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DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

IN
BARBADOS

Report on A national study designed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Domestic
Violence in Barbados

Police Data on Homicides 2000-2007
Focus Groups conducted during October, 2008
Survey conducted during February and March, 2009

On behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs, Ministry of Youth, Family and Sport

by

CONTENTS

TABLE OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................... 5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................... 6
Introduction and Background..................................................................................................................... 6
Section One Summary: Police Data on Homicides Associated with Domestic Violence .......................... 6
Section Two Summary: Focus Group Discussions ................................................................................... 6
Policy Recommendations: ......................................................................................................................... 8
SECTION ONE ........................................................................................................................................... 11
EMPIRICAL DATA ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ........................................................................................ 11
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND HOMICIDE .................................................................................................. 12
Table 01: .................................................................................................................................................. 12
Total Homicides in Barbados................................................................................................................... 12
SECTION TWO ........................................................................................................................................... 13
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BARBADOS ................................................ 13
SUMMARY JUDGMENT ............................................................................................................................. 14
INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS .......................................................................... 15
SESSION A: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE STAKEHOLDERS .......................................................................... 16
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................. 16
DEFINITIONS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ............................................................................................ 17
Traditional ................................................................................................................................................ 17
The Barbadian Context............................................................................................................................ 18
MECHANICS OF ABUSE ........................................................................................................................ 19
GENDER DIFFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 20
EFFECTS ON CHILDREN ...................................................................................................................... 21
ROLE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 22
ROLE OF RACIAL BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 23
ROLE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND ................................................................................................. 24
TYPICAL PROFILE FOR PERPETRATORS .......................................................................................... 25
TYPICAL PROFILE FOR VICTIMS ......................................................................................................... 26
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABUSE ............................................................................................................ 27
FREQUENCY OF ABUSE ....................................................................................................................... 28
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT ...................................................................................................................... 29
ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) ............................................................ 31
SESSION B: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SURVIVORS .................................................................................. 32
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................. 32
DEFINITIONS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ............................................................................................ 33
Traditional ................................................................................................................................................ 33
The Barbadian Context............................................................................................................................ 34
MECHANICS OF ABUSE ........................................................................................................................ 35

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 2

GENDER DIFFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 36
EFFECTS ON CHILDREN ...................................................................................................................... 37
ROLE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 38
ROLE OF RACIAL BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 39
ROLE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND ................................................................................................. 40
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABUSE ............................................................................................................ 41
FREQUENCY OF ABUSE ....................................................................................................................... 42
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT ...................................................................................................................... 43
ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) ............................................................ 45
SECTION THREE ....................................................................................................................................... 46
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BARBADOS ............................................. 46
SUMMARY JUDGEMENT .......................................................................................................................... 47
METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS ....................................................................................................... 48
Table 02: Indicator of Each Last Matching Case as Primary .................................................................. 49
PREVALENCE AND DEMOGRAPHICS ..................................................................................................... 51
Prevalence ............................................................................................................................................... 51
Demographics ......................................................................................................................................... 51
Employment Status ................................................................................................................................. 53
Socio-Economic Status ........................................................................................................................... 54
Informant Details ..................................................................................................................................... 55
LOCATION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE .................................................................................................... 56
NATURE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ........................................................................................................ 57
Type of violence ...................................................................................................................................... 57
Table 03: Type of Domestic Violence ...................................................................................................... 57
Actions Involved in Abuse ....................................................................................................................... 58
Retaliation ................................................................................................................................................ 59
Frequency of Abuse ................................................................................................................................ 60
Duration and Consistency of Abuse ........................................................................................................ 60
Socio-Economic Relations....................................................................................................................... 62
Injuries ..................................................................................................................................................... 63
Psychological Impact ............................................................................................................................... 65
Living Arrangements ................................................................................................................................ 66
Table 04: Number of People Living in Abusive Households ................................................................... 66
Table 05: Number of Bedrooms in Abusive Households ........................................................................ 66
Informants Familiarity with Similar Cases ............................................................................................... 68
PROFILE OF THE ABUSER ....................................................................................................................... 69
Table 06: Barbados Religions ................................................................................................................. 69
(CADRES 2009 National Survey) ............................................................................................................ 69
INSTITUTIONAL REACTION TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ........................................................................ 74

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 3

...................................................................................................................................... 87 APPENDIX VI ................................................................. 89 Survey Areas ............................................................................... 79 APPENDIX III ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 87 Respondent Screener .............................................. 74 Police Reports and Outcome.................................... 75 Victim/Survivor‟s Opinion on the Law and Courts ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81 APPENDIX V ................. 79 Focus Group Questions and Issues for Discussion: Survivors .................................................................................. 78 Focus Group Questions and Issues for Discussion: Stakeholders ................................................................................................ Institutions Approached ......................................................... 78 APPENDIX I ....................................................................................................................................................................... 93 Parish and Area Location of Domestic Violence .................... 89 APPENDIX VII ...................................................................... 78 APPENDIX II ....................... 80 APPENDIX IV ................................................................. 81 Document Two (2) Instrument ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 Document (1) One ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 74 Agency Interaction and Agency Reaction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 93 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 4 ......................................................................................................................... 81 Survey Instrument .................. 77 APPENDICES ................................................

....................... 67 Figure 20: Additional (Similar) Cases of Abuse ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59 Figure 11: Gender and Retaliation .......................................... 52 Figure 4: Employment Status .............................................................................. 72 Figure 26: Abuser-Abused Employment Relationship....................................................................... 60 Figure 13: Length of Time of Abuse .......................................................................................... 75 Figure 30: Outcome of Police Reports ............................................................................................... 63 Figure 17: Age and Injuries .......................................................... 74 Figure 28: Agency Interaction/Reaction ................................................................................................................... 57 Figure 9: Actions Involved in Abuse ......................................................................................... 69 Figure 22: Abuser's Religion and National Status ....................... 62 Figure 16: Gender and Injuries ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Figure 2: Respondents who knew of (Separate) Incidence of Abuse .. 68 Figure 21: Major Demographic Characteristics (Abuser) ...................................................................................... 61 Figure 15: Abused ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64 Figure 18: Psychological Impact ..................................................................................................... 55 Figure 7: Parish Location ................................................................................................................................... 61 Figure 14: Consistency of Abuse ................................................................................................................................................... 59 Figure 12: Frequency of Abuse .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65 Figure 19: Persons per Bedroom (Ranges) ....................................................................................................................................... 51 Figure 3: Demographic Trends ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 Figure 5: Victim/Survivor's Socio Economic Background ....................................... TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1: Percentage of Homicides due to Domestic Violence ......... 72 Figure 25: Abuser-Abused Age Relationship......................................................................................................... 58 Figure 10: Retaliation .... 70 Figure 23: Major Social and Economic Characteristics (Abuser) ....... 54 Figure 6: Informant Details ............................................................................... 56 Figure 8: Type of Violence .......................................................................................................... 71 Figure 24: Age and Pattern of Abuse...................................................................................................................................................Abuser Socio Economic Relationship ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 76 Figure 31: Opinion on Law and Courts ........... 77 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 5 ........ 75 Figure 29: Police Reports ...................................................................... 73 Figure 27: Institutions Approached....................

Design and execute a national survey that conveys information on the prevalence and scope of abuse consistent with (b) and (c) above. The focus group reports that appear in Section Two of this study speak to objective (a) which was completed first. Section One Summary: Police Data on Homicides Associated with Domestic Violence The Royal Barbados Police Force (RBPF) has produced data which demonstrates that between 2000 and 2007. b) The determination of the extent to which domestic violence is prevalent in communities across Barbados along with the identification of specific communities where abuse is more (or less) prevalent. One critical area of work has been the reduction and elimination of domestic violence. CADRES was therefore contracted to develop a research methodology that would achieve three key objectives: a) The definition of “Domestic Violence” in the context of Barbados. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 6 . Conduct focus groups with stakeholders designed to establish the dimensions of what is commonly referred to as Domestic Violence in Barbados. on average 21% of murders in Barbados were caused by domestic violence which is one in every five murders and all of the victims in this time period were women. Section Two Summary: Focus Group Discussions CADRES‟ attempts to establish indicators that could predispose individuals to the perpetration of. ii. or subjection to. and the primary objective of creating a definition of domestic violence was also complicated by the fact that there is no typical profile for perpetrators or survivors. There were nonetheless certain conclusions that may be drawn. and seek to use physical force to subdue the types of intellectually superior females who tend to become involved with them. When juxtaposed then. domestic violence proved to be largely futile. whereas the physical abuse they suffered was mainly thought to be borne of their partners‟ insecurities and inferiority complexes. Family and Sports is the government agency charged with the responsibility of facilitating gender mainstreaming and advising government on national policies and programmes as well as monitoring Governments‟ commitment and implementation of international convention and treaties. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction and Background The Bureau of Gender Affairs in the Ministry of Youth. however the ability to measure the effect and impact of the programmes and activities is severely limited because of the availability of reliable baseline data. Significant among these is the fact that several members of the female survivors focus group described themselves as “no-nonsense” individuals who would normally “stand their ground” when challenged. Refine the data gathered in (i) and (ii) in a way that would facilitate the development of an “abuse profile” for Barbados. these two pieces of information depict a possible profile of males who lack maturity and self esteem. and iii. as the scourge cuts across social strata. while objectives (b) and (c) are addressed in Section Three which benefited from a greater understanding of the issue based on the focus group discussions. The terms and conditions of this consultancy require that CADRES do the following: i. and c) The development of an “abuse profile” which highlights demographic and sociological characteristics which appear to pre-dispose persons to becoming victims of abuse.

of working class economic backgrounds. injuries were visible. The demographic characteristics that were isolated demonstrated that victims/survivors were predominately mature. with striking with an implement as being the most common form of abuse. These data speak to pattern of occurrence and note that domestic violence most frequently occurs on a monthly basis. in most instances the police were not called. Institutions such as crisis centres. Michael. working class. 27% of whom were aware of at least one incidence of domestic violence. Summary for section three: National Informant Survey The prevalence of domestic violence was assessed through an estimation method which relied on informants. In most cases domestic violence resulted in injury of some sort and in many cases. as the abuser is able to use the time at home to devise plans and manipulate various features of the household. however deficiencies in the national response and undeveloped cultural attitudes have allowed the scourge to thrive. which is not surprising since this is the most populous parish. they believed that the law was failing to act as a necessary deterrent for potential perpetrators and for this reason the overall levels of abuse were likely higher than average. Barbadian females. Indeed.The data also seems to suggest that those persons who work under a shift system seem to be more susceptible to psychological abuse. CADRES estimates that levels of domestic violence are in reality in line with international averages. black. however it is interesting that St. Data also showed that investigations were stopped by the victim/survivor 31% of the time. Almost 40% of the victims/survivors interviewed were psychologically affected by the incidence of domestic violence and 52% were emotionally troubled. followed by St. the research was much more effective in terms of identifying the shortcomings of the current national response to domestic violence. It would appear as though violence is most prevalent in St. Overall. The most frequent configuration was between a man and woman with the man as the most frequent abuser. however when they were called a full report was made most of the time. mature males of African descent. Of these persons 51% did not seek or receive psychological treatment. churches. Although domestic abuse is mostly physical. As it pertains to the police. The survey also concluded that the abusers were usually older than the victims/survivors and were mostly employed. These may be addressed through programmes geared to sensitise law enforcement officials and the public. Finally CADRES investigated institutional reaction as it pertains to the domestic violence. as stakeholders and survivors alike took issue with the loopholes which exist in the local legislation. but the need to change the legislation coupled with the limited number of effective non-governmental organizations continue to present more complicated issues at this time. data suggested that psychological complications often emerged. Peter and Christ Church (in fourth place). however the survey could not speak to the psychological impact of children and other persons living within the household because in many cases children were indirectly affected by instances of domestic violence. and the seeming indifference of law enforcement officials. James is the next highest. which is consistent with the racial profile of Barbados. legal aid and the Welfare Department were examined and in all instances these institutions were NOT sought by victims/survivors of domestic violence. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 7 .

Initiatives to Respond to Domestic Violence against Men The survey produced a disproportionate quantity of data on domestic violence against men and in these few instances. IV. the relevant Ministry has developed a specific form. Alternative Restraining and Protection Order Facilities There is considerable evidence of domestic violence occurring outside of the more conventional “live-in” scenarios that can give rise to a protection order.Policy Recommendations: Against the background of this report. b) Imposes a reporting protocol that is applicable to agencies that would normally receive reports of domestic violence. the following recommendations are made to the Bureau of Gender Affairs and the Government of Barbados to facilitate an enhanced response to cases of domestic violence: LEGISLATIVE AND POLICY INITIATIVES I. which might be as simple as exposing officers within relevant institutions to sensitivity training. In this regard. The present infrastructure might be challenged to respond to such scenarios. III. It is therefore recommended that government pursue legislation that: a) Clearly defines domestic violence in a manner that is entirely gender neutral and makes no presumptions regarding the age or gender of both the aggressor and victim. but is clearly necessary. it is also clear that the legislative remedies available to victims (such as protection orders) are NOT gender neutral and need to anticipate and respond to male complainants. The alternative legal remedy that facilitates protection is considerably more difficult to obtain. II. Reporting and Monitoring Requirements It is clear that little empirical data exists on the issue of domestic violence and this impacts negatively on the Government‟s ability to identify and track instances of domestic violence. Moreover. however there is a difference between the law‟s approval of a particular type of union and the law‟s protection of the individual within that union from undue exposure to violence. c) Requires/Identifies a specific government agency to monitor incidences of domestic violence and develop policies to respond appropriately. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 8 . however CADRES is of the opinion that it is entirely too complex to achieve the desired objectives. It is therefore recommended that initiatives designed to respond to domestic violence be equally applicable to the gay and lesbian community. Initiatives to Secure Sexual Orientation Neutrality Although the laws of Barbados frown on same sex relationships. The Government should therefore create options whereby potential victims can seek protection from assailants to whom they are not married and with whom they do not live. it was clear that there was even greater hesitation for male victims to come forward and report such acts. it is clear from this research that such relationships occur and give rise to domestic violence and more recently led to at least one known fatality. It is therefore recommended that government develop initiatives to encourage men to report incidences of domestic violence.

VIII. In this regard Government might need to consider two issues: a) The need to expose Church officers to training that would help them to counsel victims of domestic violence. It might therefore be necessary for parties that mediate and intervene in cases of domestic violence to encourage psychological evaluation and assistance and as a consequence Government might need to ensure that such facilities are available. VI. Responding to the Psychological Impact Data suggest that victims are in many instances not seeking psychological help in situations where they are abused although informants believe that such persons are also psychologically damaged. It is therefore recommended that a programme of sensitivity training be developed for the Police in such scenarios and specialist support be placed at the disposal of the Police when they are required to respond to suspected cases of domestic violence. Police Reaction to Domestic Violence Reports The reaction of persons who were actual victims/survivors of domestic violence suggested that they were often not taken seriously by the Police. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 9 . This presents a clear issue to which legislation must speak and thereafter needs to be addressed by advocacy. Role of the Church in Counselling Victims of domestic violence clearly prefer to seek comfort with non-governmental organisations and most frequently turn to the Church. Distinction Between Corporal Punishment and Domestic Violence Research suggests that there is some amount of (non-sexual) domestic violence being perpetrated against Children and Teenagers and it is entirely possible that such persons are unclear about the important distinction between legitimate corporal punishment and domestic violence. V. X. b) The extent to which Judeo-Christian doctrines that appear to encourage submissiveness on the part of Women might not be particularly helpful in this instance. IX. Independent Prosecution of Abusers There is clearly a major gap between the incidence of abuse and the quantity of reports made to police and even when reports are made. Most Vulnerable Groups Incidence data suggests that specific demographic groups that reside within particular areas are more likely to become victims of domestic violence and it is therefore important that advocacy programmes target Afro Barbadian Women who are from lower socio-economic brackets and are between the ages 30-50 and either unemployed or are housewives.” however this cynicism can impact negatively on complainants who face serious crises. GENERAL ADVOCACY VII. it is clear that victims often discourage police investigations and subsequent prosecutions. One appreciates the complexity of scenarios in which the Police often find themselves where complainants blow “hot and cold. It is therefore prudent that Government develop legislative initiatives which allow for the investigation and prosecution of perpetrators of abuse WITHOUT the cooperation of the victim.

and c) The psychological impact of domestic violence. it would appear to be a logical issue that future research should specifically examine psychological abuse. The Issue of Psychological Domestic Violence Much of this investigation focused on the more visible aspects of domestic violence. and moreover towards the enhancement of its general “user- friendliness”. Since little is known about this type of abuse. Revision of The Domestic Violence Reporting Form The form that is designed to identify and trace cases and patterns of domestic violence is long and complex and as such is not likely to be heavily used. very little information was forthcoming from these persons and there remains a deceit regarding the cause and appropriate response to domestic violence where men are victims. however there was some evidence of the prevalence of domestic violence of a more psychological nature that profoundly impacted on the victim‟s psyche in a way that was as bad as or worse than physical violence. It is therefore recommended that Government review this document in an effort to identify what components are essential and non-essential. Future research should perhaps target male victims/survivors specifically and seek to address their peculiar concerns. Research into Male Victims of Domestic Violence Although a special effort was made in both the qualitative and quantitative sections to capture information related to male victim/survivors. XIV. XII.FUTURE RESEARCH XI. XIII. Among these issues are: a) The potential for the victim of domestic violence to become an abuser at a later stage in life or in a different environment at the same time. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 10 . b) The impact of domestic violence on bullying. The Impact of Domestic Violence In this research the damage caused by domestic violence was taken as “given” however it would be useful for later research to explore the impacts of this type of abuse that are not immediately obvious.

