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To Multi-Level Inverters

1

Ayşe KOCALMIŞ Sedat SÜNTER2

1,2

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Firat University, 23119, Elazig-Turkey

Abstract: In this paper, application of an artificial neural associated with each supply can be large in H-bridge

network (ANN) based space vector pulse width modulation converters.

technique (SVPWM) to a three-level inverter has been realized. In this study, isolated H-bridge three-level inverter has been

However, the proposed modulation technique can be also applied

considered. This is because the device voltage sharing is

to multi-level inverters having more than three levels. Two ANN

structures are applied in the modulation algorithm. One of them automatic because of the independent DC supplies. There is

is used for determining the sector in the space vector hexagon, and also no restriction on switching pattern. Some redundancy is

the other one is used for calculating the region in the sector. possible by using more H-bridges per phase than is actually

Modeling and simulation of the proposed control algorithm and required [5]. By using a lot of H-bridges, very high voltage

the three-level inverter feeding either an R-L load or induction converters can be made this way. The H-bridge circuit is

motor load have been performed. Simulation results are presented modular. Therefore, this is an advantage for manufacture and

illustrating good performance of the drive system. maintenance.

PWM generation in multi-level inverters is more difficult

I. INTRODUCTION than 2-level inverters. In recent years, various pulse width

modulation (PWM) techniques have been developed. Space

Multi-level based voltage-fed inverters have recently vector PWM (SVPWM) technique is one of them and can be

become very popular for high power applications in industry. applied to multi-level inverters [6]. The SVPWM algorithm

Multi-level inverters produce a better output spectrum than 2- gives higher fundamental voltage amplitude and better

level inverters employing the same device switching frequency. harmonic spectrum compared to carrier-based sine-triangle

However, PWM generation is more complex. Voltage sharing PWM (SPWM). However, application of SVPWM algorithm

of the switching devices in multi-level inverters is easily to multi-level inverters is more complex because of large

performed [1]. In addition, with multi-level inverters voltage number of inverter switching states [7].

stress on each switching states is reduced [2]. The application of artificial neural networks (ANN) in power

There are 3 basic types of multi-level converters: Isolated H- electronics area is recently growing. In this paper, ANN is used

bridge, Diode clamped converter and Flying capacitor to determine the regions and sectors in SVPWM using

converter. In the diode clamped multi-level inverters except in modulation index and vector position as input. This paper

the 3-level circuit, the capacitor voltages do not share presents modeling and simulation of a feedforward ANN based

automatically. Either some form of extra balancing circuit is SVPWM multilevel inverter using H-bridge circuit

needed or multiple (non-isolated) DC supplies are required one configuration using Simulink/ MATLAB package program.

for each capacitor. In addition, as the number of levels The output of the inverter feeds both a passive R-L and

increases, some diodes have to block large voltages [3]. This induction machine loads.

makes this type of multi-level inverters unattractive for more

than 5-levels since many diodes in series are required. It is also II. ANN BASED SVPWM AND THREE-LEVEL INVERTERS

difficult to build in redundancy. In the flying capacitor multi-

level inverters, the flying capacitors need to be pre-charged to The cascaded multilevel inverter (H-bridge) shown in Fig.1

half of DC supply voltage. The switching strategy must be used is one of the three possible multi-level inverter configurations.

to maintain flying capacitors at the correct voltage. This must It can be realized by connecting several single- phase H-bridge

be done via some form of feedback mechanism. As the number inverters depending on the level numbers. For instance, using

of levels increases in the flying capacitor circuit arrangement, one single-phase inverter circuit for each output leg as shown

the number of capacitors required increases rapidly. This in Fig.1 gives 3-level at each output phase or 5-level at each

circuit is also difficult to build in redundancy. The problems output line [7]. The relationship between the level number and

with H-bridge multi-level inverters are: Each H-bridge needs number of H-bridges for each output phase can be given as;

an isolated DC supply compared to the other types of multi-

N −1

level inverters which need only one supply [4]. In order to cope Hb = (1)

with this problem it is normally required some sort of 2

complicated transformer arrangement. In addition, capacitors Where; N is the level number and Hb is number of the H-

bridge inverters for each output phase.

that calculation technique for the other sectors will be similar.

Sector A is divided into 4 regions as shown in Fig.2 where all

the possible switching states for each region are given as well.

SVPWM for three-level inverters can be implemented by

considering the following steps;

using ANN

B. Calculate the switching times, Ta, Tb, Tc

C. Find the switching states.

Se

3

Fig. 1. Three level multilevel inverter using cascaded inverters with

ct

or

or

ct

separated DC sources.

1

Se

TABLE I

SWITCHING STATES OF THE INVERTER SWITCHES (X=A, B, C

PHASES)

Vx0 SX1 SX2 SX1’ SX2’

Vdc/2 1 0 0 1

0 1 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 1

-Vdc/2 0 1 1 0

Fig. 2. Space vector diagram of three-level inverter.

