effect . Because temperature is a slow process the setting time after a change in error is quite long. the time scale has been 13. The output spike is the result of rate action. The addition of derivative or rate alone lengthened to help illustrate controller actions in a slow process. which in a step is nearly infinite. IN this example. to a close loop control can cause the Assume a proportional band settingof 50%. in this example.To illustrate the effect of rate action. Small Rate examples. The addition of rate alone will not cause the process variable to match the set point.Let's start a closed loop example by looking at a Activities temperature control system.

100 IVP 90 80 70 SP 60 50 PV 40 30 20 PB= 50% 10 Reset=0 Rate= 10 min 0 TIME 0 100 200 300 400 P+D. the output will be very erratic if rate is used on fast process or one with noisy signals. The point here is that increasing the rate setting will not cause the PV to settle at the SP. both the IVP (controller output) and the PV are cycling.com . are designed to respond to changes in the PV only. Closed Loop Analysis Need for Reset Action . Applications . Activities The controller gain is now much higher. High Rate Setting. will have the greatest change when the input changes rapidly. 43 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.It is now clear that reset must be added to bring process variable back to set point.Let's now increase the rate setting to 10 minutes. especially digital types.Many controllers. Controller Option to Ignore Change in SP . Controller Algorithms and Tuning Derivative Mode Effect of Fast Rate . The controller output.Because this component of the controller output is dependent on the speed of change of the input or error. and to ignore changes in SP. as a result of rate. This feature eliminates a major upset upset that would occur following a change in the setpoint. As a result.

Rate action is a function of the speed of change of the error. Advantages . Controller Algorithms and Tuning Derivative Mode SUMMARY Activities Derivative (Rate) Sumary . The units are minutes. The action is to apply an immediate response that is equal to the proportional plus reset action that would have occurred some number of minutes I the future.Small Output Change 3. Disadvantage .High Gain 2. can cause cycling in fast processes.Possible Cycling Small (Minutes) 1.Large Output Change 3.Low Gain 2. Settings Large (Minutes) 1.Stable Loop Trial-and-Error Tuning Increase the rate setting until the process cycles following a disturbance.Rapid output reduces the time that is required to return PV to SP in slow process. then reduce the rate setting to one-third of the initial value.com . 44 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.Dramatically amplifies noisy signals.

com . process operators can: 14. and PID Control Activities By using all three control algorithms together. but where no offset can ❑ Hold the process near setpoint without major fluctuations with be tolerated? proportional control ❑ Eliminate offset with integral control Not every process requires a full PID control strategy. What type of control is used in ❑ Achieve rapid response to major disturbances with derivative an application where noise is control present. 3 PI PI control is used where no offset can be tolerated. and where excessive dead time (time after a disturbance before control action takes place) is not a problem. Controlled Proportional Variable Control PI Control PID Control Flow Yes Yes No Level Yes Yes Rare Temperature Yes Yes Yes Pressure Yes Yes Rare Analytical Yes Yes Rare Table 7. customers can use full PID control.2 shows common types of control loops and which types of control algorithms are typically used. In processes where no offset can be tolerated. Table 7. no noise is present.2: Control Loops and Control Algorithms COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE . and where dead time is an issue.CONTROLLER ALGORITHMS AND TUNING Fundamentals of Control 45 © 2006 PAControl.Controller Algorithms and Tuning Controller Algorithms Proportional. where noise 4 PID (temporary error readings that do not reflect the true process variable condition) may be present. then proportional control alone may be 2 PD sufficient. PI. If a small offset 1 P only has no impact on the process.

