Conscious monitoring of attention during simultaneous interpretation

VALERIA DARO*, SYLVIE LAMBERTo AND FRANCO FABBRO+

This study addresses for the first time on an experimental level the question of whether different modalities of conscious monitoring of attention (normal condition, attention fecalization on the, input, attention focalization on the output, c6ncli.tj,on withG voices) may affect the number and the type of mistakes made by J~~ultaneou~,~nterpreters in different situations. The major results of the study <ire the fol'fdwing: (i) While the overall number of mistakes is influenced either by the translation direction,or by any of the four tested attention focalization modlilities, a particular type of mistakes, i.e. those leading to loss of information, occur more' often during active SI (from L1 into L2, i.e. from

'A t,o, B) of diff1,~ ~,uUlt texts; (ii) during passive SI of difficult texts, missing infoknktion misi?fe are less frequent when interpreters listen to the incoming message with thiir left ear only; (iii) in active SI of difficult texts, attention should not be focussed on the incoming message in particular, so as to avoid socalled added mistakes. These results show that during simultaneous interpretation, conscious attention focalization on the input or on the output does not influence the interpreter's overall performance, however with an important exception: during active interpretation it could be useful for interpreters to focus their attention on the output, since this may help them, to reduce in particular false starts, pauses, hesitations, corrections, additions and morphosyntactic mistakes.

Interpreting Vol. 1(1), 1996. 101-124 © John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Investigatingth-e role of conscious monitoring of attention during simuitaneOIlS interpretation (Sl) is a difficult task for several different reasons. One of the first difilcultiesconc~rns the necessjty of defining attention. As William James rightlypomted out, "every/one kno,v~ whatattention js'>,h~~veV;~J it is not at alleasyto formulatea precise defi~tion of it. He himself suggested that "focalization and concentration of consciousness are of its essence" (James, 1890: 416). Th6!edifficulty in finding an appropriate general defmit;." of attention led man)' autbors to resort to metaphoricalexpressioas in describe this cOgnIDve function. A comrnonmetaphor for attentio spoiligbtsystemfoundin theatres. "A spotlight is selective (beamwid has intensity. \Vilat is outside the spotlight is hardly noticed" (van Zomeren & Brollwer, 19'94: 7).

Recent research studies on human memory have highlighted the important role of attention during tasks of memorization of verbal material. For example, verbal short-term memory is severely disrupted if conscious attention is not steadily focussed on the task. In fact, one of the fundamental

components of working memory, i.e. the central executive-system, is '~-h~"'.~' '~"b else but a coordination mechanism, of attentive functions that

activated during memorization tasks (Baddeley, 1990; Darb & Fabbro, .:

Moreover, focalized attention is also of paramount importance in the

of long-term verbal memorization. Recent studies .. have shown long-term memory is mainly based on two radically different systems: explicit I1xemory and implicit memory (Tulving, 1987; Schacteretal., 1983). They basicallydifferfroraeacb other with respect to the role of awareness, and thus of focalized attention, during memorization processes, ExpliCit memory, which indudessemantie- and episodic -memory ,is reinforced ' by, focussing attentionrl;uring learning tasks, whereas implicit memory does notr~quire coascious attentioafocalizatioa duringthe acquisition 'of procedural indeed it is even impaired if attention is consciously focussed on u",',,,,,""' .. parts of the task (Ellis, 1994;, Darb, in press). In metaphorical, L...._"F" .... '4bv' focussing one's attention' while carrying out a procedural task would directing a beam of light onto a negative that still has to be rtA"'~II"''''

effect is devastating.

In the last decade several neuropsychological research studies have been carried out in order to define the neurofunctional bases of human memory

103

CONSCIOUS ATIENTION IN SI

connection with attentive functions. It has been lesions to the frontal lobes of the brain cause severe! impairments in the functioning of the central executive of working memory: individuals with frontal lesions are no longer able to appropriatelyj.focus their attention during short-term memorization tasks (Shallice, 198'8). As regards long-term memory, a series of neurological diseases have.been found to have devastating effects with typical findings of double dissociations. While some specific cortical lesions in the parietal and temporal lobes may selectively impair explicit memory (i.e. semantic and/or episodic memoryj.Iesions to the basal ganglia or to the cerebellum generally disrupt some compbn~iitsof implicit memory (e.g. the ability to carry out certain procedures; see Aglioti & Fabbro, 1993; Perani et al., 1994; Fabbro & Paradis, 1995).'

Another ~'~ries of neuro~sychol~gical stu~ies has t~ckled t~e problem~f the role of eacp';cerebral hemisphere m regulatmg attentive functions, There 1S wide agreemd~tj oV,the idea that in right-handed individuals, who make up about 90% onilie hiuman population (see Bryden, 1982), the right hemisphere i~ ~e:s'ponsiblett~t. 9~ganizing what is generally known as "diffuse attention", ie: the kind ofah:ei,Wtion devoted to external events occurring in the surrounding environment"iirat controls both the right and the left hemispace and 'prepares the organism for generalized action. On the other hand, clinical data speak in favor of a left-hemisphere dominance for consciousness. Actually, patients with Ieft-hemisphere lesions have significantly lower levels of consciousness cdnp~ed to patients with right-hemisphere lesions (van Zomeren & Brouwer, 1994: 54-60). Since the left hemisphere is also generally dominant for languag:e, it is reasonable to suggest that conscious attention may be influenced artd:c9ntrolled by linguistic functions (Fabbro, 1989; 1990; Dennet, 1991)."'J":I~',:rj

The role '~fn.!'ihscious attention during the acquisition of the complex

automatized sen~bt~-motor and cognitive tasks (i.e. procedures) involved in simultaneous interpretation (S1) and during the performance of this task has not been thoroughly investigated as yet (Lawson, 1967; Lambert, Darb and Fabbro, 1995). However, some studies of experimentalpsychologyonatten~ tion (Allport, Antonis & Reynolds, 1972; Spelke, Hirst & Neisser, 1976; Hirst, Spelke.Reaves, Caharack & Neisser, 1980) as well as general intuition regarding the! teaching of S1 strategies and techniques suggest that in the initial stage oil' acquisition of these complex procedures, attention has to be

eollsdOl'l~IJi activ~1ed ,and de'loted to the diffe:rent skin compoIJi~~!fS. It is exactJly in tms stage that begffiners tend to make more mistakes in thejffoutput. Later ml, smdents deselop a certain degree of "automaticity" to reach a point wbere,fit:e pmfessional interprieters, it is much better for them to avoid coocentta't:illl!gon.meproceffimllaspects of the task and to concentrate rather 011 .It!be mi;Qmg i3!Ild outgoing messages. Atheoreticalexpianation for this kind of typical development during the acquisition stages of SI is now available: Since S1 basic strategies are procedures, they are very likely to be stored and organized in implicit memory systems, thus the activation of conscious attention rends to hamper their smooth functioning by calling other , systems into action whichare unnecessary and disturbing (Dare, 1995a, . 1995b). However, these are rather generic remarks. One has to consider that the different languages known by a bilingual or polyglot individuat~ay be

,;,.f!:;~0,<},;."'.,

differently organized within long-term memory systems. In such a case, the

first lan,guagetends to have a predominantly implicit representation as opposed to the second and t1:J.lld language which are generally mainly organized inexp1.icit memory systems. This may have important repercussions on attenti ... re fuBC;tions. during SI, according to the direction of translation (paradis, 1994). Foil example, it may be better not to focus one's attention on the output during "passive' interpretation (into one's Ll), but rather during "active" interpretation (from L1 into L2 or L3).

