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Intel Pentium ("P5" / "P54C")

Intel's new fifth-generation chip was expected to be called the 586, following their earlier
naming conventions. However, with the rise of AMD and Cyrix, Intel wanted to be able to
register as a trademark the name of their new CPU, and numbers can't be trademarked. Thus,
the Pentium was born. It is now one of the most recognized trademarks in the computer
world, one reason why Intel doesn't seem to ever want to make another processor whose name
doesn't have "Pentium" in it somewhere. :^)

The Pentium is the defining processor of the fifth generation. It has in fact had several
generations itself; the first Pentiums are different in many ways from the latest ones. It has
been the target for compatibility for AMD's K5 and Cyrix's 6x86 chips, as well as generations
that have followed. The chip itself is instruction set compatible with earlier x86 CPUs,
although it does include a few new (rarely used) instructions.

The Pentium provides greatly increased performance over the 486 chips that precede it, due to
several architectural changes. Roughly speaking, a Pentium chip is double the speed of a 486
chip of the same clock speed. In addition, the Pentium goes to much higher clock speeds than
the 486 ever did. The following are the key architectural enhancements made in the Pentium
over the 486-class chips (note that some of these are present in Cyrix's 5x86 processor, but
that chip was developed after the Pentium):

• Superscalar Architecture: The Pentium is the first superscalar processor; it uses two
parallel execution units. Some people have likened the Pentium to being a pair of 486s
in the same chip for this reason, though this really isn't totally accurate. It is really
only partially superscalar because the second execution unit doesn't have all the
capabilities of the first; some instructions won't run in the second pipeline. In order to
take advantage of the dual pipelines, code must be optimized to arrange the
instructions in a way that will let both pipelines run at the same time. This is why you
sometimes see reference to "Pentium optimization". Regardless, the performance is
much higher than the single pipeline of the 486.
• Wider Data Bus: The Pentium's data bus is doubled to 64 bits, providing double the
bandwidth for transfers to and from memory.
• Much Faster Memory Bus: Most Pentiums run on 60 or 66 MHz system buses; most
486s run on 33 MHz system buses. This greatly improves performance. Pentium
motherboards also incorporate other performance-enhancing features, such as
pipelined burst cache. The Pentium processor was also the first specifically designed
to work with the (then new) PCI bus.
• Branch Prediction: The Pentium uses branch prediction to prevent pipeline stalls
when branches are encountered.
• Integrated Power Management: All Pentiums have built in SMM power
management (optional on most of the 486s).
• Split Level 1 Cache: The Pentium uses a split level 1 cache, 8 KB each for data and
instructions. The cache was split so that the data and instruction caches could be
individually tuned for their specific use.
• Improved Floating Point Unit: The floating point unit of the Pentium is significantly
faster than that of the 486.

The Pentium is available in a wide variety of speeds, and in regular and OverDrive versions.
It is also available in several packaging styles, although the pin grid array (PGA) is still the
most prevalent. The original Pentiums, the 60 and 66 MHz versions, were very different than
the later versions that are used in most PCs; they used older, 5 volt technology and significant
problems with heat. Intel solved this with later (75-200 MHz) versions by going to a smaller
circuit size and 3.3 volt power.

Pentiums use three different sockets. The original Pentium 60 and 66 use Socket 4. Pentiums
from 75 to 133 will fit in either socket 5 or socket 7; Pentium 150s, 166s and 200s require
Socket 7. Intel makes Pentium OverDrives that allow the use of faster Pentiums in older
Pentium sockets (in addition to OverDrives that go in 486 motherboards).

The Pentium processor achieved a certain level of "fame" as a result of the bug that was
discovered in its floating point unit not long after it was released. This is commonly known as
the "FDIV" bug after the instruction (floating point divide) that it most commonly turns up in.
While bugs in processors are relatively common, they usually are minor and don't have a
direct impact on computation results. This one did, and achieved great notoriety in part
because Intel didn't own up to the problem and offer to correct it immediately. Intel does offer
a replacement on affected processors, which were only found in early versions (60 to 100)
sold in 1994 and earlier.

