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Mobile technology is usage of portable devices such as laptops, netbook computers, smart
phones, PDAs, GPS systems and credit/debit card payment terminals. Mobile devices enable usage of communications technologies while motion. Virtual networks provide secure access to private networks within organizations. Software applications used on mobile devices are office applications, web browsers and other office applications (Allman, Paxon, 1999). Since hardware components in portable computer are low powered, they need applications which are not very demanding to provide an ideal experience. Thus, the infrastructure must look for applications that work well on mobile devices and increase user efficiency even when they are in motion. (Acharya, Badrinath, 1996). Developing a new infrastructure to support mobile learning represents a significant challenge. The requirements include (Badrinath, Fox, Popek, 2000): o an authentication system o content management functions o design system / tools for developers o mobile web site The ideal solution is a system that allows access on any device. Developing entire infrastructure for mobile devices on all platforms is a challenge. However, a supplementary storage infrastructure (SSI) could be developed. The advantages of SSI are (Allman, Paxon, 1999):
Uses a simple and robust, standard web server technology content management system to simplify use for content developers quick to install and implement
•Relatively •Allows •Access
sharing of content across modules from any web device (e.g. PC or mobile) the trend for open content
This approach provides the opportunity use open content bandwagon. The SSI server is configured to deliver content to users having a valid user account, allowing materials to be protected by user authentication. This enables only the authorized employees to view classified information within the organization (Badrinath, Fox, Popek, 2000). The infrastructure requires changes in every layer of the system to authenticate users, allow remote access, view reports on the internal database and other services. The most important changes required will be: Alterations to IP – packets are forwarded by routers using tables which are indexed by
the IP address of the destination devices (H.Wada, 1993). As the devices are low powered, tables must have manageable size. IP address of same prefix is aggregated on these devices (H.Wada, 1993). The use of Mobile IP updates tables from a single mobile device which shifts location on the assumption that infrastructure routers will be available nearby. “On Demand” networks which have dynamically changing topologies, maintenance of routing tables is difficult. Hence new routing protocols must be developed (Balakrishnan, Amir, Katz, 1995). A content-based network can be used. It is a network having content based on wireless service model. Messages are delivered to host as per the interests declared instead of a destination address used by the sender. Explicit addresses are not needed in content-based networks. Each host is associated with a receiver predicate. It is a logical expression on message content which specifies the messages users wants to receive. Messages are introduced into the network. As a result, the message is sent to every host which has explicitly shown interest in the message (Bhattacharya, Das, 1999).
The wireless mobile network is more dynamic and difficult than the wired Internet and
simple single-hop models add further complexity. Managing requires more functionality than any wired environment during handoffs and other issues. Few management services for the infrastructure are:
o o o o o o
adding /removing mobile nodes into a network determine status of particular nodes probe routing tables and other shared network data structures determine link conditions at various points ability to filter/trace attack packets diagnosis tools for pinpointing network problems
o ability to configure network overlays
Manage networks as per resource availability at particular nodes (Border, Kojo, Shelby, 2001)
Adaptation services such as proxy nodes on boundary twixt wired and wireless network
should be employed. Protocols having adaptive capabilities, single link or gateway services can be a few breakthrough services. The adaptive infrastructure model requires sophisticated infrastructure dealing with issues of security, reliability and composition of services (Carzaniga, Rosenblum, Wolf, 2000).
Service Discovery - enables computers to find services in an unfamiliar network is an
infrastructure component. The computer should know which applications are available and how they can be accessed in a dynamic wireless environment (Morash, Clinton, 1998).
