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and Energy Expenditure

Objectives

• Define the terms work, power, energy, and net

efficiency

• Give a brief explanation of the procedure used

to calculate work performaed during: cycle

ergometer exercise & treadmill exercise

• Describe the concept behind the measurement

of energy expenditure using: direct and indirect

calorimetry

Objectives

• Discuss the procedure used to estimate energy

expenditure during horizontal treadmill walking

and running

• Define the following terms. Kilogram-meter,

relative VO2, MET and open-circuit spirometry

1

Units of Measure

• English system used in United States

• Metric system is t he standard system of measurement

for scientists

– Used to express mass, length, and volume

• System International units or SI units

– Standardized terms for measurement of:

• Energy

• Force

• Work

• Power

Work

Work is the product of force and distance

Work = force x distance

Work = 5 kp x 2 m

Work = 10 kpm

Kp = force acting on a mass of 1 kg at normal gravity

Power

Power is how much work is done per unit of time

Power = work/time

Power = 2,000 kgm/60s

Power = 33.3 kgm•s-1

SI Units: 1 Watt (W) = 0.102 kpm•s-1

Power = 326.8 W

2

Measurement of Work and Power

Bench Step

Work = body weight (kg) x distance/step x

steps/min x min

= 70 kp x 150 m

= 10,500 kpm or ~ 103 kilojoules

= 10,500 kpm / 10 min

= 1,050 kpm/min or 171.6 W

Cycle Ergometer

Work = resistance (kg) x (distance/revolution X

revolutions)

= 1.5 kp x (6m/rev x 600 rev)

0 5,400 kpm or 52.97 kilojoules

• Power = work ÷ minutes

= 5,400 kpm / 10 min

= 540 kpm/min or 88.2 W

Treadmill

• Calculation of work performed while a subject

runs or walks on a treadmill is not generally

possible when the treadmill is horizontal.

• Although running horizontal on a treadmill

requires energy

• Work performed during horizontal walking or

running is complicated

• Quantifiable work is being performed when

walking or running up a slope

3

Determination of Percent Grade on

a Treadmill

Fig 6.2

Treadmill

• Incline of the treadmill is expressed in percent

grade

• Percent grade is the amount of vertical rise per

100 units of belt travel

Vertical displacement = % grade x Distance

Treadmill speed = 200m/min

Percent Grade = 7.5% or 0.075

Exercise time = 10 mins

Total vertical distance traveled

= 200m/min X 0.075 x 10 mins = 150 m

Treadmill

Work = body weight (kg) x total vertical distance

traveled

= 70 kp x 150 m

= 10,500 kpm or ~103 kilojoules

= 10,500 kpm / 10 mins

= 1050 kpm/min or Watts

4

Measurement of Energy

Expenditure

• Direct calorimetry

– Measurement of heat production as an

indication of metabolic rate

• Indirect calorimetry

– Measurement of oxygen consumption as an

estimate of resting metabolic rate

Open-Circuit Spirometry

Fig 6.4

• Energy cost of horizontal treadmill walking or

running

– O2 requirement increases as a linear function

of speed

• Expression of energy cost in METs

– 1 MET = energy cost at rest

– 1 MET = 3.5 ml•kg-1•min-1

5

Linear Relationship Between VO2

and Walking or Running Speed

Fig 6.5

• Net efficiency

Work output

% net efficiency = Energy expended x 100

above rest

• Net efficiency of cycle ergometry

– 15-27%

Efficiency

• Exercise work rate

– Efficiency decreases as work rate

increases

• Speed of movement

– There is an optimum speed of movement

and any deviation reduces efficiency

• Fiber composition of muscles

– Higher efficiency in muscles with greater

percentage of slow fibers

6

Net Efficiency During Arm Crank

Ergometery

Fig 6.8

Expenditure and Work Rate

Fig 6.9

Net Efficiency

Fig 6.10

7

Running Economy

horizontal running

• Running Economy

– Oxygen cost of running at given speed

– Lower VO2 (ml•kg-1•min-1) indicates better

running economy

• Gender difference in running economy

– No difference at slow speeds

– At “race pace” speeds, males may be more

economical that females

Between Males and Females

Fig 6.11

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