This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
For the nutritional supplement preparation, see multivitamin. For the manga, see Vitamin (manga). A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. In other words, an organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. Thus, the term is conditional both on the circumstances and on the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid The chemical structure of retinol, the most (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, common dietary form of vitamin A but not for most other animals, and biotin and vitamin D are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances. By convention, the term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids (which are needed in larger amounts than vitamins), nor does it encompass the large number of other nutrients that promote health but are otherwise required less often. Thirteen vitamins are presently universally recognized. Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Thus, each "vitamin" refers to a number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic descriptor" title, such as "vitamin A", which includes the compounds retinal, retinol, and four known carotenoids. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well. Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism (e.g., vitamin D), or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (e.g., some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g., vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C). The largest number of vitamins (e.g., B complex vitamins) function as precursors for enzyme cofactors,
" a combination word made up by Polish scientist Casimir Funk from vital and amine. and the word was shortened to vitamin. when the first commercial yeast-extract and semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement tablets were sold. For example. biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. This proved incorrect for the micronutrient class.1 Governmental regulation of vitamin supplements 5 Names in current and previous nomenclatures 6 Anti-vitamins 7 See also 8 References . Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' best-known function. could occur during a particular growing season) can alter the types and amounts of vitamins ingested. and methylene ± in the cell.1 Deficiencies o 3. Vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive semisynthetic and synthetic-source multivitamin dietary supplements. the other vitamin functions are equally important.2 Side-effects and overdose 4 Supplements o 4. Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y 1 History 2 In humans o 2.1 List of vitamins 3 In nutrition and diseases o 3. Until the mid-1930s. for example. and changes in diet (which. vitamins were obtained solely through food intake. Vitamins may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes. meaning amine of life. folic acid carries various forms of carbon group ± methyl. In this role. The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine. since the middle of the 20th century. because it was suggested in 1912 that the organic micronutrient food factors that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases might be chemical amines. vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example. detachable molecules that function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. formyl.that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism.
which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy. a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed. eggs Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Meat. animal products Vitamin K1 Leafy green vegetables (Phylloquinone) Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Meat. which was adopted by the British Royal . unrefined Vitamin E (Tocopherol) vegetable oils Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) liver. In 1749. an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency. the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy. and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency common among ships' crews. bleeding of the gums. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a patient would help cure night blindness. causing poor wound healing. In 1753. and death. whole grains. eggs. eggs Wheat germ oil. severe pain.y 9 External links  History The discovery dates of the vitamins and their sources Year of discovery 1913 1910 1920 1920 1920 1922 1926 1929 1931 1931 1934 1936 1941 Vitamin Vitamin A (Retinol) Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Vitamin D (Calciferol) Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Food source Cod liver oil Rice bran Citrus. The advancement of ocean voyages during the Renaissance resulted in prolonged periods without access to fresh fruits and vegetables. dairy products Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Meat. Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy. acid) in many foods Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Meat. eggs. grains Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Leafy green vegetables The value of eating a certain food to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. dairy products. most fresh foods Cod liver oil Meat.
Russian surgeon Nikolai Lunin studied the effects of scurvy while at the University of Tartu in present-day Estonia. the prevailing medical theory was that scurvy was caused by "tainted" canned food. One difference was that he had used table sugar (sucrose). was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century." However. . rather than by a diet of fresh food. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time. the first "vitamin" bioactivity ever isolated. regular exercise. As a result. fats. and the fat-soluble nutrient was called "antirachitic A". namely the proteins. This led to the nickname Limey for sailors of that organization. where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene. when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic. Lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats. He made a conclusion that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain. was initially called "vitamin A". small quantities of unknown substances essential to life. however. and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board. however.Navy. carbohydrates. Lind's discovery. The mice that received only the individual constituents died. besides these known principal ingredients. Arctic expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In 1881. In the early 20th century. while other researchers had used milk sugar (lactose) that still contained small amounts of vitamin B. his conclusions were rejected by other researchers when they were unable to reproduce his results. while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally. the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify a number of vitamins. Thus. and salts. which cured rickets. the bioactivity of this compound is now called vitamin D.
