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Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.

, 2 [6] 429–439 (2005)

Ceramic Product Development and Commercialization

Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filters
Joerg Adler*
Fraunhofer Institute Ceramic Technologies and Sintered Materials IKTS, D-01277 Dresden, Germany

Twenty-five years of diesel particulate filter (DPF) developments have shown that ceramic materials are well-suited can-
didates to fulfill the harsh requirements of exhaust after treatment. The introduction of DPF in passenger cars in Europe in
2000 was a real breakthrough from both a scientific and a commercial point of view. Different systems and filter materials can
be used as DPF; however, at the moment silicon carbide wall flow filters seem to be at advantage. There is a continual demand
for cost-effective and reliable materials and systems forced by increasing legal emission standards.

Introduction control technologies like diesel particulate trap and
DeNOx systems will be necessary.
The diesel engine is still the most efficient internal Diesel PM can be reduced by better combustion
combustion engine and is therefore widely used in (higher temperatures and excess of oxygen) in the mo-
heavy-duty trucks and off-road vehicles throughout tor, but then NOx are raised (so-called PM-NOx trade-
the world. The use of diesel engines in passenger cars off ). Therefore, the legislation limits both pollutants.
also has strongly increased in recent years and is There are two possible ways to reach the PM/NOx lim-
approaching up to 51.9% (about 7 Mio) of new its: PM-filter or NOx treatment (or both for the future).
vehicle registration in Western Europe now.1 Despite SCR (selective catalytic reduction of NOx) technology,
that less than 2% of cars sold in the United States well known for power plants, will be introduced in series
are diesel cars, it is hoped that rise in fuel price and for application in commercial vehicles in Europe from
growing sensitivity about greenhouse gas emissions will 2005 on to comply with the emission standards EURO
further increase the interest in diesel cars in the near 4 (2005) and EURO 5 (2008). In the United States the
future. majority of heavy-duty diesel vehicles will have to be
However, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate equipped with filters in 2007 to meet the U.S. Envi-
matter (PM) in the diesel exhaust are considered to be ronment Protection Agency standards. In passenger
very critical pollutants concerning health. To meet fu- cars, PM filters have been implemented since 2000.
ture emission standards worldwide, exhaust emission The retrofit market is also expected to show a tremen-
dous increase; about 700,000 PM-filter retrofitted pas-
senger cars are forecasted in Germany. A comprehensive
review about the diesel emission control technique is
r 2005 The American Ceramic Society given periodically in SAE publications.2–4