Each H-bridge inverter circuit generates square-wave Determining the sector and region with ANN

voltage waveforms with different modulation index. For three The SVPWM algorithm is used to obtain training data for

level inverters the voltage levels will be Vdc/2, 0 and -Vdc/2. In relevant ANN-SVPWM. For any vector position and

Table 1 the switching states of H-bridge inverter are modulation index, the region and sector in SVPWM are found

summarized. by using ANN structure. Two ANN are used as one for sector

In three-level inverters there are 33= 27 possible states. All determination and the other for region determination.

voltage vectors can be divided into four groups; zero voltage A five-layer network is used for implementing each subnet.

vectors (000, 111, -1-1-1), small voltage vectors (110,00- Subnets are obtained using Trainlm function applying

1,…,0-1-1), medium voltage vectors (10-1,01-1,..,1-10) and Levenberg-Marquardt training method in MATLAB. First

large voltage vectors (1-1-1,11-1,…, 1-11). All zero vectors lie layer is input which consists of the vector position, modulation

on the center of hexagon, and other voltage vectors (24 active index and output frequency. The 2nd,3rd and 4th hidden layers

voltage vectors) are on the corners of each triangle in hexagon. consist of 7, 15 and 15 tansig neurons, respectively. Finally, the

Fig.2 shows all possible states. Space vector diagram of three- output layer consists of 1 purelin neuron.

level inverters is divided to six sectors (Sector 1,…, Sector6)

and each sector is divided to four regions (1, 2, 3, 4) as seen in Calculating The Switching Times, Ta, Tb, Tc

Fig.2. [8]. Ta, Tb, Tc switching times for Sector A is given in Table.2

The principle of SVPWM method is that the command [10].

voltage vector is approximately calculated by using three

adjacent vectors. The duration of each voltage vectors obtained TABLE II

by vector calculations [9]; SWITCHING TIMES FOR SECTOR A

Region I Region II

* T 1.1*m*Ts*sin((π/3)-α) Ts(1-1.1*m*sin(α+π/3))

T1 V1 + T2 V2 + T3 V3 = Ts V

(2) a

T1 + T2 + T3 = Ts T Ts/2(1-(2*1.1*sin(α+π/3)) 1.1*Ts*m*sinα

b

T 1.1*Ts*sinα Ts/2((2*1.1*m*sin(π/3-α))-1)

where V1, V2, and V3 are vectors that define the triangle region c

in which V* is located. T1, T2 and T3 are the corresponding Region III Region IV

vector durations and Ts is the sampling time. T Ts/2(1-2*1.1*m* sinα) Ts/2(2*1.1*m*sin(α)-1)

In a three-level inverter similar to a two-level inverter, each a

T Ts/2(2*1.1*m*sin(π/3+α)-1) 1.1*m*Ts*sin((π/3)-α)

space vector diagram is divided into 6 sectors. For simplicity b

here only the switching patterns for Sector A will be defined so T Ts/2(1+2*1.1*m*sin(α-π/3)) Ts(1-(1.1*m*sin(α+π/3))

c

inverter. Fig.5 shows Simulink model of the whole drive

Finding The Switching States system including a load which is either an R-L load or

By considering the switching transition of only one device at induction motor load. “ANN” block determinates the sector

any time; the switching orders given below are obtained for and region in SVPWM using modulation index and vector

each region located in Sector A if all switching states in each position as input applying artificial neural network . “Space

region are used. Therefore, switching signals for Sector A are; vector” block calculates the switching times according to

Region 1:-1-1-1, 0-1-1, 00-1, 000, 100, 110, 111 Table.2 and generates SVPWM signals as explained in Section

Region 2: 0-1-1, 1-1-1, 10-1, 100 II. “Inverter” block represents the three-phase inverter model

Region 3: 0-1-1, 11-1, 10-1, 100, 110 using ideal switches. 3-pahase R-L load is modeled as shown

Region 4: 00-1, 10-1, 11-1, 110 in Fig.5. However, induction motor model is not shown here.

The motor parameters are given in Appendix.

conditions for both active and passive loads. In Fig.6, the

output current, line voltage and spectra are given for a passive

load of R=100Ω and L=0.1H. In this case, switching frequency

and DC link voltage of the cascade inverters was taken as 1kHz

and 500V, respectively with the output frequency of 60Hz.