The following year. He published this discovery in a Japanese scientific journal. observed that beriberi was endemic among low-ranking crew who often ate nothing but rice. who in 1897 discovered that feeding unpolished rice instead of the polished variety to chickens helped to prevent beriberi in the chickens. the first vitamin complex was isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki. while the latter group had only 14 cases of beriberi and no deaths. The name soon became synonymous with Hopkins' "accessory factors". Frederick Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors" ² in addition to proteins. a British trained medical doctor of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for their discovery of several vitamins.The Ancient Egyptians knew that feeding a patient liver (back. who succeeded in extracting a water-soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and named it aberic acid (later Orizanin). rice. In 1931. That diseases could result from some dietary deficiencies was further investigated by Christiaan Eijkman. With the support of the Japanese navy. by the time it was shown that not all vitamins are amines. In 1912 Polish biochemist Casimir Funk isolated the same complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named "vitamine" (a portmanteau of "vital amine"). and beans. right) would help cure night blindness. When the article was translated into German. In 1884. This convinced Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause of beriberi. but not among officers who consumed a Western-style diet. carbohydrates. Takaki Kanehiro. fats. he experimented using crews of two battleships. while the other was fed a diet of meat. after researchers began to suspect that not all "vitamines" (in particular. In east Asia. barley. where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class. and. a claim made in the original Japanese article. Albert Szent-Györgyi and a fellow researcher Joseph Svirbely suspected that "hexuronic acid" was actually vitamin C. but mistakenly believed that sufficient amounts of protein prevented it. In 1910. one crew was fed only white rice. and gave a sample to Charles Glen . The group that ate only white rice documented 161 crew members with beriberi and 25 deaths. the word was already ubiquitous. vitamin A) has an amine component. beriberi resulting from lack of vitamin B1 was endemic. In 1920. fish. et cetera ² that are necessary for the functions of the human body. Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final "e" be dropped to deemphasize the "amine" reference. and hence his discovery failed to gain publicity. the translation failed to state that it was a newly discovered nutrient.
D. in general. and. Because they are not readily stored. In 1937.  List of vitamins Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions. E. they are more likely to lead to hypervitaminosis than are water-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and. Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery. 3. and n A four carotenoids Overdose disease Fat 900 µg NightHypervitami blindness. Edward Adelbert Doisy and Henrik Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. most have multiple functions. In 1943. to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption. Fat-soluble vitamin regulation is of particular significance in cystic fibrosis. Vitami retinal.000 µg nosis A Hyperkerato sis. age (UL/day tor  19±70) ) name Retinol. George Wald was awarded the Nobel Prize (along with Ragnar Granit and Haldan Keffer Hartline) for his discovery that vitamin A could participate directly in a physiological process. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats). In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A. are readily excreted from the body. therefore.King. and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Vitami Vitamer Recommen Upper n ded dietary chemical Intake Solubil Deficiency generic name(s) (list allowances Level ity disease descrip not complete) (male. Because they are more likely to accumulate in the body. Many types of water-soluble vitamins are synthesized by bacteria. consistent daily intake is important. In 1967. who proved its anti-scorbutic activity in his long-established guinea pig scorbutic assay. and .  In humans Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble.
 Vitami Thiamine n B1 Water 1.0 mg Pellagra Vitami Pantothenic n B5 acid Water 5.2 mg Beriberi. nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day) Vitami Niacin. WernickeKorsakoff syndrome N/D Vitami Riboflavin n B2 Water 1.including beta carotene Keratomalac ia Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large doses.0 mg Paresthesia N/D Pyridoxine.0 µg Dermatitis. Vitami Biotin n B7 Water 30. Anemia Vitami pyridoxamine. Water 1.7 mg peripheral 100 mg n B6 pyridoxal neuropathy. n B3 niacinamide Water 16.3 mg Ariboflavino N/D sis Liver damage (doses > 35.3±1.0 mg 2g/day) and other problems Diarrhea. possibly nausea and heartburn. Impairment of proprioceptio n. enteritis N/D .