The role of attention focalization during SI has been investigated in the present experiment, and in particular: a) the possibility and/or utility for professional simultaneous interpreters to focus their attention eip the input or on the output and b) the influence of attention focali ,h on interpreters' performance according to the direction of translation and ear of input .. The present paper brings additional data to a preliminary work (Lambert, Daro & Fabbro, 1995), by focussing the discussion on the number and type of errors occurring in S1 tasks during which conscious monitoring of attention was performed in different modalities.

Materials and methods

Subjects and Design: The subjects of this experimental study wereJ6 righthanded French/English bilingual interpreters working for Canadi~I~?emmental institutions (e.g. Secretary of State, Parliamentary Commissions etc.).

CONSCIOUS ATIENTION IN 81

105

': Their hand preference has been assessed by means of the Briggs and Nebes' ! test (1975). All subjects volunteered for the experiment which was carried out ,i'in a dedicated room of the School for Translation and Interpretation at the lei'

" University of Ottawa. The subjects' age ranged from 30 to 82 (average age =

43), the years of their professional activity ranged from 1 to 29 (average = 13 years), All of them were working with English and French: five subjects had .. English as first language, the remainder had French. They mainly worked into

: their respective mother tongue.fhough they were often requested to work into . their L2 as well. All but five subjects knew additional languages without using

them for professional purposes.

The experimental design allowed for the study of four independent variables: (1) Attention (four levels: control condition; focalized attention on the input; focalized attention on the output; condition with two concurrent messages expressed by two different voices); (2) Translation Direction (two levels: from L2 into L1, so-called passive interpretation; from L1 into L2, socalled active interpretation); (3) Text Type (two levels: easy texts; difficult texts); (4) Ear of Input (three levels: right ear; left ear; binaural).

Texts: The verbal material to be presented to the subjects in English and in 'French was sJbdivided into "easy" and "difficult" texts.

I

Easy texts consisted of 12 microtexts (see Appendix), each one being made up of 5 simple sentences (main clauses) combined in a paratactic style, which included only very common everyday language words with high occurrence frequency. Each micro text represented a complete coherent and cohesive unit I (see de Beaugrande & Dressler 1981) corresponding to a short meaningful

and semantically exhaustive story. Most English easy texts were taken, with a few adaptations, from Hendrich's practice book for simultaneous interpret-

'ing (Hendrich, 1971) and the French easy texts were· free translations of exercise drills.from the same book.

Difficult texts consisted of 12 microtexts (see Appendix), each one being made up of 5 longer main clauses, but this time each rnicrotext always included a relative clause as well. Relative clauses tend to be more difficult to understand, in that they seem to put more load on the processing system (see Cook, 1975). Moreover, since in English relative pronouns provide a surface . structure clue to comprehension processing, thus rendering comprehension 'easier than when optional relative pronouns are omitted (Fodor & Garrett, . 1967), it was decided to drop them in all English difficult sentences. Again,

eacbmicro~elttOH'Yle)fedacomplete meaningful set of information. time the vocabulary consisted of low-frequency words and of some - te~ taken from the FrenchiEngiish "What's What" (Bragcnier ...

1983). We chose a series. of "microtexts" in order to be sure that condition (see procedures below) we were imposin 0- more or less the same

•. . . b

cogmtrse load on the subjects, It would have been impossible to con~~r this

variable \liFftll ~$mgle. long, .. coherent and cohesive text Most parafli~llls of '>ib~epFesent all oversimplification of reality, non~~~Iess cfunctional in order to provide modern science with "powerful" dam 3iHdto corroborate theories for practical applications (see Fabbro

1995). . ,

Procedures

~o~

lii!r,

Easy. and .d~ffieult texts. in English and French were recorded by a Fi~nCh/ E~ghsh .. bilingual female speaker at a speech rate of about 110 words per rnmute.~eywere presented to the subjects over stereophonic headphones. Each sub1iOCtwasasked to simultaneously translate the English texts into Frencll.<mdth~French . texts into English, thus performing a session with ~gl:islii ~.oom()e:l'anguageand another one with French. For each language, mterpretabontasts were to be carried out under four different conditions:

con:tmlcondition: subjects interpreted normally the way they were used

to; (2) focaJizedattention on the input: subjects were asked toc :'~

focus their attention mainly on the incoming message; (3) focalized on the output: subjects were asked to consciously focus their attenti on their own production; and (4) condition with two voices: subjects .... " .•.. 'via one headphone the original text to be interpreted and at the same time via the other headphone a different irrelevant text uttered by a male voice in the same lan~uage as the ~riginal text, which they were told to ignore (see the schematic representauon of the experimental design in Table 1). In each condition the subjects were presented with an easy and a difficult text which were sent either binaurally or only to the left ear or only to therizht ear. Sessions conditions and ears of~put were completely counterbalanc~across subjects:

Several psycholOgIcal and neuropsychological research studies are based on experimental paradigms in which subjects are asked to enzaze in a particular mental activity. In these cases the experimenter cann~t bexert a aifect

J'J,'

CONSCIOUS ATIENTION IN SI

107

control over the task to be carried out. Such a control occurs only after the experimental sessions, when the results of every single subject are both checked again~~ t~ose .of the other subjects and examined in terms of coherence with already existing knowledge and/or previous similar studies. For example, if dJ~in~ a s~ssion of dichotic listening, right-handed subjects are asked to focusl their attention on the verbal material sent to their left ear, one can be sure that they actually did so when their data show no right-ear effect (which, in turn, has been usually observed in normal dichotic listening sessions). In all those experiments where specific mental tasks are requested fro in the subjects and thus carinot be controlled "on-line", some features of the experimental design are included so as to be' able to subsequently check whether the subjects really followed instructions or not (Broadbent, 1971; Kahneman, 1973; Posner, 1980).

Scoring methodsiTtv: subjects' performances were recorded on a tape-recorder. The recorded outputs were subsequently transcribed on paper and then corrected and scored by two independent judges according to a set of different errors grouped in two main general categories: missing information and added mistakes. Finally, the few differences in scoring that emerged were discussed

to make a clear-cut assignment of errors to the respective category. .

