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For liquids that are more viscous than water, a correction factor

can be applied that is found as follows. First calculate the

uncorrected area. Then, using the area of the next larger

standard disk size, calculate the Reynolds number:

original uncor-rected area by this factor. If the liquid is so

viscous that the Reynolds number is not on the graph, you may

consult OSECO for evaluation. Please also note the limits on

Reynolds Number shown in Figure A. A curve fitted equation for

this correction is also presented in Figure A.

REACTION FORCE

the equa-tions above can be used by substituting (D x Q) for W.

For the equations above, the following legend applies:

A - disk area

F - reaction force

g c - the gravitational constant

K - discharge coefficient (ASME permits 0.62)

: - dynamic or absolute viscosity

P - pressure drop across the disk

D - fluid density

Q - volumetric flow rate W - mass flow rate

EQUATIONS IN CONVENTIONAL U.S. UNITS

For liquids that are more viscous than water (viscosity greater

than 1 cp), a correction factor can be found using the procedure

detailed under "EQUA-TIONS IN ANY CONSISTENT SET OF UNITS" above.

The Reynolds number can be calculated from:

applies:

A - square inches

F - pounds

K - 0.62 per the ASME Code (included in equation constant)

W - pounds per hour

Q - gallons per minute

D - pounds per cubic foot

: - centipoise

P - pounds per square inch

calculated above by 0.62/K. To use specific gravity of the

liquid rather than density, sub-stitute 62.37 x specific gravity

for density D in either of the above equations.

EQUATIONS IN METRIC UNITS

For liquids that are more viscous than water (viscosity greater

than 1x10-3 Pa-sec), a correction factor can be found using the

procedure detailed under "EQUATIONS IN ANY CONSISTENT SET OF

UNITS" above. The Reynolds number can be calculated from:

A - square millimeters

F - Newtons

K - 0.62 per the ASME Code (included in equation constant)

W - kilograms per hour

Q - cubic meters per second

D - kilograms per cubic meter

: - Pa-sec (kg/m-sec)

P - bars

calculated above by 0.62/K.

GASES AND VAPORS

velocity if the ratio of outlet to inlet pressure is sufficiently

low. As a rule of thumb, this will occur if the inlet pressure

exceeds 15 psig and the relief device vents to atmosphere.

ratio of out-let to inlet absolute pressures P2/P1 is less than

or equal to the critical pressure ratio rc, defined by:

k - ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to specific

heat at constant volume (Cp/C v)

The equations for gas or vapor flow shown below are the same for

either so-nic or subsonic flow except for the evaluation of the

gas flow constant C included in the equations. Definition of

this constant is shown below.

units:Volumetric flow rate, standard conditions, any consistent

units:

For sonic flow (P2/P1 < rc), the gas flow constant C is given by

For subsonic flow (P2/P1 > rc),Reaction force for sonic flow, any

consistent units:

value given by this equation.

A - disk area

F - reaction force

gc - gravitational constant

K - 0.62 per ASME Code

k - ratio of specific heats

M - molecular weight

P - inlet pressure, gauge value

P1 - inlet pressure, absolute value

P2 - outlet pressure, absolute value

R* - Universal Gas Constant,

T - temperature, absolute value

VA - volumetric flow rate, actual conditions

VS - volumetric flow rate, standard conditions

W - mass flow rate

Z - compressibility factor

Volumetric flow rate, actual conditions, conventional U.S. units:

units:

A - square inches

W - pounds per hour

VA - actual cubic feet per minute

VS - standard cubic feet per minute (14.7 psia at 60oF)

K - 0.62 per the ASME Code (included in equation constant)

P1 - pounds per square inch absolute

T - oR (degrees Rankine)

utilized to determine this factor. Using Z = 1.0 is frequently

done when there is insufficient data to determine the value of Z.

If the specific gravity of the gas (relative to air at standard

conditions) is known but the molecular weight is not known,

substitute 28.964 x specific gravity for M in the equation for

standard conditions.

For sonic flow (P2/P1 < rc), the gas flow constant C changes to

the equation below :

For subsonic flow, (P2/P1 > rc), changes to the equation below:

Reaction force for sonic flow, conventional U.S. units:

F - poundf

upper limit of the reaction force.

A - square millimeters

W - kilograms per hour

VA - actual cubic meters per second

VS - standard cubic meters per second (1 bar absolute at

15oC)

K - 0.62 per the ASME Code (included in equation constant)

P1 - bars absolute

T - oK (degrees Kelvin)

For sonic flow (P2/P1 < rc), the gas flow constant C is given by:

For subsonic flow (P2/P1 > rc), C changes to the equation below:

F - Newtons

upper limit to the reaction force.

STEAM

(Sonic flow, P2/P1 less than 0.55.)

Wet steam:

For the above equations, the following applies:

A - square inches

W - pounds per hour

)T - degrees of superheat - oF (degrees Fahrenheit)

K - 0.62 per the ASME Code

P1 - inlet pressure - psia

)X - (100 - % steam quality)

The reaction force for steam discharge can be found by using the

equation for gases and vapors with k = 1.33 .

(Sonic flow, P2/P1 less than 0.55.)

Wet steam:

A - square millimeters

W - kilograms per hour

)T - degrees of superheat in oC (degrees Celsius or

Centigrade)

K - 0.62 per ASME Code

P1 - inlet pressure - bar absolute

)X - (100 - % steam quality)

EXAMPLE 1, LIQUIDS

following conditions:

Flow Requirement 1500 gallons per minute

Back Pressure 5 psig

Specific Gravity 0.85

Application Primary Relief

rate, conventional U.S. units:

is 4 inch for a STD or CO type rupture disk and a 3 inch FAS or

PCR type rupture disk.

EXAMPLE 2, GASES

following conditions:

Flow Requirement 5000 actual cubic feet per minute

Back Pressure 20 psig

Flow Temperature 250oF (degrees Fahrenheit)

Flow Media Air (M = 29, k = 1.4, use Z = 1)

Application Primary Relief

ratio:

Critical pressure ratio:

P2/P1 is less than rc, therefore the flow will be sonic. For

conventional U.S. units:

is 8 inch for a STD or CO type rupture disk and a 6 inch FAS or

PCR type rupture disk.

EXAMPLE 3, GASES

Determine the rupture disk size required for relieving the

following conditions:

Flow Requirement 2000 standard CFM

Back Pressure 5 psig

Flow Temperature -40oF (degrees Fahrenheit)

Media Specific Gravity 0.72

Specific Heat Ratio 1.26

Compressibility Factor 0.95

Application Primary Relief

3 psi over-pressure is permitted by ASME code. Flow pressure

ratio:

P2/P1 is greater than rc, therefore the flow will be subsonic.

For conventional U.S. units:

is 3 inch for a STD or CO type rupture disk and a 2 inch FAS or

PCR type rupture disk.

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