The discussion is based on research conducted during a joint project by the Department of Architecture. it is vital for them to be sustainable and energy efficient so that they do not unnecessarily strain the scarce energy resources of Bangladesh. Bangladesh. humidity and daylight within the key activity zones. The green retrofitting process suggested here is three-pronged. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology and Promotion of Social and Environmental Standards In the industry.Retrofitting Factories towards Green
Dr. solar energy and rain water. Greening the building involves adequate employment of these resources and the reduction and reuse of waste and byproducts generated from the building systems to prevent pollution and impacts on the immediate environment. Dhaka. The second step is the formulation of Design Suggestions for greening – options for different elements and aspects of the building aiming towards efficiency of resource use and consumption. as this ensures wider business. stemming conventional energy consumption.
. Promoting the Green Architecture Concept in Bangladesh. for sustainability it is important to reduce this consumption. The ultimate choice of green measures can be decided by a final step involving simulations of the different elements and their combinations suggested for the building. e-mail: znahmedarch@gmail. This presentation attempts to establish a method by which existing factory buildings can be transformed into green ones. daylight. which were built in unawareness of their potential to harm the environment. As at present. buildings are responsible for the consumption of about 50% of global energy. Moreover. which can be done by using and managing resources available to the building. Zebun Nasreen Ahmed Professor. social equity is also addressed and a green building ensures that it equitably provides for all the sections of its users by providing them appropriate work and recreation spaces. The first step consists of evaluation of the existing factory in its site to identify problem areas and taking field measurements to record existing conditions of temperature. as new construction forms only a very small percentage of all building stock in any country.com
Green retrofitting attempts to minimize negative environmental and social impacts of an existing building in its setting. wind velocity. Among the principal resources available to buildings in Bangladesh are the wind. Since any building is constructed with a long-term expectation. Through this presentation. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. a project supported by Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of German Government during 2009 and 2010 titled. greater profit and better working environment – gains for all stakeholders. It is now becoming increasingly advantageous for factories to comply with international standards. using the green concept. Department of Architecture. It is extremely important to address the issue of existing buildings. a method is discussed that may be used to retrofit existing factory buildings towards achieving green targets set by the needs of international markets.
This design approach heavily relies on building performance simulation for modification of material. towards optimizing a design idea. This paper presents the findings of a research undertaken as a part of joint project by the Department of Architecture. control and moderate dynamic mechanisms of building climate relationship leading to a new expectations of the building design. A multi level research technique has been employed where a host of secondary data along with a range of primary data have been acquired and used to arrive at tangible design references. In this paper discussions are presented in view of our need for green design from a technical point of view based on detailed field campaigns conducted in industrial buildings of RMG sector. form. its process and practice. It is very important that we address this causal relationship between building. Our buildings and industries are based on fossil fuels from dwindling reserves. Performance based design is a concept where performance such as behavior of the building in generating a desired indoor climate or a particular level of energy consumption acts as a guiding factor for the design. supported by environmental simulation studies. The architects today can interact. An outline of green measures will be presented in the paper leading to ideas of performative design or performance based design for industrial buildings. The method is well established. environment. Bangladesh. Green measures developed by BUET will facilitate such a design approach by way of setting out performance targets and criteria towards evolving a green future for our industrial buildings. documented and practiced around the world though new in Bangladesh. Guidelines by regional Green Building Councils (GBC) were particularly referred to however guidelines by GBC Brazil. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology and PSES. cross referencing.