I Under th~ht~~ping missing information the following 4 types of errors weregroupeds e~~rs of translation, omissions, imperfections (i.e, unprecise and/or inaccurateftranslationjand calques. The second category of errors included 8 types pf so-called added mistakes; i.e. errors which added some irregularities to tfuemessage in the target language, which were: additions, repleritions'lllotIi>fupsyntactic errors, slips of the tongue, false starts, pauses/ lollii~~esitati()~~,~:~rong corrections and correct corrections (i.e. self-correctioN's by thein'fer.p'reter which either improved the interpretation or led to its

'.I... ,

deterioration; see Barik, 1971; Gerver, 1974, 1976).

,

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Re~~ults~~!, 'I"'~I

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Individual results '~oncerning the total number of errors made by the subjects were submitted to a four-way analysis of variance: Attention x Translation Direction x Text Type x Ear. Table 2 shows the total number of errors. No significant differences were found between Attention, Translation Direction, or ,.Birr. Subjects made significantly more errors while translating the difficult

·)L j,

i~!' '

t:

108

CONSCIOUS ATTENTION IN S1

109

I. COn!lrol

2. Control

3. Control

4. COIlltroI 5 .. CJoiJilltrol 6. Control

I. Control

8. Centro]

9. Control 1O. CODIlro'i B .. ConllroI 12.

13. IUJW'""'''V'I.il

14. _"""'_".LU,t>"".

15. AttJ1nput

16. AtLlIntput

17. AttJInput lK AttJInput.

19. Att.1Inp1iil

20. AttJInput

21. AU..1Inp<lt 22. AttJInput 23.

25.

26. Att.lOuilput

27. Att.lOutput 28... Att.JOutpu! 29. Att.JOutput 30 .. AUJOutput

31. AUJOutput

32. AuJOutput

33. AttJOutput

34. Att.lOutput

35. AtLfOutpUl

36. AttlOutp1!!lt

37. Two Voices Binaural F-+E easy
38:. Two. Voices LE F-+E easy
I:
39~ Two. Voices RE F-+E easy
40l.Two. Veice~ Binaural F-+E difficult
dr 1 f LE F-+E difficult
4l'hi\Two Voices
4:il~\.vo Veice'~ RE F-+E difficult
! , .1:
vt: Two Veicd Binaural E-+F easy
38'. Two. VoiceJ LE E-+F easy
39i. T~o Voice~ RE E-+F easy
40:. Two Voices Binaural E-+F difficult
411 Two Voice~ LE E-+F difficult
42".'Two Voices RE E-+F difficult Binaural F-+E easy
LE F-+E easy
RE F-+E easy
Binaural F-+E difficult
LE F-+E difficult
RE F-+E difficult
Binaural E-+F easy
LE E-+F easy
RE E-+F easy
Binal1lrai E-+P difficult
LE E-+P difficult
RE E-+F difiicult
Binamal F-+E easy
LE F-+E easy
RE F-+E easy
Bin.aural F-+E difficelt
LE F-+E difiicult
RE F-+E difficult
Binaural E-+F easy
LE E-+F easy
RE E-+F easy
Bin:aural E-+F difiicult
LE E-+F difiicult
RE E-+F difiicult
Binaw:-al F-+E easy
LE F-+E easy
RE F-+E easy
Binaural F-+E difficult
LE F-+E difficult
RE F-+E difficult
Binaural E-+F easy
LE E-+F easy
RE E-+F easy
Binaural E-+F difficult
LE E-+F difficult
RE E-+F difficult * Each subject carried out 48 tasks in total, 12 for each condition = control condition (Control), focalized attention on the input (Att/Input), focalized attention on the output (A;'tiJ Output), and the condition with two voices (Two Voices). In half of the tasks, sup'ji::cts interpreted easy texts (12 from English into French, E-+F, and 12 from French in~~;jEnglish, F -+E), whereas in the remaining 24 tasks they interpreted difficult texts (12'E-+F and 12 F-+E). Texts were sent via headphones either to the left ear (LE),or to the right ear (RE), or to beth ears (Binaural).

{;

!;

t~~the easy texts [F(l,lS) = 166.29; p < .0001; easy texts = 2.2 errors on aVi'rage for each subject in each condition; difficult texts = 8.81 errors on aierage for each iltbj~ct in each condition]. This result confirms that the texts we had defined <l:" being "difficult" were indeed so. A striking result was that in the condition with two concurrent voices, where one voice was the sqlUrce~li;;sage to be translated whereas the other (the distracting

had to! be igl1~fed, the subjects' performances were not significantly than iIi the c:ofu'trol condition or in the .two conditions with focussed

, The samy ANOVA was carried out on errors including missing informatit:~n,(i.e.errors of translation, omissions, imperfections and calques). Table 3 shows the total number of errors' of omitting relevant information. The only main effect was Tex,~! Type [easy texts = 1.26 errors on average for each subject in each cOlla~~ion; difficult texts = 6.76 errors on average for each subject in each condition; F(l,lS) = 130,34; P <.0001]. Also the interaction ~'~b>L'''~~'H Directionx Text Type was significant [F(1,lS) = 5.33; P < .04]. A ,n,. .... an-Keuls post-h9c test revealed that subjects made significantly more

Ll--')L2

Total

~ Diiffiadt Easy

RE UK BRiE LE; B RE LE

DiffiClltt

RE LE B

134 170 148 173 1&0 119 In 146 639 608

B

,.~

1004-

1071 1060 1101 4237

25 24 21 139 93 130 37

J,a!l' :00153 UO 13447

42 .4& 19 100 123 136 54

32 31 49 161 116 134 31

123 143 U9.- 562 _ 448 534 169

2.90 3.37 _~;l:.:OO 13.26 10.57 12_60 3.98

-----

[1lIpIlIl 09'Ji"'1. 2Vom'ce5

41 44 146
19 31 161
57 27 136
40 34 144
157 142 593
3.70 3.35 l3_99 15.08 14.34 100% 43.4'7%

36.43%

11.03%

45.5%

54.50%

'" Total nmribeTof~ of all subjects subdivided according to translation direction. easy vs. difficult _it"~. it>imll!lJral YS.ri~-earfnpur"s .. ·Ie.ft-ear input, in the four different conditions (control, attention foccssed 0I!l1he mjllili;-attOOtiOn focussed on tile output. two Concurrent voices).