000 µg associated with birth defects. 120 µg N/D Increases coagulation . other effects. Cyanocobala min. Fat n E tocotrienols 15. congestive mild heart failure hemolytic 1.0 µg± 10 µg Rickets and Osteomalaci 50 µg a Hypervitami nosis D Vitami Tocopherols. Vitamin C megadosage Scurvy 2. n B9 folinic acid Water 400 µg Megaloblast and Deficiency during pregnancy is 1.4 µg n B12 min. such as neural tube defects May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.0 mg nC Megaloblasti N/D c anemia Acne-like rash [causality is not conclusively established]. methylcobala min Vitami Ascorbic acid Water 90.Vitami Folic acid.0 mg Deficiency is Increased very rare. Bleeding diathesis Vitami phylloquinone Fat nK .000 mg seen in one anemia in large newborn randomized  infants.000 mg Vitami Cholecalcifero Fat nD l 5. Vitami hydroxycobala Water 2. study.
polyphenols. For example. vitamins A. Examples include vitamin A. and B12 are stored in significant amounts in the human body. and to help process the proteins. produced from beta carotene. and an . while one form of vitamin D is synthesized in the skin with the help of the natural ultraviolet wavelength of sunlight. and organs that make up a multicellular organism.  Deficiencies It was suggested that. It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. Even minor deficiencies may cause permanent damage. mainly in the liver. etc. to avoid deficiency. Terrestrial plants slowly optimized the production of ³new´ endogenous antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). environmental deficiency of marine mineral antioxidants was a challenge to the evolution of terrestrial life.menaquinones in patients taking warfarin. a child may develop a deficiency disease. a fetus begins to develop. and fats required for respiration. These nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions that produce among other things. at the moment of conception. from the amino acid tryptophan. Once growth and development are completed. vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the cells. and muscle. bone. For the most part.  In nutrition and diseases Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism. tocopherols. from the nutrients it absorbs. but a few are obtained by other means. Humans can produce some vitamins from precursors they consume. dietary vitamin deficiencies appeared in terrestrial animals. Since this age. microorganisms in the intestine ² commonly known as "gut flora" ² produce vitamin K and biotin. If there is serious deficiency in one or more of these nutrients. vitamins are obtained with food. tissues. and niacin. carbohydrates. when plants and animals began to transfer from the sea to rivers and land about 500 million years ago. Using the genetic blueprint inherited from its parents. skin. flavonoids. D. Humans must consume vitamins periodically but with differing schedules. Human bodily stores for different vitamins vary widely. they also enable a multicellular life form to efficiently use chemical energy provided by food it eats.
the first symptoms of scurvy in experimental studies of complete vitamin C deprivation in humans have varied widely. niacin (pellagra). overdose exposure to all formulations of vitamins and multivitaminmineral formulations was reported by 68. vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide) is not stored in the human body in significant amounts. but overdosing (vitamin poisoning) from vitamin supplementation does occur. When side-effects emerge. For vitamin C. some vitamins have documented side-effects that tend to be more severe with a larger dosage. A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or limits the absorption or use of the vitamin. such deficiencies are rare. excessive alcohol consumption.adult human's diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many months and B12 in some cases for years. diarrhea. However. At high enough dosages. some evidence has also suggested links between vitamin deficiency and a number of different disorders. restrictive diets have the potential to cause prolonged vitamin deficits. Well-known human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine (beriberi). before developing a deficiency condition. and appear to be related to age and state of health. depending on previous dietary history that determined body stores. which may result in often painful and potentially deadly diseases. and vitamin D (rickets). or the use of medications that interfere with the absorption or use of the vitamin. such as smoking. this is due to (1) an adequate supply of food and (2) the addition of vitamins and minerals to common foods. often called fortification. In addition to these classical vitamin deficiency diseases.  Side-effects and overdose In large doses. and vomiting. recovery is often accomplished by reducing the dosage. so stores may last only a couple of weeks. from a month to more than six months. In contrast. In much of the developed world. In 2008. The doses of vitamins different individual can tolerate varies widely. Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary. A primary deficiency occurs when an organism does not get enough of the vitamin in its food. due to a ³lifestyle factor´. some vitamins cause sideeffects such as nausea.911 individuals to the American Association of Poison Control Centers (nearly 80% of these exposures were in . vitamin C (scurvy). The likelihood of consuming too much of any vitamin from food is remote. People who eat a varied diet are unlikely to develop a severe primary vitamin deficiency.