Because of the exothermal oxidation of soot there is a local rise in temperature after ignition depending on thermal properties of the filter material (thermal capac- ity and conductivity) as well as exhaust amount and temperature.5 mm (PM2. The filter starts to burn spontaneously at a temperature of about has to stand the conditions that occur during (thermal) 6001C or is promoted by catalysts (traces of Fe. However. During filtration. even such temperatures Although filters with pore sizes down to 50 nm are are not very often available in the exhaust pipe. otherwise particles is usually done periodically by thermal means. It consists of taining particles (aside from particles size. 2. metrical means. including filter thickness) are mainly influenced by gas/particles some highly toxic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Collected particles enhance pressure drop of the A diesel particulate filter (DPF) device needs a trap filter. Therefore. As an example. The size and com. impaction and diffusion (so-called motor management (post-injection) and an oxidation ‘‘Deep-bed-filtration’’—see Fig. London. inorganic oxides. often using the very lim- matter that could be filtrated and measured by gravi. or the soot has to be enriched with catalyst particles by fuel additives (so-called fuel-borne addi- tives). it is necessary to use technical means to control the ful to use them for gases because of extraordinary pres. velocity. . catalyst in front of the filter. Then tem- peratures of 10001C or higher can occur locally in the filter.5). if appropriate measurement devices are available. which and a system to regenerate the trap. Soot will block the trap and backpressure will rise. geometry.g. fore. This is why it is necessary to clean the filter. volume of the engine at full power produces a very high ters of typically 50–150 nm size. and hydrocarbons. Persistent discussions about the impact of nanoparticles on health will probably cause a switch to limits related to number and size of particles in the Regeneration future.430 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Adler Vol. pore size and carbon. It is worth mentioning that PM filters also work as Fine particles are defined to be smaller than 10 mm a muffler and can therefore replace the sound-absorbing (PM10) or 2. which can only position are influenced in detail by the motor. it is not use. Johnson Matthey’s ( Johnson Matthey Plc. It is the worst case to stop the engine after ignition of the soot in a fully loaded trap. which are agglomerated to chains or clus. Filter materials with large pore sizes are well Electrical heaters or gas burners can deliver high known for filtering small particles not as a sieve but in temperatures without the use of additives. In contrast to a sieve it is important to consider the Diesel PM is emitted by all kinds of incomplete effects of detaining particles. 1). Ce) at 300–4001C. Collecting and de- combustion of diesel fuel in an engine. A given exhaust 5–20 nm size. the exhaust temperature High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters consist. Fig. be diminished by a high cross-sectional area of the filter ditives. Modes of filtration (after5). 2005 Principles and Function of Diesel Particulate ing of fiber felts are used to clean up gases/air in clean- Filters rooms. gas velocity in small-diameter channels. haust pipe.. there- commercially available for liquid filtration. it is necessary to get a moderate ve- These PM particles consist of primary particles of about locity of exhaust gas through the filter. ited underfloor space in cars. as well as the history during motion in the ex. can also be raised up to more than 4001C to ignite the soot. e. the collected particles can enhance collection efficiency by the so-called ‘‘Cake- Particles and Filtration filtration’’ effect (Fig. or regeneration. By means of other ways. For such systems the filter needs a special catalyst coating. ad. 1). Legislation is applied to all system completely or partially. fuel. Compared with O2 free radicals of oxygen provide a more effective way to burn soot at lower temperatures. regeneration of the filter. sure drop. 1. Cu. too. No. 6.

produced by a powders. The pressure drop Pore Size. Structure sizes can be different and are described in the text. Specific permeability k and inertial coef- thickness are responsible for filtration efficiency and also ficient b are specific properties of a porous material. nical means to produce filters geometries with a high stand the chemical interaction with the ashes at high amount of cross-section area in a small volume. price. If fuel-borne catalysts are used. They come from fuel additives. and Pore Volume of the Filter of a gas (or liquid) flowing through a porous material is described by Darci’s Law and Forchheimer’s Extension Pore structure (size. Pressure Drop and Permeability Filter Materials Besides high filtration efficiency. drop and deterioration of filter capacity and restricts the The material selection is also limited by the tech- lifetime of the Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filters 431 Fig. range of 10 mm at a filter thickness of about 400 mm is The choice of the regeneration method depends suited to filter more than 90% of soot particles. a materials usually offer a pore volume of about 40–50%. Very different low gas velocities Forchheimer’s Extension can be . those made of sintered NO2 as the radical source instead of O2.K. open celled foams (on the right). using special pore building substances.) CRT (continuous regeneration trap) filter uses structures can be used. e. and consist fibers is limited because of technical availability and mainly of oxides. Porous ceramic structures which can be used for particle filtration: made of sintered powder (on the left). which will occur during regeneration as well. Besides. too. A soluble organic fraction (SOF) only. volume can be enhanced to about 60% by realize in retrofit applications. A filter material also has to with. sulfates and phosphates of iron.. small fiber wear is suspected to be un- cium. cal. low pressure drop is the main requirement on the filter. 2).ceramics.g. Normal oxidation catalysts oxidize powders is mainly controlled by powder particle size. and shape) and filter (Equation 1). they will healthy. oil. Industrially produced open-celled foams contribute to the amount of incombustible remains. Higher pore vol- umes will lower the material strength dramatically. Such on the system which the DPF is used. tion efficiency. s U. tra-low sulfur (o50 ppm) diesel fuel and exhaust tem. which is adsorbed narrow distributed pore size with a mean size in the on particulates. short fiber felts or knitted/weaved long fibers. The pore size of (rigid) filters made of sintered peratures 42401C. Ash Storage Knitted and weaved fibers show pore volumes of more than 90%.www. temperatures. regeneration release by motor management is hard to however. 2. but requires the use of ul. Unfortunately. but a large distribution of pore sizes. As an example. and zinc. specially formulated catalyst. volume. can show pore volumes of about 85–90%. For for pressure drop and materials strength. which needs a higher filter thickness to enhance filtra- main in the filter. and open-celled foams (Fig. but with cell The accumulation of ashes leads to a rise in pressure size available coarser than some 100 mm only. motor wear. fibers (in the middle). Shape. After regeneration no combustible substances re. the material selection of salts from environmental air.

