EQUATIONS IN ANY CONSISTENT UNITS Mass Flow rate, any consistent units

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Volumetric Flow rate, any consistent units:

For liquids that are more viscous than water, a correction factor can be applied that is found as follows. First calculate the uncorrected area. Then, using the area of the next larger standard disk size, calculate the Reynolds number:

Find the correction factor from Figure A. Then divide the original uncor-rected area by this factor. If the liquid is so viscous that the Reynolds number is not on the graph, you may consult OSECO for evaluation. Please also note the limits on Reynolds Number shown in Figure A. A curve fitted equation for this correction is also presented in Figure A. REACTION FORCE Reaction force for mass flow rate, any consistent units:

If the flow rate is given in volumetric rather than mass units, the equa-tions above can be used by substituting (D x Q) for W. For the equations above, the following legend applies: A - disk area F - reaction force g c - the gravitational constant K - discharge coefficient (ASME permits 0.62) : - dynamic or absolute viscosity P - pressure drop across the disk D - fluid density Q - volumetric flow rate W - mass flow rate

centipoise P .62 per the ASME Code (included in equation constant) W . multiply A as calculated above by 0. units: Volumetric flow rate. .square inches F .pounds per hour Q .pounds K . UNITS Mass flow rate. To use specific gravity of the liquid rather than density. units in the above equations. the following applies: A . units: For liquids that are more viscous than water (viscosity greater than 1 cp).S. conventional U. sub-stitute 62.S. The Reynolds number can be calculated from: Reaction force for mass flow rate.S. a correction factor can be found using the procedure detailed under "EQUA-TIONS IN ANY CONSISTENT SET OF UNITS" above.62. units: For conventional U.S. conventional U.62/K.S.37 x specific gravity for density D in either of the above equations. conventional U.pounds per cubic foot : .gallons per minute D .pounds per square inch For discharge coefficients K other than 0.0.EQUATIONS IN CONVENTIONAL U.

62 per the ASME Code (included in equation constant) W .EQUATIONS IN METRIC UNITS Mass flow rate. metric units: Volumetric flow rate.bars For discharge coefficients K other than 0. a correction factor can be found using the procedure detailed under "EQUATIONS IN ANY CONSISTENT SET OF UNITS" above. multiply A as calculated above by 0. metric units: For metric units in the equations above.0.62. The Reynolds number can be calculated from: Reaction force for mass flow rate.square millimeters F .kilograms per cubic meter : . . metric units: For liquids that are more viscous than water (viscosity greater than 1x10-3 Pa-sec).Pa-sec (kg/m-sec) P .62/K.cubic meters per second D .Newtons K .kilograms per hour Q . the following applies: A .

defined by: For this equation: k . EQUATIONS IN ANY CONSISTENT SET OF UNITS Mass flow rate. this will occur if the inlet pressure exceeds 15 psig and the relief device vents to atmosphere. From an analytical standpoint.ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to specific heat at constant volume (Cp/C v) Subsonic flow will occur when P2/P1 is greater than rc. actual conditions. any consistent units:Volumetric flow rate.GASES AND VAPORS Flow of a gas or vapor through a ruptured disk will be at sonic velocity if the ratio of outlet to inlet pressure is sufficiently low. standard conditions. the gas flow constant C is given by . As a rule of thumb. Definition of this constant is shown below. any consistent units: Volumetric flow rate. sonic flow will occur when the ratio of out-let to inlet absolute pressures P2/P1 is less than or equal to the critical pressure ratio rc. The equations for gas or vapor flow shown below are the same for either so-nic or subsonic flow except for the evaluation of the gas flow constant C included in the equations. any consistent units: For sonic flow (P2/P1 < rc).

absolute value R* .Reaction force for sonic flow. T . For the equations shown above.outlet pressure.inlet pressure. any consistent units: If flow is subsonic. UNITS Mass flow rate. the following legend applies: A .volumetric flow rate.gravitational constant K .0.inlet pressure.reaction force gc .compressibility factor EQUATIONS IN CONVENTIONAL U.Universal Gas Constant.ratio of specific heats M . conventional U.62 per ASME Code k . gauge value P1 .mass flow rate Z .S.disk area F . units: . the reaction force will be less than the value given by this equation. actual conditions VS . absolute value VA . absolute value P2 .temperature.volumetric flow rate.For subsonic flow (P2/P1 > rc).molecular weight P .S. standard conditions W .

conventional U.S. substitute 28.62 per the ASME Code (included in equation constant) P1 . standard conditions.pounds per square inch absolute T . the gas flow constant C changes to the equation below : .square inches W . Using Z = 1.0.Volumetric flow rate. For sonic flow (P2/P1 < rc). actual conditions.oR (degrees Rankine) If the compressibility factor Z is not known. Figure B can be utilized to determine this factor. If the specific gravity of the gas (relative to air at standard conditions) is known but the molecular weight is not known.964 x specific gravity for M in the equation for standard conditions. units: For the above equations. the following applies: A .S.pounds per hour VA .actual cubic feet per minute VS . conventional U.0 is frequently done when there is insufficient data to determine the value of Z.7 psia at 60oF) K . units: Volumetric flow rate.standard cubic feet per minute (14.

