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1. Electron Gun and Linear Accelerator Electron Gun: The process begins in the basement where high voltage electricity through a heated cathode produces pulses of electrons. Heating the cathode to incandescence gives some electrons enough energy to leave the surface (essentially boils them off). The high voltage (approximately 200,000 volts – a car battery has only 12 volts!) repels the electrons, accelerating them toward the Linear Accelerator or LINAC. The source of the electrons, the cathode, is a tungsten-oxide disk (tungsten is the same material as light bulb filaments). As electricity flows through the disk, it will heat it until electrons are emitted (about 1000 oC). A screen nearby is given a short, strong positive charge (125 times per second) which pulls the electrons away from the disk. The system is similar to that found in a television picture tube. Electron gun in CLS basement.
At this energy the electrons are travelling at 99.03 eV. Pressure is 760 torr). The Booster Ring cannot increase the speed of the electrons to.999998% of light speed (4. The electrons travel around the 103 m ring approximately 1. Booster Ring: In particle physics. electrons receive a boost in energy from 250 million electron volts (MeV) to 2900 MeV (energy equivalent to about 2 billion flashlight batteries!) from microwave fields generated in the Radio Frequency Cavity at 2856 MHz.3 to 3 MeV.1 x 10 8 electrons) with a total energy of 9.6 tenths of a second.5 million times in . The ultimate vacuum chamber pressure is lower than 10-11 torr (1 atm. This means that there are fewer molecules present in our vacuum system than there are in space around the International Space Station. One eV (electron Volt) is the amount of energy that an electron gains when it moves through a potential difference of 1 Volt (in a vacuum). Magnets in the booster ring.7 m/s slower than the speed of light). The LINAC produces pulses of electrons from 2 nanoseconds up to 140 ns for injection into the storage ring. As they circulate. The typical atmospheric molecule has an energy of about 0. The short pulses can be used to fill a single "bunch" in the storage ring for use in time-sensitive measurement studies. but the electrons travel at about 99. the standard unit to measure energy is MeV or million electron volts. 2. Each of 68 bunches contains 50 pC (3. or beyond.0 x 108 m/s). For comparison. Microwave radio frequency fields in the 2856 megahertz LINAC provide energy to the electrons that are accelerated to an energy of 250 million electron volts or MeV. . Electrons are supplied once per second by the LINAC.LINAC: The electron gun supplies electrons to the Linear Accelerator (LINAC).92 J at 2900 MeV and 10 mA circulating current. The long pulses are used to produce a (3x140=) 420 ns pulse train in the storage ring. The electrons are pushed by the microwaves much the same way a surfer is pushed by water waves. the energy of charged particles in a nuclear explosion range from 0.9998% of the speed of light (3. the speed of light. After several minutes of operation sufficient current is accumulated in the storage ring and the LINAC is turned off until it is required to refill the ring several hours later. Vacuum Chambers: The electrons (and later the photons) must travel in a vacuum to avoid colliding into atoms or molecules and disappearing.
to reach an average circulating current of 500 mA. it is really a series of 12 straight sections each with 2 dipole magnets. Superconducting RF cavity in the storage ring. Radio Frequency (RF) Cavities: There are two cavities that use microwaves to boost the energy carried by the electrons. where they will circulate for four to twelve hours producing photons of light at every turn. It operates with an RF frequency of 500 MHz. A cylindrical cavity in the booster ring delivers a high energy kick to the electron bunches during each turn around the ring. The field of the green quadrupole magnets is used to force the bunches of electrons into a fine beam within the vacuum chamber. The blue dipole magnets weigh over 3000 kg. . while the RF field provides energy. an injection system transfers them from the booster ring to the 171m storage ring. Superconductivity is the flow of electric current without resistance in certain metals and alloys at temperatures near absolute zero. While the ring looks circular. and a series of quadrupole and sextupole magnets to narrow the beam. the electrons will circulate for four to twelve hours producing photons every time the 6800 kg dipole magnets change the direction of the flow of electrons. The purpose of the cavity in the storage ring is to replace the energy lost by the electrons to light production. Storage ring straight sections. Once in the storage ring.Magnets: There are two types of electro-magnets in the booster ring. Storage Ring: When the electrons reach 2900 MeV. as required. Operating at such cold temperatures eliminates most of the power loss. 3. The magnetic field created by the magnets is used to direct the electrons around the booster ring. The process repeats once per second up to 600 cycles (about 10 minutes). The operating temperature is 2700C (-2730C is 0 K or absolute zero).
placed in a ring section where the electron path would otherwise be straight. After each turn there is a photon port to allow the light to travel down the beamlines. The result is a very high flux of photons along the beamline. multimagnet insertion devices called undulators and wigglers move the electrons back and forth many times creating a narrow beam of much more intense light. Over time. This is inevitable because the vacuum isn’t perfect.Some straight sections also include space for special magnets called Insertion Devices. Electrons collide with the few particles that are present and are lost. or add more electrons to maintain the necessary current. While dipole magnets change the direction of the electrons. 4. CLS must either empty the ring and re-inject electrons. As a result. Beamli nes Monoc hroma tor . The magnetic fields force the electrons to ‘wiggle’ around the straight path. One of the ways that we achieve this is through insertion devices. Superconducting wiggler for Biomedical Imaging & Therapy Beamline A wiggler or undulator consists of a periodic series of magnets. thus producing light. Insertion Devices: The CLS is one of the brightest synchrotrons in the world despite the fact that it is roughly 1/10 the size of the other bright synchrotrons. the number of electrons stored in the ring will decline. An undulator produces even higher intensity Xrays with a narrower range of energies. A wiggler produces a wide range of high energy X-rays.
unique to the technique employed by the scientist. In general. The monochromator is the device that separates the wavelengths (much like a prism). each one consists of a sample holder and a detection system. Double crystal monochromator selecting XRays for the CMCF beamline. Each endstation is designed specifically for the types of experiments conducted on that beamline. as well as a bank of computers through which the researchers control the mechanisms involved in the experiments and view the data as it is recorded. . Endstations The selected wavelengths of synchrotron light are then focused by the mirrors onto the sample in the experimental endstation. Each of the beamlines at CLS is unique and will have markedly different monochromators specific to their design. This is done using either the phenomenon of optical dispersion (as in a prism). or of diffraction using a grating which spatially separates the wavelengths of light and filters out the light that isn’t required. Researchers use the monochromator to choose the wavelength of light best suited to the experiment they are conducting.One of the important pieces of equipment synchrotron light passes through on its way to the sample is a monochromator.
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