SECTION ONE EMPIRICAL DATA ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE .

2004 and 2001 were the years with the lowest rates. on average 21% of murders in Barbados arise from incidents of domestic violence which is one in every five 2001 3 25 murders and this is not an insignificant number of people. Percentage of Homicides Due to Domestic Violence 31% 30% 25% 24% 20% 21% 14% 11% 12% 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 Average 2000 - 2007 Figure 1: Percentage of Homicides due to Domestic Violence . while 2006. It is noteworthy that all of these persons who were killed in this time period were women. 2005 9 29 2004 3 22 This information is presented in Table 01 and analysed in Figure 01 against the total number of murders reported in 2003 10 33 Barbados and this demonstrates that between 2000 and 2002 6 25 2007. 2000 4 20 The highest proportion of deaths due to domestic violence occurred in 2005 and 2003. however 2007 7 28 maintain accurate records of persons who are murdered in Barbados and can more easily determine whether these 2006 4 36 deaths result from domestic violence. The Police Force does. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND HOMICIDE In Barbados the Police force does not maintain records of their reports of domestic violence as these data are Table 01: subsumed under other categories of crime and criminal activity. It is therefore difficult to assemble empirical data Total Homicides in Barbados on this issue and the qualitative and quantitative information Homicides Due to Total presented in this report comes closest to empirical data on Domestic Violence Homicides the issue in Barbados.

SECTION TWO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BARBADOS .

SUMMARY JUDGMENT The two reports that follow present a qualitative assessment of the issue of domestic violence. and seek to use physical force to subdue the types of intellectually superior females who tend to become involved with them. whereas the physical abuse they suffered was mainly thought to be borne of their partners‟ insecurities and inferiority complexes. however. be addressed through programmes geared to sensitise law enforcement officials and the public. Even so. as the scourge cuts across social strata There were nonetheless certain conclusions that may be drawn through careful analysis of the data. but the need to change the legislation coupled with the limited number of effective non- governmental organizations continue to present more complicated issues at this time. as the abuser is able to use the time at home to devise plans and manipulate various features of the household. as stakeholders and survivors alike took issue with the loopholes which exist in the local legislation. or subjection to. of course. while informative. The data also seems to suggest that those persons who work under a shift system seem to be more susceptible to psychological abuse. CADRES nonetheless estimates that levels of domestic violence are in reality in line with international averages at present. it is simply the deficiencies of the national response and undeveloped cultural attitudes which have allowed the scourge to thrive. When juxtaposed then. Indeed. these two (2) pieces of information depict a possible profile of males who lack maturity and self esteem. and to serve as a guide to the process of formulating policies aimed at the reduction and minimisation of domestic violence from the society. the research was much more effective in terms of identifying the shortcomings of the current national response to domestic violence. which is intended to inform the Bureau of Gender Affairs‟ efforts to define domestic violence in the context of Barbados. this of course but one aspect of the physical side of domestic violence. and the primary objective of creating a definition of domestic violence will be complicated by the fact that there is no typical profile for perpetrators or survivors. and the seeming indifference of law enforcement officials. . An example of this is the fact that several members of the female survivors focus group described themselves as “no-nonsense” individuals who would normally “stand their ground” when challenged. speak to an issue that lacks specifics and will therefore be difficult to pinpoint going forward in the present research probe. domestic violence proved to be largely futile. they believed that the law was failing to act as a necessary deterrent for potential perpetrators and for this reason the overall levels of abuse were likely higher than average. Overall. based on indicators gained during Phase I of the study. Overall then it may be said that the findings of this study. The findings are intended to complement the greater part of a comprehensive assessment of the issue as it exists nationally. These may. CADRES‟ attempts to establish fundamental indicators that may predispose certain individuals to the perpetration of.

and the research conducted therefore sought to focus on domestic abuse as perpetrated between adult Barbadians. in an attempt to frame the research and establish definitions applicable to Barbados. survivors (males and females). particularly since the actions may have a negative psychological and emotional impact on victims. it may be argued that these survivors had been. extramarital relationships. food. the results of the study may not necessarily be considered to be comprehensive. During this Phase. it is hoped that the data may serve as a reference in establishing an accurate definition of the violence that exists in Barbados for the future. however. METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS This section of the study presents focus group discussions targeting major stakeholders and known victims of domestic violence. While the work of the Club is commendable. It will be seen that CADRES did manage to capture the views of one male survivor.  Similarly. the report seeks to avoid the use of terms such as “gender-based violence”. INTRODUCTION. However. the research did not set out to respond to these questions and. however. the question of which terms most accurately describe the overall issue of abuse arose during the course of research. or whether they are simply more likely than males to report incidents to the police or relevant support groups. as findings were dependent on a “human response” and CADRES managed to convene only audiences of stakeholders and females. or even the exposure of persons‟ belongings in public places could be considered as manifestations under the overall banner of domestic violence. this dynamic may not necessarily be representative of the population of female survivors at large. Naturally violence is also perpetrated within the homosexual sub-culture that exists in the island. for the most part. in a focus group setting. it thus remains unclear whether females are indeed more likely to be abused than men. as well as perpetrators of domestic violence. having been raised by the research. given that this is a study designed to gather baseline data on the issue of domestic violence. there was a question of whether the withholding of sex. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 15 . Again. they now remain to be subjected to further analysis. and finances.  As stated above.  Inevitably. Data gathered during this stage also informed the survey instrument used in the quantitative phase of the research. beneficiaries of the treatment and sensitisation programmes made available by the Club.  Regarding male victims of domestic violence in Barbados. CADRES nonetheless encountered several limiting factors in the attempt to gather of qualitative preliminary data. However. and these factors are worth noting while reading and interpreting the findings of this report:  The study intends to treat child abuse as a separate issue. but these views cannot be considered to be representative of the Barbadian population of male survivors. conversely.  Given that most of the participants in the female survivor focus group (7 of 8) were referred to CADRES by the crisis centre of the Business and Professional Women‟s Club. CADRES had no immediate means of tapping into this social sphere. and lastly  It will be seen in the report that domestic violence is portrayed as a phenomenon which is generally perpetrated between males and females in heterosexual Barbados. the qualitative research set out to capture the views of respective audiences of stakeholders.

or lack thereof .of the State‟s response) to the overall issue of domestic violence. though these persons were encouraged to offer their personal opinions rather than act as mere spokespersons for their respective institutions. The general group response may be said to indicate that there are many cultural and historical factors that contribute to the unique nature of domestic violence in the Barbadian context. The following sections will seek to examine group members‟ perspectives in greater detail. During the first segment. The session was intended to probe the general views of representatives of several stakeholder agencies. but held that the State‟s capacity to handle the aspect of law enforcement is imperative in efforts to contain and control the problem in the future. as it exists nationally. conducted by CADRES on behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs at the Warrens Office Complex on 25 October 2008. the mechanics of abuse and possible solutions for the problem. and in a way that would lend itself to the creation of policies intended to minimise the problem in the future. Generally. The session thus sought to convene an audience of representatives of the State and non-State entities that currently constitute the national response to domestic violence. Group members were in agreement that the State should not be expected to shoulder the burden of housing and counselling victims of domestic violence. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 16 . in an effort to build a definition of how and why violence is perpetrated domestically in Barbados. The group may further be described as holding a generally sceptical view of the adequacy of the current makeup of the national response (particularly as it relates to the competence . SESSION A: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE STAKEHOLDERS OVERVIEW The following report is an assessment of a focus group on domestic violence in Barbados. and also to gain feedback on existing and prospective avenues for development of State and non-State responses to the issue in the future. For methodological purposes. with no discernibly strong minority opinion emerging. group members were invited to express opinions intended to establish a working definition of domestic violence in Barbados. Respondents were invited to answer questions designed to establish a “snapshot” of domestic violence in Barbados. the types of questions posed to the group were divided into multiple segments. in order to probe their views and perceptions of a number of issues relating to the nature of domestic violence as it exists in Barbados. there was a high level of consensus in the discussions. The subsequent segments sought to delve more directly into group members‟ perceptions of the root causes of domestic violence.

as well as adult relationships with children. which have created avenues for abuse via text messaging. and have both reportedly been on the increase. man-man. however. group members were asked to indicate whether they found the following classic definition of domestic violence be comprehensive enough in nature to cover the Barbadian scenario: “any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship wherever the violence occurs.  The advancement of cellular phone technology and the Internet. however. It was suggested that the definition perhaps ought to be expanded to include the reasons why victims often find it difficult to remove themselves from abusive situations. and  Cases of visual infatuation in which intimacy is not necessarily a factor.  Partner violence between persons who may not be co-habitants but may be in the dating stage of a relationship. yet there is equal occasion for violent acts.” The collective response of group members indicated that all of the factors listed in the definition are of importance. sexual. emotional and financial abuse. DEFINITIONS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Traditional As a preliminary question. to account for:  Violence between persons who do not necessarily live under the same roof.  Violence within non-intimate relationships whereby adult children still living with parent(s) may inflict harm on others in the household. and woman-woman relationships. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 17 .  Psychological factors such as harassment and stalking which are incorporated within the Domestic Violence Act of Barbados. email and instant messaging. or made more explicit. The violence may include physical. or persons. This pertains to man- woman. there was general consensus that domestic violence is more often than not used by one person as a means to maintain control over another person. they likewise believed that the definition perhaps needed to be extended. Overall.

Hence the male slaves were not allowed to love. whereby the man and woman live in 2 separate households. Specifically. claiming that an image of ownership is transmitted by the possessive types of language that are often used to describe male-female relationships. Another argument referring to Barbadian culture alluded to the “visiting relationship”.The Barbadian Context The group was then to asked to compare and contrast the classic definition of domestic violence noted above with the violence perpetrated in the Barbadian context. One respondent suggested that while the definition fits Barbadian society generally. a woman has a child for a man. and  Extramarital affairs. she referred to:  Language. He argued that. there was no love or desire to bond between male and female slaves and to this day society continues to be comfortable with the role of mere child-bearer for women.g. but any violence enacted between the two could be termed spousal even though they do not cohabitate. Another respondent referred to several additional peculiarities of Barbadian culture that perhaps help to shape the existence of domestic violence in the local setting. she mentioned that traditionally on Sundays women would take children to church. there are certain cultural realities borne of our colonial past that shape the nature of the domestic violence that exists here. during slavery.  Family life. e. the beach or fairs while the men were more likely to be found in the “Rum Shops” or playing cricket. amongst other adult males. This was argued to be a reality that exists in Barbados. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 18 . planters endeavoured to keep male and female slaves separate as the females were viewed merely as child-bearers since they lacked the physical strength of male slaves. indicating the key issues that set local circumstances apart from that which obtains in other countries. females were not respected. claiming that such acts were often publicly acknowledged and accepted as part of the culture for men in the past. claiming that in the past. As an example. yet would not fit under the classic definition domestic violence. there was total separation of the sexes with regard to certain family activities.

according to the stakeholders. and the throwing of victims against solid surfaces. rather than isolated. Such abuse is also generally continuous. There is also financial abuse. the throwing of hard objects such as pots and pans. in most cases begins with the types of verbal and psychological abuse outlined in a previous sub-section of this report. when the victim reaches the point of deciding to remove him/her from the situation. given that victims seldom leave after the first offence. This may then progress to violence perpetrated by means of kicks. slaps. which is the withholding of money from a person (or persons) dependent on such financial aid. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 19 . MECHANICS OF ABUSE Domestic abuse in Barbados. punches. he/she has usually survived a series of experiences. for whatever reason. Indeed.

it was revealed that there are certain types of abuse that are more likely to be perpetrated against either of the sexes. However. owing largely to the superior physical strength which males in most cases hold over females. but the respective sexes of the perpetrator and the victim depend on which parent has custody of the children. there did not seem to be any one type of abuse that is perpetrated solely against either of the sexes. In such instances. Abuse perpetrated by women against men is reportedly often (but not limited to) verbal and emotional. The withholding of visitation rights is another form of mental and emotional abuse that is perpetrated. Perhaps unsurprisingly. CADRES posed a direct question intended to reveal any possible trends group members might have chanced to uncover in their respective lines of work. taken to a remote area and either raped or abused and this is a scenario which usually results from men‟s physical ability to remove women from places of safety. GENDER DIFFERENCES In an effort to establish whether there are gender differences in Barbados in terms of the types of violence that are perpetrated against males and females. verbal. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 20 . Physical. again owing to the difference in physical strength. emotional and financial abuse are also used on women. the female victim is physically removed from her familiar surroundings. Mental and physical abuse via kidnapping seems to be one type of abuse that is perpetrated specifically by males towards females.

CADRES sought to gain a greater understanding of the Barbadian definition of domestic violence by probing the possible existence of several social denominators. Aside from the instances in which a child may fall victim to some of the physical abuse suffered by a parent. that may potentially predispose certain individuals to a lifestyle of violence during adulthood. deny their children and be incarcerated. One aspect of financial abuse is that of physically abusive fathers in some cases preferring to forfeit child support responsibilities. and affect the nature of the child‟s academic performance and relationships with other students. Children are often unable to sleep or. and/or learned behaviours. There are also instances in which mothers use the presence of a child for protection. Such children may become socially withdrawn. violence perpetrated between adults in a household has been known to have indirect effects on the child living there. group members were unwilling to pinpoint any specific denominators as root causes of abuse. In each case it will be seen that. EFFECTS ON CHILDREN Respondents were asked to identify the ways in which domestic violence perpetrated between adults has been known to have a negative impact on children. As a natural follow-on from the previous question. rather than support their children financially. or grow to be ultra- violent in their behaviour towards other students. and the violence in the household may also affect how the child goes on to relate to males or females in adult life. while these social denominators may individually increase the likelihood that domestic violence may occur in a given scenario. The atmosphere of violence may develop a level of fear in a child. as a result. which in turn may engender behavioural problems at school. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 21 . concentrate on schoolwork since the unrest caused by domestic violence makes them fearful of sleeping at night.

families living in overcrowded households tend to have boundary issues in terms of proximity. but as extensions of him or herself. ROLE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND Respondents were first asked to identify the impact. children are sometimes forced to share bedrooms with siblings and/or parents and. It was revealed that individuals who experience or witness instances of domestic violence during childhood are perhaps marginally more likely to become abusive themselves in adult life. in some instances. this may cause an individual to see others in the home not as other individuals. if any. as it is they who set the moral standard for the home. the overconsumption of alcohol is often passed on from generation to generation as children emulate the example set by their parents. of family history on the probability that domestic violence may occur in a given home. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 22 . Lastly. In addition.

and thus race does not have any bearing on whether or not a person may display violent behaviour in the home. for fear of public disclosure. of racial factors on the probability that domestic violence may occur in a given home. if any. alcohol and sex. as it was argued that men attracted to illegal immigrants are seldom men of high moral standing. The potential dynamic of illegal immigration should be noted here. and accordingly deviant behaviour. persons of racial backgrounds that might perceive themselves to be of high social standing may arguably be less likely than others to report incidences of domestic violence. Female illegal immigrants are thought to frequent various Barbadian males in order to meet various needs (such as food and shelter). However. Living underground arguably increases proximity to illegal drugs. Nor may domestic violence be said to be prevalent in certain racial communities more so than others. and this may also provoke instances of violence owing to cases of believed infidelity in relationships. It was argued that domestic violence cuts across racial backgrounds. ROLE OF RACIAL BACKGROUND Respondents were then asked to identify the impact. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 23 .