Material Candidates for Diesel Particulate Filters. There are a lot of different and sophisticated models Availability for mass production at low prices and low that try to calculate the permeability. negative.5 4. flow filter type have been simulated very well by com- Z putational methods. 2.4 4.1 Thermal conductivity (RT) (W/mK) 1–3 90 120 4–5 1. . a rough estimation can be made by Equa. tion 2. in a system. v the gas velocity (m  s1). ambient. good.7.2 4. 1. there is a outlet (contraction and expansion) losses contribute to lack of reliable and comparable data in the literature. mal conductivity to lower the effects of thermal stresses. Most of the materials are flow filter type of DPFs.9–2. The properties of the different filter materials can The flow resistance of the whole filter system is only be compared directly. low ity. Note That a High Amount of Porosity Will Change Thermal Conductivity. A rough estimation gives: 11. 2005 neglected.1 3. The properties 109 m2 (fiber or foam filter).  very negative. A comprehensive article about mate- k¼ D2 ð2Þ rial attributes concerning ceramic DPF materials has 150 ð1  eÞ2 been published recently. the pressure produced in thin-walled honeycomb shape. Considering all common materials substances. too.4 0. Unfortunately. D is the pore diameter (m).5–3 14 CTE 20–10001C (106 1/K) 0. The latter is also connected to the tortuos. Young’s Modulus and Strength Drastically. there is no material that covers all these demands per- The permeability of ceramic materials that are used fectly. and requirements on filtration. resistance against thermal strain.5–3 17 Young’s modulus (GPa) 130 410 110 150 20 200 Thermal limit for application (air) (1C) 1350 1500 1350 1600 1500 1250 Corrosion resistance  1 o o o  Price 11   1 1  These properties cannot be compared directly.9 3. equation. Table I shows a selection of candidates compar- as DPF ranges from about 1012 m2 (wall flow filter) to ing properties of pure (dense) materials. and most of the filters differ in honeycomb cell Recently both the pressure loss behavior and the size and wall thickness and cannot be compared thermal effects during regeneration6 of DPFs of the wall properly. r the gas density (kg  m3). d the Materials Selection thickness (m). which describes the shape and the length of the path coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and good ther- the gas stream is forced to flow through the material. k the specific permeability (m2).9 e is the porosity (). Inlet and volume and mean pore size. .3 8. curacy. Z the dynamic vis- cosity (Pa  s). regeneration. No. It should have a low Young’s modulus. of the filter materials are described in detail in the filter e3 materials section. very good. bility.8 Dp ¼ dv þ brdv2 ð1Þ k where Dp is the pressure drop (Pa). Properties Are of Pure (Dense) Materials. and application pore shape.33 2.1–3. pore volume.432 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Adler Vol. corrosion stabil- The specific permeability of a porous material ity. Table I.7–5. Silicon Is Not Used Alone but in Combination with SiC Material Cordierite SiC Silicon Mullite Al-Titanate FeCrNi Density (g/cm3) 2. b the inertial The material should possess high-temperature sta- coefficient t (m1). Following Ergun’s weight is a prerequisite for automotive applications. 6.2 2. o. the pressure drop as well as channel friction in the wall mainly regarding strength. which can- drop rises by the growing filter cake in the pores or on not be measured by common standards with good ac- the surface of the material. and sufficient mechanical strength to fulfill all the mainly depends on the pore size. During operation. if they show the same pore largely influenced by some other factors.