~IJsSmgWlnimarlion !!;~es'

Added: l\<liistak;es. Total
PIH REP FS ce we
85 16 190 83 9 2068
98 22 174 93 9 2169
183 38 364 176 18 4237
4.31 0.89 8.59 4.15 0,42 100%
27.35% L2--,)U 229 1099 128 42 70 79 38
U--,)L2 246 1146 154- 32 79 82 34
TOOIl 475 2245- 282 74 149 161 72
% .IL21 52 .. 98 6_65 1.74 3.51 3.79 1.69
72.5S% .. Types ofmistakes of all subjects subdivided according to mistakes' implying a loss of information and milst?lrl'S ~g" ~g dements to the texts. TRA=translations· errors, OM=omissions, EliIP=imperte...'"1ioos, CAL-=ci3Ilques. ADD=adrlitions, MRF=moTPhosyntactic mistakes, SU=slips of the t""'~ PjrH=<mJIses'alidbiSicmoms, REP=re:petitions, FS=false starts, CC=correct corrections.Wc=,,~t\\_g, ~e:riOilJlS. • :If;~iL!

errors when translating difficult texts fromLl into L2 (mean: 7.41) than from L2 into Ll (mean: 6.08). Finally, the interaction Translation Direction x Text Type x Ear was also significant: [F(2,30) = 3.63; P < .038]. A Newman-Keuls post-hoc testrevealed that information was missed mostly when subjects translated diffia1t texts fromL2 into L1 and these were sent to their right ear (6.53 errors of missing information on average for each subject) or binaurally (6.42), with less information being missed when the message was sent to their left ear (5.29).

'CONSCIOUS ATTENTION IN SI

111

Individual results of added mistakes (additions, repetitions, morphosyntactic mistakes, slips-of-the-tongue, false starts, pauses/long hesitati.ons, wrong corrections and correct corrections) underwent a four-way analysis of variance: Attention x Translation Direction x Text Type x Ear. Table 3 shows ,thd total number of added mistakes. Translation Direction was significant :[F:Ct,l5!) = 7.24; p< .02; from L2 into Ll = 1.42 for each subject in each

condition' fromLlInto L2 = 2.14] as was Text Type [F(l,15) = 34.14; p < .0001; ea~y texts = 1.00 errors on average for each subject~n eac~ co~dition; difficult texts = 2.56]. The interaction Attention x Translation Direction was also significant [F(3,45) = 3.16; p< .04]. A Newrnan-Keuls post-hoc test revealed that our subjects made significantly more "added mistakes" in the condition requiring the focalization of attention on the input when they were translating from Ll into L2 (average number of a~ded mi~takes: 3-_27). as opposed to all the ether conditions (for example, WIth attention f~cahzat~on on the input while. translating from L2 intoL 1: 1. 34). Also the mteraction Attention x Translation Direction x Text Type was significant and the Newman- Keuls post-hoc test revealed that more added mistakes were m~de in the condition with attention focussed on the input during the translation of difficult texts from Ll into L2 (5.62 errors) as opposed to any othercondition (1.43 errors on average for all other conditions).

Discussion

This experiment represents the only extensive experimental research on the ~ffects of atte~tioh focalization on the processes of SI. The major results of

I . I

r~hisstudy are thelfollowing:

)t!1 , ' I I

Jh. When considering the total number of mistakes, there are no differences

Ii' between the different conditions of attention focalization and between

the two directions of translation.

2. Errors causing a loss of information were more frequent when subjects made an active SI (into L2) of difficult texts.

3.. When subjects interpreted difficult. texts into theirLl they missed less information wheni:the source message was sent to their left ear, as opposed to their right ear or to both ears.

4. Finally, added mistakes were more frequent when subjects inte~reted difficult texts Into their L2 while focussing their attention on the mcorn-

1:12

ing message (mput), r:atherthan on their own-output Of on neither of the (:\\,,"0 (crJll:tJJQllicOftdition);

As to pomt 1: Ifoll,e, considerstbe total number of mistakes made by subjects, it is.ratber smprismi to note that not even m!he condition with coocurreIlt1tf0I~ididtheymake significaIltly more mistakes than in cOi!llilfOl cOiDdiibon.oiFthe£onditions··witli conscious focalization of attention. This showsfuat:o~.iBte£preteTswere able to select between two voices the one which was.acru:aHy.·canying the message they were supposed.to interpret [the so-ciUed~'~~i-party·effect';, see e.g, Norman, 1916), wi.funni this affecting their ove:rn.n performance. This result is in agreement with previous research by Lawson (1967).

As to point 2: We have grouped under the label "missing information mistakes" all those mistakes implying a loss of information, thus errors of translation, omissieas, imperfections and calques, amounting to 72.58% of ali. the mistakes taken1ogether{see Table 3). This type of classification: allow

us to identify tbegreatestnumber of such mistakes during active Sl, i.e. from Ll miO L2:,thI!llSShO\vingthat tlris translation direction makes interPreters commit mOreyrroIiS fuat are generally considered to be the most serious ones. \Vitbin this· categoIj' IOfmistakes, omissions turned out to be the most frequent cause for loss: of information (52.98% of the total number of mistakes), followed byerrors of translation (11.21 %; see Table 3).

As to point 3: lathe category of "missing information mistakes" subjects made significantly fewer mistakes only when translating difficult texts from L2 into Ll with left-ear input as opposed to right-ear or binaural input. This left-ear superiority has been found and discussed in previous studies ' bert, 1989; Fabbro, Gran & Gran, 1991; Dare, 1992), but it can be ,"T ,.tPTT'lT"i

in different ways: (a) The left-ear superiority observed Q_~y during SI . ,

into Ll (generally the most common direction of translation) is probably due to the fact thatin passive SI interpreters make fewer mistakes if they control their own output with their right ear, thus listening to the input with their left ear. It has been shown that the acoustic feedback between-right ear (left hemisphere) and the central nervous structures involved in speech.production is much more efficient (Sussman, 1979). (b) Another possible explanation is based on neuropsychological considerations: Interpreters make fewer' mistakes when me input in L2 is sent to their left ear (right hemisphere); because, in this translation direction they mainly activate the pragmatic aspects of. language in order to understand the message, and these aspects are genera.11,Y;~~

CONSCIOUS ATfENTION IN Sl '-1

113

orzanized on theright side of the brain (Fabbro, Gran, Basso & Bava, 1990; Fabbro 1992; Brownell, Gardner, Prather & Martino, 1994). On the other hand, ~hen they translate from their own m~ther tongue .into a second language, they mostly resort to linguistic strategies, thus makmg the left-ear

¢ffect disappear. I.. .'

