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Civil Engineering QUALIFICATIONS

Specimen Question Paper

Steelwork Design—Guide to BS 5950: Part 1—Volume 1 5th Edition

Steel Construction Institute

[CO22/SQP158] 1

©

SECTION A

Marks

1. Figure Q1 shows the outline of a pin-jointed, parallel boom girder, together

with its loads and its support reactions.

(a) Using joint resolution, determine the nature and magnitude of the forces

in the girder members meeting at joints A and B. 3

(b) Using the method of sections, determine the nature and magnitude of the

forces in the girder members DE, DL and DM. 5

(8)

B C D E F G H

2m

I

A N M L K J

20 kN 20 kN 15 kN 10 kN 10 kN

42.5 kN 6 @ 2 m = 12 m

Figure Q1

2. (a) Describe the main stages in the treatment of drinking water which is

abstracted from lowland rivers. 5

(b) State why slow sand filters are commonly used in drinking water

treatment and briefly describe the operation of such filters. 3

(8)

Marks

3. (a) The vertical sluice gate shown in Figure Q3 is 2 m square and its top edge

is 2 m below the free surface of the water.

Determine:

(i) the total hydrostatic thrust on the gate; 4

(ii) the vertical distance between the free surface of the water and the

centre of pressure on the sluice gate. 2

(b) Briefly explain why the flow of water in pipes between reservoirs is

normally turbulent. 2

(8)

2m × 2m

2m

sluice gate

water tank

empty

2m

channel

Figure Q3

Marks

4. Figure Q4 shows the outline of and the characteristic loading on a simply

supported steel beam for which a grade 43, 406 × 178 × 60 UB section is to be

used.

Assuming that the compression flange of the beam is fully restrained along its

length against lateral buckling, check its suitability in bending and shear. 8

(8)

45 kN (imposed load)

+

40 kN (dead load) 10 kN/m

(dead load)

3m

6m

Figure Q4

5. (a) Explain how the folding of rocks could have occurred and sketch two

types of fold commonly found. 4

(b) Explain how geological faults could have occurred and sketch two types

of fault commonly found. 4

(8)

Marks

SECTION B

6. (a) Figure Q6(a) shows the outline of a simply supported timber beam, its

loading and the support reactions. The beam is to be 75 mm wide and

300 mm deep.

(i) Using the Macaulay method, show that the maximum deflection

occurs at approximately 2.05 m from support A. 8

(ii) Determine the value of the maximum deflection if the Modulus of

Elasticity (E) is 6500 N/mm2 and the Second Moment of Area

(Ixx) = 169 × 106 mm4. 3

3 kN 4 kN 1.5 kN/m

1.0 kN/m

1m 1m 1m

A 4m

Figure Q6(a)

(b) If the timber in the beam in (a) is Grade C24 and the loading is to be

medium term:

(i) check the suitability of the section in bending; 7

(ii) check the suitability of the section in deflection, using the value

obtained in (a)(ii). 2

(20)

Marks

7. (a) What is meant by each of the terms flexible pavement and rigid pavement

as used in highway engineering? 4

(b) Sketch cross-sections through a flexible pavement and a rigid pavement.

Identify and explain the function of each construction layer. In each case

assume that the subgrade is weak and indicate which layers comprise the

pavement foundation. 9

(c) A sample traffic survey is to be carried out at a signalised road junction

accident blackspot. The information gathered is to be used in the analysis

of existing accident data and in the preparation of a remedial upgrade

scheme for the junction.

(i) List six useful items of traffic data which might be gathered from

the survey. 3

(ii) Briefly explain two ways by which items of traffic data might be

gathered during the survey. 4

(20)

Marks

8. (a) An incompressible fluid flows through a converging pipeline of 450 mm

diameter at entry and 150 mm diameter at outlet. Steady flow produces a

flow rate of 0.3 m3/s.

Determine the velocities of the flow at entry and outlet. 5

(b) A 300 mm diameter galvanised steel pipeline of length 3 km is to convey

water between two reservoirs. The surface levels of the reservoirs differ

by 110 m and the flow is to be by gravity, with no pumped assistance.

(i) Assuming a pipe friction factor of 0.005, determine the flow rate in

m3/hour. 10

(ii) Using the flow rate determined in part (i) and the Moody pipe

friction chart provided, determine a more accurate value for the

pipe friction factor. 4

Comment on the significance of the answer. 1

Take the dynamic viscosity of water as 1 × 10−3 Ns/m2 and the

density as 1000 kg/m3.

(20)

Marks

9. (a) Two alternative designs are being considered for a structure, one in

structural steelwork and one in reinforced concrete.

A comparison is to be made between the following designs for the

internal stanchions/columns, subjected to an approximately symmetrical

arrangement of beams.