Because cordie- typical standard for passenger cars is 144 mm (5.000–40. Corning Inc. (Corning. Regeneration is necessary after The pore size and pore volume of the ceramics are 500–1000 km depending on motor and driving condi- somewhat different and depend on the regeneration tions.16 In 1978.8 kg (SiC) or 1. which diminishes thermal . Filters using a fuel-borne additive for regener- ation consist of ceramics with an open pore volume of Wall Flow Filter Materials about 50% and a narrow pore size distribution of about 10 mm mean size. Reprinted by permission) and volume enhancement of entrance cells (on the right. for example to flow-filter). Pressure drop rises during loading. Besides its low price the main advantage of cordierite is its very low CTE.9 m2 (200 cpsi) DPF-material.www. Cordierite ceram- volume of the engine to keep the backpressure low. by courtesy of Ibiden). In some struction during regeneration to about 9–12 g/L cases a special cell design with larger cells at the filter (SiC).5 L vol. haust volume of 900 kg/h reaches about 3500–5000 Pa.000 Pa at a soot accumulation of 7 g/L. production. Copyright (2000) Corning Inc. A complete regeneration takes some minutes only. strategy. The manufacturing of a high amount of channels in The typical pressure drop of a new filter at an ex- a ceramic body is well known from the extrusion of ce. 3. Principle of honeycomb wall flow filters (on the left. ramic honeycomb catalyst carriers. this ceramic has the longest history as a ume). NY) resulting in filtration velocities of some cm/s. Alternate plugging of estimated to be caused by filtration walls. move soot from diesel emissions.10 Usually a square cell channel shape in 200 30. which is made from The overall size of the filter depends on the exhaust natural raw materials kaolin and Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filters 433 Fig. ed regeneration energy usually enhance the fuel con- called ‘‘Octosquare’’11 or ‘‘wavy cells’’12) (Fig. showing a filter area of about 1. which was optimized to be up to 0.ceramics. allel to extrusion direction. The developed the cellular ceramic particulate filter to re- weight is about 1. Wall Flow Filters The filters are canned with standard technologies known from the oxidation catalyst business.4  106 1/K par- w cpsi is not a SI-unit however it is common for classification of honeycombs. A ics are sintered at about 12501C in air.66 in.13 (or 300) cells per square inch (cpsi)w monoliths is used Soot-loading capacity is limited to prevent filter de- with a wall thickness of about 350–400 mm. Filter substrates for washcoat/catalyst Cordierite coating show up to 65% porosity and 20 mm mean pore size. All rights reserved. Cordierite is a MgAl-silicate. 3).2 kg (Cordierite). and flow contraction/expansion by one-third each.) rite has already been used as a catalyst substrate in mass diameter and 152 mm (6 in.15 The pressure drop of a DPF and the need- entrance is used to raise the ash storage capacity (the so.14. sumption by 2–5%.) length (about 2. pass through the (porous) channel walls (so-called wall. channel fric- the channels at the front and backside forces the gas to tion.