If you suspect your Pentium of having the FDIV bug, try this computation test using a
spreadsheet or calculator program: take the number 4,195,835 and divide it by 3,145,727.
Then take the result and multiply it by the same number again (3,145,727). You should of
course get the same 4,195,835 back that you started with. On a PC with the FDIV bug you
will get 4,195,579 (an error of 256), but beware that some operating systems and applications
have been patched to compensate for this bug, so a simple math test isn't necessarily
conclusive. Try looking at this page on Intel's web site for replacement information, if you
suspect that you have an FDIV bug on your older Pentium chip.

For many years, the Pentium processor was the mainstream processor of choice, but finally
the Pentium with MMX has driven it to the economy market. With the regular Pentium
maxing out at 200 MHz and the Pentium with MMX 166 dropping well below $200, the
"Pentium Classic" doesn't make nearly as much sense as it used to for new PCs. The 60 and
66 are obsolete due to their slow speed and older technology, and the 75 to 150 are obsolete
because their performance is much lower than the 166 and 200, for almost the same amount of
money.

The entire classic Pentium line is now technically obsolete, due to the availability of
inexpensive, faster Pentium with MMX chips (as well as comparable offerings from AMD
and Cyrix). The non-MMX Pentium is no longer generally used in new systems. However,
since the Pentium with MMX requires split rail voltage, the classic Pentium 200 remains a
great chip for those who have socket 7 motherboards and want to upgrade, but who do not
have split rail voltage support.

Look here for an explanation of the categories in the processor summary table below,
including links to more detailed explanations.

General Manufacturer Intel


Information
Family Name Pentium

Code name "P5" "P54C"


Processor
Fifth
Generation

Motherboard
Fifth
Generation

Version P60 P66 P75 P90 P100 P120 P133 P150 P166 P200

Oct. March June Jan. Jan. June


Introduced March 1993 March 1994
1994 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996

Variants and
Licensed --
Equivalents

Memory Bus
60 66 50 60 66 60 66 60 66 66
Speed (MHz)

Processor Clock
Speed 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
Multiplier
Specifications
Processor Speed
60 66 75 90 100 120 133 150 166 200
(MHz)

"P" Rating 60 66 75 90 100 120 133 150 166 200

iCOMP Rating 510 567 610 735 815 1000 1110 1176 1308 ~1575

iCOMP 2.0
51 57 67 81 90 100 111 114 127 142
Rating
Benchmarks
Norton SI 190 211 237 285 317 380 421 476 529 637

Norton SI32 ~16 ~18 23 27 30 32 36 35 40 44

CPUmark32 ~120 ~140 181 219 243 270 300 308 343 382

Process
Bipolar CMOS
Technology

Circuit Size 0.6 /


0.8 0.6 0.35
Physical (microns) 0.35
Characteristics 147 /
Die Size (mm^2) 295 147 90
90

Transistors
3.1 3.2 3.3
(millions)

External or I/O
5 3.3 (STD) / 3.52 (VRE)
Voltage (V)

Internal or Core
5 3.3 (STD) / 3.52 (VRE)
Voltage, Power Voltage (V)
and Cooling Power
SMM
Management

Cooling
Passive or active heat sink
Requirements

Packaging Style 273-Pin PGA 296-Pin SPGA


Packaging Motherboard
Socket 4 Socket 5, Socket 7 Socket 7
Interface
Data Bus Width
64
(bits)

Maximum Data
Bus Bandwidth 457.8 508.6 381.5 457.8 508.6 457.8 508.6 457.8 508.6 508.6
(Mbytes/sec)

Address Bus
32
Width (bits)