(i) A grade 43 steel stanchion consisting of a 203 × 203 × 86 UC of

effective length 3.5 m about both axes

Using the appropriate code clauses, show that the safe design load

(compressive resistance) which such a section could carry is 2035 kN. 6

(ii) A 300 mm × 300 mm, braced, reinforced concrete column of effective

height 3.5 m about both axes

Assuming that it is to carry the same design load as that found in (i),

determine a suitable arrangement of main and transverse

reinforcement.

Take fcu = 40 N/mm2 and fy = 460 N/mm2 6

(b) Figure Q9(b) shows a plan view of the outer wall of the structure. The

wall is to be 3.5 m high and is to be built of standard format bricks of

strength 50 N/mm2, set in a grade (i) mortar.

The wall has simple resistance to lateral movement at top and bottom and

the category of both manufacturing and constructional control may be

considered as normal.

Calculate the design vertical load resistance (design strength) of the wall,

ignoring any eccentricity of load. 8

(20)

4000

440

440 440

215

Figure Q9(b)

Marks

10. (a) Figure Q10(a) shows the plan of and section through a reinforced

concrete floor which consists of a slab simply supported on an effective

span of 4 m on two rectangular precast concrete beams.

I Design data:

Characteristic loading:

Imposed – 5 kN/m2

4 m effective span

Finishes – 1 kN/m2

k

thic Unit weight of

0 concrete – 24 kN/m3

b 20

sla

span

.

slab

r.c Exposure – moderate

fcu = 40 N/mm2

fy = 460 N/mm2

I fyv = 250 N/mm2

7 m effective span

200 slab

300 wide

×

Section I–I 500 deep

beam

Figure Q10(a)

(i) Considering bending only, check the suitability of the given slab

thickness as a singly reinforced section and design the main and

transverse reinforcement for the slab.

Assume T10 bars for the main reinforcement. 6

(ii) The rectangular beams have an effective span of 7 m and their main

reinforcement at midspan consists of 4 T20 bars near the bottom

face.

Determine the spacing required for R8 shear links, near the

support, assuming that the beam effective depth is 450 mm and that

only two of the T20 bars at midspan are carried through and

anchored at the supports. 6

(b) It is proposed to open a new waste disposal landfill site on the outskirts of

a small town.

(i) Briefly describe two of the main adverse environmental impacts

that the project might have on the local community. 4

(ii) For each of the above impacts, briefly describe one effective

measure that could be adopted to reduce that impact. 4

(20)

[CO22/SQP158] 10

[C022/SQP158]

Civil Engineering QUALIFICATIONS

Specimen Marking Instructions

[CO22/SQP158] 11

©

SECTION A

Q Solution Marks

1 a. Joint A − AB = 42.5 kN compression AN = 0

Joint B − BA = 42.5 kN compression BN cos 45 = 42.5

thus BN = 60.10 kN tension BC = 42.5 kN compression 3

b. Section XX − DL cos 45 + 20 + 20 − 42.5 = 0

thus DL = 3.54 kN tension

ML = DE × 2 + 20 × 2 + 20 × 4 − 42.5 × 6 = 0

thus DE = 67.5 kN compression

Section YY − DM + 20 + 20 − 42.5 = 0

thus DM = 2.5 kN compression. 5

X

B C Y D E F G H

A I

N M L K J

Y

• primary treatment including: screening to remove floating

debris and large particles; and coagulation, that is the

addition of alum or ferrous sulphate to form a precipitate

known as floc which settles rapidly, entrapping bacteria and

absorbing colour from the water. 2

• secondary treatment including: sedimentation of the floc in a

tank in which the floc forms into a sludge blanket and is mostly

retained in the tank as water passes to the next stage of the

process; and filtration to remove smaller particles remaining

from the raw water and the coagulation process. 2

• tertiary treatment including: pH adjustment and chlorine

disinfection. 1

sedimentation and filtration processes. Water passes slowly, by

gravity, through a sand filter with a large surface area. The natural

biological fauna in the filter break down impurities. The sand is

periodically skimmed and washed. 3

SECTION A (continued)

Q Solution Marks

3 a.

O

2m

hp

P2

F1

F

2m

F2

1m

m

19.62 19.62

P

P4

pressure at h = 4 m = ρgh = 1000 × 9.81 × 4 / 1000 = 39.24 kN/m2

Force F1 = p2 × area of sluice = 19.62 × 2 × 2 = 78.48 kN

Force F2 = (p4 − p2) / 2 × area of sluice = 19.62 /2 × 2 × 2 = 39.24 kN

thus Total thrust F = 78.48 + 39.24 = 117.72 kN 4

Centre of pressure: taking moments about O:

F1 × 3 + F2 × 3.33 = F × hp

thus hp = ((78.48 × 3) + (39.24 × 3.33)) / 117.72 = 3.111 m 2

If Re > 4000 then turbulence results.