This necessitates that the manufacturer.  Names in current and previous nomenclatures .  Governmental regulation of vitamin supplements Most countries place dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of foods. leading to 8 "major" life-threatening outcomes and 0 deaths. especially if taken before surgery. a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. In addition. the Food and Drug Administration uses the Adverse Event Reporting System to monitor adverse events that occur with supplements. There have been mixed studies on the importance and safety of dietary supplementation. In the European Union. Another study published in May 2009 found that antioxidants such as vitamins C and E may actually curb some benefits of exercise. than one may ingest through food. In some cases. Dietary supplements may also contain levels of vitamins many times higher. with other dietary supplements or medicines. the Food Supplements Directive requires that only those supplements that have been proven safe can be sold without a prescription. for which it was already known that beta-carotene supplements can be harmful. but others need further study. While others findings suggest that evidence of Vitamin E toxicity is limited to specific form taken in excess. if optimal amounts of the nutrients cannot be obtained through a varied diet. and in different forms. vitamin supplements may have unwanted effects. although two large studies included in the analysis involved smokers.children under the age of 6). be responsible for ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed. Regulation of supplements varies widely by country. A meta-analysis published in 2006 suggested that Vitamin A and E supplements not only provide no tangible health benefits for generally healthy individuals but may actually increase mortality. Scientific evidence supporting the benefits of some vitamin supplements is well established for certain health conditions. are used to ensure that adequate amounts of nutrients are obtained on a daily basis. In the United States. not drugs.  Supplements Dietary supplements. or if the person taking them has certain health conditions. often containing vitamins. and not the government.
synthesized in body DNA metabolite. or renamed because of their relationship to vitamin B. Flavin Anthranilic acid Reason for name change DNA metabolite. which became a complex of vitamins. synthesized in body Needed in large quantities (does not fit the definition of a vitamin). as well as the earlier names of vitamins that later became part of the B-complex.Nomenclature of reclassified vitamins Previous Chemical name name Vitamin B4 Adenine Vitamin B8 Adenylic acid Vitamin F Vitamin G Vitamin H Vitamin J Vitamin L1 Vitamin L2 Vitamin M Vitamin O Vitamin P Vitamin PP Vitamin S Vitamin U Essential fatty acids Riboflavin Biotin Catechol. Reclassified as Vitamin B2 Reclassified as Vitamin B7 Catechol nonessential. so the use of the letter K was considered quite reasonable. synthesized in body Folic acid Carnitine Flavonoids Niacin Salicylic acid S-Methylmethionine Reclassified as Vitamin B9 Synthesized in body No longer classified as a vitamin Reclassified as Vitamin B3 Proposed inclusion of salicylate as an essential micronutrient Protein metabolite. The table on the right lists chemicals that had previously been classified as vitamins. discarded as false leads. flavin reclassified as B2 Non essential Adenylthiomethylpentose RNA metabolite. At the time. synthesized in body The reason that the set of vitamins skips directly from E to K is that the vitamins corresponding to letters F-J were either reclassified over time. The German-speaking scientists who isolated and described vitamin K (in addition to naming it as such) did so because the vitamin is intimately involved in the Koagulation of blood following wounding.  Anti-vitamins . most (but not all) of the letters from F through to J were already designated.