:; A~ to point 4: Jhe present experiment has shown that conscious a~tentlOn

i:[ocalization may. ,j~¢rp reduce only those mistakes that we hav~ def~ned as i:J1'added mistakesr'~'i In\amelY additions, repetitions,. morphosyntactic Illist~es, ~!~lips ofthe ton~u~~\false starts, pauses/long .h~slta~lOns, w~ong corrections, ,'imd correct corre:d~~ns, which do not cause ongmal mformatl?n to be lost, but

: lv i . e on ttl, ",b~style of the interpreter's output. These mistakes represen, t on y impmg I' " 'II d

only 27'.35% of ,th~'tota1 number of errors (se~ ~ab1e 3) and they o~curre

most frequently when our subjects translated dlf~lcult tex:s f~on: L1 into L2 while consciously focussing their attention on the lDPUt. This finding had been the object of previous hypotheses (Goldman-Eisler, 1974, ~980), but no 'experimental corr .,oration had yet been attempte~. Our ex?enment has also clearly shown t' 'f during active SI (from Ll mto L2) mterpreters try to "concentrate mas ," on their output, they will succeed to reduce only the

number of so-chiikd added mistakes, but not that of serious mistakes of content which lea4 to information loss.

'~~ . .

* SSLM p~)~~terpreti eTraduttori, Universita di Trieste, Trieste, Italy

o Schooi of Translation and Interpretation, University of Ottawa,

• I • Ottawa, Canada

.• I, \

r~:'tistituto di Fisiologia Universita di Trieste, Trieste, Italy

} ;~::J1C\ ~l ,

i "'@I"'

''j\r.f; .rl

I : ,iJY-';

'Refer@~ces ~~ 1;,!I1 !

'. I~ j~~,. ' .. 1 ';'t;i'~-,!J.II

r, !~t~r t,f;t:;,',:1 .'

A, l' ~,(~ & Fabbfb" F. (1'993). Paradoxical selective recovery in a bilingual aphasic

g IQ""f'<>" .)

follo;:"'ing subCbrtid:alles\ons. NeuroReport, 4, 1359-l3.6~.. . . .

Allport, D.A., B. Antohis, 8i Reynolds, P. (1972). On the dlVlsIOn.of attention: A disproof

of the single channel hypothesis. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24,

225-235. .

"}.:

:lll;'

,'itl

n4

BamekY,A..(l996):Bumtm 111211!O'ry. Th~()ry and practice. HoveJLondon: LEA.

Bank, H. (f9Jl). A description of various types of omissions, additions and errors eeceentesed ills;imultaneous interpretation. Meta, 16, 199-210.

de Beangrande, R.A., & Dressler, W.U. (1981) .. Einfiihrung in die Textlin "" 'k:

Tilhingen: Ma'l: Niemever Verlaa,

Bragonie;' R.,lr~. & FISher: D. (1983). Le What's What - Ie Qu'est-ce-que c'est.'p·~s:

Editions MengesIRTL.

Briggs. G.c..&:ebes,RD. (1975) .. Patterns of hand preference in a student population.

Co.nex, n. _.~()"238.

B~dbent, DE. (1911)'~f)!ecirion and stress. London: Academic Press,

BoowDelrl fL:~"~Pr:!ther, P~ &Martino, G. (1995). Lan~age, C(lrQiIlunication aa..~. ftgb~~e~<i;pill!ie!fe.ln ReS. KirShner(Ed_). Handbook ;f Neurological Speed; tmlill Duorti~rJlLNe>lIli' YorK: flekk;er.

Bryden, ~O? (1982). I.n:terality. New York: Academic Press.

CIOO~. V.l. (1975). Strategies in the comprehension of relative clauses. Language and

Speech, 18.204-212. .' .•

Darb, V. (992)., Neuropsycaologische und neurolinguistische Aspekte des Simultan-

do.imelSlCbprozesses. Babel" 38, 1-9. .

Dare, V. {l995aJ. Ricerche salle componenti dell'interpretazione simultanea. Il ~ta-

duuore Nuovo, 44, 15-19. '

Darb. V. (~995b). ~ttentional, auditory, and memory indexes as prerequisites for simultaDICOllS ml~reun,g. In J., Tommola (Ed.), Topics in Interpreting' Research. pp.3~10.

Turku: CeiEltrefm:1'r.mslation and Interpreting, University of Turku, .

Dar?' V. (in press)' Experimental studies on memory in conference interpretation ... Meta. Dam, V., & Fabbro, .E (1994) .. Verbal memory during simultaneous interpretation: Effects of pbonologl..:al.loop. Applied Linguistics, 15, 365-381.

De~~ D.:~ (1990.~()?sa.ou;sne~s~xplail!!ed. Boston: Little" Brown and Company. Elli~ N .. {~9(94).~~otandexp'liclt language learning. An overview, In N.Ellis (Ed.), Implicit ~:e:rpllqtkll:ming of languages (pp. 1-31). London: Academic Press.

Fahboo, .F. (19.89). Cervello, linguaggio e stati di coscieaza, Rivista Italiana di 1pnosi Ciinica e Sperimeniale, 9, 21-26.

Fabbro, ~._(l~O) .. The ~ffects of hypnosis on callosal functions. An experimental

ArchrvlO di Psicologia, Neurologic e Psichiatria, 51, 85-93. '

Fabbro, F. (1992). Neuropsicologia dell'interpretazione simultanea, Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria, 53, 108-125.

Fabbro, ~. (in pr~paration). N~ds and advantages of scientific research in the practice and ~eaching of s~u~taneous interpretation, In S. Lambert (Ed.), A cognitive approach to Interpreter trauung,

Fab?ro, F., Gran, L, Basso, G. & Bava, A. (1990). Cerebral Iateralization in simultaneous interpretation. Brain and Language, 39, 69-89.

Fabbro, F.: Gran, L& Gran, B._ (1991) .. Hemispheric specialization for semantic and syntl!cfiCco;mpO~nts of language in simultaneous interpreters. Brain and language,

41,1-42. -

Fabbro, E: & P~s, M. (1995). Di~erential impairments in four multilingual patients WIth subcortical lesions, M. Paradis (Ed.), Aspects of bilingual aphasia (PI'. 139·) 76). London: Pergamon Press.

, ·'i',

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'~ ,

Fod J A & Garrett M. (1967). Some syntactic determinants of sentential complexity.

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Perceptual Ps)'chophysiology, 2, 289-296. .' . .

Gerver, D. (1974). The effects of noise on the performance of SImultaneous interpreters:

Accuracy of performance. Acta Ps),chologica, 38, 15~-167.. .

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'd~v York: Gardner Press. . .' .

Goidman-Eisler, F. (1972). Segmentation of input in simultaneous translation. Journal of

Psycho linguistic Research, 1, 127-140.. ..'

Goldman-Eisler. F. (1980). Psychological mechamsmsof speech .productlOn as studied

ithrough the analysis of simultaneous translation. InB. Butterworth (Ed.), Language Iw~duction (pp. 143-153). London: Academic Press. Vol_-l.

Hdh'drickx, P.V _. 971). Simultaneous interpreting. A practice book. London: Lo~g~~n.

Illist, W., . E.S., Reaves, c.c., Cahar.ack, G., & Neisser, ~. (1980). DlVldlllg

attention alternation of automaticIty. Journal of Experimental Psychology,

~109,98~1.· .