According to one respondent. these are all instances in which salaries received are likely to be spent on alcohol. or in an effort to maintain some form of psychological control over a partner who may be viewed as being more financially stable. Reportedly. who spoke from a background of social work. and thus in turn increase the likelihood that domestic violence may occur. particularly in cases of relationships that have ceased to be intimate. group members pointed to instances in which persons were made redundant from their jobs yet became passive and withdrawn in the home setting. instead of taking out their frustrations on family members. Hence these situations of forced co-habitation are conducive to violence and abuse. not by choice. and are thus more likely to spend time in the “Rum Shop”. families that have to scrounge to make a living have a harder time „getting by‟. a significant percentage of persons live in domestic situations. A representative of the women‟s shelter claimed that the shelter records its highest levels of intake on weekends. but due to economic limitations. if any. and the extent of that individual‟s desire to control another person for whatever reason. of economic factors on the probability that domestic violence may occur in a given home. at the end of the month and during the Christmas season. Alcohol was argued to be a social issue which tends to affect lifestyle. a study of the region carried out in Trinidad and Tobago during a period of structural adjustment in the Caribbean showed that the incidence of domestic violence increased during times of economic recession. The group maintained that the proclivity to resort to violence is ultimately determined by the psychological background of the potential perpetrator. while such factors may undoubtedly give rise to instances of domestic violence. However. Additionally. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 24 . ROLE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND Lastly respondents were asked to identify the impact. but have roles and boundary lines that are blurred by the close proximity of the living conditions. The unemployed and those who work in seasonal industries may turn to physical abuse of others in the home due to frustration with working conditions.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 25 . Respondents limited themselves to defining the average perpetrator as an individual who feels out of control of him or herself. demonstrative behaviour. TYPICAL PROFILE FOR PERPETRATORS Given the responses noted thus far it is perhaps unsurprising that group members were reluctant to attempt to typify perpetrators of domestic violence and did not believe such persons could be restricted to a pre-defined set of social features. However. they were also quick to point out that persons with histories of abuse are perhaps just as likely to vow to completely avoid violent behaviour in life. They acknowledged that persons who were abused as children often grow to be abusers later on in life. and/or feels that he/she can control his/her partner through the use of violent.

the infrastructure of Barbados does not allow women to easily leave men. In general though they learn to lie to society. in their line of work. but feeling trapped nonetheless. Overall. TYPICAL PROFILE FOR VICTIMS Similarly. such that circumstances which are not conducive to violence in one instance may well be conducive to violence in another. domestic violence is a matter of abusive power. when CADRES attempted to establish whether. the group response made it clear that while there may be certain signs that exist such persons cannot be restricted to any specific characteristics. arguably. group members had found there to be a defined set of social features that may be associated with victims of domestic violence. Another factor is the fact that. Such persons tend to have low self-esteem in some area of their lives that they are not fully in control of. independence comes by virtue of employment so those who spend days at home and are dependent can be abused at any time of day when the husband comes home. some persons have the wherewithal to have their injuries masked by physicians. and as a result tend to believe that they need their partners for survival. There are women who may wield power in the working world. but allow themselves to be controlled at home by their husbands. Persons who may be assertive in some life situations may be very passive in others. knowing that their suffering is not justified. or may become that way if certain dynamics are added or removed. and hence are not included in the statistics. However. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 26 . and one person exerting control over others. Working class victims tend to keep Bibles at hand as they pray for guidance.

as such children who are abused learn what they live and may ultimately live what they learn. perhaps most importantly  There are currently no measures being taken to help perpetrators “unlearn” their deviant behaviour. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABUSE CADRES sought to label some of the possible causes or prevailing circumstances in instances of domestic violence. However. Several of the following factors may be implicit in the findings recorded thus far. it becomes natural for him/her and he/she lacks the skills necessary to cope when confronted by the challenges of adulthood. hence the latter is expected to increase during the current economic downturn.  Alcohol is often the basis of family violence. The intoxicated individual may become angry. For example. such as sex and interaction with children. though inferior mental health can also trigger violence. as they are deprived of privileges. As a result. The mother may also turn to beating her child out of frustration arising from the abuse that she suffers.  Domestic violence is argued to be cyclical. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 27 . prolonged drinking may decrease an individual‟s respect for the status quo. a child may hate to see his/her mother being battered and may harbour murderous feelings towards his/her father. which they would otherwise believe to be their right. when alcohol acts as a stimulant.  The patriarchal nature of Barbadian society implies that Barbadians are often raised with the idea that they may claim ownership of others. irrational and violent.  There is currently no safety net that exists to assist women who are dependent on their husbands for financial well-being. Some males drink with the direct intention of disrupting family life. and. though the child may dislike the lifestyle. the mother may become emotionally inaccessible hence the child becomes the most vulnerable in the situation. or. but are nonetheless are itemised below:  The rises and falls of the local economic situation invariably affect levels of domestic violence.

trauma counsellors accompany the police officers responding to incidents. Court-issued sentences for incidents of domestic violence further include counselling for victims. Overall. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 28 . However. In Barbados. Indeed. since the law takes the responsibility out of the hands of the victims once a crime is reported. the frequency of domestic violence in Barbados is believed to be in line with global trends. Barbadians have been becoming increasingly familiarised with the existence and definitions of domestic violence. The infrastructure in Barbados would need to improve to the point that perpetrators are restricted from having any further contact with the family. lower or on par with global trends. Questions remain surrounding the ethics that govern the law enforcers who come into contact with victims of abuse since there will always be a “who-knows-who” scenario at play in Barbados. which allows the police to deal with the legal aspect while counsellors deal with family issues. and ultimately avoid repeat cases of abuse. in countries where the response to domestic violence is more advanced. CADRES asked group members their unbiased opinions of whether the frequency in Barbados is higher. hence the number of reported cases (especially from men) rises as the level of sensitisation does. perpetrators and potential perpetrators are aware and emboldened by the knowledge that they will likely escape prosecution. FREQUENCY OF ABUSE In an effort to establish the frequency with which domestic violence is perpetrated in Barbados. it is comparably easy to prosecute domestic violence in other countries. the incidence of domestic violence per capita in Barbados is likely high due to a lack of infrastructure. in order to help women to understand the dangers that exist.

it must also work to raise funds on its own. and the entire police force should be sensitised to the seriousness of domestic violence.  Another of the problems is that statistics are not maintained for victims of domestic violence. However. At present. It is paramount that police have the ability to move in and charge perpetrators. stakeholders believed that the effectiveness of law enforcement officials is key in a coordinated response to domestic violence. hence there is no track record for repeat victims. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 29 . the legislation ought to be changed in order that perpetrators may be prosecuted. Though the Women‟s Club reportedly receives a subvention from the Government. and due to the fact that this would likely make public issues which most victims would want to remain private. Indeed. and even then the hope is that the victim would have used the same name in all instances. the group did not find that the issue of domestic violence has been given the requisite attention by the State. which certain stakeholders thought commendable but inadequate. New police recruits should be profiled. Otherwise. The time when the perpetrator is arrested and released from custody was noted as the time when the risk is highest for the victim to be abused or killed. there are no government safety nets in place to help women who are financially dependent on abusive husbands. and the police are thus limited to issuing the perpetrator with a mere warning. do not take the violence seriously. that is for his/her own safety.  In many instances victims lack information and awareness regarding possible recourse from situations of abuse. it is believed that Government would be unable to run an efficient shelter due to bureaucracy. The police are untrained in methods of dealing with reports of domestic violence. as currently constituted in Barbados. Yet. The majority of the effort to house and counsel victims is currently being undertaken by the women‟s shelter and the crisis hotline. From the time the police are called the responsibility should be taken from the hands of the victim since victims generally have difficulty seeing the situation from an objective perspective. domestic violence becomes a chargeable offense only if the perpetrator violates a Protection Order. The police are reportedly often forced to depend on records kept by the crisis centre operated by the Business and Professional Women‟s Club. If the legislation could be changed to curb certain behaviours it might arguably lead to a change in attitudes. for both the abused and the abusers. one respondent held that one of the current shortcomings of the protection order is that it is a document which must ultimately be enforced by human beings who. in many cases. persons may be charged under the Sexual Offenses Act or other Acts that target crimes of a personal nature. so as to be able to pinpoint the case history. Perhaps if the legislation were amended to make such violence a chargeable offense.  At present. it would be met with heightened seriousness. as mentioned in the Overview. such that male and female victims are often ridiculed when reporting crimes to stations. ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Respondents found fault generally with the adequacy of state responses. Reportedly the police response to instances of domestic violence is notoriously poor. It was argued that polyclinics ought also to maintain statistics and records of victims. and have psychologists and nurses on staff with experience dealing with the fallout of domestic violence. The example given alluded to the fact that persons often apply for a protection order from the police without being informed that if the order does not have a power of arrest clause. In sum. The specifics of their arguments are listed below:  Though domestic violence is not defined as a crime under the Barbados Domestic Violence Act.

 There are currently no support programs available for perpetrators. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 30 . There were two schools of thought amongst stakeholders regarding the issue of support programs for perpetrators: one which argued that they are ineffective since the abused tend to be deceived that the abusers are reformed once they consent to take the programs. and the other which suggested that perpetrators can unlearn their violent behaviour if they are subjected to a minimum of two (2) years probation and made to financially compensate victims. Perpetrators should also be continuously monitored by counsellors. but the success rate was very low in terms of reforming behaviours. UNIFEM reportedly tried to develop such a regional program.

and hence little time is given to planning any types of comprehensive programs. they maintained that nothing would change as long as there are no laws in place to make it detrimental for a person to perpetrate abusive forms of behaviour. tends to lead to a lack of coordination. mezzo. the relevant providers of social services in Barbados often resist the prospect of working together. They held that it is impossible to address the issue of domestic violence without addressing the micro. hence the persons in need of support suffer most. and macro levels simultaneously. The other major problem with social services in Barbados is the territorial behaviour exhibited between institutions. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 31 . for both the abused and the abusers. Stakeholders found that the non-governmental response in Barbados currently tends to focus primarily on crisis management. ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) Respondents similarly found fault with the adequacy of the collective non-governmental response. in turn. However. with probable cause. According to the group. as currently constituted in Barbados. and perpetrators therefore continue to see their lifestyle as permissible by law. The State must hold the ability to arrest perpetrators. this.

The following sections will seek to examine group members‟ perspectives in greater detail. Generally. and the findings of are particularly relevant to this study. During the first segment. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 32 . and this is clearly not an isolated case. conducted by CADRES on behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs at the University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus on 22 November 2008. The case of the male respondent and that of a female of Trinidadian origin who participated in the focus group session also provided evidence of the existence of a separate aspect of domestic violence. group members were invited to express opinions intended to establish a working definition of domestic violence. there was a high level of consensus in the discussions. The general group response may be described as consistent with the views expressed by the stakeholders in the previous session. and also to gain feedback on existing and prospective avenues for development of State and non-State responses to the issue in the future. and found that the State‟s capability to handle the aspect of law enforcement is imperative to efforts to contain and control the problem in the future. They held a generally sceptical view of the adequacy of the current makeup of the State‟s response to the overall issue of domestic violence. it is not an area that was probed directly in this study. the mechanics of abuse and possible solutions for the problem. the types of questions posed to the group were divided into multiple segments. as it exists in Barbados. with no discernibly strong minority opinion emerging. and a male who had been physically abused by a female – in one-on-one interviews. For methodological purposes. the Trinidadian woman seemed to have suffered even more than a Barbadian would as a result of xenophobic discrimination from those in her community. Overall. outside of the focus group setting. in addition to the focus group session in this instance. The session was intended to probe the general views of persons who have been victims of domestic violence. and would require further analysis to establish the precise dynamics that exist. and CADRES was able to assemble an audience of eight (8) female victims in order to probe their views and perceptions of a number of issues relating to the nature of domestic violence. while the male was the only such survivor whose views CADRES was able to record. However. and in a way that would lend itself to the creation of policies intended to minimise the problem in the future. The subsequent segments sought to delve more directly into group members‟ perceptions of the root causes of domestic violence. It should be noted that. which is violence perpetrated within Barbados by and against persons of other nationalities. the group seemed to believe that the single most important factor impeding the containment of domestic violence locally may be the lackadaisical attitude displayed by both the public and law enforcement officials in particular. This is due to the fact that the female survivor had been a victim of prolonged psychological (rather than physical) abuse. Indeed. This report will therefore attempt to incorporate their views and present survivors‟ combined perspective of the violence perpetrated domestically in this country. Respondents were invited to answer questions designed to establish a “snapshot” of domestic violence in Barbados. and will thus aid significantly in forming a comprehensive model of the specifics at play at this time. These interviews were conducted using the same list of questions as the focus groups. in an effort to build a definition of how and why violence is perpetrated domestically in Barbados. CADRES was able to capture the opinion of two other individuals – a female victim of psychological abuse. SESSION B: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SURVIVORS OVERVIEW The following report is an assessment of a focus group focusing on domestic violence in Barbados.

physical abuse was thought to be the most common form of abuse perpetrated. hence the harassment may occur anywhere and at anytime and may take a lasting toll on the victim as well as the victim‟s children. however. It was claimed that there are no laws in Barbados that state that stalking is a crime. thereby ultimately ensuring complete financial dependence on him. emotional and financial abuse.  “Putting out” and “locking out” whereby the abuser forcibly removes the victim from the home and thereafter denies re-entry. sexual. and asked to indicate whether they found the definition to be comprehensive enough to cover the Barbadian context: “any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship wherever the violence occurs. DEFINITIONS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Traditional As a preliminary question. He would also make use of the food and household items she bought. family and friends. which is reportedly often overlooked but may have a dramatic effect on the victim. or handing over new keys to the victim.  Denial of entry to the home. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 33 . Overall. as her partner would claim that he had no money. whereas financial abuse was acknowledged to exist but seemed to be somewhat less common. with the result that the victim would be forced to use all of her financial resources to cover her expenses and those of the children. by the abuser to the victim. The violence may include physical.” The collective response of group members indicated that all of the factors listed in the definition are of importance. and  The changing of locks by the abuser on the main points of entry to the home without warning. One respondent did acknowledge having experienced financial abuse. group members were read the following classic definition of domestic violence. they likewise believed that the definition perhaps needed to be extended to refer to elements of psychological abuse such as:  Stalking. especially in the night-time.

and based this opinion on reports in the visual and print media. that are arguably just as dangerous as physical abuse. The entire group suggested that the local police are there in theory to protect and serve but in reality offer little protection at present. The latter type of officers was said to allow reports of violence to languish without action for several days in some cases. She also claimed that the situation is worse here than in Trinidad and Tobago because local victims often make an attempt to hide the bruises. as if she was in some way deserving of the treatment she was receiving by virtue of being a non-national. She considered one of the main reasons for the above-average frequency to be the fact that victims in Barbados lack a representative body intended solely to lobby on their behalf. as the collective cultural attitude here is one which prefers to cast a blind eye towards the problems of others. which makes the problem more difficult to detect and address here than in other places. Yet at least one respondent suggested that the incidence of domestic violence in Barbados seems to be escalating with the passage of time. Hence many Barbadians may be unaware that they are being abused in instances where physical violence is not a factor. and need to be sensitised to the issue on the whole. She complained that neither her priest. those of her community were willing to discuss the problem only outside of her presence. Solo female survivor: The female who was interviewed individually believed Barbados to be above- average in terms of the frequency with which domestic violence occurs. and others tire quickly of responding to repeated calls from the same victim. with the main difference being the fact that the laws in North America allow the police to arrest and remove the perpetrator from the household. the authorities. Group members who had reported incidents of domestic violence to the police claimed to have received an uneven response. The Trinidadian respondent affirmed that the violence perpetrated in Trinidad and Tobago tends to be more harsh than in Barbados. and their knowledge of the situation there would cause them to be of the opinion that it is relatively similar to the Barbadian context. is ignorance amongst Barbadians of the types of behaviour which constitute abuse. There are supposedly other preconceptions that Barbadians have that complicate the issue. Group members seemed to be most familiar with the state of affairs that exists in neighbouring Trinidad and Tobago. indicating the key issues that set local circumstances apart from those which obtain in other countries. such as a disinclination to believe that a churchgoer would be capable of perpetrating violence. she believed. saying that she is not Barbadian and ought to return to her country of origin. Another possible reason. nor the people in her community had done anything to help her to escape from her situation of abuse. but argued that the attitude of Barbadian bystanders is more callous than that of Trinidadians. while some use it as an opportunity to try to make advances towards the women. She believed these developments to be perhaps attributable to foreign behaviours learned overseas by returning nationals who re-enter Barbados with “a criminal mind”. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 34 . Hence less attention may be paid to other aspects of abuse. and further suggested that the types of physical abuse perpetrated have been growing to be more severe. offering the example of reports of stabbings and arson as supporting evidence.The Barbadian Context The group was then asked to comment on domestic violence specifically as it is perpetrated in the Barbadian context. such as the psychological aspect. whereas Barbadian victims are left to fend for themselves. with some police officers taking the situation seriously. Another respondent actually believed levels of abuse in Barbados to be comparable with the situation in North America.

as she was an asthmatic whose husband had started to smoke with the intention of triggering her asthma. Her husband had also thrown her clothes outside at some point removed all of the curtains from the windows of the house. Male survivor: His abuser used weapons and a combination of physical and verbal abuse to intimidate him. However. according to the respondents. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 35 . Solo female survivor: She had suffered primarily from aspects of psychological abuse. and two (2) of the women had even sustained gunshots. thus exposing the interior of the house to passers-by. MECHANICS OF ABUSE Domestic abuse in Barbados. She had also stolen money from him on at least one occasion. cutlasses. but her abuser had also used poisonous chemicals in his attempts to control her. respondents had also known weapons such as tennis rackets. and stones to be used. One woman experienced a combination of physical and psychological abuse. home appliances. is perpetrated in most cases with the hand as the primary means of inflicting pain and injury.