thickness RSiC honeycomb DPF in 199328 and focused Corning has developed an aluminum titanate-based fil.18 At the moment there are only some niche tives were used to get a platelet crystal structure and a applications in the European DPF market. was also used in the automotive industry for portliner which can occur during uneven regeneration. mechanical strength is rather low. too. Therefore. however.. The Danish company Stobbe Tech Ceramics A/S dierite. 2. The main material problem for cordie. . However. exceeding the melting point of the SiC material that is produced by heating up shapes con- material. (Nagoya. too. SiC powder. Recently performed research has tried to limit sisting of a mixture of bimodal SiC powders at these thermal spots by optimization of regeneration temperatures exceeding 22001C in a protecting gas management as well as heat capacity17 and pore size/ atmosphere (Ar). Recrystallized SiC (RSiC): The so-called RSiC is a pure eration conditions. rite filters seems to be the low thermal conductivity. 2005 stresses during regeneration. e. Now it is available in promising candidates. Special addi- compounds. in general. are inherently po- ched an application in Mercedes passenger cars in Cal. Some of these materials. 4).27 This is necessary to keep the stresses low. and silica applications in the metallurgical industry. however. Notox and Liqtech are using market in 2005. Recently. Japan) started and particle bondings are well-known for very different cordierite DPF production in 1989. However. regeneration developed as dense materials. It is reported to have applied in some cases.20 because of a very low CTE a coarser version for catalyst coatings. Denmark) (later the companies Notox A/S (He- anisotropy of CTE but to a larger extent. because coatings and distance segments in catalyst carriers be. like sil- DaimlerChrysler AG (Stuttgart. material to work as a diesel particle filter.66 in. Japan) started the development of a highly po- corrosion resistance against ash components like sodium rous RSiC for filtration purposes in 1985.23 The honeycomb-shaped Corning has been very active in the development DPF was first reported in 1993. all and thermal stability of cordierite did not satisfy at this of these materials can be adjusted to a controlled porous time point out. leading to dehusene. recondensation result in a grain growth and bonding of s ‘‘DuraTrap RC’’ by Corning). which can result in thermal spots in unfavorable regen.21 coarser and circled segmentation for their honeycombs. strength resp.22 144 mm (5. Recently. Besides SiC19 the of application was started with a porosity of 50 Vol% and so-called NZPs (Na–zirconium–phosphates) were a rather narrow pore size of 10 mm. rous. sufficient amount of porosity. particularly for light-duty vehicles. No. others like SSiC or LPS-SiC were originally ifornia between 1985 and 1987. industrial applications. with durability.24 In 2000. however. Germany) laun.g. SiC shows a higher CTE than cordierite. some and higher temperature resistance. s Cornings Duratrap Ex 80 showed a mean pore Silicon Carbide size of 12–13 mm at 50% pore volume and was mainly used in offroad applications like liftforks. icate-bonded or recrystallized SiC. further on small-scale applications with a wide range of ter material and announced its introduction into the porosity/pore size. Another problem of the remaining coarse powder skeleton. the first series of alternative materials to cordierite. 6..26 SiC filters are usually segmented in brick like honey- Aluminum Titanate combs with a cross section of about 35 mm  35 mm and glued together by a low-modulus cement (Fig.) diameter. Den- microcracks in the polycrystalline material causing low mark)) started a coarse 40 mm porous and 1 mm wall Young’s modulus and low strength. attempts have been reported to engineer the RSiC bond- tion of the NZP filters seems sophisticated and rather ing neck by fine particles25 or additives to enhance expensive. The structure consists of about 70% aluminum titanate A special technique for plugging was also invented and and Ca/Sr-Feldspar 1 mullite. Ltd cordierite filter material is reported to be its restricted (Oogaki.. cordierite DPF excellent thermal shock resistance and chemical/thermal can be produced in a compact monolith.434 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Adler Vol. cause of its excellent thermal shock resistance. toughness of the material. Ibiden Co. Aluminum titanate is a well-known material for consisting of alumosilicate fibers. produc.g. Small SiC grain sublimation and pore volume of the cordierite filter material (e. aluminum titanate crystals show a high (Holte. it bonding. Denmark) and LiqTech A/S (Gentofte. Like cor. The Japanese Silicon carbide ceramics with different structures company NGK Insulators Ltd.