2. Costs are involved to set up equipment and train to utilize more of mobile devices. Mobile IT
devices can reveal valuable data to unauthorized people in case proper precautions are not taken to make sure the devices and accessed data are kept safe. To achieve mobility performance has to be traded for power and weight (Marsh, Douglis, 1993). To cross physical boundaries network reconfiguration has to provide consistent network access. To cross administrative boundaries application reconfiguration has to allow applications to use local services and maintain security concerns (Alter S., 1999). The mobile devices need applications such as Information browsing, Personal communications, Multi-person interaction and Data entry. To run these applications smoothly, mobile devices
have to overcome hardware issues and cross physical and administrative boundaries (Bhatt G.D.,
Hardware issues o Performance limitations – limited processor and storage systems result in slower applications. Limited network bandwidth affects the performance of applications used for bulk data transfer (Settles C, 2002). o Availability Limitations – limited battery capacity to maintain the light weight of mobile devices important problem. Good performance for mobile application is measured by execution time and amount of power consumed. Age old focus on latency and throughput leaves very few programs which can consume low power. This makes applications unavailable for mobile devices. Operating system has to adapt to power management features in order that programs can be customized according to power considerations (Kalakota,
Crossing Physical Boundaries o Host tracking – a mobile host that crosses the network boundary has to notify the service. To contact any mobile host, the service must be queried about the current location. Centralized directory service becomes a bottleneck for simultaneous updates from multiple hosts. Awerbuch and Peleg have devised hierarchical directory service whose communication overhead is designed based on size and subnets of the network (Awerbuch, Peleg, 1991). o Packet routing – requires that routes change to reflect mobile host’s current location. Presently routing schemes limit .number of hosts supported per physical subnet. The susceptibility, of current schemes to single-point .failures in computing area. Packet routing services should be fully operational even for local network accessibility (H.Wada, 1993). Crossing Administrative Boundaries o Naming – When mobile device crosses a domain boundary, it must obtain a name that allows packets to be routed to new domain. Domains include accesses to service provider, computing
platforms and physical networks. When a mobile device enters a new administrative domain, it must be given a name that allows it to contract for and receive local services, communicate with it, authenticate it and bill the owner (Keen, Mackintosh, 2001). . o Security – Mobile host can intercept and generate packets. The network and host has to be alert for impersonation, denial. of service and tapping. Impersonation may lead to unauthorized access in the network and incorrect billing to different user. Mobile hosts may alternatively generate excess load on network that services are denied to local machines (Keen, Mackintosh, 2001). o Accounting is an important issue as users must pay for network services, especially when they enter a new domain. Charges are imposed to limit “guests” from using resources endlessly. Pay-per-use services include Network access, Information retrieval and Hardware usage (Parasuraman, Bery, 1985). o Resource Discovery – Mobile hosts must be able to discover which services are available in new domains. Mobile devices must b able to detect any new domain where the domain does not forward packets to other networks. Thus it will ensure the mobile devices are detected and authorized to use new domain (Parasuraman, Bery, 1985). Remedial Directives (Birgitta, Makki, Perkins, Pissinou, Reiher, Scheuermann, Viejalainen, Wolf, Wolfson, 2001):
Trade increased data processing for reduced network bandwidth requirements through on-line
compression, difference-based updates and filtering.
Reduce network latency via data prefetching and extensible interprocess communication. Reduce power consumption via shift processing, aggressively caching and prefetching data
and exploiting asymmetric network power demands. Exploit locality – host directory hierarchies must exploit communication loyalty to limit the number of packets transferred when a host moves. The user benefit will be networks that scale effectively because of reduced message traffic and more fault tolerant due to reduced dependency on global information.
Account for velocity – data updates should adapt for host velocity. The network should not
route packets to cells that the host has already left and should anticipate the next cell where a mobile host will enter. This leads to better performance while the host is moving.
Exploit weakened consistency semantics – For infrequently used routes, updates that provide
sub-optimal delivery for transmission can be accepted. As long as the packets arrive as route improves to account for computer motion, stale routes can be used. The user benefits by high performance and increased availability due to lower update traffic and reduced dependence on global data. Allow shopping – Allow mobile hosts to use services if they are ready to pay for better performance and enhanced service. Support for electronic shopping requires a brokerage service, an accounting service and rebindable service interfaces.