Fig.3. Switching Signals of Sector A: (a) Region.1, (b) Region 2, (c) Region 3, Fig.7 illustrates the three-phase motor currents, motor line

(d) Region 4.

voltage, motor speed and electromagnetic torque. Here, the

output frequency has been set to 10Hz corresponding to

Fig.4 illustrates direction of the switching sequences for all

300rpm motor speed. In order to maintain constant v/f

regions in the sectors. Modulation index in SVPWM is defined

operation the modulation index has been set to 0.18. Similar

as;

results for the induction motor load have been taken at 65Hz

V* output frequency the motor operates at constant power region

m= (3)

V1sw with small v/f ratio. In this case the modulation index has been

Where; V* is the amplitude of command or reference voltage set to 0.9.

vector and V1sw is the peak value of the mean harmonic

(2Vd/π). The modulation index varies between 0 and 1 in linear IV. CONCLUSIONS

region. The rotating reference voltage V* for m ≤ 0.907

remains within the hexagon corresponding to linear operation A feedforward neural network based space vector PWM for

region. In SVPWM method the command voltage vector is a three-level inverter has been modeled and simulated. ANN is

approximately calculated by using three adjacent vectors. used to determine the sector and region in SVPWM inverter.

The proposed method is a good solution to the classical method

III. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF ANN BASED THREE- at high level numbers in multilevel inverters. The proposed

LEVEL SPACE VECTOR PWM INVERTER control algorithm used in the three-level inverter can be easily

applied to multilevel inverters. It has been shown that high

MATLAB/Simulink packed program is used to model and quality waveforms at the output of the multilevel inverter can

simulate the complete ANN based three- level SVPWM

be obtained even with 1 kHz of low switching frequency. presented and they illustrate good performance of the drive

Simulation results for both R-L and induction motor loads are system.

Fig. 6. (a) Output current, (b) The line output voltage, (c) The line output

voltage waveform and its spectra (fo=60Hz and m=0.7)

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(c)

APPENDIX

Ratings of the three-phase, 4-pole, 380 V, 50 Hz squirrel cage

induction motor are:

Frequency range: 0-65Hz

Stator resistance (Rs): 7Ω

Rotor resistance (Rr): 6Ω

Stator leakage inductance (Lls): 0.52mH

Rotor leakage inductance (Lllr): 0.52mH

Magnetizing inductance (Lm): 0.5mH

Rotor inertia (J): 0.0085kgm2

(c)

PN: 1.1kW

TN: 7.62 Nm

Fig. 7. (a) Three-phase motor currents, (b) The motor line voltage

waveform, (c) Motor speed, Electromagnetic torque (m=0.18, fo=10Hz,

fs=1kHz )

REFERENCES

space vector PWM controller for a three-level voltage-fed inverter

induction motor drive”, IEEE Trans. on Industry App., Vol. 38, no. 3,

pp.660-669, May/June 2002.

[2] M. Manjrekar and G. Venkataramanan, “Advanced topologies

andmodulation strategies for multilevel inverters”, Power Electronics

Specialists Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 1013-1018, 23-27 June 1996,.

[3] Y., Shrivastava, C.K., Lee, S.Y.R., Hui, H.S.H, Chung, “Comparision

of rpwm and pwm space vector switching schemes for three-level power

inverters”, Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Vol.1, pp.138 –

145, 17-21 June, 2001.

[4] Y.H. Lee, B.S. Suh, C.H. Choi, and D.S. Hyun, “A new neutral point

(a) current control for a 3-level converter/inverter pair system”, IEEE

Trans on Industry App., Vol. 3, pp. 1528-1534, 1999.

[5] S., Cobreces, E.J., Bueno, F.J., Rodriguez, J., Salaet, J., Bordonau, “A

new neutral-point voltage control for single-phase three-level npc

converters”, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp.1–6,

18-22 June 2006.

[6] S.K., Mondal, B.K., Bose, V., Oleschuk, J.O.P., Pinto, “Space vector

pulse width modulation of three-level inverter extending operation into

overmodulation region”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,

Vol.18, pp.604 – 611, March 2003.

[7] B.P., McGrath, D.G., Holmes, “A comparison of multicarrier pwm

strategies for cascaded and neutral point clamped multilevel inverters”

IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Vol. 2, pp.674 - 679

, 18-23 June 2000.

[8] A. Kocalmis, and S. Sunter, “Modelling and simulation of a multilevel

inverter using space vector modulation technique”, 3rd Int. Conf. on

(b) Technical and Physical Problems in Power Engineering (TPE-2006)

Ankara-Turkey, pp.940-943, 29-31 May, 2006.

[9] A. Nabae, I. Takahashi and H. Akagi, “A new neutral-point-clamped

pwm inverter”, IEEE Trans. on Industry App., Vol. 17, No.5, pp.518-

523, September/October 1981.

[10] A. Kocalmis, “Modelling and simulation of a multilevel inverter using

SVPWM”, MSc Thesis, Institute of Science, Firat University, 2005.

(c)

Fig. 8. (a) Three-phase motor currents, (b) The motor line voltage

waveform, (c) Motor speed, Electromagnetic torque (m=0.9, fo=65Hz,

fs=1kHz)

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