31 Because sil- Si3N4 powders are used. A good thermal shock resistance and high SiC–Si grain boundaries work as a thermal barrier.www. somewhat lower CTE. (Dueren.29 Other additives like boron were used also be a candidate because of a better controllable sin- to adjust the electrical conductivity of the SiC. The comparable low price of such a material is well. by courtesy of NGK). However. corrosion and thermal stability are not well proven and corrosion stability.36 There are Mullite also attempts to use similar SiC ceramics with honey- comb shape in an unsegmented design as DPF.32 In detail.ceramics. Ltd. if icon-bonded SiC filter material in 2000.39 Asahi applied the well- Si–SiC are reported compared to Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filters 435 Fig. Such whiskers are supposed to produce a successful performance to date. Because of its low CTE and both high-temperature ever. sub. the known reaction-bonding technique for silicon nitride silicon bond has lower thermal stability and chemical (so-called RBSN) to a filter material with a defined and resistance than pure SiC. but lacks good thermal conductivity. temperatures of about 13501C at air. ing for regeneration purposes.30 This system was de- signed especially for stationary diesel engines and for Silicon Nitride applications in locomotives and ships. Japan) reported a Si3N4 filter that was pro- like SiC. Asahi Glass Co. because tering and pore size distribution. similar strength and durability of the porous duced by nitridation of silicon. it has not Heimbach filters were applied with direct electrical heat..38 however. advantageous because it can be sintered at relatively low Germany) used a recrystallization process as well. Segmented SiC-filter (on the left. NGK started the development of a sil- but medium thermal conductivity and higher price. Thomas Josef Heimbach GmbH & Co. whiskers can pose health risks if released SiC filter materials are well established for hot gas clean. by courtesy of Ibiden) and monolith cordierite filter (on the right. to the environment. up in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC)- coal combustion installations up to 8501C. Heimbach closed its activities in ceramic filters at the end of 2003. . Si3N4 is also among the ceramic material candi- dates for DPF. mullite is a candidate for DPF as to date. cordierite filters. silicon nitride ce- Silicon-Bonded SiC (Si–SiC): Originally focusing on ramics render higher strength. Unfortunately. icon shows very similar thermo-mechanical properties (Yokohama. been applied in commercial DPF applications yet. Compared with SiC. In 2003.35 lower packed soot cake and therefore a lower pressure Other SiC-Based Materials: Porous silicate-bonded drop. Besides the thermal conduc- high porosity (9 mm/60%) and tested a nonsegmented tivity of Si–SiC is a bit lower than that of RSiC because honeycomb. Another porous sequent to an initial reaction bonding of silicon and SiC material with a so-called liquid phase bonding can carbon additives.34. 4. extensive durability tests have proved a face grains.33 strength material was reported with whisker-shaped sur- Nevertheless.37 how.

TN) and 3M. uniform cells with sizes up to some 100 mm and more ture by weaving or knitting technologies. Buck mainly for retrofit applications (Fig. Fiber filters can show a and special applications only. filters made of fibers need higher wall thick. Broken fiber than 90% porosity. 2. KG (Bondorf. mostly for off-road and very high pore volume of more than 95% and good stationary diesel engines. Germany) strength mullite with a needle-like crystal structure in developed knitted fiber filter elements with catalyst coat- the presence of a rather high amount of glassy phase. ed by a (rather expensive) chemical vapor infiltration action in a fluorine gas. they form a rigid network of brittle than normal glassy fibers and hard to manufac. MI) treating a pre-sintered honeycomb made of of 3-mm thick alumina fibers. permeability but poor strength. High-temperature for their deep-bed filtration efficiency in molten metal resistant fibers made of pure alumina or SiC are too filtration. At the moment they are applied in limited ness to collect particle matter.44 A special high- ny.42 A wall-flow-like filter design made of a short fiber which diminishes thermal stability.46 be electrically heated for regeneration purposes. 5. No.5 l filters made of SiC foams (on the right). and weight. which can tions in an R&D stage with some promising results. The filter shape was produced by needle-like mullite grains building a porous interlocked paper technology. (Nashville. is described by Dow Global Technologies Inc.40 This results in the growth of (CVI)-deposited SiC. ing. 2005 normal sintering techniques produce only a high Maschinenbau GmbH & Co.41 All of the concepts showed different properties compared with honeycomb-shaped wall flow filters. Open-celled ceramic foam made of SiC (on the left) and 2. Felts or woven struc- tures made of unbonded fibers are very flexible and Filters Made of Open-Celled Foams show excellent thermal shock resistance. Common and cheap fibers with a high amount of glassy phase do not Coarse open-celled ceramic foams are well-known show sufficient thermal resistance. fiber filters can Because of a more undefined and coarser pore show better thermal shock stability. lower pressure drop structure. Fig. Made by the so-called replication technique expensive for DPF application. .436 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Adler Vol. which were rigidly bond- clay and alumina by a catalytic gas-phase synthesis re. Paul.43 The filter material was built land. However. Besides they are more out of polymer foams. DPFs were tested in the 1980s showing nearly the same 3M Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing s Compa. Filters Made of Fibers Common drawbacks are lower filtration efficiency and restricted long time stability. 6. network. Both alumina and cordierite foam residuals can also pose health risks. MN) used their Nextel 312 long fibers strength foam made of siliconized SiC was developed in made of amorphous Al2O3–SiO2–B2O3 wrapped to a 199645 and has been tested in different filter configura- thick mat around a perforated steel tube. A different approach containing ceramic was produced by Fleetguard Inc. 5). (Mid. (St. manufactured by IKTS. advantages like fiber-based systems.