Since water has low dynamic viscosity µ, resulting in a high Re for

a relatively low velocity, flow will normally be turbulent. 2

Vmax = 1.6 × 80/2 + 1.4 × 10 × 6/2 = 106 kN 3

Classification: b/T = 6.95 < 8.5 d/t = 45.6 < 79 thus section is plastic 1

T = 12.8 mm thus design strength = 275 N/mm2

Moment of resistance = 275 × 1199 × 1000/106 = 330 kNm

but ≤ 1.2 × 275 × 1060 × 1000/106 = 350 kNm

thus 330 kNm > 255 kNm

Shear capacity = 0.6 × 275 × 406.4 × 7.9/1000 = 530 kN > 106 kN 4

SECTION A (continued)

Q Solution Marks

5 a. The strata of the earth’s crust have been bent or buckled into folds

by forces acting tangentially to the earth’s surface. The rocks have

obtained relief by rising in the direction of least resistance ie

vertically. 2

Two sketches from: symmetrical, asymmetrical, isoclinal,

recumbent. 2

place. The rocks on either side of a fault have moved relatively to

one another in opposite directions. 2

Two sketches from: normal, reversed, step, tear. 2

Total 40

SECTION B

Q Solution Marks

6 a. Find reaction at L.H. support: RL = (3 × 3 + 4 × 1 + 3 × 1 + 4 × 2)/4

RL = 6 kN

EIy” = −MX = − 6x + x2/2 + 3[x−1] + 0.75[x−2]2 + 4[x−3]

EIy’ = −3x2 + x3/6 + 1.5[x−1]2 + 0.25[x−2]3 + 2[x−3]2 + A

EIy = −1x3 + x4/24 + 0.5[x−1]3 + [x−2]4/16 + 0.67[x−3]3 + Ax + B

When x = 0, y = 0 thus B = 0 and When x = 4, y = 0 hence

0 = −64 + 10.67 + 13.5 + 1 + 0.67 + 4A

thus A = 9.54 kNm2

For maximum deflection at x = 2.05 m, substitute 2.05 for x in EIy’

giving −12.61 + 1.44 + 1.65 + 9.54 = + 0.02 approx. 0 thus max. deflt. 8

= 11 ⋅ 16mm

6500 × 169 × 106 3

6 5

1

2.4 m 2.5

5.5 8

thus Mmax = 6 × 2.4 − 3 × 1.4 − 2 × 1.4 − 2.5 × 0.4 × 0.2 = 7.2 kNm

Perm bending stress = 7.5 × 1.25 × 1.00 = 9.38 N/mm2

T7 T13 K7

Actual bending stress = 7.2 × 106 × 150 / 169 × 106 = 6.39 < 9.38 7

Actual deflection = 11.16 mm

Perm deflection = 0.003 × 4000 = 12 mm > 11.16 mm 2

Total 20

Q Solution Marks

7 a. Flexible pavement: is one in which the surfacing and roadbase

materials are bound with bituminous binder.

The roadbase is the main structural layer. 2

concrete is used for the combined surfacing and roadbase.

The concrete slab may be jointed unreinforced, jointed reinforced or

continuously reinforced. 2

SECTION B (continued)

Q Solution Marks

7 cont. b.

Wearing course

Surfacing Pavement Quality

Base course Concrete

Road base

Sub-base Formation Sub-base

Foundation Foundation

Capping Capping

Functions of layers:

(1. only) resists skidding and protects lower layers from the

passage of water.

(1. only) traffic loading to the underlying materials so that

they are not over stressed.

(1. and 2.) causing overstress in the subgrade during and after

construction and in the overlying layers after

construction.

(1. and 2.) cheap material between the subgrade and sub-base.

This increases the stiffness modulus and strength of

the formation on which the sub-base is placed.

(2. only) transmitting the traffic loads to the foundation

and subgrade. Provides good ride quality and

resists cracking. 5×1 5

Vehicle flow characteristics: • volume

• vehicle classification

• speed

• saturation flows

SECTION B (continued)

Q Solution Marks

7 cont. Vehicle manoeuvres: • turning flows

• parking

Others: • pedestrian movements

• cycle movements 6 × 0.5 3

• The data might be gathered through an observational

survey to determine the patterns and volume of vehicle

movements. Different traffic streams could be counted

manually by enumerators/observers, using hand counters;

the data being subsequently transferred to reporting forms.

