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# Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Chapter #1

## Design of Linear Control Systems

 Introduction
 1st order dynamics
 2nd order dynamics
 Nonhomogeneous differential equations

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 1/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Introduction

## System: is a set of objects/elements that are connected or related to each

other in such a way that they create and hence define a unity that performs a
certain objective.

## Task: To study, analyse and ultimately to control the system to produce a

“satisfactory” performance.

## Model: Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE):

dx d 2x
ΣF = ma ⇔ f − f friction = ma ⇔ f − Bω = ma ⇔ f − B = m 2
dt dt

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 2/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

dx
First order ODEs: = f ( x, t )
dt

Analytical solution: Explicit formula for x(t) (a solution which can be found
dx
using separate variables, integrating factor…) which satisfies = f ( x, t )
dt

Example:

dx
The ODE = a has as a solution x(t ) = at .
dt

dx
First order Initial Value Problem : = f ( x, t ), x(t 0 ) = x0
dt

dx
Analytical solution: Explicit formula for x(t) which satisfies = f ( x, t )
dt
and passes through x0 when t = t0

Example:

dx
= a ⇔ ∫ dx = ∫ adt ⇔ x(t ) = at + C ⇒ x(0 ) = C ⇒ x(t ) = at + x0
dt

## Ö INFINITE curves (for all Initial Conditions (ICs)).

For that reason a different symbol is used for the above solution: φ (t , t 0 , x0 ) .

You must be clear about the difference to an ODE and the solution to an
IVP! From now on we will just study IVP unless otherwise explicitly
mentioned.

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 3/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

## Numerical solution: Using Simulink it is possible to see how the solution

x(t ) behaves. In order to do that we place one integrator, set the IC (in the
integrator block) and then we create the signal f ( x, t ) at the input of the
integrator. Remember the set the properties of the “Simulation parameters”
(I would say set the maximum step size to 1e-3) and of the “Scope” (change
in the Data History the option “Limit data points to last:”

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 4/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

## Example: Numerical solution of x& = − x 2 cos(t ) , x(0 ) = 0.1

In order to improve the presentation of our results I set in the “Save data to
workspace” option the following:

That way, once we run the simulation, we have in the command window the
matrix s which has in tits first column the values of the time and in the
second the values of our solution:

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 5/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

>> plot(s(:,1),s(:,2))

0.115

0.11

0.105

0.1

0.095

0.09
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 6/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

## ⎧a (t ) x'+b(t ) x = c(t ), Non autonomous

General form: ⎨
⎩ax'+bx = c, Autonomous

Example: x'+ kx = u

Numerical Solution:

 k=5, u=0.5

Gain

1
0.5 s
Constant Integrator Scope

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
0 1 2 3 4

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 7/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

 k=0.5, u=sin(10t)

Gain

0.5

1
s
Sine Wave Integrator Scope

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

-0.05

-0.1
0 5 10

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 8/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Analytical Solutions:

## Integrating factor (NOT ASSESSED MATERIAL):

kdt k = const kt
e∫ = e

( )
e kt ( x'+ kx ) = e kt u ⇒ e kt x ' = e kt u

( )
⇒ ∫ e kt x ' dt = ∫ e kt udt

⇒ e kt x = ∫ e kt udt + c ⇒ x = e − kt ∫ e kt udt + e − kt c

t
or: x = e −kt
x(0 ) + e −kt
∫e
kt1
udt1
0

## The equation that we derived is:

t
x=e −kt
x(0 ) + e −kt
∫e
kt1
udt1
0

Assuming that k>0 the first part is called transient and the second is called

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 9/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

## jy2 '+ kjy2 + y1 '+ ky1 = kj sin (ω t ) + k cos(ω t )

~ y = ke jωt
y '+ k~

( )
y e kt ' = ke(k + jωt )
Integrating factor: e kt => ~

e (k + jωt ) ⇒
~ k
y e kt =
k + j ωt
k
~
y= e jωt ⇒
k + jωt

⎛ −1(ω ) ⎞
1 j ⎜ ωt − tan k

~
y= e ⎝ ⎠

1+ ω
2

k2

⎛ ⎛ −1(ω ) ⎞ ⎞
⎜ k ⎟⎟
−1(ω ) ⎞
j ⎜⎜ ωt − tan
1 ⎟ 1 ⎛
Re( y ) = Re⎜
~ e ⎝ ⎠⎟= cos⎜ ωt − tan k

⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
⎜ 1+ ω 2 1+ ω 2
2 2

⎝ k ⎠ k

1 ⎛ −1(ω ) ⎞
cos⎜ ωt − tan k ⎟
1+ ω
2 ⎝ ⎠
k2

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 10/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Example:

## u = cos(2πt ) k=1, x(0)=0.1:

Gain2 X0

-1 eu 0.1
Clock
Math
Function

Gain3
Scope1
1 eu
Clock1 Product1
Math 1
Function1 s
Product Integrator1

Sine Wave1

0.25
state Overall Transient
0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

-0.15

-0.2
0 2 4 6 8 10

Exercise: Find the response for k=0.5, u=1 and u=-1, initial conditions: 0, 1,
-1. Describe the system’s behaviour.

Autonomous 1st order ODEs => Liner Time Invariant (LTI) systems

dx
= f (x) (not t on RHS).
dt

Analytic solution: Can be solved as before: Transient and steady state part.

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 11/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

d 2x
Second order ODEs: 2 = f ( x' , x, t )
dt

Second order linear ODEs with constant coefficients: x' '+ Ax'+ Bx = u

## u=0 => Homogeneous ODE; I need two “representative solutions”

x' '+ Ax'+ Bx = 0 , assume x = e rt => x' = re rt & x' ' = r 2 e rt =>

## r 2 + Ar + B = 0 ; Characteristic or Eigenvalue equation => Check its roots.

− A ± A2 − 4B
r= , these are the Characteristic values or Eigenvalues.
2

Example:

2

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 12/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Numerical Solution:

4
Check ICs
Gain5
1 1
s s
Integrator3 Integrator2 Scope

Gain1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 5 10

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 13/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Analytical Solution:

Gain2 Gain3

-3 eu -0.5
t Scope2
Clock Math
Function

Scope1
Gain4 Gain6

-1 eu 3/2

Math
Function1 Scope3

1.5
Overall
1 Part 2

0.5

Part 1
-0.5
0 5 10

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 14/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Example:

## A=2, B=1, x(0)=1, x’(0)=0 => c1=c2=1

Numerical Solution

2
Check ICs
Gain5
1 1
s s
Integrator3 Integrator2 Scope

Gain1

Analytical Solution

Gain2 Gain3

-1 eu 1
t
Clock Math
Function

Gain6
Scope1
1
t*exp()
Product

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 15/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

0.9 e-t

0.8
te-t
0.7 overall

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 16/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

##  Roots are complex: r=a+bj A 2 < 4 B

o Underdamped system A ≠ 0

## So x = e rt = e (a +bj )t = e at +bjt = e at e jbt = e at (cos(bt ) + j sin(bt ) ) =Re+jIm.

Theorem: If x is a complex solution to a real ODE then Re(x) and Im(x) are
the real solutions of the ODE:

## x = c1 x1 + c2 x2 = c1e at cos(bt ) + c2 e at sin(bt )

= e at (c1 cos(bt ) + c2 sin(bt ) ) = e at G cos(bt − φ )

, & φ = tan −1 ⎛⎜ ⎞
c1 c2
where G =
⎝ c1 ⎟⎠
cos⎛⎜ tan −1 ⎛⎜ 2 ⎞⎟ ⎞⎟
c
⎝ ⎝ c1 ⎠⎠

## A=1, B=1, x(0)=1, x’(0)=0 => c1=1, c2=1/sqrt(3)

Numerical Solution

1
Check ICs
Gain5
1 1
s s
Integrator3 Integrator2 Scope

Gain1

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 17/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Analytical Solution

Gain2
u
-0.5 e
t
Clock
Math
Function Product Scope1

Gain3
Gain4

sqrt(3)/2 cos 1
bt
Trigonometric
Function
Gain6

sin 1/sqrt(3)

Trigonometric
Function1

1.5
C 1 cos(bt)

C 1 cos(bt)+C 2 sin(bt)
0.5

-0.5
C 2 sin(bt)

-1

-1.5
0 2 4 6 8 10

1.5

1 eat

C 1cos(bt)+C 2sin(bt)
0.5

-0.5

Overall
-1

-1.5
0 2 4 6 8 10

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 18/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

## x' '+0 + Bx = 0 ⇔ r 2 e rt + 0 + Be rt = 0 ⇒ r 2 = − B => Imaginary roots (If B<0

then I would have two equal real roots).