g. design. pressure. Because in some processes many variables must be controlled. you will learn about how control components and control algorithms are integrated to create a process control system. speed. including a description of equipment requirements and considerations.. control systems must be designed to respond to disturbances at any point in the system and to mitigate the effect of those disturbances throughout the system. for each of the following types of control: • Cascade control • Batch control • Ratio control • Selective control • Fuzzy control ❑ Describe benefits and limitations of each type of control listed above ❑ Give examples of process applications in which each type of control described in this section might be used Note: To answer the activity questions the Hand Tool (H) should be activated. you will be able to: ❑ Explain how a multivariable loop is different from a single loop. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this section.com .Process Control Loops In this section. benefits. Fundamentals of Control 46 © 2006 PAControl. ❑ Differentiate feedback and feedforward control loops in terms of their operation. and each variable can have an impact on the entire system. noise) • Identify typical equipment requirements • Diagram the loop using ISA symbology ❑ Explain the basic implementation process.e. level.. flow. and limitations ❑ Perform the following functions for each type of standard process control loop (i. and temperature): • State the type of control typically used and explain why it is used • Identify and describe considerations for equipment selection (e.

Process Control Loops Single Control Loops Control loops can be divided into two categories: Single variable Activities loops and multi-variable loops. The advantage of a feedback loop is that it directly controls the desired process variable. When the car begins to climb a hill. Figure 7. What type of control loop takes FEEDBACK CONTROL action in response to measured deviation from setpoint? A feedback loop measures a process variable and sends the measurement to a controller for comparison to setpoint. control action is taken to return the 1 Discrete control loop process variable to setpoint. Controller Process fluid Steam valve Transmitter Feedback Loop An everyday example of a feedback loop is the cruise control system in an automobile.18 illustrates a feedback loop in 2 Multi-step control loop which a transmitter measures the temperature of a fluid and. Feedback loops are commonly used in the process control industry. If the process variable is not at setpoint.com. The disadvantage to feedback loops is that the process variable must leave setpoint for action to be taken. if 3 Open loop necessary. A setpoint is established for speed. the speed drops below setpoint and the controller adjusts the throttle to return the car’s speed to setpoint. . 1. opens or closes a hot steam valve to adjust the fluid’s 4 Feedback control loop temperature. 47 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.

2. High-volume systems (e. level. flow.Process Control Loops Examples of Single Control Loops While each application has its own characteristics. The speed 1 Same rate required in a pressure control loop may be dictated by the volume of 2 Quicker the process fluid. and temperature Activities loops. they can respond to changes in load or to control action slowly or quickly. some general statements can be made about pressure. Pneumatic controller Relief valve Pressure transmitter Process fluid Fluid pump A Pressure Loop Fundamentals of Control 48 © 2006 PAControl.g.. How does a high-volume pressure control loop react as compared to a PRESSURE CONTROL LOOPS small-volume pressure control loop? Pressure control loops vary in speed—that is.21). large natural gas storage 3 Slower facilities) tend to change more slowly than low-volume systems 4 Extremely fast (Figure 7.com .

flow control loops are regarded as fast loops that respond 3. a transmitter. flow control equipment must have fast considered to be slow responding sampling and response times. and a valve or pump are used in flow control loops (Figure 7. To compensate for noise. Therefore. they can produce rapid fluctuations or noise in the control signal. Because flow transmitters tend to be loops.22). Typically. Pneumatic controller Flow transmitter Valve Process fluid Fluid pump A Flow Loop 49 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. a controller. many flow transmitters have a damping function that filters out noise. a flow sensor. Because the temperature of the process fluid affects its density.com. Flow control loops are generally to changes quickly. Process Control Loops Examples of Single Control Loops FLOW CONTROL LOOPS Activities Generally. Is this statement true or false? rather sensitive devices. filters are added between the transmitter and the control system. Sometimes. temperature measurements are often taken with flow measurements and compensation for temperature is accounted for in the flow calculation. .

ultrasonic.g.com . Converter Level controller Differential pressure transmitter A Level Loop Fundamentals of Control 50 © 2006 PAControl.Process Control Loops Examples of Single Control Loops LEVEL CONTROL LOOPS Activities The speed of changes in a level control loop largely depends on the 4. larger vessels take longer to sometimes used in level applications fill than smaller ones) and the flow rate of the input and outflow because preventing tank overflow is pipes. and pressure measurement. Is this technologies to determine level.. Redundant control systems are size and shape of the process vessel (e. The final control element in a level control loop is usually a valve on the input and/or outflow connections to the tank (Figure 7. Manufacturers may use one of many different measurement often critically important.23). float statement true or false? gauge. including radar. Because it is often critical to avoid tank overflow. redundant level control systems are sometimes employed.