Use controlled isolation – total isolation between mobile and stationary hosts prevents access
to local services and data sharing. Authorization mechanisms must be more dynamic to cope with mobile hosts. /capabilities and access control lists must be incorporated into the system. Authentication and encryption must be ubiquitous. The encryption systems are not very common today but with the increasing understanding of networks, they have started becoming a necessity. Though encryption is currently left to individual applications, it must be made available at a level appropriate for use by all applications (Segev, 2003).
The technology-based mobile workstations encourage people to interact in a different
way to fulfill core business goals. The company has to train employees for new skills to work on certain processes which work on the mobile technology applications. The mobile workstations affect the work culture in the teams by promoting team values and behavioral expectations like collaboration, effective communication, managing over long distances and faith in the professional teams. The mobile workstations need companies to evaluate and improve current processes, rules and regulations to govern HR practices, allocation of physical workstations and technical expertise and usage within the company. Unions of employees and other negotiating associations bring demands of workforce to forefront and thus their input is needed in the design and execution phase. These associations should be trained and educated to work in the dynamic
and more collaborative workspaces. The associations and unions have to be trained to support physically separated teams and be quick to tackle dynamic shifts in workforce trends and demand of mobile employees as and when necessary (Siegel, Danegger, 2009).
4. Due to dynamic workforce and increasing costs to accommodate the “modern worker”,
organizations have come up with mobile technology. They should change “where” and “how” workforce operates to reduce real estate costs and operational expenses. Effectively designing and implementing dynamic workstations improves response rate of changes in cost effective manner by enabling to:
Delink physical workplace resources from headcount and thus, improve space utilization and reduce fixed costs to operate and maintain physical workplace and facilities. Align in-flight and planned technology investments with business demands and workforce patterns to increase efficiency and leverage economies of scale (Siegel,
Mobile devices link directly in office network when you are working outside the network in order to access the database or accounting systems. As a result, there is more flexibility at work which enables working from home or while travelling. The fast growth of cloud computing has resulted in positive impact on the use of mobile devices. Hence, flexible working services can be used which give access to network services over internet (Alonso, Ganguly, 1992). The conceptual framework of the workplace should be as follows (Siegel, Danegger, 2009):
The workforce whom organizations try to attract and retain wants a collaborative and flexible model which enhances technology usage. At a compensation survey of 1400 CFOs done by Robert Half International, 46% reported that telecommuting is second best, salary being first, as a method to attract talent in top positions. Mobile computing provides higher productivity and flexibility for working parents via reduced commuting time, improved collaboration, knowledge sharing and morale. The benefits are: Improving Returns on Technology Investments - The mobile technologies have
penetrated in such a way that it is transforming old age work environment and helping to define a new model of workforce communications, stakeholder collaboration and performance measurement. Use of PDAs, VoIP and Web 2.0 tools like instant .messaging, social network, social bookmarking, web conferencing and syndication feeds, provides high levels of teamwork between employees and external stakeholders (H.Wada, 1993). In a survey by Gartner Research it is estimated that average IT spend per employee has risen from $7756 in 2000 to $9419 in 2008 (Siegel, Danegger, 2009). Mobile technologies are now designed and implemented within every discrete business units to tackle to specific business requirements. This has improved alignment with growing business demands and changing workforce patterns, further increasing efficiencies, better managing the impact on supportive infrastructure and using economies of scale (E.Kroll, 1992). Achieving Cost Savings by Reducing Physical workspace – with the challenge of evercompanies have begun to consider enterprise-wide activities to restructure their cost units and streamline business practices (H.Wada, 1993). Mobile devices have been seen to outweigh the increasing cost of outfitting the modern worker with potential for diminished costs due to optimal usage of real estate and company facilities. It will help improve space utilization and reduce facility maintenance costs (Mark Weiser, 1991). The benefits of mobile workstations are distributed between technology and physical workspace. It is diagrammatically represented as:
increasing pressure to reduce costs, fewer budgets and increasing business demands the