Anthea. David LaHart. N (1990). NY: Avery Group. Maryanna Quon Warner. S. ^ Maton. Pyrithiamine is similar to thiamine vitamin B1 and inhibits the enzymes that use thiamine. Jean Hopkins. OCLC 32308337. Charles William McLaughlin. For example. Human Biology and Health.  See also Food portal y y y y y y y y y y y Antioxidant Dietary supplement Dietetics Health freedom movement Illnesses related to poor nutrition Megavitamin therapy Nutrition o Vitamin deficiency o Dietary minerals o Essential amino acids o Essential nutrients o Nootropics o Nutrients Orthomolecular medicine Pharmacology Vitamin poisoning (overdose) Whole food supplements  References 1. ^ Lieberman. . avidin is a protein in egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin. Jill D. Bruning. 3. Englewood Cliffs. ISBN 0-13-981176-1.Main article: Antinutrient Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. Susan Johnson. ISBN 0895297698 2. New Jersey. The Real Vitamin & Mineral Book. Wright (1993). USA: Prentice Hall.
Vitamins ± Production Methods The History of the Vitamins. PMID 9105273. R. Curr Opin Pulm Med 14 (6): 574±81.0b013e3283136787. Cambridge. "Vitamine²vitamin. Vitaminol. vitamin B1: MedlinePlus Supplements". 54 (3): 223±9. 992. 11. The Vitamines. "Vitamins: not just for enzymes". (1996). "Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins: an update". ^ a b Bender. ^ a b 1929 Nobel lecture 9. Mary. PMID 18635909. ISBN 978-0-521-80388-5. PMID 8821966. ^ a b c Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin A 20. "Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women". ^ Bellis. 17. 22 (2): 140±6. 7. 21. Clin Chem 43 (4): 680±5. "Update on fat-soluble vitamins in cystic fibrosis". Sci. ^ Jacob. ^ Tokyo Kagaku Kaishi: (1911) 12. Gastroenterol. 4. Retrieved 2008-12-07. (2003). and H. 8.3. C. ed. Subcell Biochem 25: 1±16.3177/jnsv. 10. Present and Future of Vitamins" 6. ^ Funk.22706. doi:10. ^ a b c d e Jack Challem (1997). Kenneth (22 June 2004). 19. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake"(see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins). Goodman and Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (10th ed.52.).".223. doi:10. p. PMID 17086936. Handbook of Vitamins and Hormones. ^ "Thiamin. .J. 5. 22. ^ Maqbool A. Dubin. Retrieved 5 October 2009. Shibata K (2008). doi:10.: Cambridge University Press. ^ a b Carpenter. Nobelprize.org. J. E. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.". L.54. 15. ^ Hardman. RA. The early years of discovery. PMID 16462170. et al. J. David A. ^ Kutsky. ^ "Water-Soluble Vitamins". ^ a b Rosenfeld. "The Nobel Prize and the Discovery of Vitamins". (1973).mog. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Company. 13. Opin. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 7 (10): 912±5. Stallings VA (2008). Retrieved 5 October 2009. "Three eras of vitamin C discovery. 2001. U. 16. PMID 18812835. ^ N/D= "Amount not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects. 14.. (1997). ^ a b c d Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins The National Academies. Retrieved 1 February 2005. 1922.K. ISBN 0442245491 18. "The Past. ^ Bolander FF (2006). Curr. Nutr.1097/MCP. ^ Said HM. ^ Fukuwatari T. Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Mohammed ZM (2006).G.0000203870.1097/01.
