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The etymology of the word annihilation is Latin, originating from nihil,
"nothing‖. In general, annihilationists differ from traditionalists in that they
believe that some, if not all, human souls will cease to exist after death.
B.B. Warfield described three forms of annihilationism:
(1) Materialism: that all human beings inevitably cease to exist
altogether at death
(2) Conditionalism (conditional immortality): that, while human
beings are naturally mortal, God imparts to the redeemed the gift
of immortality and allows the rest of humanity to sink into
(3) Annihilationism proper: that man, being created immortal, fulfills
his destiny in salvation, while the reprobates fall into nonexistence
either through a direct act of God or through the corrosive effect
of evil.1

Chapter I – Introduction = a key argument


―The Bible clearly teaches that those who persistently reject God‘s mercy throught this
life will one day face him in judgment and finally be cast into hell. Hell is real.‖2


―Many advocates of the traditional view now say the fire is likely metaphorical…the real
agony will be the smitten conscience and the sense of loss.‖3


―When it comes to a literal fire, I [Billy Graham] don‘t preach it because I‘m not sure
about it.‖4

Benjamin B. Warfield, "Annihilationism," in Studies in Theology (New York: Oxford University Press,
1932), 447-57.
Edward William Fudge, ―The Case for Conditionalism,‖ in Two Views of Hell: A Biblical & Theological
Dialogue (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000), 19.
Fudge, 20.


MI: NuVision Publications. everyone will go to the grave. 10 Ibid. We cannot exist for even one moment apart from God. that is. the grave will simply be a door to everlasting fellowship with God. 1:9 6 Re. who made us. 5 2 Th. 2004). for some.‖9  THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL IS NOT TAUGHT IN SCRIPTURE. each human being has a body that is mortal and will finally die.8  GOD IS THE SOURCE OF LIFE. IN PLATONIC PHILOSOPHY ―The biblical view of humans as God‘s dependent creatures differs sharply from the view taught by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. The Bible always portrays human beings within this framework of God‘s creation. 9 Fudge.‖10 “beyond question. 20-1. 21:8 7 Mt. 2 .‖7. it will be. For others. According to Plato. AND APART FROM HIM THERE IS NO LIFE ―Since humans did not exist until God formed them and gave them life. Plato taught that each person also has a soul that is immortal and cannot die. the soul is immortal and imperishable” 11 T h e e n t i r e d i a l o g u e o f P h a e d o is dedicated to making the above argument. Grand Blanc. emphasis mine. 10:28 8 Fudge. PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL. BUT RATHER. Benjamin Jowett. 11 Plato. each moment of life is God‘s immediate gift of grace. So.  SCRIPTURE DOES NOT TEACH ETERNAL TORTURE OF THE DAMNED ―Scripture teaches instead that those who go to hell will experience ‗everlasting destruction‘5 in ‗the second death. Phaedo (trans. 22.  SHEOL IS THE GRAVE Everyone will go to Sheol. it is naturally correct to speak of it as a place of punishment. it can be seen as a foundational principle throughout his teaching and thought. Eventually God reclaims the breath of life and we return to the ground from which we were taken (Eccles 3:18-22). To say that this was a cursory or unimportant belief held by Plato is absurd.‘6 for God is able to ‗destroy both body and soul in hell. 100.

”  Psalm 37:20 “But the wicked will perish: The LORD's enemies will be like the beauty of the fields. It has no other meaning. all evildoers will be scattered. It only EVER means to completely destroy or annihilate. but the way of the wicked will perish.” The Hebrew word used here is dmX (shamad). lest he be angry and you be destroyed in your way. surely your enemies will perish. It appears 88 times in the Old Testament.”  Psalm 9:5 “You have rebuked the nations and destroyed the wicked. O LORD.” 3 .”  Psalm 92:9 “For surely your enemies. Blessed are all who take refuge in him.  Psalm 92:7 “That when the wicked sprouted up like grass and all who did iniquity flourished.Chapter II – The Old Testament Here are some of the happy verses  Psalm 1:6 “For the LORD watches over the way of the righteous. it was only that they might be destroyed forevermore. the posterity of the wicked will be cut off.”  Psalm 37:38 “But transgressors will be altogether destroyed. they will vanish-vanish like smoke. for his wrath can flare up in a moment. you have blotted out their name for ever and ever.”  Psalm 2:12 “Kiss the Son.

