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**DETERMINING HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A FINNED-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER WITH FORCED CONVECTION
**

Before the lab lesson, you should be able to answer the following questions: 1. What is meant by U and αf in eq.3? 2. In eqn.4, which is the main contribution to the heat transfer coefficient? Is it from convection, diffusion or radiation? On what do you base your answer? 3. Is the length used to calculate the average and the inner tube areas, Am and A1, in eqn. 3, the same as the one used to calculate the boiling number in eq. 10? Explain. 4. Is the refrigerant flow in the condenser the same as in the finned coil evaporator? Explain. 5. How is the fin efficiency ξ determined? It is strongly recommended that you make necessary calculations and draw the line to determine fin efficiency before you come to the lab lesson. 6. How is the heat transfer coefficient αf calculated according to 8.55 in [1]1?

Granryd et al., 2008, Refrigerating Engineering, Dept of Energy Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

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1a. . THEORY: The following equations describe the heat transfer for a finned-tube heat exchanger (compare with figure 2): Q = U.δt /(λt. A) Q /(α1. 4 DETERMINING HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A FINNED-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER WITH FORCED CONVECTION OBJECTIVE: The objective of this lab lesson is to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer coefficient related to the fin surface of a heat exchanger placed in an air duct with forced convection and cooled on the inside by boiling refrigerant. Finally.( A2 + ξ . A1. 2002 [1]. 1b-1d give the heat transfer on the inside tube. Bring the book to the lab lesson. Am. ξ. A2 +αf .SUSTAINABLE ENERGY UTILISATION – LAB LESSON NO. through the tube wall and on the finned outside.. ϑ Q = α1. ϑ 2 . ϑ 1 Q = (λt/ δt). Af ) δ λ . . . A = (A2+ Af) is the overall surface area (for values. A1 (3) The surfaces are as follows: Af is the finned surface. see page 4). while eqns. The theory below is mainly based on Chapter 8 in the textbook Refrigerating Engineering by Granryd et al. . Am) Q /(α2. A. A2 is the free outer tube area between the fins. ξ. ϑ t Q = (α2. ϑ= ϑ 1= ϑ t= Q /(U.A t t + m 1 α 1. The temperature difference over the heat exchanger can be expressed as: ϑ = ϑ 1+ ϑ t+ ϑ 2 (2) The heat transfer for a finned-tube heat exchanger can then. be expressed as: 1 = U. A 1 + α f . if we assume that α2=αf. Af) . A2 + αf. Am and A1 are the average and inner tube areas. A1) Q . Af). (1a) (1b) (1c) (1d) ϑ2= The overall heat transfer is given by eq. . . The overall heat transfer coefficient 2 .

As we have a closed air duct and add no water.50 in [1]). A2 and Af. δt = (d2-d1)/2 is the tube wall thickness and ξ is the fin efficiency (compare with figure 2). The overall heat transfer coefficient of finned-tube heat exchanger with forced convection is also usually based on the logarithmic mean temperature difference ( ϑ m). αf.23. What temperature difference should be used when calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient (U)? The logarithmic mean temperature difference ( ϑ m) is commonly used in parallel and counter-flow heat exchangers and is defined as: ϑ m = (ϑ 1 . represent surface mean values of the local values along the heat exchanger.ϑ 2)/ ln(ϑ 1/ ϑ 2) (5) Where ϑ 1 and ϑ 2 are temperature differences between the fluids at he two ends of the heat exchanger. The heat transfer coefficient between the air and the outer surface of the finned-tube heat exchanger. which is the sum of heat transfer coefficients from convection (αc). and radiation (αr) where.U is referred to A. This occurs when the surface temperature is lower than the dew point of the surrounding air (see also 8. 8. is the thermal conductivity of the tube. The values for U and αf. 3 . refer to the total heat transfer coefficient. we do not expect much contribution from diffusion in steady state condition. A contribution from diffusion is obtained when dew or frost appears on the tube or finned-tube surface. α2 and αf are referred to A1. calculated from test results using the logarithmic mean temperature difference as a base. Some equations and data for heat transfer coefficients of finned-tube heat exchanger with forced convection can be found in 8. diffusion (αd). Further. Af. αf = αc +αd + αr (4) The contribution from radiation in this forced convection finned-tube heat exchanger is very small. The other heat transfer coefficients α1.54 –55 in [1]. It can be neglected since the active area for radiation is only the circumferential area of the heat exchanger.