CADRES posed a direct question asking group members their perception of whether violence is more frequently perpetrated against men or women in Barbados. and avoid reporting being beaten by a wife or girlfriend for fear of ridicule. with the main difference being that male victims are far less likely to articulate their suffering outside of their most private settings. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 36 . They argued that even if the levels of abuse suffered by both sexes are equal. then the men need to come forward so that more statistics may be collected. They believed that male victims generally avoid going public for reasons that are ego-driven. GENDER DIFFERENCES In an effort to probe any gender differences that may exist locally in terms of the frequency with which violence is perpetrated against either of the sexes. respondents were of the collective opinion that violence is perpetrated more frequently against women in Barbados. Perhaps unsurprisingly. the lone male survivor indicated a belief that the two sexes are subjected to abuse in equal measures. Male survivor: In response to the same question.

and would seek solace with his father when scolded by his mother.  Shortened attention spans.  Frequent crying. He has taken on the role of his mother‟s protector and frequently enquires where his mother is going. on account of “unusual behaviour”: aggressive behaviour. completely unfeminine behaviour. as she witnessed this happen to her mother. respondents argued that though they may try to help their children. As a natural follow-on from the previous question.  Sudden fear of being in dark places  One woman‟s son. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 37 . and then turned to verbally abusing the child directly. and tends to become very aggressive regarding the most frivolous matters. eating either too much or too little. CADRES sought to gain a greater understanding of the Barbadian definition of domestic violence by probing the possible existence of several social denominators and/or learned behaviours that may potentially predispose certain individuals to a lifestyle of violence during adulthood.  One woman‟s son became withdrawn at school. would hit back when she spanked or scolded him. with whom. Solo female survivor: The individual female respondent claimed to know of two (2) cases of children who were abused. Now he has grown to be more protective of his mother than aggressive.  Constant anxiety and fearfulness of hypothetical situations such as losing a parent to an act of violence. at a younger stage.  Eating disorders. The daughter explained that no man is ever to hit or beat her. and have both now grown to be aggressive and rebellious as teenagers. EFFECTS ON CHILDREN Respondents were asked to identify the ways in which domestic violence perpetrated between adults has been known to have a negative impact on children. zero schoolwork and most notably. a history of domestic violence leaves a “scar” on the lives of children that can‟t be healed.  Another woman had been summoned to her daughter‟s school on numerous occasions. Overall. He also tended to be insubordinate. such that the unusual behaviours displayed immediately following periods of abuse have the potential to surface at anytime.  Fighting at school. The child responded with threats of violence so it seems as though this may make him aggressive in later life. and the time she expects to return. not wanting anyone to come into close contact with her. and the responses are listed below:  Significant decreases in the quality of schoolwork. Male survivor: The male respondent claimed that his female abuser verbally abused him in front of his child.

He was then raised by his grandmother and reportedly never felt the need to contribute financially to the household where he lived previously. She attributed this phenomenon to behaviour which they had witnessed growing up. and also had several brothers who had grown to be abusive. There was a generally affirmative response to this question. ROLE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND Respondents were first asked to indicate if they were aware whether their abusers had any relatives who were also abusive. it was revealed that one woman‟s child‟s father had a father who would beat his mother. She. Another woman claimed that her husband had a father who was abusive of his family. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 38 . eventually left her home country of Guyana and came to Barbados to live. Male survivor: He claimed that his female abuser had an abusive father who eventually abandoned the mother and children. in an effort to identify the possible impact of family history on the probability that a given individual may grow to be violent in adult life. Solo female survivor: She had been able to learn from her abuser‟s family members that his mother died and his father abandoned him when he was four years old. like her mother. He suggested that this had perhaps had an influence on her view of her role as a female in family life.

Male survivor: He believed domestic violence to more prevalent amongst Blacks than other races. Group members all agreed that this type of violence features amongst all races. of the opinion that black female victims tend to be more vocal and thus more likely than to speak out about the abuse being suffered. as a result of an overall lack of education. and did not believe racial background to be a factor in the likelihood that a person may become abusive as an adult. as they observe this type of behaviour in their community as children before experiencing it again in the marital home. in an effort to identify the possible impact that race might have on the probability that an individual may grow to be violent in adult life. The lone Trinidadian respondent believed the issue to be one of racial cultures: she believed that east Indians would be least likely to speak out about abuse. however. whereas their counterparts of other racial origins might be more concerned about social appearances. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 39 . They were. He believed that Blacks are more likely than other races to act without taking the time to think. ROLE OF RACIAL BACKGROUND Respondents were asked to indicate whether they believed abuse to more prevalent amongst members of certain races than others. and more content to try to mask their suffering from the public as a result.

respondents were asked to indicate whether they believed abuse to be more prevalent amongst the poor than the rich. They believed that domestic violence cuts across social classes. Group members and individual respondents alike agreed that financial background is not a contributing factor in the likelihood that a given individual may grow to be violent. and the option of having their injuries covered up by private physicians. with the difference being that the rich have social hang-ups. They also have the wherewithal to afford legal fees for a divorce. and to survive independently. ROLE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND Lastly. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 40 . in an effort to identify the possible impact of economic factors on the probability that a given individual may grow to be violent in adult life.

She earned more than he did. For these males. or to be unfaithful. This was suggested by one woman had been abused by her brother but had no explanation for the reason why he abused her.  In submission to peer pressure. so that he did not need to contribute. and keep track of the places that she went. which she did not see as her responsibility. Male survivor: His abusive situation likely arose as a consequence of immigration issues. and the group‟s submissions are itemised below:  In order for the male to control the female in instances in which the female is a no-nonsense individual prone to contradicting the male. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 41 . inferiority and insecurity as they observe their female partners strive to better themselves. sporting jewellery and expensive clothing rather than investing in long term objectives that engender security. One abuser was described as merely doing what he observed his friends doing and repeating their behaviour.  In order for the male to maintain control over the female. In her case. His abuser was supposedly socialised to lie.  In order for the male to control and maintain power over the female in instances in which the female is determined to stand her ground verbally and physically.  In order for the male to assuage his insecurities concerning sibling rivalries. and  The influence of friends and family – one woman revealed that members of her abuser‟s family would spy on her.  As a result of excessive alcohol consumption. in conjunction with family history and a lack of education.  In order for the male to assuage his insecurities concerning the female‟s capacity to command a greater salary than he does. and not her two sisters. This may inevitably lead to feelings of jealousy when the female in a relationship is seen to be pursuing personal goals which cause feelings inferiority. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABUSE CADRES sought to label some of the perpetrators‟ possible motives for resorting to domestic violence. her abuser (before becoming abusive) seemed to want and need to be mothered. yet he seemed to embrace this fact boasting that he had always been fortunate to find women (partners) whom he could depend on financially. cheat and steal and in turn has grown to distrust those around her. Solo female survivor: She believed that Barbadian males are typically flashy and like to make a public display of financial wherewithal. and ultimately gain knowledge through her work and colleagues. This is possibly a feature of the male-to-female abusive relationship: males who never outgrow the need to feel mothered by the females in their lives experience feelings of intimidation.  In submission to pressure from family. on account of the male‟s lack of self esteem. or taking issue with him for seeming infidelity. Such males supposedly fear the prospect that the female will build a social circle which functions independently. the only obvious way to maintain the power imbalance to which they are accustomed is to impose themselves on their partners through abuse.

FREQUENCY OF ABUSE

In an effort to establish the continuity of typical cases of domestic violence in Barbados, CADRES invited
group members to specify the periods of time their respective periods of abuse had been allowed to
continue.

Judging from the group response then, cases of abuse in Barbados seem to be more likely to be
continuous rather than isolated incidents; most of the women had experienced abuse for periods
stretching from three (3) to five (5) years. One woman stated that her situation was allowed to continue
because of her female desire for the security of a long-term relationship. Hence, not knowing much about
domestic violence at that time, she kept returning to the abuse. Another woman‟s period of abuse was
perpetuated by the fact that her partner/abuser was aware that she had a very strained relationship with
her family, hence returning to live in her family‟s home was not a viable option for her. This gave him
leverage over her and allowed him to act as he pleased.

Solo female survivor: She had been subject to abuse from April 2007 to the time of research, and this
abuse became more intense when she became involved with another man.

Male survivor: His abuse had been on-going for four years, and had grown progressively more intense
with the passage of time. The abuse is often verbal, with threats made on his life

Members of the group also shared the view that domestic violence is on the increase in Barbados. They
believed the perpetrators to be growing to be more “technical” in their approach to abusing victims; one
respondent assessed abuse in the past as limited primarily to straightforward physical abuse, whereas
recent years have seen perpetrators employing all kinds of mental and psychological abuse such as
stalking, ensuring they know their victim‟s every move, and generally devising plans and making sure that
the plans will be executed effectively. Yet she considered the national response to have remained at the
same level as always, while the victims suffer increasingly. By now she believed that the legislation
should at the very least reflect that if a person is being abused, the situation needs to be addressed
before that person‟s life becomes threatened.

Solo female survivor: She was of the firm opinion that domestic violence is on the increase in Barbados,
mainly due to the fact that the law does not act as a deterrent for perpetrators, as cases are generally not
addressed unless they become fatal. The police always say that they need proof, yet in most cases it is
difficult to produce irrefutable evidence of abuse.

Male survivor: He likewise considered domestic violence to be on the increase, and believed that males
are abused constantly but do not report the cases.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 42

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

Respondents found fault generally with the adequacy of state responses as currently constituted, and
believed that stiffer legislation is necessary to meet the changing dynamics of the Barbadian context of
domestic violence.

In sum, the group did not find that the issue of domestic violence has been given the requisite attention by
the State, and believed that it is the government‟s responsibility to enact the necessary legislation and
then, more importantly, ensure that the police understand and enforce that legislation.

The specifics of their arguments are listed below:

 There was consensus that perpetrators tend to familiarise themselves with the loopholes existing
in the local laws and tailor their behaviour to suit. It was argued that perpetrators are often highly
educated and knowledgeable individuals; one woman‟s abuser was actually an island constable,
and so he was familiar with the laws and what could and could not be done legally.

In Barbados once the perpetrator keeps behaviour within the law, or knows persons who work in
law enforcement, the victim suffers more. Law enforcement personnel do not think of what they
can do to prevent incidence of domestic violence, and instead are usually more concerned with
the action and excitement created by a potential bust than the need to address the issue from a
law enforcement standpoint;

 Group members took issue with the level of confidentiality in Barbados stating that they could
understand why wealthy victims prefer to seek private means of medical treatment, since
domestic issues become open to the public eye in the hospital here. The women were of the
opinion that male/female victims admitted to the hospital to deal with injuries inflicted by abuse
should receive a different type of treatment. At present, personal information is recorded and
displayed for all patients of the hospital, this should never be the case whereas for victims of
domestic violence.

One woman‟s abuser actually accompanied her to the hospital, and refused to leave when the
doctor asked to speak with her privately. Nor did security personnel intervene; the woman
believed that this scenario should have been dealt with by the police, such that the abuser would
have been removed from the situation instead of having the opportunity to interfere. Until such
time, the situation at the hospital will continue to make it possible for the abuser to cause further
damage.

 The attitude of indifference amongst the police seems to be the same regardless of the gender of
the officer. The Trinidadian respondent complained that her daughter, also being abused by her
husband, was referred by one of the polyclinics to the police doctor. A comprehensive series of
tests was taken in December of last year yet the female officer who accompanied her to the
doctor never submitted the specimens taken from the tests, so that no action had been taken up
to the time of research.

 The Trinidadian respondent referred the existence of “Clause 4” in Trinidad which gives victims of
domestic violence more protection than the protection orders issued in Barbados.

On the whole, women are better sensitised than they used to be regarding matters such as protection
orders and arrest clauses, yet domestic violence was believed to be on the increase. This was argued to
be due to the apathy and/or disinterest of the authorities. It was believed that many cases of abuse could
potentially serve as a learning experience for police officers, but their collective lack of sensitisation and
training inhibit them from responding in the most effective manner. In other cases, the problem is that the
police officers themselves are abusers within their home setting.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 43

Solo female survivor: In instances that she appealed to the police there was often nothing they could do
to help because of the nature of the local laws, and the officers in question seemed to grow tired of
responding repeatedly to her reports. She also appealed to a magistrate, but he never seemed to take the
case seriously, and seemed to be unsure of whether or not he ought to give her story credence.

She applied for and was eventually issued with a protection order, but this was of no help to her since she
owned the house where she lived and was seeking to have her male abuser removed.

Male survivor: He generally approached the police (rather than having them come to him) and they
advised him to get a divorce. He claimed that the police had been doing nothing to help his case, as his
abuser knew many of police officers personally, and they thus tended to side with her. Supposedly she
became involved with a police officer following one of her trips to the station to respond to a report of
abuse.

Even so, the respondent contended that male victims are currently likely to receive even worse treatment
than females at the police stations of Barbados, since the general attitude of police officers is one that
finds the idea of a woman beating a man ridiculous, and suggests retaliating with blows to subdue her.

The respondent claimed that he had attempted to speak directly with a magistrate but the magistrate was
largely inaccessible, and informed him that rather than speak directly, he would have to communicate
through his lawyer. The magistrate eventually advised him to reconcile with his abuser and referred them
to a counsellor, but his abuser then lied to the counsellor.

The male victim further claimed that his futile attempts for a solution had given him feelings of
helplessness and desperation, and in turn had increased the likelihood that he would eventually resort to
violence in order to contend with his abuser.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 44

Fundamentally. one respondent revealed that the first person to reach out to her was a representative of the Victim Support Unit. rather than other forms. in-between cases such as hers. but she was opposed to being admitted to a shelter. She nonetheless thought greater coordination was necessary between the hospital and NGO‟s offering counselling services. lobby on his behalf and effect action which he would not be able to achieve as an individual. he also seemed to be in search of an NGO that could act as mediator between himself and the police. It was through this contact that she learned of the women‟s shelter. as currently constituted in Barbados. since she owned the house where the abuse was taking place. Male survivor: He was aware of the existence Men's Educational Support Association (MESA) but did not seem to have much of an idea of how specifically MESA could help him in his situation. during the respondent‟s time recuperating from the injuries inflicted by her abuser. and she also found that there needs to be an organization with the capacity to lobby on the behalf of Barbadian women. ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) Respondents similarly found fault with the adequacy of the collective non-governmental response for both the abused. and was hoping to see Ralph Boyce before he would be willing to pronounce on any possible outcomes. of abuse. She did not believe there to be any local NGOs currently in existence that could help her to address her specific needs. Solo female survivor: She had been in contact with the crisis centre. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 45 . yet this seemed to be the only NGO that the women were familiar with that could offer any viable support. which in turn educated her on the details of domestic violence. The work being done by the crisis centre of the Business and Professional Women‟s Club was described as commendable. The shelter perhaps does not provide for special. However. Her response signalled an indication that the shelter is a facility designed to protect women moreso from physical. He seemed to be clearly in a state of frustration and desperation. in hospital. which could be argued to be equally dangerous as others.

SECTION THREE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BARBADOS .

