Cowpea is an annual tropical grain legume, which plays an important role in the nutrition of people in developing countries of the

tropics and subtropics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia Central and South America. Due to its high protein content (20 ± 25%), cowpea has been referred to as "poor man's meat". It is very palatable, highly nutritious and relatively free of metabolites or other toxins [1,2]. Cowpeas are susceptible to a wide range of pests and pathogens that attack the crop at all stages of growth [3]. These include insects, bacteria, fungi and viruses. Estimated losses due to virus infection have been variously put at between 10 and 100% [4,5], depending on the virus-host-vector relationships as well as the prevailing epidemiological factors. Host- plant resistance is currently the most effective method for the control of cowpea virus diseases in Africa. Thus, an adequate knowledge of the viruses and the strains occurring in the main cowpea-growing areas of Africa is a pre-requisite for effective control [6].
Out of more than 20 viruses reported on cowpea from different parts of the world [7-9] nine are known to infect the crop naturally in Nigeria [10-12]. They include the following viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea yellow mosaic virus (CPMV), genus Comovirus, Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus, Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV), genus Bigeminivirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), genus Cucumovirus, Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), genus Carlavirus,

Viral diseases can cause severe damage to cowpea crops. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) genus Cucumovirus has shown to be highly seed borne in many cowpea varieties (Thottappilly and Rossel, 1988). Although 14% reduction in yield is
(SHMV), genus Tobamovirus and Blackeye mosaic virus (BICMV), genus Potyvirus. On the basis of geographical distribution, pathogenic variability and yield losses, CABMV, CPMV and occasionally SBMV are the most important viruses in Nigeria. CMeV, CPGMV and CMV are of localized importance while CPMMV and SHMV are not important. BICMV has a low rate of occurrence. Separation and identification of these viruses is by vector transmission, mechanical inoculation to diagnostic host species, symptomatology and serology [


A distinctive virus with flexuous filamentous particles c. 750 nm long. It is seedborne in cowpea, has a wide experimental host range, is transmitted by several common species of aphid, and occurs in many countries where cowpea is grown. The virus is transmitted in the stylet-borne, non-persistent manner by Aphis craccivora It causes a severe mosaic of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), the severity depending on host cultivar and virus strain. Diseased cowpea plants show variable amounts of dark green vein banding or interveinal chlorosis, leaf distortion, blistering and stunting. It also infects many species in the Leguminosae and other strains also infect members of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Labiatae and Solanaceae.
D.G. White)

sugarcane mosaic (SCM. SCM was prevalent in northern Illinois where no Johnsongrass is found. In addition. the occurrence of those viruses was limited to areas where alternate hosts were prevalent. Sweet corn is more susceptible than dent corn. (2) serological studies to detect the presence of a known plant virus. 211 May 1993 . Identifying viral diseases of corn in the field is difficult. The possibility of genetic and nutritional disorders may be eliminated by (1) transmission from diseased to healthy indicator plants. Many fields will show only a trace of light infection one year. and (3) an examination of diseased tissue by electron microscopy to check for viral particles and virus induced abnormalities in the plant cells. but will be severely damaged during following years. MDM is usually most serious where Johnsongrass is a common weed. and maize chlorotic dwarf (MCD). Other annual or perennial grasses may be serving as reservoirs for the SCM virus. existence of viral strains. or aphids carrying SCM may blow in from southern regions. Until 1977. In 1977 and 1978. So far. occurrence of two or more viruses in the same locality. DEPARTMENT OF CROP SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN report on PLANT DISEASE RPD No. formerly MDM strain B). It is widely distributed in bottomland fields that are close to rivers and other bodies of water. several symptoms of viral infection can be confused with genetic or mineral-deficiency abnormalities. only 4 viruses have caused natural infections of the corn crop in Illinois²those causing maize dwarf mosaic (MDM). Sugarcane mosaic (SCM) was described in sugarcane in the South in the early 1900's but it was not known to occur commonly or cause problems in corn. however. The disease often reappears in the same fields or general area in succeeding years. The similarity of symptoms. The most important alternate hosts are Johnsongrass for MDM and MCD and wheat for WSM. wheat streak mosaic (WSM). maize dwarf mosaic (MDM). and inadequate diagnostic aids are some of the factors that lead to confusion in diagnosis. MAIZE DWARF MOSAIC Maize dwarf mosaic (MDM) was discovered in corn in the Midwest during 1962.VIRAL DISEASES OF CORN IN ILLINOIS More than 25 viruses are known to infect corn.