• or by data capture portable micro-processors;

• or by automatic detector loops which are set into the

carriageway;

• or to reduce the number of staff required, a video camera

might be positioned in a strategic position and a software

package used to analyse the recordings. 2×2 4

Total 20

Q Solution Marks

8 a. Q = A1v1 (entry) = A2v2 (outlet) 1

where A1 = π × 0.452/4 = 0.159 m2, and A2 = π × 0.152/4 = 0.0177 m2

v1 = Q/A1 = 0.3/0.159 = 1.89 m/s & v2 = Q/A2 = 0.3/0.0177 = 16.95 m/s 4

b.

A

110 m

L=3

000 m

B

pA v A2 pB vB2

zA + + = zB + + + Energy head loss hf

ρg 2g ρg 2g

ie 110 = 4 f L v2/2 g d thus v2 = 110 × 2 × 9 ⋅ 81 × 0 ⋅ 3

= 10 ⋅ 79

4 × 0 ⋅ 005 × 3000

ie v = 3.28 m/s and thus Q = Av = π × 0.32 × 3.28/4 = 0.232 m3/s

= 835.2 m3/h 5

or solution for Q using hf = f L Q2/3 d5

SECTION B (continued)

Q Solution Marks

8 cont. (ii) For v = 3.28 m/s, Re = ρdv/µ = 1000 × 0.3 × 3.28/1 × 10−3

= 0.98 × 106

From chart, galvanised steel has k = 0.15 × 10−3 m

k/d = 0.15 × 10−3 /300 × 10−3 = 0.0005

f = 0.0044 < 0.005 4

Friction losses will be marginally less than determined in (i)

and the velocity and flow rates increased. 1

Total 20

Q Solution Marks

9 a. (i) Classification: b/T = 5.1 < 15, d/t = 12.7 < 39 thus non-slender

T = 20.5 mm thus design strength = 265 N/mm2

l/ryy = 3500/53.4 = 65.5 — T25 — T27c — pc = 185 N/mm2

Safe Load = 185 × 11000/1000 = 2035 kN 6

(ii) l/t = 3500/300 = 11.67 < 15 thus short

2035 × 1000 = 0.35 × 40 (300 × 300 − Asc) + 0.70 × 460 × Asc

thus Asc = 2516 mm2 − % = 2516 × 100/300 × 300 = 2.8 %

use 4 − T25 + 4 − T20 = 2588 mm2

transverse = 25/4 say R8 at 12 × 20 = 225 mm pitch 6

pier thickness/wall thickness = 440/215 = 2.05 thus k = 1.25

teff = 1.25 × 215 = 268.75 mm

slenderness ratio = 3500/268.75 = 13.02 < 27 thus OK

ß (T7) = 0.91

for no eccentricity, T 2a - fk = 15 N/mm2

T4 − γm = 3.5

load capacity = 0.91 × 215 × 15/3.5 = 838.5 kN/m 8

Total 20

SECTION B (continued)

Q Solution Marks

10 a. (i) Load/m = 1.4(1 + 0.2 × 24) + 1.6 × 5 = 16.12 kN/m

M = 16.12 × 42/8 = 32.24 kNm

d = 200 − 30 − 10/2 = 165 thus K = 32 ⋅ 24 × 106

= 0 ⋅ 0296

40 × 1000 × 1652

since K < 0.156, then slab is satisfactory in bending, singly

reinforced

Z = (0.5 + √ (0.25 − 0.0296/0.9)) d = 0.97d but not > 0.95d

As = 32.24 × 106/(0.95 × 460 × 0.95 × 165) = 470.7 mm2/m

= T10 at 150 (523) in bottom

transverse = 0.13 × 1000 × 200/100 = 260 mm2/m

= T10 at 300 (262) 6

or = (2.0(16.12) + 1.4 × 0.3 × 0.5 × 24) × 3.5 = 130.50 kN

design shear stress = 138.94 × 103/300 × 450 = 1.03 N/mm2

perm. (%As = 630 × 100/300 × 450 = 0.47) = 0.49 × 1.17

= 0.57 N/mm2

perm. shear + 0.4 = 0.97 < 1.03 thus ‘design’ links required

assuming R8 links − sv = 101 × 0.95 × 250/300 × 0.46 = 174 mm

use R8 at 150 mm centres. 6

• increased traffic causing disruption and danger

• noise nuisance due to traffic and on site plant operating for

long working hours

• loss of habitat for wildlife

• litter on site and in immediate vicinity

or others such as methane gas, odour, lechate, vermin. 2×2 4

(ii) effective measures: one required for each of two impacts

• Traffic—optimisation of routes or upgrading of roads and

junctions

• Noise—use of bunding or use of efficient machines with

mufflers

• Habitat—relocation of species or landfill restoration

• Litter—use of fencing to catch wind borne litter or covering

fill with earth at the end of each day 2×2 4

Total 20

[CO22/SQP158] 20

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