Only αἴσθησις. not sensation of the body. the noun αἴσθησις is quite distinct from the verb πάσχω. metaph. There are only five nouns in Greek that could EVER even possibly be translated as “pain”—and not one of them ever appears in this clause. I actually have a copy of the Septuagint in the original Greek (lucky thing). I know my Greek pretty well. 1. IT‘S WRONG. It isn‘t a bad translation. the pain of childbirth. grief. Neither of these last two words appears in the text. Conclusion? Even in Judith. travail pain. I don‘t know what translation he was using. distressed a.*Major note* On page 35 Fudge lists Judith as his only example of near-Biblical literature (because there are no canonical texts) mentioning continual torture. it‘s alright. great trouble. of those who at sea are struggling with a head wind 1. be in travail together συνωδίνω 2. intense desire πόνος 2. one cannot find good exegetical evidence for the doctrine of endless torture or affliction. which is a black siliceous stone used to test the purity of gold or silver by the colour of the streak produced on it by rubbing it with either metal 2. as in good judgment or prudence. to feel the pains of travail with. birth pangs ὠδίν 2. and lo and behold. What is more. which is something entirely different. to test (metals) by the touchstone. or its nounal derivative. Not. πάθημα. ―Well. to be harassed. Fudge actually didn‘t give himself (or the book of Judith) enough credit. In the NAS. in the KJV. the translation is WRONG. sorrow. intolerable anguish. pain 1. annoyance. to torment 5. and that is perception of the mind.which are the sufferings themselves. of persons mourning 1. and here‘s what it really says (any of you Greek boys or girls out there feel free to check me): Judith 16:17 καί κλαύσονται / ἐν αἰσθήσει / ἕως αἰῶνος and they will weep / in understanding / until eternity The implication here is acknowledgment of wrongdoing and regret before annihilation. Not bad. affliction λύπη a. Like translating tag (which is German for ―day‖) as ―dog‖. to vex with grievous pains (of body or mind). not torture. In the Greek New Testament it is translated but one way. which means to feel physical pain or experience physical suffering. to torture 4. to undergo agony (like a woman in childbirth) along with 1. “judgment”. to question by applying torture βασανίζω 3. but it would have been better…‖ No. it is translated “discernment”. pain. but it‘s incorrect. in reference to the dire calamities that precede the advent of the Messiah 4 .

ὀλοθρεύω – it means ―to destroy.‖ That‘s it. it‘s pretty important. So what. Chapter IV – Writings of Paul ὄλεθρος – it means ―destruction. there would definitely be weeping and gnashing of teeth.‖ which is what Gehenna means. If you threw me into a fiery furnace. The verse 42 is clearly an allusion to Psalm 112:10.Chapter III – Teachings of Jesus Though there are many important verses. He quoted them and alluded to them all the time.” Jesus loves the Psalms. He quoted them on the cross. and they will weed out of his kingdom everything that causes sin and all who do evil. I would perish. 41 The Son of Man will send out his angels.‖ That‘s it. so it will be at the end of the age. If hell is a ―burning place. Burned up. that of ―weeping and gnashing of teeth‖…  Matthew 13:40-43 40 ”As the weeds are pulled up and burned in the fire. mentioned. I would be destroyed. He will gnash his teeth and melt away. He who has ears. 42They will throw them into the fiery furnace. Is this making any sense? Because it wasn‘t ambiguous to the original recipients of Psalms. Who cares. Let‘s take a look:  Psalm 112:10 The wicked will see it and be grieved. but eventually. This isn‘t heavy math here.” 5 . away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power. considering Paul uses them here. 43Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Well. will be destroyed. let him hear. in 2 Thessalonians…  2 Thessalonians 1:9 “These will pay the penalty of eternal destruction. Annihilated. the major contention of traditionalists revolves around one phrase in Matthew. and it wasn‘t ambiguous to Christ‘s audience either. The desire of the wicked shall perish. where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Things that burn are destroyed. than whatever goes there.

more literally. as in 1 Thessolonians. only the lost are being destroyed (perishing is kind. ―to destroy‖) in some other way mentioned here in 2 Corinthians. Not convinced it‘s talking about the spirit? Consider 2 Corinthians 4:  2 Corinthians 4:3. and it has affected how we hear what God is trying to say to us. it denotes finality.4 “3And even if our gospel is veiled.…and here in Hebrews about the Destroyer in Egypt just prior to Israel‘s exodus…  Hebrews 11:28 “By faith he kept the Passover and the sprinkling of the blood. irrevocability. I wonder in what way it could be.” …and 3 other places in the New Testament. 6 . But apparently. which is. it is veiled to those who are perishing. Like the giant IS tall. Now. who is the image of God. Did the firstborn‘ of Egypt continue somehow? Or was the question of whether or not they would ever breath air again up for debate? Here in Hebrews. …and it appears 22 times in Pauline literature. as in every other place in scripture where destructionn or annihilation is mentioned or noted. conclusiveness. Today. If not physical. ―to destroy in a separating way. ἀπόλλυμι – it means. 4in whose case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ. ―to destroy‖. *Editorial* It is more than clear that men—for centuries—have come to the words of Christ and Paul with a Platonic assumption: that the soul IS immortal. inevitability. We have come for too long to the scriptures conferring non-scriptural characteristics to the soul. the Greek is ἀπόλλυμι. Hmm.” Both the lost and the saved are being destroyed physically. or. so that he who destroyed the firstborn would not touch them. This must end here.‖ as in 2 Thessolonians 1:9.