smooth bromegrass. The MDM and SCM virus particles are long. Several strains of both MDM and SCM viruses have been given letter designations. Besides all types of corn and Johnsongrass. Plants that are infected late usually grow and produce normally. flexuous rods associated with both maize dwarf mosaic and sugarcane mosaic. several bristle grasses. In sweet corn. Some of these hosts show no visible symptoms when infected. little bluestem and lovegrass.-2Figure 2. redtop. MDMV-A overwinters in Johnsongrass tubers. Panicum. healthy leaf (L). the useful pasture-forage grasses (timothy. . As infected plants grow and the temperatures rise. Indian grass. Japanese chess. These include sorghums. are shadowed with palladium. orchardgrass. None of the small grains. The virus particles. Electron micrograph of the long.or dark-green mosaic or mottle that may develop into narrow. and Bromus species. may cause moderate to severe stunting. before the fourth or fifth leaf stage. sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids. downy bromegrass or cheat. Symptoms of maize chlorotic dwarf on a young corn leaf (R). light-green or yellowish streaks along the veins (Figure 1). Early infection. a lack of kernels at the butt end of the ears is common. over 100 wild and cultivated grasses are infected by these viruses. In Illinois. especially in hot weather. a number of foxtails. flexuous rods about 750 nanometers in length (Figure 2). SCMV-MB does not infect Johnsongrass. barnyard grass. The virus is transmitted mechanically and also by at least 20 species of aphids. cup grass. as well as other Setaria. Only mild symptoms develop in corn plants when they become infected after the ear formation is advanced. a ³bushiness´ of the plant. Sudangrass. light. The mosaic or mottle often appears as dark green areas on a yellowish or chlorotic background. Figure 3. large crabgrass. the mosaic often fades and young leaves become more yellow. goosegrass. The aphids can acquire the virus by feeding on infected Johnsongrass plants or other infected grasses in the spring and summer. strain A (MDMV-A) and strain MB (SCMV-MB) have been identified. The typical mosaic pattern is often seen most clearly on the youngest leaves. The symptoms of MDM and SCM occur first in the youngest leaves as an irregular. and poor seed set. Plants infected by viruses early are predisposed to infections by fungi resulting in stalk and ear rots. Transmission occurs when the virus-carrying aphids migrate into corn fields and start to feed. about 750 nm in length.

the virus is rapidly destroyed. Relatively little is known about the virus. flexuous rods that measure about 700 nanometers. Electron micrograph of negatively stained maize chlorotic dwarf virus particles. A general yellowing and stunting of the plant can occur. Heat streak mosaic was first identified in Illinois in 1966. or such common weeds as quakegrass and bullgrass. . Older leaves may become chlorotic near the tips. wild rye. The MCD virus is acquired by the leafhoppers from Johnsongrass and is transmitted to corn as the insects feed. that mite carries the virus in its body for several weeks. The spherical particles are about 28 nm in diameter. Maize chlorotic dwarf is found in areas where Johnsongrass grows. Maize Chlorotic Dwarf The disease called maize chlorotic dwarf (MCD) was discovered in the Midwest in 1972 and in Illinois in 1973. chlorotic spots or broken streaks at the tips of the young leaves. Once a mite acquires the WSM virus from a virus-infected plant by natural feeding. The particles of the wheat streak mosaic virus are long. reddening of the leaves is also common. with green margins bordering the veins. but it is spread from plant to plant by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifrons in a semipersistent manner. No infective viral particles have been found in dead plant remains or in the seed of diseased plants. an almost microscopic organism that is white and elliptical-shaped. wheat streak mosaic (WSM) has been reported in most states of the Great Plains. ryegrasses. A -3Figure 4. With the death of the plant.bluegrasses. The streaks then elongate and develop parallel to the veins. The virus is not transmitted mechanically. susceptible corn plants develop small. The virus is transmitted from plant to plant by the feeding of the wheat-curl mite Aceria tulipae. At first. are known to become infected. WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC First observed in Nebraska in 1922. The spherical virus particles are about 28 nanometers in diameter (Figure 4). Ears are often poorly developed with little or no seed set. and reed canarygrass). Mites are easily blown a mile or more by strong winds. fescues. The symptoms of MCD include a stunting of the plants and the appearance of chlorotic leaf margins and chlorotic streaks in the leaf veins (Figure 3). its host range and its complete distribution. Neither the wheat-curl mite nor the wheat streak mosaic virus can survive more than a day or two if separated from a living plant.