These data speak to pattern of occurrence and note that domestic violence most frequently occurs on a monthly basis. . CADRES was commissioned to execute this survey which sought to highlight the demographic and sociological characteristics of perpetrators and persons vulnerable to domestic violence. black. 27% of whom were aware of at least one incidence of domestic violence. Although domestic abuse is mostly physical. legal aid and the Welfare Department were examined and in all instances these institutions were NOT sought by victims/survivors of domestic violence. The most frequent configuration was between a man and woman with the man as the most frequent abuser. In most cases domestic violence resulted in injury of some sort and in many cases. Family and Sports in pursuit of its focus on domestic violence. injuries were visible. James is the next highest. The issues presented above are further extrapolated throughout this report. however the survey could not speak to the psychological impact of children and other persons living within the household because in many cases children were indirectly affected by instances of domestic violence. Finally CADRES investigated institutional reaction as it pertains to the domestic violence. Almost 40% of the victims/survivors interviewed were psychologically affected by the incidence of domestic violence and 52% were emotionally troubled. Michael. which is consistent with the racial profile of Barbados. followed by St. The survey also concluded that the abusers were usually older than the victims/survivors and were mostly employed. The demographic characteristics that were isolated demonstrated that victims/survivors were predominately mature. As it pertains to the police. working class. Institutions such as crisis centres. Data also showed that investigations were stopped by the victim/survivor 31% of the time. however it is interesting that St. SUMMARY JUDGEMENT The report that follows presents data collected during the months of February and March of 2009 on behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs in the Ministry of Youth. data suggested that psychological complications often emerged. mature males of African descent. however when they were called a full report was made most of the time. The prevalence of domestic violence was assessed through an estimation method which relied on informants. churches. with striking with an implement as being the most common form of abuse. It would appear as though violence is most prevalent in St. which is not surprising since this is the most populous parish. Barbadian females. in most instances the police were not called. Of these persons 51% did not seek or receive psychological treatment. Peter and Christ Church (in fourth place). of working class economic backgrounds.

but there should be no presumption that every person who was cooperative would necessarily be in a position to give information on an incident of Domestic Violence. to give our interviewers details about their experiences. until they achieved a successful interview (a cooperative person who may or may not have known of an incident of abuse). and c) Each cooperative respondent that conveyed “useful” data. sexual and or emotional abuse. in this instance it is important to note that the interviewers compensation package was designed to ensure that these persons employed to execute the project would NOT have had a vested interest in the production of instances of abuse which were “less than certain”. this was not an option for two key reasons: a) We presumed that respondents would not be honest at first instance with interviewers regardless of how professional these interviewers were. Although compensation issues are not normally referred to in methodological reports. but have not experienced personally. METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS The methodology employed in this study was complex. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 48 . Interviewers were instructed that a “respondent” for the purposes of this study could be any adult that was rational and cooperative.” Interviewers were instructed to go on the assumption that respondents knew for themselves what such violence was as far as possible. largely because the study was seminal and also due to the covert nature of the issue under study. Interviewers were instructed to approach a single individual in every third house and where that person was not willing to cooperate. to approach someone at the house next door. which was: “any violence between current and or former partners in an intimate or familial relationship wherever the violence occurs. however in the instance that they were unsure. The violence may include physical. Interviewers were supplied with a working definition of “Domestic Violence” for the purposes of this exercise. b) Each cooperative respondent. The selection of households for the conduct of interviews was done in random fashion without bias with respect to the type of house. Needless to say. the respondent was to explain the type of situation to the interviewer who would determine the applicability of their incident to the study. b) If respondents confessed to such experiences neither the research team nor the Bureau of Gender Affairs believed that they were equipped to provide the necessary emotional support to address the respondent‟s crisis. The alternative that CADRES proposed was a study that exploited the knowledge of “informants” who interviewers would ask to speak about a specific incident that they were familiar with. Hence interviewers were compensated for: a) Each day spent in the field. race or any other factor. Interviewers were assigned areas that corresponded to randomly selected Polling Divisions which are almost equal regions within the 30 national constituencies which are also almost equal. Since the study attempted to estimate the prevalence of Domestic Violence in Barbados the ideal approach would have been to ask a national sample of persons if they had experienced such violence in the past year and if so. It should also be noted that CADRES did not solicit information on either the identity of the informant or the victim/survivor of domestic violence.

Category E: The Respondent who knows of a case.The methodology identifies three types of respondents that were labelled for the operational purposes.” “C” and “D.9 Total 2828 100 The analysis that follows exploited two distinct data sets and the first of these was the entire national sample that included all respondents who were cooperative. Accordingly. Abuser‟s Nationality. the data was sorted and potential duplicates were identified based on similar outcomes regarding: I. IX. consents to an interview and satisfies the conditions of the screener. The final methodological issue that is explored relates to the possibility of duplicate cases within the sample which is always a possibility with an informant study. Respondents who satisfied ALL of the criteria associated with “Document 1” were classified as worthy respondents and the full Questionnaire (Appendix IV) was administered to them. XI. Victim‟s honesty with Health Care Provider. Type of Action involved in Violence.” “B.1% of the sample and these cases were deleted from the data set used for analysis. Category D: The Respondent who knows of a case. Race of the Victim. VI. The screener was designed to determine if the respondent was a worthy respondent based on their familiarity with the incident and where they did not appear to know the basic information requested of them in the screener the respondent was deemed unworthy. Sex/Gender of the Abuser. To counteract this problem. XII. II. but says s/he does not know of any case of Domestic Violence. Category B: The Respondent who speaks willingly. Injury to Victim/Survivor. Table 02: Indicator of Each Last Matching Case as Primary Frequency Percent Duplicate Case 59 2.” based on a “Screener” a copy of which is presented in Appendix V. Employment Status of the Victim. information was solicited from respondents in categories “A. the respondent thanked and the exercise discontinued. Category C: The Respondent who says s/he knows of a case of Domestic Violence well enough to speak about it. Type of Violence Reported. Table 02 presents the results of the process described above which identified 59 duplicate cases or 2. Since persons are informing on cases that they are familiar with it is entirely possible that more than one person will report on the same incident and this would inflate the quantity of incidents of domestic violence identified here. but won‟t. but might not necessarily had known of an Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 49 .1 Primary Case 2769 97. information was collected on “Document 1” (Appendix III). consents to an interview. Race of the Abuser. VIII. Abuser‟s Employment Status. Consistent with that document. An initial screener was administered to each cooperative respondent that would determine how he/she would be treated for the purposes of this survey: Category A: The Respondent who does not want to speak to you. IV. Sex/Gender of the Victim/Survivor. VII. Victim/Survivor‟s Nationality/Status. but is deemed to be unworthy since s/he cannot satisfy all the conditions of the screener. III. X. V.

Similarly.incident of domestic violence. Once duplicate incidents were eliminated from this data. such as the fact that the vast majority of victims/survivors are Afro Barbadian women who are abused by Afro Barbadian men and in these cases subsequent analysis does not refer to this peculiarity repeatedly. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 50 . all subsequent analysis was conducted using the dataset that included all instances of domestic violence and excluded respondents who did not provide information on a specific case. in instances where the analysis speaks exclusively to the national sample the reader can assume that this implies the absence of any correlations with any of the characteristics isolated in this instance. Moreover in several instances there were no deviations that appeared to be statistically significant and in such cases the analysis is superficial. The reader can therefore assume that this report presents cross tabulated data in instances where the peculiarity identified either debunks a commonly held perception or presents an interesting dimension. these data generated prevalence estimates. however. In some cases these correlations are obvious. This approach makes it considerably easier to establish correlations in the data since any uneven distribution identified in relation to any characteristic that is isolated in the analysis automatically reflects a “bias” that indicates this characteristic is more or less likely to predispose the victim/survivor or abuser.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 51 . but from the actual data that speaks to the individual cases and conveys a comprehensive understanding of who the victim/survivor is and which persons are more likely to be subjected to domestic violence. then we can assume that each of these incidents is a separate case and this statistic directly informs the level of abuse taking place in Barbados (in the year preceding the interview). however this type of estimation is notoriously difficult in situations where one cannot interview the victim/survivor. PREVALENCE AND DEMOGRAPHICS Prevalence The prevalence of domestic violence is an estimation that arises from the national sample and in this instance every effort was made to ensure that the selection of informants was as systematic and representative as possible. Informants were randomly selected and could arguably have had an equal opportunity to be both selected and to inform on cases of domestic violence known to them. The actual prevalence of domestic violence would be directly related to this statistic which speaks to reported abuse and would most likely be slightly higher since we can assume that not all violence would be reported to someone. This implies that domestic violence has taken place in more than 27% of Barbadian households. The statistic that emerges is proximate to the prevalence of domestic violence but under no circumstances should this proximity be interpreted to suggest that the statistic presented in Figure 02 is itself the prevalence of domestic violence in Barbados. Respondents Who Knew of (Seperate) Incidence of Abuse Yes 27% No 73% Figure 2: Respondents who knew of (Separate) Incidence of Abuse Figure 02 demonstrates that 27% of Barbadians knew of at least one incident of abuse and since we have already eliminated the duplicate cases. The intention was to produce a statistic which speaks to the prevalence of domestic violence nationally. Demographics The demographic profile of persons who were victims/survivors of domestic violence is drawn not from the entire national sample as was the case with the prevalence data.

29) Teenagers (13-19) Age Sex Race Nationality/status All Figure 3: Demographic Trends Figure 03 demonstrates that most of the victims/survivors of domestic violence were between 20 and 50. Respondents were asked their exact age and this information was re-coded for the purposes of this report. an attempt was made to determine the extent to which each demographic variable impacted on the likelihood that a person in Barbados would become a victim of domestic violence. while the other demographic characteristics were presented “as is” since these were already logical categories around which an analysis could be arranged. however. but the very existence of this type of violence in these very young and very old groups is somewhat disturbing.It is. seeks to identify the key demographics that impact on domestic violence in a way that would NOT be expected. These tests were all conclusive to the extent that they demonstrated that all key demographic variables impacted on the likelihood that a person would be a victim of domestic violence.12) Sino/Chinese Living here Ilegally Afro/Black Barbados (Reported) Mature (30 . however several of these correlations are logical. Demographic Trends 91% 83% 82% 59% 30% 27% 12% 14% 4% 6% 9% 2% 2% 2% 0% 3% Asian/Indo Anglo/White Born in Barbados Seniors (51 Plus) Male Mixed Children (0 . Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 52 . The analysis that follows. Figure 03 consolidates this data and presents the four key demographic characteristics. therefore. important to note that before the “active” sample was selected. or simply put. with the majority being in the age range 30-50. the entire national sample was tested against the actual incidence of domestic violence using the chi square test to establish the existence of a relationship with demographic variables. Although this is perhaps not surprising.50) Female Living here Legally Young Adults (20 . it is noteworthy that 2% of the victims/survivors of domestic violence are children. into groups representing: a) Children: 0-12 b) Teenagers: 13-19 c) Young Adults: 20-29 d) Mature Adults: 30-50 e) Seniors: 50 Plus These age groups appear to have some amount of significance as it relates to the issues of domestic violence. with 4% being teenagers and 6% being seniors. It might be reassuring that incidents are quite low in these age groups.

however the quantities of persons identified in the housewife/husband and unemployed categories appear to be striking and suggests that persons in these categories are more likely to become victims of domestic violence. living here legally or illegally based on the knowledge of the respondent. It would appear as though employed persons are more likely to be victims/survivors. One CADRES poll in October 2006 did. The final major demographic group identified is that of nationality and in this instance the victim/survivor was identified as either Barbadian born. The finding that 83% of the victims/survivors are Afro Barbadian is directly related to fact that the population of Barbados is about 95% Afro Barbadian and in no way can it be suggested that there is any correlation between race and the likelihood that the individual is likely to become a victim/survivor of domestic violence. This helps to separate those who “recently” acquired Barbadian status. with 9% being men and this finding should help to confirm the existence of male victims/survivors. Employment Status 26% 27% 17% 19% 16% 9% 5% 5% 1% Student Retired Employed part-time Employed part-time Unemployed Employed full-time Employed full-time House-wife/husband Barbados (Reported) (Private Sector) (Private Sector) (Public Sector) (Public Sector) Figure 4: Employment Status Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 53 . however. Employment Status Respondents were asked about their employment status and this information is presented in Figure 4 and demonstrates the emergence of peculiar trends regarding the impact of employment status on domestic violence. It is.The vast majority of victims/survivors of domestic violence were women. It is also not surprising that comparatively lower levels of abuse exist among retired persons and students. which is consistent with the fact that most of those persons are within the age range that is likely to be employed. noteworthy. however it is difficult to compare that statistic to the actual number of naturalised Barbadians here at present since this data is normally compiled by the authorities on a periodic basis. The chi square test used cannot discriminate in a way that would allow us to exclude the large number of working persons from the analysis. even though these quantities are considerably smaller than the female incidents. however considerably more difficult to determine the extent to which illegal immigrants are more vulnerable to abuse since there is no official or unofficial estimate that speaks to the percentage of persons residing in Barbados that are here illegally. however identify 21% of a national sample as “naturalised Barbadians” and this would imply that CADRES has estimated a slightly lower quantity of naturalised Barbadians (14%) who have been abused. however the level of abuse among housewives and househusbands as well as the unemployed is.

housewives and househusbands. Socio-Economic Status Victim/Survivor's Socio Economic Upper Background Class/Higher Socio-Economic Group 4% Working Class/Lower Socio-Economic Middle Group Class/Middle 66% Socio-Economic Group 30% Figure 5: Victim/Survivor's Socio Economic Background Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 54 . In this regard it is highly likely that the extent to which these persons are economically dependent is a factor that determines their vulnerability. however these data also demonstrate that other categories of persons are also more vulnerable and these are the unemployed. Afro Barbadian women who are employed are the most likely to become victims of domestic violence.Summarily the demographic profile can be said to confirm the belief that mature.

Similar quantities of persons discussed their abuse with acquaintance. work colleagues and neighbours. Informant Details 42% 25% 9% 9% 10% Neighbour friend/Acquaintance Friend Family member Work colleague Friend of a Figure 6: Informant Details Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 55 . while family members were the second most popular person to confide in. the abused persons were most inclined to speak to friends about this abuse. In this instance.Informant Details The nature of the relationship between the informants and the persons that were abused is presented in Figure 06 and this would be of considerable interest since it establishes the type of person that abused persons are most likely to confide in.

however this could have little impact on the location of the actual incident of violence since Barbados is a densely populated country where people move easily among parishes. Peter St. Assuming that this is the case. The survey also generated some amount of data on the exact location of the interviews which is voluminous and presented in Appendix VII. Philip Christ Church St. LOCATION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Cumulative data relating to the parish that the victim/survivor lives in is presented in Figure 7 and is interesting if one assumes that the second most populous parish in Barbados is Christ Church. Parish Location of Abuse 45% 16% 12% 8% 4% 6% 1% 1% 2% 3% 3% St. Joseph St. the fact that both St. Andrew St. Peter have more reported incidents speaks volumes about the extent to which those locations are more likely to be the venues for domestic violence. James Figure 7: Parish Location Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 56 . John St. Michael St. Lucy St. Thomas St. George St. James and St.

Table 03: Type of Domestic Violence Man Man Woman Woman Child Adult on on on on on on Man Woman Woman Man Adult Child Children 35% Teenagers 2% 4% 45% Age Group Of Young Adults 30% 31% 33% 15% 20% 10% Victim/Survivor Mature 60% 61% 46% 70% 80% 3% Seniors 10% 5% 17% 15% 7% Sex/Gender Male 100% 100% 20% 48% Of Female 100% 100% 80% 52% Victim/Survivor Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 57 . In this regard. It is also interesting to note that the survey identified incidences of violence within the “gay” and “lesbian” community and in this regard lesbians appeared to be more inclined to violence. the survey is also useful in that it demonstrated the fact that other types of violence do occur and the comparative levels of these other types. woman on man violence is estimated to be in the region of 4%. 1% 3% 4% 1% 4% Man on Man Man on Woman on Woman on Child on Adult on Woman Woman Man Adult Child Figure 8: Type of Violence Although it would appear as though there is one major type of Domestic Violence. which the same as adult on child violence. NATURE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Type of violence The actual type of Type of Violence violence that was reported on is analysed in Figure 08 86% and confirms the belief that “Man on Woman” violence is most popular in Barbados since 86% of the cases reported on were of this type.