. analysis and synthesis of primary and secondary data into a coherent set of guidelines. Dhaka. a project supported by GIZ on behalf of BMZ. production and profit to arrive at a sustainable future for our industries-a green future. A set of Green Measures were developed based on findings from various level of this research work and by way of precedence. Department of Architecture. In recent times the concept of ‘green’ has captured the attention of the industry which has lead to a demand for green design. among others. This is of particular concern where buildings have been reported to directly consume 44% of total energy produced and where almost 60% can be assigned to buildings when indirect consumption by buildings are taken in to account. In Bangladesh economics of demand and supply of energy seem to pervade all spheres of strategic thinking and the issues of design of buildings impacting this scenario still remain in the shadows. Impending effects of climate change and an apparent degradation of the local environment competes with the need for energy to power our industries.studio@gmail. This is of particular importance for the present context as much of the ideas of green design in use are gestures of topical nature.Measuring Up for a Green Future: Design Issues for Factory Buildings in Bangladesh
Dr Khandaker Shabbir Ahmed Professor. Australia. looking at developing a viable concept of green design for industrial sector. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. often relying on rhetoric and more as labels. specifications. e-mail: saa.com
Bangladesh has arrived at a juncture where demand for industrial buildings and the potential for economic growth continue to play out in a context of a strained energy environment relationship. Dubai and USA were also used.
Mohataz Hossain Lecturer. this paper is limited to evaluating the scope for improving the effective lighting design in the production spaces especially in the purpose built RMG factory in Dhaka region. is concerned as one of the necessary safety requirements. The workers work in the garments factory building all day long and the economy of this sector depends on the performance of these workers. by reducing dependence on artificial lighting and by ensuring efficient lighting. workers are usually exposing to various visual problems with textile sewing activities. which indicates the quality as well as quantity of lighting suitable for the effective production processes and saving energy consumption. BNBC codes. As the Indoor environment is becoming highly complex. if luminous environment is not given enough consideration by the designer. The efficient lighting and its quality should be maintained not only for the visual comfort of the workers but also for the effective production in the RMG sectors.buet. In this regard. The standards.
. and to show the potentials for designing efficient lighting to increase the productivity of the workers as well as save energy in production spaces of RMG sector. Physical survey was conducted with some observations and experimental studies on randomly selected RMG production spaces with the illumination condition and actual performance of the workers.ac. The visual comfort of garment workers is an issue based partly upon determining the suitable range of lighting levels available on their work plane. research previously conducted on lighting related issues were studied. The objective of this paper to illustrate the existing illumination condition. Visual comfort for various illumination levels has an impact on total physical comfort condition and influences the human behaviour and production level. Efficient lighting in production spaces.Potentials of Efficient Lighting in Production Spaces
The Ready-made garments (RMG) sector of Bangladesh has been expanding rapidly since the late 1970s. tofa_4300@yahoo. Department of Architecture Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology.bd. it is necessary to save energy as well as to ensure health and environmental safety of the workers in production spaces. On the other hand. ironing and others. pressure will be created on the overall national electrical energy demand. while locating and selecting the type of artificial lights and daylight penetration in the building envelop. Dhaka e-mail: mohataz@arch. with reference to various building code and compliances. With above mentioned literature review and field survey. local and international compliances were also studied from relevant published documents. Local standards and guidelines for improving the lighting conditions in these production spaces should be established for incorporation in the sustainable design process. In such a context.
Dhaka e-mail: nawrosefatemi@gmail. Recently. mostly working in production areas. According to LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System. humidity or other aspects of environment. Recommended Temperature Range. Comfort is one of those appealing words which are easy to understand but difficult to explain.Thermal Comfort and Productivity: Towards New Directions
Md. no standard method or way existed to measure workers productivity. relative humidity and air movement) on the physiological comfort of the workers. Department of Architecture The University of Asia Pacific. this specific study focuses on the correlation between thermal comfort and work productivity to improve the workplace environment in production spaces of RMG factories. Work performance can be understood at two levels: group tasks and individual task. There are. comfortable humidity range. Among these. the indoor environment becomes much more important for health and comfort than the outdoor environment. sick building syndrome symptoms and performance in work. Recommended Temperature Range. many studies that have identified factors influencing workers productivity and attempted to measure their individual effects. This study indicates that. people have developed their concern to understand the effects of indoor environmental conditions on worker performance. It also evaluates the effects of the environmental comfort factors (air temperature. One of these effects is thermal environment variation that affects the efficiency of workers and reduces their productivity. a huge number of populations (approximately 2 million) work in the indoor environment of the industries. Relative Humidity and Ventilation Rate are properly suggested in LEED by United States Green Building Council and also in Green Factory Rating System by Indian Green Building Council. It is a condition of mind dependent on satisfaction of both physical sensations and emotional states. The intent is to provide a comfortable thermal environment that promotes occupant productivity and well being.