maize chlorotic dwarf. Destroy Johnsongrass and other alternate grass hosts of the viruses causing maize dwarf mosaic. Toxic materials secreted while the mites feed are known to produce kernel red streak disease. enanismo rayado) Maize mosaic virus (MMV) Maize pellucid ringspot Maize pellucid ringspot virus (MPRV) Maize rayado fino (fine striping disease) Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) Maize red leaf and red stripe Mollicute? Maize red stripe Maize red stripe virus (MRSV) Maize ring mottle Maize ring mottle virus (MRMV) Maize rough dwarf (nanismo ruvido) Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) Maize sterile stunt Maize sterile stunt virus (strains of barley yellow striate virus) Maize streak Maize streak virus (MSV) Maize stripe (maize chlorotic stripe. 2. Virus and virus-like diseases American wheat striate (wheat striate mosaic) American wheat striate mosaic virus mosaic (AWSMV) Barley stripe mosaic Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) Barley yellow dwarf Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) Brome mosaic Brome mosaic virus (BMV) Cereal chlorotic mottle Cereal chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) Corn lethal necrosis Virus complex (Maize chlorotic mottle virus [MCMV] and Maize dwarf mosaic virus [MDMV] A or B or Wheat streak mosaic virus [WSMV]) Cucumber mosaic Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Johnsongrass mosaic Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) Maize bushy stunt Mycoplasmalike organism (MLO). The best control occurs when all of the farmers in a community cooperate by destroying the alternate hosts of these viruses. D. Grow corn hybrids tolerant or resistant to MCMV-A and SCMV-MB. Maize chlorotic dwarf Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) Maize chlorotic mottle Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) Maize dwarf mosaic Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) strains A. E and F Maize leaf fleck Maize leaf fleck virus (MLFV) Maize line* Maize line virus (MLV) Maize mosaic (corn leaf stripe.Besides wheat and corn. assoc. hosts of the WSM virus and/or the wheat-curl mite include other cereals and a wide range of annual and perennial grasses. Control 1. volunteer wheat. or weed grasses. Large populations of wheat-curl mites occasionally build up on corn in dry weather. maize hoja blanca) Maize stripe virus Maize tassel abortion Maize tassel abortion virus (MTAV) Maize vein enation Maize vein enation virus . and wheat streak mosaic at least two weeks before planting corn. Do not sow corn in wheat stubble.

I and M Sugarcane Fiji disease Sugarcane Fiji disease virus (FDV) Sugarcane mosaic Sugarcane mosaic Viral diseases can cause severe damage to cowpea crops.(MVEV) Maize wallaby ear Maize wallaby ear virus (MWEV) Maize white leaf Maize white leaf virus Maize white line mosaic Maize white line mosaic virus (MWLMV) Millet red leaf Millet red leaf virus (MRLV) Northern cereal mosaic Northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV) Oat pseudorosette (zakuklivanie) Oat pseudorosette virus Oat sterile dwarf Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) Rice black-streaked dwarf Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) Rice stripe Rice stripe virus (RSV) Sorghum mosaic Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV). Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) genus Cucumovirus has shown to be highly seed borne in many cowpea varieties (Thottappilly and Rossel. 1988). Although 14% reduction in yield is . formerly sugarcanemosaic virus (SCMV) strains H.

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