The final control element 1 Feedforward control for a temperature loop is usually the fuel valve to a burner or a valve 2 Feedback control to some kind of heat exchanger. RTDs or thermocouples are typical temperature sensors. 4 Ratio control Controller Process fluid Temperature transmitter Valve A Temperature Loop 51 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl.24). Feedforward often used to increase the speed control strategies are often used to increase the speed of the of a temperature control loop? temperature loop response. although it is not uncommon to see temperature sensors wired directly to the input interface of a controller. What type of control strategy is fluid. Process Control Loops Examples of Single Control Loops TEMPERATURE CONTROL LOOPS Activities Because of the time required to change the temperature of a process 5.com . Sometimes. cool process fluid is 3 Cascade control added to the mix to maintain temperature (Figure 7. Temperature transmitters and controllers are used. temperature loops tend to be relatively slow.

secondary controller assigned For example. Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops MULTIVARIABLE LOOPS Activities Multivariable loops are control loops in which a primary controller 6. . The primary controller will manipulate the setpoint of the secondary controller to maintain the setpoint temperature of the primary process variable (Figure 7. Tuning the primary loop will not impact the secondary loop tuning.com . To control the primary variable (temperature). the primary process variable may be the temperature of to different process variables? Is the fluid in a tank that is heated by a steam jacket (a pressurized steam this statement true or false? chamber surrounding the tank). the primary (master) controller signals the secondary (slave) controller that is controlling steam pressure. A multivariable control loop controls one process variable by sending signals to a controller of a contains a primary and different loop that impacts the process variable of the primary loop. Primary controller Transmitter SP Secondary controller Valve Transmitter Multivariable Loop When tuning a control loop. 52 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. The standard procedure is to tune the secondary loop before tuning the primary loop because adjustments to the secondary loop impact the primary loop.17). it is important to take into account the presence of multivariable loops.

the user must have a disturbances before they can mathematical understanding of how the manipulated variables will impact the process variable? impact the process variable. In general. Fundamentals of Control 53 © 2006 PAControl. The added complexity and expense of feedforward control may not be equal to the benefits of increased control in the case of a variable that causes only a small load disturbance. rather than corrected. and moisture content can all become load disturbances and cannot always be effectively accounted for in a feedforward system. 1 Feedback control loop 2 Feedforward control loop Flow transmitter Controller 3 Ratio control loop 4 Single variable loop Cold process fluid Steam valve Feedforward Control An advantage of feedforward control is that error is prevented. Figure 7. However.19 shows a feedforward loop in which a flow transmitter opens or closes a hot steam valve based on how much cold fluid passes through the flow sensor.com . buildup in pipes.Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops FEEDFORWARD CONTROL Activities Feedforward control is a control system that anticipates load 7. What type of control loop disturbances and controls them before they can impact the process anticipates and controls load variable. consistency of raw materials. it is difficult to account for all possible load disturbances in a system through feedforward control. feedforward systems should be used in cases where the controlled variable has the potential of being a major load disturbance on the process variable ultimately being controlled. humidity. For feedforward control to work. Factors such as outside temperature.

feedforward systems are often totals the input from both the combined with feedback systems.com. Figure 7. Is this statement true or false? Feedforward controller Summing Feedback controller controller Flow transmitter Process fluid Temperature transmitter Steam valve Feedforward Plus Feedback Control System 54 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops FEEDFORWARD PLUS FEEDBACK Activities Because of the difficulty of accounting for every possible load 8.20 shows a how a single control signal is sent to feedforward-plus-feedback loop in which both a flow transmitter and the final control element in a a temperature transmitter provide information for controlling a hot feedforward plus feedback system. and send a unified the final control element. This is signal to the final control element. A controller with a summing function disturbance in a feedforward system. Controllers with summing feedforward loop and the feedback functions are used in these combined systems to total the input from loop and sends a unified signal to both the feedforward loop and the feedback loop. steam valve. .