TEST PROCEDURE: The lab assistant has usually started the lab lesson machinery and adjusted the equipment for the first point of measuring. over the condenser we determine the condenser capacity ( Q 1).4-0.TEST EQUIPMENT: The test equipment consists of a test rig with a finned-coil evaporator. This free-convection flooder evaporator is connected to a compressor refrigeration unit with a rotary compressor and a brazed plate heat exchanger as a condenser (see figure 4 and compare with 8. The speed regulator connected to the fan and the heater is adjusted for the first measuring point. the circulating air is heated and cooled in a duct. the & circulated refrigerant flow ( mR . the Assistant will show you how to close the machinery. On the airside.04-05 in [1]). and the fin efficiency (ξ). Adjust the hand-regulated valve between the receiver and the evaporator as mentioned above.6 at the exit of the evaporator tubes (consult the Lab Assistant). The hand-regulated valve between the receiver and the finned-coil evaporator should be adjusted to give a good circulation of refrigerant in the evaporator tubes.3. the heat transfer coefficient on the inside (α1). CALCULATIONS AND REPRESENTATION: To calculate the heat transfer coefficient on the airside (αf) from eq. Adjust the speed regulator connected to the fan for the next measuring point. This can be done by first adjusting the valve to give a small superheat after the evaporator (t 16) and then open it more to get he desired circulation and a mean vapour quality x≈0. Start the fan and the compressor. To get an even temperature in the evaporator. Adjust also the power to the heater so that the temperature of the circulated air at the inlet of the finned coil is maintained constant. we first need to know the overall heat transfer coefficient (U). we use the system with flooded finned-coil evaporator with five parallel tubes and a low4 . The cooling is provided with a flooded finned-coil evaporator with five parallel tubes and a low-pressure receiver. I ) in the condenser and then finally the refrigerating . the measured values should be noted in Table 1. . When all measurements have been taken. For the representation. This includes following steps: Open the water faucet to the condenser and adjusting some valves in the refrigeration circuit. The airflow and thereby the air velocity is controlled by a speed regulator connected to the fan (see figure 1). capacity of the evaporator ( Q 2). we also need to know the front velocity of the air into the fin battery (Wfr). When temperatures are stable for each measuring point. Calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U): The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is determined in the following way: Through an energy balance.

II) . which gives the average coefficient along the tube.I . ∆h2. and ∆h2. (8) (9) & U= Q2 /(A. Nu = α d/λl’ is the Nusselt number.221 m2 A2 = 0.198 m2 Am = 0.L) is Pierre’s “boiling number”. & Re = 4 m R. which gives incomplete evaporation. 5 . We get he following equations (see also figure 3): & Q 1= ( m ·cp)w·∆tW .out . Nu = C1.3.out = (t5+t6+t7+t8)/4. Symbols are defined in Table 1.II / (g.°C) Calculation of the heat transfer coefficient on the inside (α1): The heat transfer coefficient on the inside α1 (which also could be defined as αboil). (7) & Q 2 = m R.pressure receiver. The following values for the finned-coil surfaces. n=1/∆ x ). I = . .E . II / (πdµl’) is the Reynold’s number. distances and thermal conductivity are valid with symbols according to eqn.in . ta. (h13-h11) .0095 m λt = 380 W/(m.t15 and ϑ 2 = ta.232 m2 Af = 2. Kf = ∆h2. For incomplete evaporation (vapor quality at exit of tube <1). Kf ½ Where. Assuming incomplete evaporation (x<1).0078 m d2 = 0. where.t16. Q 1/∆h1 = Q 1/(h1k-hs) = Q 1/(h14-h11) . (h2k-hs) = mR . can be determined from a relation given by Pierre for boiling refrigerants in tubes. ϑ m) The logarithmic mean temperature difference ( ϑ m) is determined from eq.I . we can choose ϑ 1 = ta. Pierre equation gives.5.II =r.I . II = (10) Q 2 / (5.65 m2 d1 = 0. ∆h2 = mR . A1 = 0.in = (t1+t2+t3+t4)/4 and ta.42 m2 A = A2 + Af =2. (6) .∆ x where r = latent heat of vaporization and ∆ x = change in vapour quality between outlet and inlet of the evaporator (a circulation number n can be defined. & The refrigerant flow in each of the parallel evaporator tube is mR . (h16-h15) & & & Q 2= mR . Re. & mR .