Maximum
External Addressable 4 GB
Architecture Memory

Level 2 Cache
Motherboard
Type

Level 2 Cache
Usually 256 KB - 512 KB
Size

Level 2 Cache
Same as Memory Bus
Bus Speed

Multiprocessing Dual (SMP) with Compatible Motherboard

Instruction Set x86 plus Pentium Extensions

MMX Support No
Internal Processor
Architecture Real, Protected, Virtual Real
Modes

x86 Execution
Native
Method

Internal Register Size


32
Components (bits)

Pipeline Depth
5
(stages)

Level 1 Cache
8 KB Data, 8 KB Instruction
Size

Level 1 Cache
2-Way Set Associative
Mapping

Level 1 Cache
Write-Through (Data and Instruction), Write-Back (Data Only)
Write Policy

Integer Units 2

Floating Point
Unit / Math Integrated
Coprocessor

Instruction
1
Decoders

Branch
Prediction
256 entries / 80%
Buffer Size /
Accuracy

Write Buffers 2
Performance
Enhancing --
Features

The fifth generation of processors saw several changes from earlier CPU families, and
several trends continue as well. Chips continued to get faster and faster, and architectural
changes were made to increase overall system speed as well. AMD and Cyrix developed their
own compatible processors instead of just trying to clone Intel's, leading to more variety and
choice in the marketplace. The Pentium and the compatibles that followed it opened up the
world of computers for millions of users and propelled computing to the next level.

Processor Families
This section provides detailed technical information about all the major processor families
used on PC-compatible computers. It covers every major x86 processor on the market, from
the first Intel 8088 used in the original IBM PC, to the latest released hot chips. The
processors here are grouped by "families", where I consider a family of processors to be a
group of processors that vary only in clock speed, not in architecture (with a couple of
possible minor exceptions to keep the section from getting too large).

I organize this section by processor "generation". Which generation a processor belongs to


used to be clear when it was just Intel making processors and they were coming out at a slow
rate and with very obvious performance differences. Now the situation is much cloudier, with
many more chips on the market and many types of technology being used to implement them.
I have made the decision of which processor to include in which generation based on
technology and performance considerations, along with my interpretations of how the market
perceives the chip. Pentium OverDrives use fifth generation technology so they are listed as
fifth-generation chips.

Most of the information about each processor is presented in tabular format for easy
reference. The rows of these tables summarize the statistics for each processor, and correlate
to the other sections in the processor reference on this site where the terms and characteristics
are explained in detail. The first section contains explanations for each of the rows in the
tables, and links to where each of the characteristics is described in more detail.

Each section contains a brief discussion of the processor and its more interesting points.
Included is an illustration of the processor's improvements and changes from the previous
generation processor it most directly replaced.

Note: The information on the newer processors, especially fifth generation and later, is more
likely to be complete and accurate than that for the earlier CPUs. This is due to a combination
of factors, including my greater experience with the newer processors, more information
generally being available on them, and my perception of there being much more interest in the
newer chips.

Note: There are many variants and licensed versions of different processors on the market.
Due to time constraints I do not have all or even most of these covered in this section; they
were primarily on older processors in which there is currently little interest.

Explanation of Processor Summary Tables


This section describes each of the characteristics contained in the processor summary tables
included for each processor. The table below is identical to those used for each CPU, except
that an explanation is given for what each statistic means.

General notes on the data in the summary tables:

• The benchmark values were obtained from many different sources. All numbers
should be considered approximate, since system variations can cause a particular PC
to score significantly above or below the benchmarks shown. This is more likely to
happen with some benchmarks than others; see here for more on these benchmarks.
Values with a "~" in front of them are extrapolated or approximated, or in general ones
I feel less confident about. Benchmark values are provided for general guidance
purposes only.
• Items with the value "!?" are unknown.

General The company or companies that manufacture the


Manufacturer
Information processor.

Family Name The name of the processor family.

The code name that was/is used to refer to this


Code name
processor.

Processor Generation Processor generation, first to sixth.


The generation of the motherboard that this processor
Motherboard
runs on; this is normally the same as the processor
Generation
generation but not always.

The particular name of each version of the processor


Version
family.