The disadvantages are high CTE and higher weight (density).www. (Paris. The development was mainly (Menden. The first series production of a diesel passenger car duty truck filters with a welded bag design. 6 for example.A. that a reliable forecast seems impossible. and process the filter. the filter technologies of metal engineering can be used to design cannot block if regeneration does not work sufficiently.V.47 see Fig.48 with a DPF was launched in 2000 by Peugeot S. Bekaert N. Citroen C5 and Peugoet 307.52 followed by fers an 85% porous sintered nonwoven fiber filter me. has been concentrating its activities on a pleated filter DPF for passenger cars in Western Europe are ex- design for passenger car retrofit. and the main problems Market Status and Forecast concern high temperature and corrosion stability as well as price of special alloyed powders or fibers. Germany) is focusing on heavy. HJS Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH Co. Kinks in- fibers present a real competition to ceramics. Emitec GmbH (Lohmar. Porous metal filter material (on the left) and pleated filter (on the right). The filter is regener- s high thermal conductivity resulting in a fairly good ated continuously by the CRT principle. Additionally. (Kortrijk. pected to generate 1. of a channeled metal catalyst support with metal fiber terparts. The com. It consists having the same porous structure as their ceramic coun. which traps the particles.2–4. well-developed efficiency is rather low (about 30%). Belgium) of. filters made of sintered metal particles or nonwoven mats between the individual layers. The filter shows a porosity of about checked by a special test procedure. Bekaert S. Germany) has announced a similar concept the number of units being of 4.A. There are a expanded metal) support. which is constructed of a wire mesh (later an importance in tunnel construction places. GmbH & Co. France) with its Peugeot 607 HDI. Germany) started the development of a filter pushed by the authorities in Switzerland because of its material. Germany) developed a sys- ant metals will show similar filtration efficiency when tem with open channels for retrofit applications. chines and vehicles. side the channels force parts of the exhaust on top of the mon advantages of metal filters are high strength and fiber mat. . The filter system was a dium made of Fe–Al–Cr alloy fibers. Thus. coated with sintered Fe–Cr– lot of very different systems in the market. using a Fig. by courtesy of HJS. The oldest market is the retrofit for offroad ma- In the 1990s. The test and the 45% and 15–20 mm pore size at a thickness of about recommended filter systems are permanently updated. (Unna.4 Mio. the filter systems and applications are so filter designs. Robert Bosch GmbH. which are Ni metal particles. Ibiden and Bosch.49 Porous materials made of high-temperature resist. however.ceramics. The filtration thermal shock resistance. 7.50 400 mm and offers good flexibility in forming different Unfortunately. 6. Nowadays HJS much different.51 see also for OEM series applications and Purem Abgassysteme Fig.47 billion h revenues by 2012 with ( Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filters 437 Competition by Metal Concepts are directly heatable for active regeneration and are de- signed for offroad applications. The pleated filters joint development of PSA.