32 in [1]).K) and determine ξ and then αf ξ for these values.By adjusting the evaporator in the way discussed before. A comparison with (αf) from the simplified eq. 150 and 200 W/(m.270*0.7-2.A t t m 1 1 Only the air velocity and the heat transfer coefficient varies for the finned coil during the lab lesson and as a result. δf = 0. . determines the fin efficiency. 6 . A f ) U.δ)L2 for example for αf = 50.2 mm.H = 24. we get the fin efficiency ξ = f(αf).3 to give a more accurate value forαf.270 and 0. 100. These ξ and αf ξ values can now be plotted in Figure 5. The following procedure to determine the fin efficiency (preferably done as a before coming to the lab lesson) results in an almost straight line in Figure 5. 2.A α . Then αf ξ is easily calculated from: 1 1 = . . a given heat transfer coefficient αf. The relation between the volume flow (V ) and the pressure drop (∆P) for the calibrated orifice (see Figure 2) is V = 0.ξ .0078 m respectively. The following dimensions of the fins that can be viewed as hexagonal: 2.10 (incomplete evaporation). Calculate ρ for hexagonal fins and draw ρ = const in Figure 6. The fin efficiency is a function of αf. Hence.275 m2.1·10-3. first with the simplification that we put A2 = 0. n=1/∆ x . λf = 210 W/(m.3 (mentioned above) gives the fin efficiencyξ. The front velocity of the air into the finned-coil Wfr = V /Afr is obtained as follows: The front area of the air duct can be measured with a ruler as Afr = 0.10 was 1. we aim to achieve x≈0.6 (the circulation number can be assumed in between. so that we get (αf ξ Af) = αf ξ Af.4-0.5) (see t16 in Figure 3). Note that the thermal properties have been revised since Pierre established his equation and it is now suggested that the constant C1 should be reduced by 15% (see 8.r = 9.0305 (∆P)0.3. Acceleration due to gravity (g) is assumed to be 9. Start by using Figure 6 “Fin efficiency for different types of fins”.81 m/s2.6 mm. The constant (C1) Pierre used in eq. This ξ value is now put into the complete eq. To calculateα1 from eq. 2. 1. . the heat of vaporization as well as thermal conductivity (λl’) and the dynamic viscosity (µl’) of the liquid at the evaporating temperature can be obtained from Tables A: 10-12 for R134a in [1]. A αf δ .1 λ . Calculations of the heat transfer coefficient related to the finned surface: To determine the heat transfer coefficient (αf) we calculate the product (αf ξ) with the aid of eq.K).8 mm.6 mm. The length (L) and the inner diameter (d) of each of the parallel tubes are 6·0. Calculate L (m) and then (α/λ.R = 21.5.

ST = 25.Compare the U-values with the corresponding values in Table 8.5 mm.23a . the calculated values for the overall heat transfer coefficient U and the heat transfer coefficient related to the fin surface αf (calculated from the complete eq.6 mm. The finned-coil in the laboratory rig has approximately the following dimensions (with symbols as appearing in Table 8. Discuss the results. zr = 3. z = 1.Plot αf also from appropriate equations in 8. d = 9. staggered tubes.55 in [1]. PRESENTATION IN DIAGRAM: .(Wfr)n.Draw as a line in Diagram 1.55a): s = 3. Compare.3). δf = 0. Symbols are given above. L = 65 mm. Determine for αf (calculated from eq. SL = 21.47*10-5 m2/s. Draw straight lines through these sets of values.3) as a function of the air velocity Wfr.024 W/m.54 and 8. constants and exponents according to αf = C.54 in [1].8 mm.Plot in Diagram 1.55 in [1].6 mm. use the thermal conductivity λ=0.2 mm.K and kinematic viscosity ν = 1.(ρ)n. You can for air. 7 . the appropriate equation from 8.The heat transfer coefficient αf is finally also determined with the methods described under 8. . .

TABLE 1: MEASURED VALUES TEST NO: 1 2 3 4 & Cooling water mass flow rate (kg/s) mw Compressor inlet pressure (bar) p2k Compressor outlet pressure (bar) p1k Air temp before finned battery (°C) t1 -"-"-"Air temp after finned battery -"-"-"Cooling water inlet temp Cooling water outlet temp Condenser outlet temp Receiver inlet temp Compressor inlet temp Compressor outlet temp Evaporator inlet temp Evaporator outlet temp Ambient air temp Pressure drop (Pa) t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 (ts) t12 t13 (t2k) t14 (t1k) t15 t16 t17 ∆p Estimated change in vapor quality ∆x 8 .

R134a Inside heat transfer coefficient Value in simplified equation Value of simplified eqn product Fin efficiency Heat transfer coefficient (Eqn 3) Pressure drop (orifice) Volumetric Air flow rate Front velocity of air Heat transfer coefficient (8. R134a (liquid) µ’l Enthalpy change in evaporator Refrigerant flow in one tube Reynold's number (one tube) "Boiling number" (one tube) Nusselt number Thermal conductivity. mass flow rate in condenser mR .55) wfr αf kRe Ch αf 9 .TABLE 2: CALCULATIONS TEST NO: 1 Transferred condenser power & Q1 2 3 4 & Refri.54) Factor Factor Heat transfer coefficient (8.II NuII λ’l α1 1/(αf·ξ·Af) αf·ξ ξ αf ∆p & V Dynamic viscosity. I Cooling capacity (eqn 8) Temp difference between media -"Mean temp difference Overall heat transfer coefficient & Q2 ϑ1 ϑ2 ϑm U ∆h2. II ReII Kf.II & mR .

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