James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New Yor~: Holt. .

K,;,,· D (197'3'.) Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

aillneman,. . . ..' Th

Lambert, S. (1989). Simultaneous interpreters: One ear may be better than two. e

',' [hterpreters'Newsletter, 2, 11-16. . .' '.

L I , b' , t S D'ar·. 0 V. & Fabbro F. (1995). Focalized attention on input YS. output dunng

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Lawson, E.A.(i967). Attention and simultaneous translation. Language and Speech, 10.

29-35.

Norman, D. 1976). Memory and attention. An introduction to human information

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Paradis, M. (1, ", ). Neurolinguistic aspects ofImphcIt.a~dexpl~cltmemory. ImphcatlOns for bilingu'a,Usm. In N. Ellis (Ed.),lmplicitand explicit leaming of languages (pp. 393-

419). London: Academic Press. . '.. . .... . .

P . D Grassi F .. & Fazio F. (1994). I circuiti della memoria: studio can metodica

erani.uz., ' N I'

FDG e PET in modelli di patologia umana. Archivio di Psicologia, . euro ogta e

Psichiatria, 55, 882-899. -.

, . M.l. n980). Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experzmental Psycho 1-

32, 3~25. '; . . 1 .

DIO"'11Ol"', D.L Peter Chiu, C.-Y., & Ochsner, K.N. (1993). Irnplicitmemory: A se ective

'review. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 16, 159-182. . . .

Shallice, T. (~~88). From neuropsychology to mental structure. Cambridge: Cambridge

University?ress. . . . . . .

Spelke,E., Wrist, W., & Neisser, U. (1976). Skills ofdlVlded attention. CognztlOn, 4, 215-

,230. _., -

Sussman, H. kT979). Evidence for left hemisphere superiority in processing movement-

i' . related tonal' signals. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 22, 224-235. .

Tulving, E. (1987). Multiple memory systems and consciousness. Human NeurobIOlogy,

6, 67-80. _ ,f' .

Zo A H & Brouwer W.H. (1994). Clinical neuropsychology OJ attentIOn.

van meren, . ., '

New York: Oxford University Press.

Ii

H6

I. ffis name is JohnSmitn.

He is at tbedoorofhis house. He has his hand in his pocket. He takesa~~Yft91llhis pocket.

He ptI!~~~~m~el()Ck and opens the door. We mate rneese fiOro:rniIk.

2.

3.

g~tIB;~rk:@JDC.(jWS.

W<e alisomaikre:ibliitleFflemmilk.

We keep<:theb~Ue:r '\lI'ilih the milk and the cseeseia the refrigerator. WedoDlOtkeepthebread rothe refrigerator.

There;~:~ei"ent sorts of people.

Then~are,~ntsorts of plants and animals.

Cows and. ~h~a:Iidpigs and horses and goats are animals. :;1

fu my gamen.thereare different sorts of plants.

The slln.andtber:ai:n make the plants grow.

~I£r., Snruitlilis,inAnn"'erp.

He vmtesaJc<H"dto h'hs. Smith. There is a.~:rnmp of:lthe card.

On onesrn~~~~e~is a picture of the harbour.

NtIs. Smi:th~snameand street and town are on the right hand side of the card.

In tbeNorththeearth is cold in winter.

_i\

The 'ivindiscolGl, too.

SnowcoIilesdo!\VD from the sky. There are no leaves on the trees ..

There isice.over the water and the days are short. In one hour a man can travel four kilometers.

A woman can cover six kilometers.

He is slow, she is quick.

She is quicker than he.

He is slower than she.

4.

:5.

6.

CONSCIOUS ATTENTION IN Sl

117

7. Yesterday there were no clouds in the sky.

The sun was bright.

Today there are dark clouds in the sky. They come between us and the sun.

The dark clouds block the light of the sun.

8. ':My nose is between my eyes .

. It is between my eyes and my mouth. My mouth is under my nose.

I can open my mouth and close my eyes at the same time. If I close my mouth and my nose I can no longer breathe.

9. All men and women and boys and girls have bodies. r(t\-'baby.~~a small body.

!'A dog ha'~ a body, too.

It has four legs, a head and a tail.

It has no arms or hands but it has paws.

10. Iron is harder than wood.

VI ood is harder than bread.

'.:Bread is harder than butter.

< ,-"-< I

The boy is not as strong as the man.

I am not the strongest person in the world.

11. John took a bottle of wine from the shelf. .He took;the cork out with a corkscrew.

Now he is pouring the wine in the wine glasses. There is"~in~ in one glass.

1 ",

There is rio wine in the other glass.

12. We keep the milk in the refrigerator.

The air in the refrigerator is cold.

The thick' walls keep the heat of the room out of the refrigerator.

, ,.IT1iley the heat away from the milk.

The " keeps the milk fresh.

,.

1.

English:

., i.

.for NASA as an astronaut. in space engineering.

118

2.

The fuickgrayonmt she is-wearing is a space suit. N:owsbe:is:i:ll!~iuc,i;ngber.he:ad into a. pressurized helmet. She iSread~t~ge:t i~'to the space shuttle' and go into oDoit.. \Ve make polyethylene with a complex chemical process.>

One oftbe basic dements the chemical industry most often uses is resin. Flexible thermoplastic resins are used to make-moisture-proof plasJ~~. By developing new polymers we can create new artificial materials. This kind ofresessch represents part of the activities of the petrochemical

industry. -~

There are different kinds of weapons.

There Me striking-weapons such as axes,and cutting weapons such as knives, bayonets and swords.

WeapoTl1S soldiers most~y use nowadays are machine guns and automatic pistols.

By pulling, the trigger of these gunscartridges can be shot. ' UIlfortmlately man developed more devastating weapons, such asrocket

laaneaers andwM missiles. ~~.

Rabbi MO:Siheis in Jemsalem.'" He eaters the synagogne to attend the. morning prayer with his congregation.

Before starting to pray, he binds his forehead with the strips inscribed with scriptural passages.

The man the Rabbi takes the Bible fromishis assistant. Both pious men officiate this Jewish ritual in Hebrew;

In the southern hemisphere of the globe' at :the tropic of Capricorn the temperature is high in December.

At this latitude the sun is seen at the zenith on the days of its greatest

declination. -

Precipitations are rare.

Weather maps of this area show wind patterns and ocean currents.

The isobar meteorologists draw on such a map connects all points having the same barometric pressure.

In one bour a small turtle can travel 20 metres.

BUl Dot all animals man has classified as reptiles move so slowly. Lizards, chameleons and iguanas can be as quick as lightning when they want to flee from danger.

J.

4.

5.

6.

CONSCIOUsATIENTION IN SI

119

Legless verteb~~tes such as venomous snakes and constrictors can rapidly glide irito~i1liding place or into their nest.