(P2/P1 > rc).For subsonic flow. changes to the equation below: .

the following legend applies: A . metric units: Volumetric flow rate. units: In the equation immediately above: F . standard conditions. actual conditions.oK (degrees Kelvin) For sonic flow (P2/P1 < rc).poundf If flow is subsonic.bars absolute T .standard cubic meters per second (1 bar absolute at 15oC) K . EQUATIONS IN METRIC UNITS Mass flow rate. the value given by this equation will be an upper limit of the reaction force.kilograms per hour VA .square millimeters W . metric units: Volumetric flow rate.62 per the ASME Code (included in equation constant) P1 .S. conventional U.0.Reaction force for sonic flow.actual cubic meters per second VS . the gas flow constant C is given by: . metric units: For the above equations.

For subsonic flow (P2/P1 > rc). pressures up to 1500 psig: Dry saturated steam.S. metric units: In the equation immediately above: F . UNITS (Sonic flow.Newtons If flow is subsonic.) Superheated steam (Napier's empirical equation): Dry saturated steam. C changes to the equation below: Reaction force for sonic flow. pressures between 1500 and 3200 psig: Wet steam: .55. STEAM EQUATIONS IN CONVENTIONAL U. P2/P1 less than 0. the value given by this equation will be an upper limit to the reaction force.

the following applies: A .55.62 per the ASME Code P1 . pressures up to 102 bar: Dry saturated steam.0.square inches W .degrees of superheat .psia )X .% steam quality) The reaction force for steam discharge can be found by using the equation for gases and vapors with k = 1.oF (degrees Fahrenheit) K .pounds per hour )T .33 .) Superheated steam (Napier's empirical equation): Dry saturated steam. EQUATIONS IN METRIC UNITS (Sonic flow.For the above equations. the following applies: . P2/P1 less than 0. pressures between 102 and 220 bar: Wet steam: For the above equations.inlet pressure .(100 .

LIQUIDS Determine the rupture disk size required for relieving the following conditions: Vessel MAWP Flow Requirement Back Pressure Specific Gravity Application 45 psig 1500 gallons per minute 5 psig 0.0.(100 . ratio: .inlet pressure . GASES Determine the rupture disk size required for relieving the following conditions: Vessel MAWP Flow Requirement Back Pressure Flow Temperature Flow Media Application 150 psig 5000 actual cubic feet per minute 20 psig 250oF (degrees Fahrenheit) Air (M = 29.S.4.bar absolute )X . the required nominal disk size is 4 inch for a STD or CO type rupture disk and a 3 inch FAS or PCR type rupture disk. rate. EXAMPLE 2.kilograms per hour )T . use Z = 1) Primary Relief Flow pressure Use 10% over-pressure as permitted by ASME code.62 per ASME Code P1 . units: Using discharge areas in Table B.85 Primary Relief Volumetric flow Use 10% over-pressure as permitted by ASME code.% steam quality) EXAMPLE 1. conventional U. k = 1.A .square millimeters W .degrees of superheat in oC (degrees Celsius or Centigrade) K .

Flow pressure ratio: Critical pressure ratio: .26 0. units: For Given the required flow in actual cubic feet per minute: Using discharge areas in Table B. EXAMPLE 3. the required nominal disk size is 8 inch for a STD or CO type rupture disk and a 6 inch FAS or PCR type rupture disk.72 1. conventional U.Critical pressure ratio: P2/P1 is less than rc. therefore 3 psi over-pressure is permitted by ASME code. GASES Determine the rupture disk size required for relieving the following conditions: Vessel MAWP Flow Requirement Back Pressure Flow Temperature Media Specific Gravity Specific Heat Ratio Compressibility Factor Application 15 psig 2000 standard CFM 5 psig -40oF (degrees Fahrenheit) 0.S.95 Primary Relief In this case 10% of gauge pressure is less than 3 psi. therefore the flow will be sonic.

units: Given the required flow in standard cubic feet per minute: Using discharge areas in Table B. .S.P2/P1 is greater than rc. therefore the flow will be subsonic. For conventional U. the required nominal disk size is 3 inch for a STD or CO type rupture disk and a 2 inch FAS or PCR type rupture disk.

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