In this instance. Actions Involved in Abuse Actions Involved in Abuse 55% 49% 46% 40% 41% 37% 30% 23% 19% 17% 15% 12% Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Yes (always) Yes (always) Yes (always) Yes (always) Yes (always) Yes (always) Striking with Striking with Playing Deprivation of Penetrative Non-Penetrative hand (alone) implement games/tricks on food/money to Sexual Abuse Sexual Abuse the victim buy food Figure 9: Actions Involved in Abuse The different configurations of domestic violence were pursued in Figure 9 which drew heavily on the data collected in the qualitative component of this research exercise. while the use of implements appeared less popular and was “sometimes” resorted to in 55% of cases. Striking with the hand alone was virtually always present. In the interest of simplicity. It is also interesting to note that “child on adult” violence cases are more inclined to present the female as a victim. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 58 . it can be seen that the particular activity is almost always “occasional”. while both boys and girls are equally vulnerable to “adult on child violence”. with the exception of abuse involving children where the data is obviously skewed in that direction. respondents were presented with possible options and encouraged to tell interviewers if (to the best of their knowledge) these different activities were involved in domestic violence “sometimes” “always” or “never”. deprivation of food/money and sexual abuse of the penetrative and non-penetrative varieties. In these instances.Table 03 presents information relating to the type of domestic violence and the age group that such violence impacts on. which is consistent with the types of scenarios that present themselves in most other age categories. Less popular activities included playing of games/tricks. the data relating to “never” was eliminated so the activities most popular can be clearly seen. It can be seen that the most popular type of violence (man on woman) takes place “against” young adults and mature persons.

the abuse is less likely to be followed by a fight and correspondingly where the victim/survivor is a woman there is a 50/50 chance of fighting. Victim normally Victim does not Abuse is not Abuse is generally resists/retaliates normally followed by a fight followed by a fight resist/retaliate Retaliation Fighting ensues Figure 10: Retaliation The comparison of retaliation to non-retaliation suggests that there is almost a 50/50 chance that persons will retaliate and the same can be said for fighting which was equally likely to happen or not happen and this analysis is further enhanced by reference to Figure 11 which speaks to the impact of gender on fighting and suggests that in the instances where the victim/survivor is a man.Retaliation Figure 10 speaks to Retaliation the likelihood that the victim/survivor will 48% retaliate and here an attempt was made to establish the 43% likelihood that the 43% victim would retaliate 40% and if a fight would ensue (separately). Gender and Retaliation Male Female 52% 42% 43% 40% Abuse is not followed by a fight Abuse is generally followed by a fight Figure 11: Gender and Retaliation Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 59 .

it can still be argued that most abuse in Barbados takes place “from time to time” while the consistent daily or weekly abuse is only popular in one-third of the instances. suggesting that these demographic factors pre-dispose the victim/survivor. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 60 . Frequency of Abuse Seldom Regularly (Annually/Once (Daily/Weekly) or Twice) 37% 11% From time to time (Monthly/Every few months) 52% Figure 12: Frequency of Abuse Duration and Consistency of Abuse Related to the issue of frequency is the matter of consistency and duration of abuse. but didn‟t consider infrequent cases worthy of reporting. These peculiarities require some amount of discussion since none of the peculiarities relating to the length of time that the abuse was taking are profound. since it implies that respondents defined abuse as activity which occurred “regularly” as in either weekly or monthly. It would appear that the abuse that impacted on teenagers and to a lesser extent young adults started more recently. Clearly the most popular time period was “from time to time” which also meant every month/every few months and 52% of cases conformed to that general rule. which in this instance means how long has this specific pattern of abuse been taking place and has it been a consistent barrage of abuse or if it has been periodic over the time period referred to. since it implies that abuse that impacted on both men and women continued for a similar period of time. Regarding the sex/gender profile.Frequency of Abuse The frequency of abuse was also explored by asking respondents to offer information on frequency in three different time periods. The regular weekly/daily abuse took place in 37% of cases and the rarest frequency was that of “seldom” which has implications for the type of abuse that respondents believed met the qualifying bar. while the abuse in other age categories was more long standing. the absence of any pattern is noteworthy. Notwithstanding. or perhaps they were more overwhelmed by the cases of frequent abuse that were reported to them. In this instance there appears to be a relationship between these factors and the age and sex of the abused person. This analysis is perhaps most useful in that regard.

or perhaps in response to particular events. Length of Time of Abuse Years/As long as I can remember Recently started 58% 61% 52% 55% 55% 54% 54% 38% 41%38% 34% 25% 26% 27% 28% 21% Children Teenagers Young Mature Seniors Male Female Barbados Adults Abused Person's Age Group Abused Person's All Sex/Gender Figure 13: Length of Time of Abuse Figure 14 speaks to the consistency of abuse and in this regard there are several similar subtleties that emerge. At the national level there is no significant relationship emerging that suggests a difference consistent and sporadic abuse patterns and the gender analysis also reflects this consistency. Abuse that impacted on children and mature individuals was consistent while abuse in all other age categories was sporadic. Consistency of Abuse Abuse is Consistent Abuse is Sporadic 58% 55% 56% 58% 51% 52% 41% 46% 46% 46%49% 46%49% 39% 37% 25% Children Teenagers Young Mature Seniors Male Female Barbados Adults Abused Person's Age Group Abused Person's All Sex/Gender Figure 14: Consistency of Abuse Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 61 . suggesting that it happened periodically.

which implies that domestic relationships also conform this type of pattern or that where relationships take place. Abused .Socio-Economic Relations The socio economic analysis is based on a question to the respondent that asked him/her to determine which socio economic group the abuser and the victim/survivor best fits into. however suggesting that the most probable inter-class abuse takes place between abusers who are from the middle socio-economic bracket and who abuse persons from the lower socio-economic group. There are some subtleties that emerge. It is also noticeable that there is little likelihood of abusers who originate from the lower socio-economic group abusing those in higher socioeconomic groups. Figure 15 consolidates and presents this information and suggests that there is very little “inter-class” abuse taking place.Abuser: Socio-Economic Relationship ABUSER Working Class/Lower Socio-Economic Group ABUSER Middle Class/Middle Socio-Economic Group ABUSER Upper Class/Higher Socio-Economic Group 92% 75% 77% 23% 19% 4% 8% 0% 2% ABUSED Working ABUSED Middle ABUSED Upper Class/Higher Class/Lower Socio-Economic Class/Middle Socio. The next most likely relationship emerges in relation to abusers who are from the upper socio economic group who abuse persons who are from the middle socio economic group. persons appear to abuse persons within their social class. In most instances. Socio-Economic Group Group Economic Group Figure 15: Abused . The juxtaposition of these two issues support the contention that abuse is to some extent influenced by socio-economic factors and persons who are “poorer” are more likely to be abused by persons who might have economic power over them.Abuser Socio Economic Relationship Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 62 . persons are unlikely to abuse partners who are outside of their social class.

The initial observation that men are less likely to be injured in the course of abuse is perhaps not surprising since the physical limitations imposed by sex would make it less likely that women injure men. As is the case with other aspects of this report. but instead supports popularly held beliefs with empirical data. the data is perhaps not surprising. Similarly. Gender and Injuries Male Female Barbados 67% 64% 59% 57% 50% 48% 46% 39% 38% 37% 37% 29% 29% 29% 28% 28% 27% 27% 26% 25% 24% 22% 22% 21% 21% 20% 19% 18% 13% 13% 13% 12% 11% 11% 3% 2% Injured Not Injured Serious Injuries Injuries Treated Injuries Visible Not Truthful Injuries Not Visible Injuries Not Treated Minor Injuries Truthful to Health Officer Public Treatment Private Treatment Figure 16: Gender and Injuries Age appears to have a similar impact on issues associated with injuries as is evidenced in Figure 17. These data demonstrate that there is some amount of public embarrassment associated with male abuse that is considerably greater than is the case with female abuse. It is interesting that this trend is reflected in older abused persons but the oldest behave in the same way that men and young persons do. men‟s injuries would be less serious and less visible. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 63 . it can be seen that as victims/survivors get older they are more likely to seek public treatment. in that they tend not to report instances of abuse or seek treatment in public institutions. however. It is. It cannot be denied that persons in the age groups that are truthful and are more likely to seek treatment are also more likely to be abused and this could impact on their reactions.Injuries Figure 16 speaks to injuries and seeks to establish a relationship between the gender of the person who is abused and various issues related to injuries that arise from the abuse. In this instance. or indeed seek treatment at all and to be truthful to the health officer. interesting to note that in instances where men are injured (these cases were isolated) those injuries were less likely to be treated and men were considerably less likely to be truthful to health officers about the origin of these injuries and as a result less likely to be treated in public institutions. however there is also a clear (albeit small) impact that sex and age appears to have on the persons willingness to pursue treatment for their injuries.

Age and Injuries Children Teenagers Young Adults Mature Seniors Barbados 50% 46% 44% 42% 42% 38% 33% 32% 29% 27% 27% 26% 26% 24% 23% 23% 22% 22% 22% 20% 20% 20% 18% 17% 14% 12% 12% 12% 12% 10% 9% 8% 8% 3% Public Treatment Private Treatment Truthful to Health Not Truthful Injuries Treated Injuries Not Officer Treated Figure 17: Age and Injuries Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 64 .

Psychological Impact The potential psychological impact of abuse was assessed by way of three questions that were asked of the informant and as such these cannot conclusively determine that there was indeed any psychological impact. victims/survivors neither sought nor received psychological treatment. suggesting that they neither believed themselves to be damaged nor did not believe that such treatment was available to them. but still conveys the hope that abuse is not having profound psychological impacts on victims/survivors. The final question spoke to the perceptive emotional impact of the abuse and in this instance 52% of the abused persons appeared to be emotionally troubled based on the assessment of the informants. The quantity of persons who were still emotionally stable is not insignificant and does support the suggestion made above that domestic violence is not having as profound an impact on the psyche of victims/survivors that it could. respondents believed that the majority were psychologically damaged by the incident although it is clear that informants also believed that close to one third of the victims/survivors were not psychologically damaged and hence would not need psychological assistance. Notwithstanding. At the same time. Psychological Impact 51% 52% 39% 29% 22% 10% 2% No Neither Sought nor Sought but Didn't Emotionally Troubled Yes Emotionally Stable Sought & Received Receive Received Psychological Treatment Sought Victim/Survivor Emotional State Psychologically Damaged Figure 18: Psychological Impact Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 65 . Informants were asked if the abused/victim sought psychological treatment. the response to general questions that relate to perception is interesting. since neither the informant or the interviewer were formally trained in psychology. if they were psychologically damaged (in the opinion of the informant) and also what was the victim/survivor‟s emotional state and it is noteworthy that on this occasion there were no correlations detected that could potentially impact on any demographic characteristic employed in the survey. In the majority of instances. This perception also speaks to some amount of cynicism on the part of informants as well. This could imply that people considered abuse to be normal to some extent and as such would not require professional care.

6 Average Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 66 . Table 05: Number of Bedrooms in Abusive Households 1 5.4% 2 43.2% 8 1. Against this background it is perhaps not 4. the presumption that one person should occupy 13 0.3% 16 . 2 18.1% Moreover.5% abuse of necessity requires that two or more persons be 10 0.0% 3 40. while Table 05 presents raw data relating to the second.Living Arrangements In this section an attempt was made to determine the impact Table 04: Number of People Living in that living arrangements had on the potential for abuse. 3-4 people lived in a house with 2-3 bedrooms (Tables 04 and 05).2% data relating to the first question.5% how many bedrooms these residence had in an attempt to 5 16.5% was a relationship between crowding and abuse or if persons that lived in crowded situations were more likely to be abused.1 Average surprising that in most instances. 12 0.3% most familial arrangements would require some amount of 15 0.1% absence of that sharing arrangement would be a clear signal of abnormality.5% 6 . 7 5.4% 4 8.1% sharing between the two principal partners and indeed the 20 0.4% present hence there will always be a direct relationship between numbers larger than one and domestic violence.2% This type of analysis is not straightforward since domestic 9 0.7% living in the house where abuse was taking place along with 4 23. Table 04 presents raw 6 11.6% Hence respondents were asked how many persons were 3 21.1% 2. Abusive Households Simply put. CADRES attempted to determine whether there 1 0.6% 7 .3% each room in ideal situations is also not relevant here since 14 0.6% 5 1.2% determine the impact of crowding.

then it is reasonable to assume that there is no relationship between crowding and abuse and this point is further supported by the fact that only 4% of abuse cases occurred in “regrettable” living scenarios. Since the ideal living arrangement is that which is most popular in our survey of victims/survivors.7 78% 18% 4% Ideal (0-2) Average Acceptable (2-3) Regrettable (3-9) Figure 19: Persons per Bedroom (Ranges) Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 67 . CADRES arranged the bedroom-resident data into three distinct scenarios which were identified as “ideal” (0-2 persons per bedroom).7 persons per bedroom which would be classified as the “ideal” arrangement.In an attempt to present an analysis that speaks to the issue of crowding. This demonstrates that the average scenario is 1. In addition the average arrangement was generated and this was all presented in Figure 19 (below). “acceptable” (2-3 persons per bedroom) and “regrettable” (3-9 persons per bedroom). Persons Per Bedroom (Ranges) 1.

however the “similarity” implies that these trends and patterns are likely to be replicated in other domestic violence cases nationally. Additional (Similar) Cases Informant Knows of None 39% Three or More 17% One or Two More 44% Figure 20: Additional (Similar) Cases of Abuse Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 68 . Figure 20 demonstrates that most of the respondents knew of one or two more cases and almost 17% knew of three or more. The fact that there was some duplication among reported cases means that there was likely to be some duplication among these additional cases as well. suggesting that what was reported on spoke to roughly half of the incidents that took place over the reporting year.Informants Familiarity with Similar Cases Although informants were asked to confine themselves to one particular case. hence there is no suggestion here that previous estimates are under-reported. CADRES nonetheless took the opportunity to ask them if they knew of other similar cases to determine the extent to which the problem could have been more widespread and the patterns generally applicable.

6% abnormal.3% is still highly likely that there is a relationship between the two sets of data since informants are more likely to assume that a person Hindu 1.6% practicing Christians locally and the 8% in this survey of abusers.5% The national analysis is also suggestive of some association between the national sample and this survey since 97% of abusers were either Barbadians or naturalised and this would confirm that quantity of illegal abusers is negligible. however this profile also highlights the fact that 16% of abusers are young adults. the major demographic characteristics of the abuser are presented in Figure 21 which suggests that potential abusers are likely to be mature Afro Barbadian men. This profile is perhaps not surprising.8% interviewed might still classify him/herself as such. The second largest group was that of non- Non-Practicing Christian 34.0% survey suggesting that these patterns (among abusers) were not Jewish 0.1% 1% 0. Major Demographic Characteristics (Abuser) 89% 87% 72% 11% 16% 11% 3% 2% 8% 0. Agnostic 1. Summarily. Although there is a major difference between the 53.2% who abuses other is NOT a practicing Christian. while that abuser if Atheist 1. it Baha'i 0.7% that more than one-third of respondents did not know the religious orientation of abusers. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 69 . These data are taken from a national survey conducted in 2009 (CADRES 2009 National Survey) and the comparisons with Figure 22 need to appreciate the fact Practicing Christian 53.3% practicing Christians (36%) which compares to 34% in the national Muslim 1.4% Children Asian/Indo Anglo/White Mature Other Male Young Adults Mixed Seniors Afro/Black Female Teenagers Sex/Gender Age Group Race Figure 21: Major Demographic Characteristics (Abuser) The impact of religion is best viewed in comparison with the Table 06: Barbados Religions national trends which are presented in Table 06 for convenience. PROFILE OF THE ABUSER In this section an effort is made to create a profile of the abuser so that potential abusers could more easily be identified.7% Rastafarian 5. 11% are seniors and 11% are women.

It could be argued that this (31%) is suggestive of some trend. There is also an implicit rejection of another perception that abusers are able to “get away” with their abuse because of economic dependence and this is consistent with other observations made above regarding the relationship between abuse and socio economic status. In this instance. This rejects the assumption that abusers engage in such activity because they have “too much time on their hands”.CADRES solicited information on the abuser‟s religion and national status to determine whether there were correlations there and Figure 22 implies there none that are of any significance. There are some very minor correlations that emerge regarding religion if we take the national profile into consideration.1% 2% 1% 2% 2% Hindu Non-Practising Agnostic Unsure Muslim Jewish Rastafarian Atheist Citizen by Birth Living here legally Practising Christian Living here illegally Unsure of Religion Christian Religion Abuser's Nationality/Status Figure 22: Abuser's Religion and National Status Other major socio-economic characteristics have been explored in Figure 23 and it can immediately be seen that employment status does not impact heavily on the likelihood that a person will become an abuser since the vast majority of abusers are gainfully employed. even though these appear to happen just as frequently. Throughout this region. while this survey presents 10% of abusers as Rastafarians and 6% Atheists. The major clusters that emerge here relate to the status “non-practising Christians”. Abuser's Religion and National Status 87% 36% 36% 8% 10% 6% 10% 0. while persons from “higher” groups tend not speak about such experiences. persons from lower socio- economic groups are more inclined to report on their experiences with domestic violence.1% 0. those “unsure of their religion” and those who are Citizens of Barbados and these are not inconsistent with the national scenario. At first “blush” the final component of data presented in Figure 23 implies that persons from the lower socio-economic group are more inclined to be abusers. In 2009 the CADRES national survey identified 6% self identified Rastafarians and 2% self identified atheists. It is unwise to assume that this bias is related to the presumption that abuse is more prevalent in the lower socio economic groups if one is familiar with the cultural peculiarities of Barbados and the Caribbean. however this is a trend that emerged throughout the survey and could have been influenced by the fact that most cases that were chronicled in this study originated from a similar socio-economic group. which is slightly inconsistent and suggests that persons within these categories are slightly more inclined to become abusers. it was noted that in 65% of cases others in the family work and in only 31% of cases is the abuser the main breadwinner in the family. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 70 . however it is not possible to present comparative data that speaks to the quantity of persons in Barbados who are the exclusive breadwinner in the household and in the absence of such evidence it can be assumed that 31% of abusers being the sole breadwinners is not unusually high.