Secondary Primary controller controller Process fluid Temperature Flow transmitter transmitter Valve Cascade Control Fundamentals of Control 55 © 2006 PAControl.25). temperature) they are applied to. the setpoint of a secondary loop.Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops This module has discussed specific types of control loops. This section will acquaint you with some controller of the primary loop determines of the methods of control currently being used in process industries. what components are used in them. The controller of the primary loop determines the setpoint of the summing contoller in the secondary loop (Figure 7. flow. and some of the applications (e.g.. Is this statement true or false? CASCADE CONTROL Cascade control is a control system in which a secondary (slave) control loop is set up to control a variable that is a major source of load disturbance for another primary (master) control loop.com . many 9. Ratio control is the term used to independent and interconnected loops are combined to control the describe a system in which the workings of a typical plant. Activities pressure. In practice. however.

Which term describes a control in batches. For these reasons. and often mass measurements are used at various stages of batch processes. Start-up presents control problems because. flow. control instruments may need to be recalibrated. a control system could be developed to control the ratio of acid to water. pressure. temperature.g. If a tank has an acid supply on one side of a mixing vessel and a water supply on the other. RATIO CONTROL Imagine a process in which an acid must be diluted with water in the proportion two parts water to one part acid. 1 Selective control 2 Cascade control A disadvantage of batch control is that the process must be frequently 3 Ratio control restarted. chlorination of water). Ratio control might be used where a continuous process is going on and an additive is being put into the flow (e. Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops BATCH CONTROL Activities Batch processes are those processes that are taken from start to finish 10. it is an uncontrolled flow? not practical to have a continuous process running. For example. Another 4 Fuzzy control disadvantage is that as recipes change. This type of control system is called ratio control (Figure 7. Batch processes often involve getting the correct proportion of ingredients into the batch.com .g.26).. flow is added proportionately to orange drink or apple drink) is mixed at a time. Water flow Acid flow Ratio Control 56 Fundamentals of Control © 2006 PAControl. Typically. Level. Ratio control is used in many applications and involves a contoller that receives input from a flow measurement device on the unregulated (wild) flow. all measurements in the system are below setpoint at start-up. mixing the ingredients for a juice drinks is system in which controlled often a batch process. a limited amount of one flavor (e.. typically. even though the water supply itself may not be controlled. The controller performs a ratio calculation and signals the appropriate setpoint to another controller that sets the flow of the second fluid so that the proper proportion of the second fluid can be added.

adjust the process. in a will the more important of two boiler control system. even at the cost of 1 Fuzzy control not maintaining an optimal process variable setpoint. ___________ control is the term makes process control changes without consulting humans. For example. then variables be maintained? uncombusted fuel can build up in the boiler and cause an explosion. In which type of control system important of two variables will be maintained. logic to make decisions about adjusting the process. 2 Cascade control 3 Ratio control FUZZY CONTROL 4 Selective control Fuzzy control is a form of adaptive control in which the controller uses fuzzy logic to make decisions about adjusting the process. and learn from the result. but never a fuel-rich mixture. Fuzzy control is a relatively new technology. Selective control is most often used when equipment must be protected or safety maintained.PROCESS CONTROL LOOPS Fundamentals of Control 57 © 2006 PAControl. Because a machine 12.com . if fuel flow outpaces air flow. Selective control is used to allow for an air-rich mixture. Fuzzy logic is a form of computer logic where whether something is or is not included in a set is based on a grading scale in which multiple factors are accounted for and rated by the computer. but none of the which the controller uses computer responsibility. to control a process.Process Control Loops Multi-Variable / Advanced Control Loops SELECTIVE CONTROL Activities Selective control refers to a control system in which the more 11. fuzzy used to describe a control system in control removes from operators some of the ability. formulate a theory of how to make improvements. COMPLETE WORKBOOK EXERCISE . The essential idea of fuzzy control is to create a kind of artificial intelligence that will account for numerous variables.