NGK invested in its cordierite This first generation was reported to have maintenance production facility in Suzhou. introduced DPF-equipped cars in Europe or announced The future will see a competition about the cheap- their introduction in the near future.438 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Adler Vol. With its Si–SiC material. filters will be a great success from the ceramist’s point of many. France) for active regeneration tion capacity of approximately 200. in January 2004. France) in Courtenay. production started Fig.000 km is By 2010.. the company Saint-Gobain. which produced revenues the one millionth car equipped with DPF only 18 months of $479 million last year. local government policies could slightly influ- Meanwhile. Market forecast for passenger car DPFs in Western Europe with 200. and also for Purems metal filter. Additionally. to quadruple DPF production globally to 3 Mio units/r year in 2006. the Netherlands. The latter S. 25% of complete unit price in 2003. the production capacity for SiC. Corning’s diesel second generation. A continuously working filter and regeneration DPF was estimated at about 1 Mio filters/year (750.59 Western Europe (April 2005). France.000 km in a filters.000 pieces of DPF and a 200 cpsi wall-flow filter made of Ibidens RSiC.57 At the end of (after Frost & Sullivan 200451). (Nanterre. Up to now.000 DPF/ year in January 2005. 6. No. originally than 95% and can also stand the hardest driving con.000 out of them in If these trends are reliable. In 2002. the further optimized (lower) stresses during applica- At the end of 2004. 7. taken up next. standard equipped with a SiC-DPF. Note that ceramic’s price (SiC November 2004 NGK started the installation of a new filter) was appx. in diesel exhaust aftertreatment are the challenges to be Ibiden started the mass production for the PSA ap.000 filter/year in one production line. Using a lower amount of addi. running the joint venture together with Ibiden in ditions as was proved in tests in Paris taxis. At the end of the January 2005 PSA announced size to its auto-emissions unit. 2. . Hungary.56 Production was set to start with a capacity of 300. of 150. NY.000 strategies as well as combined PM and NOx reduction by Ibiden and 200. good opportunity for Corning’s cordierite or Al-titanate nance interval could be extended to 150.53 France. Ibiden committed a 477 Mio$ investment in Dunavarsany. At the moment the est way to produce filters and materials that will stand production capacity of SiC-DPF is far behind demand.A. to start production intervals of about 80. ceramic diesel particulate Germany.000 units/year in May 2005. Switzerland. China. facility in Poland.000 car in June 2003. Starting mid-2005 all Daimler cars in Ger.000 cars are sold in Erwin. 2005 Saint-Gobain (Courbevoie.A. tion. However. which was built by Faurecia the heavy-duty market is somewhat different. Japan. decided to build its own production facility.55 Recently. will first be started in the United States in 2007 with a tives because of an improved formulation the mainte. the NGK company has be- come the second major player in the DPF filter business for passenger cars in Europe. Octosquare) in 2004 a lifetime of about 250. Ash-blocked filters are regenerated by steam washing The forecast for passenger car retrofit business and at a special service company. Ceramic materials will play a significant plication in 2002 in a joint venture with compagnie de role in these developments too. each of them will have a produc- Boulogne-Billancourt.000 km because of ash blocking. comparable to the oxidation catalyst carrier business. business generated $21 million in the first quarter of eration using a higher ash storage capacity design (Ibiden’s 2005 compared with $69 million in the whole of 2004.and heavy-duty diesel applications in end of 2003. France). Corning expects the business to be equal in expected.000 by NGK).000 filters/a in Komaki. 140. 110. NGK will expand manufacturing infrastructure up s Ce-based fuel-borne catalyst (EOLYS by Rhodia S. Corning opened a new large- after the celebration of the 500. to 12 production lines.54 scale facility for the production of catalyst substrates and Daimler started with a catalyst-coated filter at the filters for medium. which was designed to reach a production vol- ume of 300. which is announced to be concluded by 2006. annually. almost all important car manufacturers ence the trend by tax incentives and pricing of diesel fuel.58 The filter shows a long-term filtration efficiency of more In 2004. With the introduction of a third gen. and Austria will be view.

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