. especially in the garments' production that involves many complex operations and relationships. For this. Spatial configuration makes work groups more or less effective whereas ambient environmental condition (lighting.com
Thermal Comfort is one of the basic phenomena of indoor environment. acoustics and thermal condition) affect individual performance. perceived air quality. there are no available standards for thermal comfort evaluation adequate for work conditions in the country. and more effective ventilation increases the performance of the worker. In the production sector. and existing technologies and procedure can improved in a manner that increases productivity and welfare of the worker. for activities not sedentary. The indoor environment affects several human responses. In Bangladesh. Relative Humidity and Ventilation Rate are not mentioned properly either in Bangladesh Factory Act 1965 or in Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC). Nawrose Fatemi Lecturer. as those developed in most industrial workplaces. however. Positive comfort conditions are those that do not distract by causing unpleasant sensations of temperature. and especially. literature related to the performance in work and thermal comfort is analyzed. indoor environments significantly influence worker performance. Through this study. However. Thermal Comfort is one of the major focuses to enhance indoor environmental quality. It is noteworthy that the efficiency of the workers in the production line is highly dependent on the quality of indoor environment. including thermal comfort. Recent studies in the field survey showed that comfortable room temperature. In Bangladesh. A theoretical framework for increasing knowledge of the environmental design on health and performance of workers is also outlined.
the RMG sector underwent a very high growth rate in Bangladesh. concrete. total number of steel buildings in the RMG sector is continuously increasing. work flow process etc.M. comfortable working environment. In the event of this energy crisis. have profound effect on the overall indoor environment. cost-effectiveness. It has. The characteristics of Steel Buildings are different from typical Brick and RCC Buildings. etc. It becomes imperative to examine these contradictions. During the early 80's. As a result. Unfortunately. cost effective production flow. especially for RMG sector in Bangladesh. flexibility and high resale value. A large number of those buildings are not suitable for RMG industry. as they fail to provide many important factors such as. rapid and sporadic development of this industry has resulted in unsystematic and unplanned growth. brick. With the growth of industries. safety and security etc. become essential to identify the overall performance of Steel factory buildings in local context to improve the overall comfort of the occupants as well as to improve energy efficiency and productivity of the RMG industry in Bangladesh. lighting. large and flexible production area. Huge amounts of energy are usually consumed to ensure thermal comfort of the occupants in industrial buildings. In recent days Steel Buildings are becoming increasingly popular in the RMG sector. Bangladesh is currently undergoing a phase of acute shortage of power due to depletion of its energy resources. Since then this industries continued development and contributing significantly to the overall foreign exchange earnings. therefore. “Green buildings” consisting of steel structures can play an important role in ameliorating this situation by providing comfortable indoor working environments through efficient use of energy. ventilation. thermal performance of a building greatly depends on the thermal properties of its building materials. Again. fast construction and lightweight options.
. uncomfortable indoor environment and huge energy consumption. Indoor thermal conditions. energy consumption and productivity. minimum operation and maintenance cost. In fact.Re-thinking Steel Building for the RMG Sector in Bangladesh
B. thermal comfort. are located in an around the Capital City. leading to less waste generation at the end of the life cycle of a steel fabricated factory. causing a number of problems and issues within and outside the industry. During the last few decades most of the buildings constructed for RMG sectors are brick and RCC Buildings. Thermal conductivity of steel is very high compared to other conventional building materials like wood. Steel factory buildings offer great potential. There are some inherent potential and merits of steel buildings. energy demands in industrial sectors are also increasing continuously. such as. Dhaka. In local context however some poorly designed steel buildings are creating various problems such as. As a developing country. the development of the RMG sector has not taken place in a systematic and planned way. especially in production units of RMG sector. Most of RMG factories in Bangladesh. Generation of employment has been on the rise. Anisur Rahman Research Architect BUET –GIZ Project
The ready-made garment industry is one of the main sources of foreign exchange earnings in Bangladesh.