Major Social and Economic Characteristics (Abuser) 88% 65% 65% 31% 32% 11% 4% 4% Employed Unsure breadwinner Unemployed/Not No. These observations should appreciate the reality that to some informants the presence of such an “outside relation” is itself abusive behaviour. In this instance. but to the best of their knowledge there was no abuse taking place in these “outside” scenarios. while to others this type of arrangement is normal. main Socio-Economic Socio-Economic Socio-Economic Working Group Group Group Employment Status Main "Breadwinner" in Family Social Class Figure 23: Major Social and Economic Characteristics (Abuser) Figure 24 speaks to other aspects of the profile of the abuser and suggests that abusers are generally younger than their victims however the 14% of cases where persons are abused by younger persons present interesting scenarios. however this would best be viewed against/compared to national substance abuse data which provides several estimates depending on the type of substances that are considered. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 71 . One CADRES/NCSA study (2002) suggested that what could be considered “low level” abuse of illegal drugs (Marijuana) occurs in about 30% of the population of Barbados on an occasional basis. however. In 42% of cases there was the belief that substance abuse might have been a factor. This classification. In 11% of cases the informant indicated that there were multiple partners/family members that they were aware of. while legal could substantially broaden the “net”. others work Middle Class/Middle Working Class/Lower Upper Class/Higher Yes. Hence the 42% of cases in which substance abuse is a factor compared to the 45% of cases where it is not relevant suggests that drug abuse could be a minor factor that predisposes or encourages domestic violence. The next question posed in this section was somewhat complex since there was an attempt to determine whether the abuser had other partners or family members that s/he also abuses (in addition to the one that was reported on) and in 58% of cases the respondent was unsure. It is unfortunate that the informants were unsure whether the abuser was abused in the past since it would have been useful to seek to establish correlations in relation to this widely held view. no pattern or suggested pattern emerges since multiple partner/family member abuse is identified in only 17% of cases. The data does. with a clear indication that no abuse takes place in 14% of cases. excludes alcohol abuse which. however. however suggest that a likelihood that this is the case since there was such a pattern in known cases. The final major issue explored in Figure 24 relates to substance abuse being a factor in abuse and these data suggest that there is almost a 50/50 chance that there will be some amount of substance abuse in these situations of abuse.

while teenaged abusers concentrated mostly on mature victims. Age and Pattern of Abuse 82% 76% 58% 42% 45% 14% 15% 9% 17% 14% 11% 13% 3% 1% No No Younger Unsure Unsure Unsure Older Yes Yes partners/family… Same age Yes. Abuser-Abused Age Relationship Children Teenagers Young Adults Mature Seniors 100% 66% 67% 71% 60% 25% 23% 20%20% 20% 10% 1% 3% 2% 2% 4% 5% 1% Child Abusers Teenaged Abusers Young Adult Abusers Mature Abusers Senior Abusers Figure 25: Abuser-Abused Age Relationship Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 72 . Young adult abusers abused within their age range and mature abusers behaved similarly. (Don't think so) Abuser has other Is the abuser older/younger Was the abuser abused Does the abuser have other Abuser engages in than the victim? in the past? partners/family that s/he also Substance Abuse? abuses? Figure 24: Age and Pattern of Abuse The fact that abusers generally preyed on younger persons provoked the need for an analysis of the instances in which this was not the case and this is facilitated in Figure 25. Senior abusers focused mostly on mature victims and this suggests that older persons generally preyed on victims that were either younger or within their age range. This demonstrates that all of the child abusers preyed on young adults. (Think so) Unsure/Won't say No. while younger abusers went for older victims. however the general trend was for persons to abuse within their age range.

In most cases. Abuser-Abused Employment Relationship Employed full-time Employed part-time Students Retired Unemployed 90% 91% 88% 82% 78% 22% 13% 16% 9% 10% Employed Abusers Unemployed Abusers Figure 26: Abuser-Abused Employment Relationship Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 73 . There is one slight deviation from this norm and this occurs in relation to the designation “students” that unemployed abusers appear to take more interest in. It becomes clear here also that the abuser‟s status is of little relevance.In an earlier section the possibility that a lack of employment could have implicitly encouraged domestic violence was dismissed and this issue is returned to once more in Figure 26 which examines the relationship between the abuser‟s employment status and that of the person that s/he abuses. Students were victims of abuse by unemployed abusers twice as often as was the case with employed abusers and this points to an interesting trend. the bulk of abused persons are employed and between 80 and 90 percent of their oppressors are also gainfully employed.

it would appear as though it is either not well known or not sufficiently trusted. It is interesting that the most popular institution is both non-governmental and secular. followed by the Welfare Department. Informants reported that requests for help were unsuccessful in only 5% of cases. which are relatively few instances and there is no clear indication on the reasons why demands were not successful. respondents were not sure if assistance was sought and if so what type of reaction was received. Institutions Approached Initially the respondents were asked (if they knew) which institutions were approached and this information is presented in Figure 27. non-secular institution which was established to provide support in these types of cases. Regarding governmental agencies. Institutions Approached 80% 79% 70% 74% 62% 22% 14% 2% 4% 4% No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes WELFARE CHURCH CRISIS Centre LEGAL AID NETWORK Department SERVICES Figure 27: Institutions Approached Agency Interaction and Agency Reaction In addition to the basic approach. Comparatively. The Crisis Centre is a non-governmental. however. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 74 . the outcome regarding assistance that was sought from governmental organisations appears more positive since help was sought from these agencies in 16% of cases and these requests were satisfied in all but 1% of instances. based on information provided by informants. These response categories were sorted into governmental and non-governmental agencies and presented in Figure 28 which demonstrates that in one-third of cases. however these issues were not pursued in the survey. while the second most popular is the welfare department which is a governmental agency. It is entirely possible that the type of assistance that was sought from non-governmental organisations was considerably easier to provide than the type of assistance that was demanded of governmental agencies and the lower expectations establish a basis for greater satisfaction from these agencies. the church was most frequently turned to. there was an attempt to determine what was the reaction of the agency approached and also if this reaction was satisfactory to the complainant. It is immediately obvious that in most instances. in only 18% of instances was help sought from these institutions and in 13% of these instances there is an indication that the assistance sought was received. however in instances where there was an institutional approach. INSTITUTIONAL REACTION TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE In this final section the reaction of various governmental and non governmental institutions to domestic violence is examined. no institutions were approached.

Police Reports Yes. never reported Unsure if reports were made 79% 70% 58% 54% 53% 58% 53% 54% 33% 34% 37% 35% 37% 35% 21% 20% 8% 12% 10% 7% 9% 10% 10% Children Teenagers Young Mature Seniors Male Female Barbados Adults Victim/Survivor's Age Group Victim/Survivor's All Sex/Gender Figure 29: Police Reports Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 75 . they were unsure whether there was a Police report or not. It can therefore be said that reports are made to the Police in roughly 30% or one-third of cases. reports made at (some) times No. Agency Interaction/Reaction 54% 51% 33% 29% 13% 15% 5% 1% Assistance Sought & Assistance was not Assistance Sought & Assistance was not Assistance Sought Assistance Sought Unsure Unsure Unresponsive Unresponsive BUT Agency BUT Agency Received Received sought sought Governmental Agencies Non-Governmental Agencies Figure 28: Agency Interaction/Reaction Police Reports and Outcome Since the Police are a specialised governmental agency. suggesting that Police statistics (if such exist) would need to be tripled to present a realistic estimation of the level of abuse taking place in Barbados. specific issues were raised regarding the victim/survivor‟s intercourse with them and these are presented in Figure 29 and 30. Informants indicated that reports were made to the Police in 35% of instances and in another 10% of instances. Figure 29 speaks to frequency with which Police reports were made and this information is useful in determining the extent to which Police cases of domestic violence are under-reported and it is clear that there are some key demographic variables that impact on the likelihood that a case will be reported.

it can be seen that full investigations ensued in 44% of cases. The sex/gender based finding that women were more likely to report their abuse to the Police is not surprising and is consistent with expectations that men are not comfortable reporting their abuse to the authorities. Outcome of Police Report (Reports Only) 44% 34% 38% 31% 32% 25% 23% 23% 21% 12% No Unsure Unsure Unsure Yes No Investigation Recommendation) Full Investigation Matter Went Before No (Victim/Survivor's No (Police Request) Courts Outcome of Police Report Victim Stopped Matter Reached Court? Investigation Figure 30: Outcome of Police Reports There was no significant pattern emerging that relates to the outcome of Police reports based on major demographic characteristics. informants estimated that in 34% of cases the victim/survivor terminated the Police investigations. Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 76 . however the high level of uncertainly here should also be noted. In this presentation. The level of uncertainty was 25% and this does seem high. In this regard.There is no major deviation from this 30% rule in the reporting pattern that is caused by age and this fact is noteworthy in and of itself. The quantity of cases that were interrupted by the actions of the complainant should not be surprising since the authorities in Barbados have frequently commented that the actions of the complainant interrupt their prosecutions in many instances. Here also there is no indication of the reasons why investigations or prosecutions were terminated and it is also important to appreciate that the informants are presenting second-hand information at best and this could impact negatively on the authenticity of data which is at best a guide to the way in which victims believe themselves to be treated by the Police. while they believed that the Police acted independently in 38% of cases. hence Figure 30 simply reports on the outcome of reports at the national level. It however appears as though Teenagers are slightly less inclined to make reports to the Police since only 21% of teenagers who were abused are reported to have come forward to the Police and this peculiarity might generate some interest. while there was no investigation reported in 31% of cases.

This is an issue that the survey was not equipped to respond to and future investigations might need to probe. or the courts from acting against their oppressors. it is still noteworthy that victims/survivors are equally inclined to be happy (4%) or unhappy (3%) with the court‟s actions. it would appear that approximately one-third of cases did not reach the courts because of the actions of the complainant. This means that the data in Figure 31 could be interpreted to mean that either the law does not do enough to prevent violence or perhaps the law does not do enough to protect the complainant who needs to discontinue their actions in their own self-interest. The final question presented in this section spoke to the victim/survivor‟s opinion of the Law and Law Courts based on information conveyed to the informant. since it would appear that once matters actually reach the courts that institution is able to act to the satisfaction of complainant in at least half of the cases presented to it.Victim/Survivor’s Opinion on the Law and Courts As this analysis continued. the outcome of court action was probed and it would appear that 23% of cases went before the courts and informants believed that in about 12% of cases the Police did not pursue these matters because they had insufficient evidence. or for some other legitimate reason. since it is an important dimension of the issue. Generally. Although there were only a small number of instances in which court action ensued and a comparatively large number of instances in which informants were unsure about the level of satisfaction with this court action. This point needs to appreciate the evidence presented earlier that in about one-third of cases. Here also. the victims/survivors themselves prevented the Police from proceeding with the cases. This 50/50 scenario can be positively interpreted in light of the general trend of dissatisfaction. victims/survivors believe that the law does not do enough to prevent domestic violence (74%) and in only 12% of cases are persons of the opinion that the law does enough to prevent these acts. Opinion on Law and Courts 74% 76% 12% 14% 4% 3% 16% No Unsure/No opinion Unsure Yes Not Relevant Happy with Court's Court's Response Not Happy with Response Law Does Enough to Prevent Opinion of the Court's Response in this Matter Domestic Violence (Respondent (Victim/Survivor)? Opinion)? Figure 31: Opinion on Law and Courts Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 77 .

Areas and Mechanics of Abuse  How exactly is abuse inflicted. APPENDICES APPENDIX I Focus Group Questions and Issues for Discussion: Stakeholders ISSUE: (WHAT) Definition of Domestic Violence (WHAT)  Group‟s general reaction to a classic definition of Domestic Violence: “any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship wherever the violence occurs.”  Does anything need to added to or omitted from this definition?  How is Barbados Different?  Are there any gender differences in Barbados. of economic factors on the possibility/probability that domestic violence may occur in a given home  Is there a typical profile for perpetrators?  Is there a typical profile for survivors? ISSUE: (WHY) Frequency. if any. what are modes? Is it more likely to be continuous or “one off”?  What are the “tools of the trade”?  Is abuse on the increase/decrease in Barbados?  How would you describe the existence and adequacy of state responses. Incidence. if any. if any. The violence may include physical. for both survivors and perpetrators? . and how do you think this relates to global trends? Higher/lower? ISSUE: (HOW) Regions. in terms of the types of violence that are perpetrated?  What are the peculiarities that impact on children?  What is the impact. Causes and Predisposing Circumstances  What are some of the leading causes or prevailing circumstances in instances of domestic violence?  What is the frequency in Barbados. of family history on the possibility/probability that domestic violence may occur in a given home?  What is the impact. sexual. emotional and financial abuse. for both survivors and perpetrators?  How would you describe the existence and adequacy of NGO responses. of race factors on the possibility/probability that domestic violence may occur in a given home?  What is the impact.

were the police. do you have any knowledge of their behaviour?  Do you think that this type of violence takes place more in poor households. APPENDIX II Focus Group Questions and Issues for Discussion: Survivors ISSUE: (WHAT) Definition of Domestic Violence  Group‟s general reaction to a classic definition of Domestic Violence: “any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship wherever the violence occurs. courts and other support service helpfully? Did you find them easily. emotional and financial abuse. how did these institutions work for you and what can be done to improve them?  Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 79 . or “one off”? How long did it continue? Were there periods when it was more intense than others?  Was it normal that your abuser would use a weapon against you? Was the abuse more emotional? If so how did it happen?  Do you think that domestic violence is on the increase/decrease in Barbados??  Do you think that government provided enough help for you in your time of need? Specifically.” In your opinion is this a comprehensive definition? Does it define your situation?  Do you think the situation in Barbados is any different to what pertains in other countries? Is the violence more or less harsh. Causes and Predisposing Circumstances  In your opinion why do you think your abuser abused you? ISSUE: (HOW) Regions. Incidence. sexual. more or less frequent?  Do you think that violence is more frequently perpetrated against men or women in Barbados?  Were your children affected in any way by your experience with domestic violence?  In your case. are you aware whether or not your partner (abuser) had any relatives who also abused people?  Do you think that this type of violence is more or less prevalent among blacks? Do you know if it is different with Indians? What about White people. or rich households? ISSUE: (WHY) Frequency. Areas and Mechanics of Abuse  In your case was the abuse continuous. were they responsive?  Are you aware of any non-governmental institutions that can help you? If so. The violence may include physical.

House Identifier Interviewer Name Positive Response to Area of Interviews introduction Knows of Incident of Abuse Initial Screen Willing to Share Information on Abuse Age of Abused Sex of Abused Race of Abused Abused Employment Status Abused relationship to APPENDIX III respondent Document (1) One Document (1) One Qualifying Questions Area of Residence Status Interview Number .

Generally. Generally does the victim retaliate or is the action normally met with little or no resistance? Victim normally resists/retaliates 1 Victim does not normally resists/retaliate 2 Unsure 3 4. Playing games/tricks on the victim Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3 IV. Deprivation of food/money to buy food Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3 V. spying and physical touching) Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3 3. How frequently are there incidents of abuse that you are aware of? Regularly (Daily/Weekly) 1 From time to time (Monthly or every few months) 2 Seldom (Annually or something that has happened once or twice that you are aware of) 3 6. Striking with implement Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3 III. Has the victim ever been injured to the best of your knowledge? Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 7. If so. Generally. Striking with hand (alone) Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3 II. which of these actions would be involved in the abuse that you are familiar with: I. would you consider the injuries serious or minor? Serious 1 Minor 2 Unsure/Not relevant 3 . Does fighting normally ensue? Abuse is not followed by a fight 1 Abuse is generally followed by a fight 2 Unsure if victim and abuser fight 3 5. APPENDIX IV Survey Instrument Document Two (2) Instrument Questionnaire Number ________________ Nature of Domestic Violence 1. Non Penetrative Sexual Abuse (Including peeping. Penetrative Sexual Abuse Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3 VI. is the violence (Interviewer note that a child is defined as under 18 in this instance): Man on Man 1 Man on Woman 2 Woman on Woman 3 Woman on Man 4 Child on Adult 5 Adult on Child 6 2.