## A=0, B=1, x(0)=1, x’(0)=0 =>c1=1, c2=0:

0
Check ICs
Gain5
1 1
s s
Integrator3 Integrator2 Scope

Gain1

Gain2
u
0 e
t
Clock
Math
Function Product Scope1

Gain3
Gain4

1 cos 1
bt
Trigonometric
Function
Gain6

sin 0

Trigonometric
Function1

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 19/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

0.8

0.6

0.4 Overall
0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1
0 2 4 6 8 10

In all previous cases if the real part is positive then the solution will diverge
to infinity and the ODE (and hence the system) is called unstable.

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 20/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

Root Space

jb
jb

a
a

## Name Oscillations? Components of solution

Overdamped No Two exponentials:

e k1t , e k 2 t , k1 , k 2 < 0
Critically No Two exponentials:
damped
e kt , te kt , k < 0
Underdamped Yes One exponential and one
cosine e kt , cos(ωt ) , k < 0
Undamped Yes one cosine cos(ωt )

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 21/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

## ζ is the damping factor and ωn is the natural frequency of the system.

− A ± A 2 − 4 B − 2ζω n ± (2ζω n )2 − 4ω n2
r= =
2 2

r = −ζω n ± ζ 2ω n2 − ω n2

ζ >0
1. Real and unequal ζ 2ω n2 > ω n2 ⇔ ζ 2 > 1 ⇒ ζ > 1 => Overdamped system

## system implies that ζ = 1; r = −ω n => x = C1e −ωnt + C2te −ωnt .

ζ >0
3. Complex ζ 2
ω n2 < ω n2 ⇔ ζ < 1 ⇒ ζ < 1 => Underdamped systems
2

implies ζ < 1 ;

## r1, 2 = −ζω n ± j ω n2 − ζ 2ω n2 = −ζω n ± jω n 1 − ζ 2

ωd =ωn 1−ζ 2
= − ζω n ± jω d => x = e −ζωnt G cos(ω d t − φ ) ; ω d is called damped
frequency or pseudo-frequency.

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 22/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

## 4. Imaginary roots ζ =0 and therefore the solution is r = ± jω n =>

x = G cos(ω n t − φ ) ; so when there is no damping the frequency of the
oscillations = natural frequency. x = G cos(ω n t − φ )

5. In all the previous cases if ζ > 0 then the transient part tends to zero. If
ζ <0 then the system will diverge to infinity with or without
oscillations.

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 23/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013

##  u=0 => Homogeneous => x1 & x2.

 Assume a particular solution of the nonhomogeneous ODE: xp
R
o If u(t)=R=cosnt => x P =
B
 Then all the solutions of the NHODE are x = x P + c1 x1 + c2 x2
 So we have all the previous cases for under/over/un/critically damped
systems plus a constant R/B.
 If complementary solution is stable then the particular solution is called

Example:

## Module Leader: Dr Damian Giaouris - damian.giaouris@ncl.ac.uk 24/25

Chapter 1 EEE3001- 8013
Numerical Part

1 1
s s
Integrator1 Integrator Scope

Gain1
2

Constant
Gain2
Scope2
u
-0.5 e
t exp(-at)
Clock Scope1
M ath
Function
Gain4 Gain5
Product

## sqrt(3)/2 sin -1/sqrt(3)

bt sin(bt)
T rigonom etric
Function
Gain3
Scope5
cos -1
cos(bt)
T rigonom etric Scope4
Function1

Scope3

2.5

1.5
Particular solution
Overall
1

Homogeneous solution
0.5

-0.5

-1
0 2 4 6 8 10