Which of the following are advantages of reducing variability in a process application? (1) Helps ensure a consistently high-quality end product. (3) Helps ensure increase in efficiency of the process.1— THE IMPORTANCE OF PROCESS CONTROL 1. (4) Helps ensure safety Page 58 Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl.Module 7: Workbook Exercises EXERCISE 7. Which of the following options best represents the reasons to control a process? (Select three options that apply) (1) Reduce variability (2) Increase productivity (3) Increase efficiency (4) Reduce cost (5) Ensure safety 2.com . Is this statement true or false? (1) True (2) False 3. Process is defined as the method of changing or refining raw materials to create end products. (2) Helps ensure an increase in the reaction rate of the process.

Keeping in mind the given scenario.Module 7: Workbook Exercises EXERCISE 7. The controller compares the level reading to the set point and opens or closes an inflow or outflow pipe depending on the liquid level.com . (1) Inferred process variable (A) 150 ft (2) Manipulated variable (B) Pressure (3) Measured variable (C) Flow of liquid to the tank (4) Set point (D) Level Workbook Exercises Page 59 © 2006 PAControl. A pressure transmitter monitors the liquid’s level using a pressure reading and sends the result to a controller. A process liquid level needs to be held within 5 ft of 150 ft in a large tank.2 — CONTROL THEORY BASICS 1. Which of the following tasks is associated with process control? (Select three options that apply) (1) Measurement (2) Comparison (3) Quality Analysis (4) Adjustment (5) Calculation 2. match the terms in Column A with their values in Column B. Which of the following variables are commonly measured or monitored in process control applications? (Select three options that apply) (1) Pressure (2) Viscosity (3) Nitrogen content (4) Flow rate (5) Temperature 3.

automatic control _____ (2) Closed-loop. __________ is a continuing error due to the inability of a control system to keep the measured variable at set point.Module 7: Workbook Exercises 4. manual control _____ (3) Open-loop. (B) A controller turns off the heater coil at set intervals. __________ is a deviation from set point due to load disturbance. (B) An undesired change in a factor that can affect the process variable. 6. (C) A temperature sensor measures process temperature. regardless of the process temperature. automatic control _____ (A) An operator turns off the heater coil when the temperature transmitter outputs a certain reading. (1) Load disturbance (2) Offset (3) Pressure Page 60 Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl. (D) A control operation that directly involves human action. (E) A mathematical expression of a control function 5. (1) Closed-loop.com . (1) Load disturbance (2) Control algorithm (3) Manual control (4) Manipulated variable (5) Set point (A) The factor that is changed to keep a measured variable at set point. Match each term to its correct definition. Match each term to its correct description. sends the result to a controller to compare to the setpoint. (1) Error (2) Offset (3) Rate of change 7. and the controller turns off the heater coil. (C) A value or range of values for a process variable that must be maintained to keep the process running properly.

Module 7: Workbook Exercises EXERCISE 7. Match the signal type in Column A with its example/application in Column B. (1) recorder (2) transmitter (3) converter 2. (1) an indicator (2) a volt-meter (3) an actuator 5. Profibus and Modbus (3) Digital signal (C) 4-20 mA and 1 – 5 V 4. A customer would use __________to read the temperature of a process fluid on a display. 4–20 mA is the most common standard analog signal used in the process control industry today. (1) Analog signal (A) 3 –15 psig (2) Pneumatic signal (B) Fieldbus.com . Is this statement true or false? (1) True (2) False Workbook Exercises Page 61 © 2006 PAControl. A pump motor is the most commonly used final control element. The basic function of a __________ is to convert a reading from a transducer into a standard signal and transmit that signal to a controller or computer monitor.3 — COMPONENTS OF CONTROL LOOPS AND ISA SYMBOLOGY 1. (1) Recorder _____ (2) Controller _____ (3) Final control element _____ (4) Actuator _____ 6. Is this statement true or false? (1) True (2) False 3. Match each control loop equipment to its correct description.