Poisonous snakes inject their prey with venom through their fangs. A few weeks ago, there was a tornado.

If such a tomadp'occursin the Pacific Ocean iris generally referred to as

ary~ooo. 0' .

Thunderstorms ate generally accompanied by strong gusts of wind.

Weather monitoring equipment scientists use to make weather forecasts

are highly sensitive.

Durinz a tornado such equipment can reach maximum peaks.

,:, I t, :1.

The cardiac ilfulas!tle is located between the lungs.

I.l;;~k. ••

The diaphrag~ is underneath It. .

Its main fu~8lih~ is to separate the chest from the abdominal cavities. The maximurnair volume a man can inhale into his lungs is about 6 liters. When he exhales hegives off carbon dioxides and other products of

oxidation.

9'. , Most living of,gapisms consist of a bundle of cells.

Parasites aJid'f~dcteria, however, are protozo\ans, or single-celled organ-

isms.··

The hereditar~;information every single living creature' transmits to its

offspring is S8ped in the chromosomes. . .

These are emj§!e'1l,ded in the cell nucleus.

Only germ ~c~l~~are involved in the process of reproduction.

10. A turbine locg¥btive runs quicker than the subway. .

The subway is'f~ster than the bus. .

A bus is generally quicker than a truck with a trailer.

All wheeled vehicles manufacturers have been producing this decade are equipped wit~;spedal exhaust mufflers.

These catalyt~,r~,ensure a correctcombustiori of unleadedgasoline.

11. The J apanes~~~~~rist took his pocket camera out of his bag.

He unwrappe(\i( airoll of film and inserted it in the film compartment. Then he focu~~d\on an image his wife was pointing to by peering through

the viewfind ' " .

iHe finally pn the shutter button.

Since he hadP~eviouslyremovedthe lens cover, the picture did not '!r turn out.

7.

8.

120

12. A wom,lm generally csrries some beauty products in her handbag.

Her maikeup case may incladea flesh-colored concealer and a foundation cream.

The basic eye shadow most dark-skinned women use is white. Then they ,~;oapply at coat of coloured eye shadoweither

in powder··.fornI or as . a stick.

The final touch is provided by rosy blush and shiny lipstick.

1. Au printemps, les jams s' allongent.

Chaqae.jour dure un peu plus longtemps que Ia veille. Les feeilles comrsencent a pousser sur les branches.

En antomne, les jours deviennent plus courts. Chaquejour dure un peu moins longtemps que la veille.

2. Marie entre dans 1a chambre.

Elle va vers la table.

Elk POse son sac sur 1a table.

Le telephone commence a sonner. Mariese :PF¢c~I>ite pour repondre.

3. Ottawa, Paris etNew York sont des villes.

Le gouvernement du Canada se trouve a Ottawa.

Le gouvemementdes Etats-Unis se trouve a Washington. La distance entre Ottawaet Mexico est d'environ 5000 kID. Pour y alier en voiture, on doit traverser les Etats-Unis,

4. Le sela un gout tres prononce et le sucre a un gout sucre.

Le sel et Ie sucre se ressemblent beaucoup a l'oeil nu.

Mais au gout, Ie sucre et Ie sel ne se ressemblent pas du tout. Differentes parties de la langue peuvent distinguer le gout sale du gout sucre.

C' est surtout la langue qui peut differencier entre Ie sucreet le sel et non I' oeil.

5. Les vetements epais aident a nous tenir chaud.

TIs recnauttenr mieux que les vetements legers. Le tissa epaisretient I 'airentre Ies fils.

Un toit epais garde Ia chaleur a I'interieur de la maison.

CONSCIOUS ATIENTION IN SI

121

Un toit e~ais protege aussi contre la chaleur du soleil.

6. La fabrication du tissu est consideree comme un grand developpement.

C' est avec Ie tissu que l' on fabrique les vetements. C' est avec le fil que l' on fabrique Ie tissu.

Le fil est fabrique a partir de laine, de coton et de soie. La laine nous est fournie par les moutons.

7. Les etres hurnains font des decouvertes tous les jours.

Christophe Colomb decouvrit l' Amerique en 1492. II navizua vers l' Amerique en bateau.

Une autre grande decouverte fut celle du feu qui nous offre la chaleur. Une autre grande decouverte fort utile fut celle de la roue.

8. L'etoile laplus proche de la terre est a quatre annees-lumiere.

Beaucoup detoiles se trouvent encore plus loin de notre planete.

Les etoiles les plus eloignees se trouvent a des milliers d' annees-lumiere.

Le soleil est plus eloignede la terre que 1a lune. ..

Les decouvertes dans l' espace visent surtout la lune et la planete Mars.

9, La vapeur provient de l'eau bouillante et la fumee provient du feu.

Le feu..la.roue et les vetements sont trois grandes decouvertes. Les al1f~obiles et les trains avancent sur des roues.

!!:~;.~

Les trairts,'se serventet de la roue et de la vapeur pour avancer.

Sans l~ roue, une automobile ne saurait avancer.

10. Presque I~OUS les animaux ont un cerveau.

Le cheval a un cerveau.

Unsin~~!~un cerveau plus developpe quecelui du cheval. L'homrrtfa uri cerveau encore plus developpe.

Certainshommes agissent comme s'ils n'avaient pas de cerveau.

11. L' agriculteur garde son argent a la banque.

II sort 1 'argent de la banque.

II a un compte dans cette banque.

Le compte indique combien d'argent il a dans la banque. Maintel1ant il y en a beaucoup.

12. Nous voyons avec nos yeux.

Nous voyons la forme et la couleur deschoses.

S'il n' yia pas de lumiere, nous ne pouvons pas voir. Les yeri~ sont les organes de la vue.

L'illforrtlation visuelle arrive dans notre cerveau.

L Au sudde I'equateur, pendant to ute I' annee, la temperature le j()ure~t tres €levee_

LoIS de Ia saison pluviale, il y a des precipitations regulieres et abondantes.

Les pluvicnnetresparviennent a eeregistrer 250 centimetres de pluie. LesgtandsQJUIS d' ean avec leurs affiuents, qui constituent le systeme BU"\TiaL.d~ordent de leuFS Iits,

LeJong des coues d'eau, mais surtout a l'emboucbure,il y a des inondations.

Lor:sqn'onentre dans une egliseparle portalcentral, onse troavedans la nel pnncip<J:le.

En procOOant vers I' avant, on arrive en face du maitre-autel qui est entoore dn choeur,

De la eaaire le pretreprecbe ou conduit le service.

Au momentde feucharistie, il se dirige vers Ie tabernacle pour prendre les hosneset.le caliceafin de les consacrer.

Toutautour,il ya beaucoup decandelabres etde parures ornementales. lvfuabel,Orly etJ.F.K. sont des aeroports intemationaux.