With the proliferation of mobile technologies and migration towards shared workspace, the physical consumption of resources will be disconnected from employee numbers. As a result, hiring 1000 new employees will not necessarily cost 1000 more workspaces. The facilitiesrelated cost savings, which is cut out from properly allocating physical resources, can be used as innovation funding and reducing costs further. On an assumption that 10% of the company’s employees follow a 5/4/9 reduced work timings, the improved utilization will be about 86%. By totally removing 14% of physical space, company can save costs upto $8.1M at once (Valiente, 2002). A roadmap has to be developed for collaborative mobile workplaces using the emerging development pattern which is based on the following six layers of innovation: (1) Social and legal aspects; (2) Developments in mobility and work settings; (3) Implications for and developments in mobile applications; (4) Human interaction with mobile applications; (5) Mobile service design and service platforms; (6) Mobile access technology will be formed (Hans Schaffers, 2005). The below table shows such a roadmap for all six layers: SHORT TERM Social and legal aspects The actual high demand of work flexibility by employees as well as organizations requires short-term solutions Mobility is referring to geographic location and MEDIUM TERM LONG TERM
Work/life issues come to the Issues of individual choice forefront. Explicit needs for wide-scale technical support. Professional communities merge with communities of knowledge communities to host mobile over mobility and work locality at the forefront. Contractual frameworks where mobile work be recognized as bringing more flexibility to employees and
switching between Mobility and work settings several organizations. Most collaborative workspaces only allow for non-mobile access. Communities of knowledge emerge in order to support connected organizations and mobile workplace. Mobile Applications Mobile workers can use communication and presence services. Semantic-based information applications are used for stimulating the creation of shared vision and understanding. The virtual teams should be given basic life-cycle Human interaction with mobile applications support. Emergence of UI design should be based on business concepts. Important guidelines on interactive design for mobile applications will Mobile service be specified. Different workplaces should be able to
workers and employment contracts. Demand for collaboration among competencies within the mobile workplace. Support for secure, ad-hoc collaborative workspaces. Successfully deploy mobile IT in new application domains. On Demand mobile workspaces which support secure access to media communication have should provide assistance for mobile devices. Mobile learning and collaborative designs will be preferred
employers. More work can be achieved in transit situations with limited workers which is supported by communities of knowledge and practice. The mobile devices should be able to plug & play applications on the network services of the organization. High adaptability of systems allows users to use applications as per their employees should have knowledge repositories. Mobile multimedia communication which has good Industrial-strength allows moving workers to share and modify designs. Applications having advance contextual for multi-lingual network interfaces will be developed based on emotion detection and biocentric control. Community driven workspaces will be
information, ERP and multi- specific needs. Moving to be extended. Applications authorized access to
Mobile devices that allow moving employees to be used for virtual/augmented reality world. Ubiquity will be an essential characteristic. Mobile employees need to form cooperative
interact will grow. They will awareness and intelligence
design and service platforms
support individual and collaborative work. Syntactic service integration and customized services should be allowed.
workspaces and share services. Standardized interaction between mobile devices and environment which provides control and secure information exchange purposes should be established.
developed in which independent experts can collaborate through multiple wireless devices. Intelligent sensor networks will become norm that supports logistics, performance monitoring and maintenance. Connectivity via all-IP networks that enable integration of multimedia, telecommunication, and displays and laser driven keyboards for adaptive interfaces. Reconfigurable access technologies with many wireless technologies.
Mobile access technology
Start of the transition towards IP connectivity which is available everywhere anytime. Mixture of IP networks and circuit-switched networks will lead to aggregated networks which enable integration of mobile telephony and computing.
IP connectivity which is available everywhere anytime will be used. More demand for mobile PDA and phones will turn into mobile devices which work as artifacts. Light and durable power supplies will be available for better communication.
computing and connectivity. computing. Flexible
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