Module 7: Workbook Exercises 7.com . Match the ISA symbols in Column A with its respective description in Column B. (1) (A) Programmable logic control (2) (B) Temperature transmitter (3) (C) Pneumatically actuated valve (4) (D) Electrically actuated valve Page 62 Workbook Exercises © 2006 PAControl.

thus preventing the process from holding set point.Module 7: Workbook Exercises EXERCISE 7. (E) A type of control that repeats the action of the proportional mode as long as an error exists. 2. Derivative gain (Dgain) is typically set to zero in flow applications since flow applications are usually noisy and derivative control will react to readings that are in fact noise. Identify the two effects on a process variable if the proportional gain (Pgain) is set too high? (Select all that apply) (1) Minimize offset (2) Large offset (3) Stable loop (4) Possible cycling 3. (B) A type of control that produce erratic output in noisy applications. (D) A type of control that is prone to leaving an offset.com . Match each term to its correct definitions.4 — CONTROL ALGORITHMS AND TUNING 1. Is this statement true or false? (1) True (2) False Workbook Exercises Page 63 © 2006 PAControl. (1) Proportional band (2) Proportional/integral (PI) control (3) Proportional control (4) Derivative control (5) Integral control (A) A type of control that corrects error and eliminates offset. (C) The percent change in error that will cause a 100% change in controller output.

Module 7: Workbook Exercises
EXERCISE 7.5 — PROCESS CONTROL LOOPS
1. Which control system anticipates load disturbances and controls them before they
can impact the process variable?

(1) Selective control
(2) Fuzzy control
(3) Feed forward control
(4) Cascade control

2. Match the component label in Column A to its ISA symbol representation in Column
B.

(1) Flow transmitter (A)

(2) Temperature transmitter (B)

(3) Flow controller (C)

(4) Valve (D)

3. If R1 = 60 :, R2 = 100 :, and R3 = 100 :, what is the equivalent resistance (Req) in
the circuit?

(1) slow
(2) fast
(3) variable speed

Page 64 Workbook Exercises
© 2006 PAControl.com.

Module 7: Workbook Exercises - Answers

Exercise 7.1 – The Importance of Process Control

1. 1, 3, 5
2. 1
3. 1

Exercise 7.2 – Control Theory Basics

1. 1, 2, 4
2. 1, 4, 5
3. D, C, B, A
4. B, E, D, A, C
5. C, A, B
6. 1
7. 2

Exercise 7.3 – Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology

1. 2
2. 1
3. C, A, B
4. 1
5. C, D, B, A
6. 2
7. B, C, D, A

Exercise 7.4 – Control Algorithms and Tuning

1. C, A, D, B, E
2. 1, 4
3. 1

Exercise 7.5 – Process Control Loops

1. 3
2. B, C, D, A
3. 1

Workbook Exercises Page 65
© 2006 PAControl.com

Module 7: Activity Answers
The Importance of Process Control

1. True
2. 1,3,5
3. 1,2,4

Control Theory Basics

1. True
2. True
3. True
4. 4
5. 3
6. False
7. False
8. 2,4

Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology

1. 1,2,5
2. False
3. 3
4. True
5. 2,3,4
6. 1
7. 1,4
8. 2
9. 4
10. 3
11. 1
12. 2
13. 1
14. 2
15. 3
16. True
17. 4
18. True
19. True
20. 1
21. 3

Page 66 Activity Answers
© 2006 PAControl.com

True 9. 4 13.Module 7: Activity Answers Controller Algorithms and Tuning 1.3 8. 3 3.2. 2.com . 2 4.5 7. 3 Process Control Loops 1. False 10. False 14. 1. False 5. 4 12.4 10. True 7. 3 11. 1 Activity Answers Page 67 © 2006 PAControl. 2. 1 6. 3 9.4 2. 2.3 11. False 4. False 3. 1 6. True 5. 2 8.3. 4 2. 2. 2 12.