8. In your opinion is the victim psychologically damaged as a result of this problem? Yes. Approximately how many bedrooms does this house have (place of abuse)? ________ 16. Were the injuries (at any time) visible to you and the general public? Visible 1 Not visible 2 Unsure/Not relevant 3 9. treated 1 No. not treated 2 Unsure 3 10. not psychologically damaged 2 Unsure if psychologically damaged 3 14. s/he told the truth 1 No. Do you know whether the victim went to a public or private health care facility? Public facility 1 Private facility 2 Unsure 3 12. How many other cases of domestic violence are you aware of that are similar to this one you are reporting on? (approximately how many and if none insert 0) ________ Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 82 . Do you know whether the victim was honest with the health care provider regarding the source of the injury? Yes. Were the injuries (at any time) treated by a health care facility? Yes. Approximately how many people live in this house where the abuse takes place? ________ 15. Do you know whether the victim sought or received psychological treatment as a result of abuse? Sought and received Psychological Treatment 1 Sought but didn‟t receive 2 Did not seek nor receive 3 Unsure 4 13. s/he made up a story 2 Unsure 3 Not relevant 4 11. psychologically damaged 1 No.

If you were to attempt to place the abuser in a social class. sole breadwinner 1 No.Nature of the Abuser 17. other work 2 Unsure 3 24. what social class would you say best reflects that person‟s background? Working Class/Lower Socio Economic Group 1 Middle Class/Middle Socio Economic Group 2 Upper Class/Higher Socio Economic Group 3 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 83 . What (if any) is the religion of the abuser? Practising Christian 1 Non Practising Christian 2 Muslim 3 Jewish 4 Rastafarian 5 Bahia 6 Atheist 7 Agnostic 8 Hindu 9 Unsure 10 21. the abuser was not abused 2 Unsure if the abuser was abused 3 26. What is the race of the abuser? Anglo/White 1 Afro/Black 2 Asian/Indo 3 Sino/Chinese 4 Mixed 5 Other 6 19. not employed 2 22. What (to the best of your knowledge) is the abuser‟s nationality/status? Born in Barbados 1 Living in Barbados legally 2 Living in Barbados illegally 3 Unsure 4 23. the abuser was abused 1 No. Is the abuser the sole/main “bread winner” in the family? Yes. What is the age of the abuser? ____________ 20. Do you know if the abuser was abused in any way in the past? Yes. employed 1 No. What is the sex of the abuser? Male 1 Female 2 18. Is the abuser older/younger than the victim? Abuser older 1 Abuser younger 2 Unsure 3 25. Is the abuser employed? Yes.

27. I doubt 2 Unsure/Won‟t say 3 Nature of the Abused/Victim 29. What is the sex of the victim? Male 1 Female 2 30. s/he does not have other partners/family groups that are also abused 2 I believe that s/he has other partners/family groups. How long has this abuse been going on? Years/as long as I can remember 1 Recently started 2 Unsure 3 34. What (to the best of your knowledge) is the victim‟s nationality/status? Born in Barbados 1 Living in Barbados legally 2 Living in Barbados illegally 3 Unsure 4 33. Has the pattern of abuse been consistent or sporadic? Consistent. s/he has other partners/family groups that are also abused 1 No. but these are not abused 3 I am not sure if there are other partners/family groups or if abuse takes place in these situations 4 28. Do you know if the abuser has other partners/family groups where the same thing occurs (In this question we are trying to determine if the abuser has other women/men or related families who s/he also abuses)? Yes. To the best of your knowledge does the abuser engage in substance abuse? Yes. to the best of my knowledge 1 Sporadic 2 Unsure 3 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 84 . Is the victim employed? Employed full-time (Public Sector) 1 Employed full-time (Private Sector) 2 Employed part-time (Public Sector) 3 Employed part-time (Private Sector) 4 Student 5 Retired 6 Housewife/Husband 7 Unemployed 8 32. I believe so 1 No. What is the race of the victim? Anglo/White 1 Afro/Black 2 Asian/Indo 3 Sino/Chinese 4 Mixed 5 Other 6 31.

the victim did not interfere 2 Unsure 3 Not relevant 4 40. What was the victim‟s opinion of the court‟s response in this matter? Not relevant. reports made at (some) times 1 No. How would you characterise the victim‟s emotional state at this time (In this instance we want the respondent’s opinion on if the abuse has caused this problem).35. what social class would you say best reflects that person‟s background? Working Class/Lower Socio Economic Group 1 Middle Class/Middle Socio Economic Group 2 Upper Class/Higher Socio Economic Group 3 36. never reported 2 Unsure if reports were made 3 38. enough 1 No. Do you think that the Law does enough to prevent domestic violence? Yes. what has been the outcome? Full investigation ensued 1 No investigation to the best of my knowledge 2 Unsure of outcome 3 No report made/Not Relevant 4 39. there was no court response possible/needed 1 Victim was happy with the court‟s response 2 Victim was not happy with the court‟s response 3 Unsure of victims pleasure/displeasure with the court‟s response 4 43. the victim stopped it 1 No. To the best of your knowledge has the victim ever reported these incidents to the Police? Yes. If you were to attempt to place the victim in a social class. Emotionally troubled 1 Emotionally stable 2 Unsure 3 37. not enough 2 Unsure/No opinion 3 42. To the best of your knowledge had the victim ever sought the assistance of any of these other agencies? Welfare Department Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 Church Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 Crisis Centre Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 Legal AID Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 Network Services Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 85 . or what was the outcome 4 Not relevant/There was no Police report made so court was not an option 5 41. Where a Police report has been made. it went before the courts 3 I am not sure if it was referred to court. What about court action? Did the matter reach court? No. it never moved from the Police to the courts at their (the victim‟s) request 1 No. it never moved from the Police to the courts on the recommendation of the Police 2 Yes. To the best of your knowledge has the victim ever acted to stop the Police investigation or action? Yes.

assistance was not sought 3 I am not sure if assistance was sought 4 45. how would the victim‟s interaction with governmental agencies generally be classified? Yes. assistance was not sought 3 I am not sure if assistance was sought 4 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ASSISTANCE Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 86 .44. how would the victim‟s interaction with non governmental agencies generally be classified (you might need to explain what a non-governmental agency is)? Yes. assistance sought but agency was not responsive 2 No. assistance sought and received easily 1 Yes. assistance sought and received easily 1 Yes. To the best of your knowledge. assistance sought but agency was not responsive 2 No. To the best of your knowledge.

know where these problems are located. Interviewer Assessment: Positive response? Yes 1 No 2 Knows of incident of abuse? Yes 1 No 2 Willing to Share Information on Abuse Yes 1 No 2 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 87 . If you know several such people. Family and Sports regarding the issue of Domestic Violence in Barbados. I am here as a representative of CADRES and we are conducting a survey on behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs. We are doing what is referred to as an “informant study” which will help the Bureau of Gender Affairs better understand the problem of Domestic Violence.  I realise that this issue is a sensitive one in Barbados and it is for this reason that I am NOT asking you about your personal situation. Please do not speculate or speak about multiple persons who are being abused. I want to assure you that the persons you speak to us about will NOT be identified in any way in the report and we will not attempt to find that person or try to interview them. the extent of these problems and all this will help government plan its response to this issue and help those who are being abused. please speak specifically to one of these persons and we would prefer if that is the person you know best. APPENDIX V Respondent Screener Screening Questions  Good morning/evening. Ministry of Youth. but instead I am asking if you might know of anyone who is a victim of such violence that you might be able to speak to us about confidentially.  We would ask that in your conversation with us that you refer to one particular individual that you might know and speak based on your knowledge of the particular case in question.

 In order to determine if you know such a person well enough to speak of this experience with
abuse, I want to ask you a few questions about your neighbour/friend/family member:

1. Persons age (approximate/specific) ________

2. Persons sex Male 1 Female 2

3. Persons race Anglo 1 Afro 2 Indo 3 Sino 4 Mixed 5

4. Person‟s employment status:

Employed full-time (Public Sector) 1 Employed full-time (Private Sector) 2
Employed part-time (Public Sector) 3 Employed part-time (Private Sector) 4
Student 5 Retired 6
Housewife/Husband 7 Unemployed 8
5. Nature of your relationship to the person being abused:
Family member 1 Friend 2 Friend of a friend/acquaintance 3
Work colleague 4 Neighbour 5

6. Area of Residence: _________________________________________________________

7. Status: Barbadian 1 Non Barbadian 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 88

APPENDIX VI

Survey Areas

Approximate
Constituency General Areas Interview
Days/Weekends
Bridgetown Roman Catholic School, Jemmott‟s Lane 2
Salvation Army Centre 2
Wesley Hall Infants School 2
Westbury Primary School 2
Saint Michael Central Church Of The Nazarene, Bank Hall 2
Abundant Life Assembly 2
Combermere School 2
Power In The Blood Assembly, Kew Road 2
Saint Michael East Belmont Girls‟ School 2
Community College, Howells Cross Road 2
Happy Vale School, ”Richmond” Welches 2
Springer Memorial School 2
Saint Michael South Bay Primary School 2
Seventh Day Adventist School, Dalkeith 2
Garrison Secondary School 2
Bethel Baptist Church, Britton's New Road 2
Saint Michael South East Samuel Jackman Prescod Polytechnic, Wildey 2
Church Of The Nazarene, Collymore Rock 2
Edgar Cochrane Polyclinic, Wildey 2
Parkinson Secondary School 2
Saint Michael South Carrington‟s Primary School 2
Central St. Michael‟s School 2
Erdiston Primary School 2
Luther Thorne Memorial School 2
Saint Michael North Eden Lodge Primary School 2
Christ The King Church, Rock Dundo 2
Christ The King Church, Rock Dundo 2
C . E. F. Miracle Centre, Lodge Hill 2
Saint Michael North East Warrens Polyclinic 2
Church Of God, Jackson Tennantry Road 2
White Hall Methodist Church 2
Grace Hill Moravian Church 2
Saint Michael West New Testament Church Of God, Goodland 2
St. Leonard‟s Boy‟s Secondary School 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 89

Approximate
Constituency General Areas Interview
Days/Weekends
Bethany Evangelical Church, Eagle Hall 2
Welfare Office, Country Road 2
Saint Michael North West St. Stephen‟s Primary School 2
Ellerslie Secondary School 2
Deacons Primary School 2
Eagle Hall Primary School 2
Saint Michael West Central Wesleyan Holiness Church, Clevedale 2
Nightengale Home 2
Nazarene Tabernacle, Browne‟s Gap, Eagle Hall 2
Lawrence T. Gay Memorial School, Spooner‟s Hill 2
Christ Church West Foundation School 2
Central Deighton Griffith Secondary School 2
Revival Time Assembly, Maxwell Hill 2
Smith Corner Pentecostal Church 2
Christ Church South Dover Sports Club Pavilion 2
Cuthbert Pilgrim Memorial Hall, Maxwell Road 2
Pegwell Community Church, Pegwell 2
Atlantic Shores 2
Christ Church East Central Vauxhall Methodist Church 2
Aquatic Centre (Garfield Sobers Gymnasium 2
Complex)
Christ Church Boys' School 2
Wesleyan Holiness Church, Lodge Road 2
Christ Church West Unique High School, Dayrell‟s Road 2
Bonnett‟s Resource Centre, Bonnett‟s, Britton‟s Hill 2
Hawthorne Methodist Church, Worthing View 2
Wesleyan Holiness Church, Sergeant‟s Village 2
Christ Church East Waithe Memorial Auditorium, Providence 2
Nazarene Church, Pilgrim Road 2
St. Christopher„s School 2
Jerusalem Apostolic Cathedral, Ealing Grove 2
Saint Phillip North Principal‟s Lodge, Industrial School 2
St. Philip‟s Primary School 2
St. Mark‟s Senior School 2
Hilda Sheene Primary School 2
Saint Phillip South Church of the Nazarene, Gemswick 2
St. Martin‟s Four Roads Primary School 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 90

Jude‟s Primary School 2 Cuthbert Moore Primary 2 Saint John St. Ann‟s Church 2 Wesleyan Holiness Church. James Parish Church Hall 2 Saint James Central Good Shepherd Church Hall. Ruby 2 Industry High School 2 Saint Phillip West Ebenezer Methodist Church 2 Princess Margaret Secondary School 2 St. Joseph Primary School 2 Grantley Adams Memorial School 2 Saint James South West Terrace Primary School 2 Queens College. Husbands 2 West Terrace Primary School 2 Caribbean Meteorological Institute. Gall Hill 2 Lodge School 2 Wesleyan Holiness Church. John‟s Primary School 2 Community Centre. Brereton 2 Saint George South New Testament Church of God. Messiah Street 2 Saint Joseph St. Newbury 2 Prerogative House 2 Saint George North St. Fitt‟s Village 2 Bagatelle Pavilion 2 Payne‟s Bay Methodist Church Hall 2 St. 2 Boarded Hall Tenantry Ellerton Community Centre 2 Church of the Nazarene. George Secondary School 2 Valley Resource Centre 2 St. Proute Hill 2 St. Alban‟s Infants School 2 Weston Community Centre 2 St. James Secondary School 2 Saint Andrew Alleyne School 2 Chalky Mount Primary School 2 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 91 . Husbands 2 Saint James North Gordon Greenidge Primary School 2 St. Patrick‟s Church Hall 2 Wayne Daniel Pavilion. Approximate Constituency General Areas Interview Days/Weekends Church of The Nazarene.

Peter Alexandra School 2 Coleridge and Parry School 2 Christian Mission Church. Hope Road 2 Total Research Days 240 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 92 . Indian Ground 2 Boscobel Boys‟ School 2 Saint Lucy Half Moon Fort Primary School 2 St. Approximate Constituency General Areas Interview Days/Weekends Hillaby Turner‟s Hall Primary School 2 Community Centre. Welchman Hall 2 St. Dunscombe 2 Lester Vaughan School 2 Church of God. Rock Hall 2 Saint Thomas Sharon Primary School 2 Moravian Church. Lucy‟s Church Parish Hall 2 Ignatius Byer Primary School 2 Miracle Pentecostal Faith Centre.

George Area Total St. Peter Area St. James St. APPENDIX VII Parish and Area Location of Domestic Violence Christ Church St. Britton‟s Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Brereton 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Britton‟s Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 Bush Hall 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Cane Garden 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Cane Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Canevale 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Carrington Village 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Carters Gap 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Cave Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Cave Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 Chancery Lane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Checker Hall 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Clapham 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 93 . Andrew St. Philip St. Joseph St. Thomas St. Michael St. John St. Lucy 11 74 6 7 91 11 222 13 14 41 29 519 Airy Cot 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Arch Hall 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Arthur Seat 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Atlantic Shores 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Bagatelle 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 Bakers 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bakers Ave 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bank Hall 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 Baxter's Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Bay Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Bayland 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Belair 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 Belleplaine 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bobby's Lane 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Black Bess 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Black Rock 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 6 Bonnets‟ Housing 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Bonnets‟.

Philip St. Christ Church St. Andrew St. Peter Area St. John St. Lucy Clermont 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Coach Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Crane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Culloden Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Darrell‟s Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Deacons Farm 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Dover 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Dunes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Eden Lodge 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Elizabeth Park 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 Ellerton 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Fitt‟s Village 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Flagstaff 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Foul Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Gall Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 7 Glebe Land 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Goodland 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Graeme Hall 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Gazettes 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 Green Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Greenfield 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Guinea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Gun Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Harmony Lodge 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Horse Hill 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Husbands 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Indian Ground 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Ivy 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Kensington Lodge 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Kings St 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 Light Foot Lane 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Lightfoot Lane 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Long Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Mangrove Garden 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Martindale‟s Road 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 94 . Michael St. Joseph St. George Area Total St. Thomas St. James St.

George Area Total St. Philip St. David's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 St. Lucy Mason Hall St 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Maxwell 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Maynards‟ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Maynards‟ Housing 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Millionaire Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Moon Town 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Mount Standfast 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Mullins 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Nelson St 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 New Orleans 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 Paddock Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Parkinson Field 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Payne‟s Bay 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Pickwick Gap 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 Pine 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 Pine Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Pine Housing 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Prior Park 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Rendezvous Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Rock Dundo 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 6 Rock Dundo Park 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Rock Hall 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Rowans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Ruby 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Salters 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 Sandy Crest 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Sheraton Park 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Shorey‟s Village 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Silver Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 St. James St. Michael 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 St. John St. Peter Area St. Thomas St. Michael St. Patricks 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Station Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Sugar Hill 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 95 . Joseph St. Andrew St. Martins 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 St. Christ Church St.

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