V. "Nutritional therapies for mental disorders.1089/10507250050137851. Molybdenum. "Environmental iodine deficiency: A challenge to the evolution of terrestrial life?". Mannar. Retrieved 5 October 2009.2009. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association 10 (8): 727±9.. ^ Boy. F. ^ Healthier Kids Section: What to take and how to take it. Manganese. ^ Venturi. but a lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake" (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins).. Food and Nutrition Board. A. Viteri.. ^ Lakhan. B. PMID 19453674. (2005). Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10 (1): 1±5. doi:10. Alan R. 37. doi:10. FM.1186/1475-2891-7-2. Vieira. Arsenic.1111/j. de Benoist. Boron.. and Zinc. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A. Washington.23. Copper.. . Leonid A. Nutrition journal 7: 2. DC. O. Venturi. (2009). "Achievements.0b013e328011c46c. E. Iodine.1753-4887. "Dietary vitamin K intake and anticoagulation in elderly patients". Fontaine. 31. 25. "Medical experiments carried out in Sheffield on conscientious objectors to military service during the 1939-45 war". ^ Value represents suggested intake without adequate sunlight exposure (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins). ^ Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B12 27. "The AI is believed to cover the needs of all individuals. doi:10. ^ Plain type indicates Adequate Intakes (A/I). Nutr Rev 67 (Suppl 1): S24±30. 24. 34. 28. C. KF (2008). ^ Rohde LE. MedlinePlus.". SE. ^ Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B6 26. ^ a b c d e The Merck Manual: Nutritional Disorders: Vitamin Introduction Please select specific vitamins from the list at the top of the page. PMID 11014322. Pieces of the Puzzle: Aging Research Today and Tomorrow 32. Donati. PMC 2248201. ^ Institute of Medicine. ^ Pemberton. (2006). 29. Vanadium. and promising new approaches in vitamin and mineral deficiency control. 30. C. Venturi. National Academy Press. ^ Gaby. ^ Gavrilov. Nickel. Vitamin K. International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (3): 556.x. S. M (2000). J. 33. PMID 17143047. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. challenges.00155. de Assis MC. doi:10. 35. Silicon. Pandav. PMID 16510534. Chromium. Iron.1093/ije/dyl020. Hotz. ^ "Pantothenic acid..". PMID 18208598. doi:10. 36. Rabelo ER (2007).1097/MCO. dexpanthenol: MedlinePlus Supplements". 2001. "Does vitamin E cause congestive heart failure?".
Khanna. S. 44. 40. (2007). 49. 80: 214±6. Retrieved on 2010-1112. 45. doi:10. (2004) Anthranilic Acid (Vitamin L) Florida State University. 52. CK. "Vitamins Found to Curb Exercise Benefits". Clin. JAMA 297 (8): 842±57. 48. J. 34 (9): 1967±74. PMID 6116428. Roy. Perri V (1961). Compiled by David Bennett. 42.3109/15563650903438566. ^ Vitamins and minerals ± names and facts 51.12. Clinical Toxicology 47 (10): 911± 1084.. Nicholas (12 May 2009). .".8.001. 39. ^ Legislation. ^ EUR-Lex . See also the letter to JAMA by Philip Taylor and Sanford Dawsey and the reply by the authors of the original paper. ^ Kamran Abbasi (2003).38. ^ Bronstein. ^ Bjelakovic G. S (2006).297. 47. PMC 1243973. "Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols. J. ^ Rindi G.842. "Rapid Responses to: Aspirin protects women at risk of pre-eclampsia without causing bleeding". ^ Sen. ^ a b Davidson. ^ Wade. Fda.32002L0046 .EN. PMID 17327526. Retrieved on 2010-11-12. "Uptake of pyrithiamine by tissue of rats". et al. 46. "Biotin in clinical medicine²a review". ^ Roth KS (1981).eu. Retrieved 20-02-07. The New York Times. ^ a b Every Vitamin Page All Vitamins and Pseudo-Vitamins. PMC 1790869. Fda. Biochem.2005. doi:10. PMID 20028214. et al. Jane Vitamin E recommendations at Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center 41. Nutr. Eur-lex.7424. ^ Higdon. Retrieved 9 April 2010. ^ a b Use and Safety of Dietary Supplements NIH office of Dietary Supplements. Life sciences 78 (18): 2088±98. PMID 16458936.1001/jama. Retrieved on 2010-11-12. (2009). British Medical Journal 327: 7424. "2008 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 26th Annual Report" (PDF).0-h. "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis". 43. AC.327.1016/j. Michael W.europa. doi:10.gov (2009-09-15).1136/bmj. ^ Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS).lfs.gov (2009-08-20). Am. doi:10. 50.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.