TIs ont beaueoup de pistes d' envol et d'atterrissage.

L,~.aerogare des passagers et les halls qui donnent acces aax portes ret aux ~:s;dlYemb:arquement sont tres modemes ..

La, t0m-decontrole est illUme de teus les instruments Ies plus sophistiques poer regler Ia circulation aerieane.

Le paste de pilotage d'un avion lui.aussi est fournide toutes sortes

d'indicateurs ret de commandes. . I~'..

. -.." ~" , ",' • -, '''Thl\t~t~~i

Une machine a ecnre, quelle sort electrique au mecanique, a un clavier

qui ressemble a celui d'un ordinateur.

Avant de I'utiliser on doit iasererune feuille.de papier dans lecylindre. Chaque fois qu'en frappant les touches, on arrive a la fin de la Iigne, on doit actionner le levier de retour.

Les machines electriques modernes n' ont plus, de' tiges de metal ni de ruban encreur, mills une boule interchangeable.

Cene sphere permet de disposer de.differents types de earacteres. Une chaussure est constituee d'une.semelle, d'un talon et du dessus. Les chaussures pour Hommes ont une languette et des beets.

2,

4.

5.

A TIENTION IN SI

123

Beaucoup de femmes qui veulent paraitre plus grandes et elegantes,

portent des talons~pauts. .

L'hiver, onpotte'q~sbottesou bien des grosses chaussures asernelle de

caoutchouc. . ....

Pour mieuxchauss~r des souliers etroits, on se sert d'un chausse-pied.

6. Avant I'ere des ordinateurs, les ingenieurs utilisaientla regle a calcul.

- Maintenant il y a a des calculateurs electroniquesqui sont formes d'un

systerne utilisant du materiel et du logiciel, '

Les informations. sont mises en memo ire surdisquettes ou directement

sur le disque rigide .

. Onpeut rapidement calculer .les .integrales ou les algorithmes les plus

cornpliques avec des programmes mathematiques.

. Tous les resultits peuvent etre montres sur le visuelet ecrits sur papier

avecune·imprimante.

7. Dans une salle d' operation, il y a unetable chirurgicale dont 1a hauteur et

1'inclinaison peuventetre reglees.

Tout le materiel medical a partir des bistouris jusqu'aux aiguilles et fils

de suture doit etre sterilise.

A cote de cette salle, se trouve une chambre pour la diagnostique

.radiolo gique.

Aujourd'hui on employe les rayons-X standards, mais aussi la

tomographie axialesur ordinateur.

En cardiochirurgie, l'intervention la plus.frequente est l'applicationd'un

stimulateur cardiaque.

8. Un equipement moderne phonographique comprend une platine pour le

disque, un magnetophone etun lecteur de disques compactes.

Le systeme se compose habituellement d'un syntoniseur et. d'un

. amplificateur de puissance.

La puissance electrique de sortie s'evalue en watts. .

Le soh est diffuse par teshaut-parleurs ou bien par un casque d.ecoute qui, etant stere()phonique, a deuxpistes differentes ipour les deux

oreilles.

On peut augmenter I'Intensite du son en tournant Ie reglage de volume.

9. Dans (lin reacteur nucleaire, on peut produire de l' electricite selon le processus de fission.

La reaction en chaine, qui se deroule a l'inrerieur du reacteur, do it etre

ralentie et controlee.

io.

Ceci.refaif~.m_im~:s:ant des bsrres de matiere absornarnt Ies neutrons, Le Ierroj;dis:se:ment da.reaetenr.a lieu grace a un circuit d'eaa,

La miseaUil"~:b~,tdes: d.ech.etsradioactifs represente un probl~me. pour le monde·entiie:r:

II existe d~mo.nusques avec nne coquille comme parexemple les paloiW'des ,e;tJies. coquilles Saint-Jacques ..

D'autresmoRusques:,comme les meduses et les calamars, n'ont pas cette esveloppe dare, ~-

Pear se d6fenedre les calamars secretent un Iiquide noir de leur poches a entre.

Par contre.lesbomards: et les crevettes, qui font partie de lafamille des cmstacis,ont"des pinces ..

N'aj:anlfpas~<Cd~Omleverteb~ale, taus ces arnmaux sent.des inverteli~es. Les maliadiesles plusrepandues.affectent Ie systemecardi~v:astulaire, Ie cerveaeet des-crganes genitaux,

La caue de rmrin:ctus GU myocardeest une obstruction d'uae artere coseoaire,

Une teUei."obstnlction dans 'fes vaisseaux sanguins du cerveau peut provoquer. Wlenemorragie qui pourraitetre mortelle.

Les maladies neurologiques tres repandues sont I' epilepsie et les maladies.cerebrovasculaires.

PendantJesdix dermer-e.s annees, une grave maladie virale, le SIDA, s' est propagee.dans le monde entier,

Leg 1ertainsa,gricoles pour Iacultivation des-cereales doivente't-e labouresenaBtonme.'l'i~'

Aupanniant,ondoi:tengraiss.er Ia terre avecdes substances chimiques ou dulwmer.

Un agrieulteUI moderne se sert de differents outils qui peeveat taus etre

attel6s: au tracteur. .

Quand la terre est prete on precede a la semence.

Ala fin de rete, quand Ies produits de la terre sont mms on commence 1a moisson.

11.

12.

COMMUNITY AND COURT REPORTER

Community interpreting An emerging profession

HOLLY MIKKELSON

"Can you describe the physical features of the man who stole your purse in the supermarket parking lot?"

"The biopsy revealed a malignant tumor which requites immediate surgical intervention. "

"Your son has been identified as a habitual truant and has been referred to the Juvenile Probation Department as a child at risk for gang activity." .

These are the kinds of statements interpreted daily by community interpreters. They work in hospitals, schools, police stations, social service agencies, courts, and other public agencies' in countries with large immigrant populations. They are practicing a demanding profession, one that requires a thorough knowledge of many registers of two or more languages and an ability to bridge linguistic and cultural gaps in high-pressure situations. In many cases, these interpreters provide services without the benefit of training, properworkingconditions, emotional support, or adequate remunerationindeed, sometimes they are not paid for their services at all.

. Community interpreting has been practiced since time immemorial, yet it is the least prestigious and the most misunderstood branch. of the interpreting profession. Because many practitioners are ad-hoc interpreters who normally devote their time to some other occupation, and are thus untrained in interpreting techniques and ethics, professional interpreters scorn them as amateurs. The following excerpt from Fundamentals of Court Interpretation: Theory, Policy, and Practice (Gonzalez, Vazquez, and Mikkelson, 1991) illustrates

Interpreting Vol. 1(1), 1996. 125-129 (Q Tnhn Rp_nl~min~ Pnbf iehi nc ro.