The date that the processor was introduced. Note that


this is the release date of the processor, which doesn't
Introduced
always equal the date that systems with the processor
in them were first available.

Some processors were manufactured by other


Variants and
companies under license from the original designer;
Licensed Equivalents
these are listed here.

Memory Bus Speed


The speed of the main system memory bus in MHz.
(MHz)

The multiplier value for the processor; the amount that


Processor Clock
is multiplied by the memory bus speed to get the
Multiplier
Speed processor speed.
Specifications Processor Speed
The speed of the processor in MHz.
(MHz)

For some processors, the "P rating", which is the


"P" Rating manufacturer's claim of the performance level of the
processor regardless of its internal clock speed.

The processor's iCOMP benchmark. For Intel


iCOMP Rating
processors from the 80386 through the Pentium.

The iCOMP 2.0 benchmark for the processor, for Intel


ICOMP 2.0 Rating
processors from the Pentium on.

The original Norton SI benchmark rating, also


Benchmarks Norton SI
sometimes called Norton SI 8.0.

The new Norton SI 32-bit benchmark rating for the


Norton SI32
processor.

The processor's Ziff-Davis WinBench 32-bit CPU


CPUmark32
benchmark.

The process technology used in manufacturing the


Process Technology
chip; usually CMOS or Bipolar CMOS.

Circuit Size The circuit size in microns, reflecting the


Physical (microns) miniaturization level of the processor.
Characteristics The physical size of the actual silicon chip (not the
Die Size (mm^2)
package that it is placed in).

The number of transistors used in making the chip;


Transistors (millions)
more complex processors use more transistors.

Voltage, Power External or I/O The external voltage level used by the processor to
and Cooling Voltage (V) interface to the motherboard, also called I/O voltage.

Internal or Core The internal voltage used by the core of the processor;
Voltage (V) lower than the external voltage on newer processors.

Power Management Power management protocol used by the processor, if


any.

The generally-accepted cooling method required for


Cooling the processor. Note that this is not really "cast in
Requirements stone"; some manufacturers use a larger passive heat
sink instead of an active one with no problems.

The packaging used for the processor, including the


Packaging Style
number of pins.
Packaging
Motherboard The socket or slot style used to connect the processor
Interface to the motherboard.

Data Bus Width (bits) The width of the data bus in bits.

The maximum theoretical bandwidth of the data bus,


computed as (memory bus speed * data bus width) / 8 /
Maximum Data Bus
1.048576. Note that this assumes the ability to perform
Bandwidth
one transfer per clock cycle, and many older CPUs
(Mbytes/sec)
were not able to do this. The "1.048576" factor
converts the term to true megabytes (2^20).

Address Bus Width


The address bus width in bits.
(bits)

The maximum theoretical amount of memory that the


Maximum
processor can address (generally 2^n where n is the
Addressable Memory
External width of the address bus).
Architecture The type of secondary cache used, motherboard,
Level 2 Cache Type
integrated or processor card.

The secondary cache size. For processors that have the


secondary cache on the motherboard a typical range is
Level 2 Cache Size
provided since the actual value in any system of course
depends on the particular motherboard.

The speed of the secondary cache. This is usually


Level 2 Cache Bus
either the same as the memory bus speed or the
Speed
processor speed.

Whether or not the processor can be used in a


Multiprocessing multiprocessing environment, and if so, how many can
be used.

The instruction set supported by the processor,


Instruction Set
including any extensions (other than MMX).

Whether or not the processor supports the MMX


Internal MMX Support
instruction set extension.
Architecture
Processor Modes The different processor modes supported.

x86 Execution The execution method that the processor uses, either
Method native or emulation.

Internal The width of the processor's internal registers, which


Register Size (bits)
Components indicates the processor's overall "size".

Pipeline Depth The number of steps in the processor's internal


(stages) pipelines.

Level 1 Cache Size The size of the level 1 data and instruction caches.
Level 1 Cache
The associativity of the level 1 cache.
Mapping

Level 1 Cache Write The write policy of the primary cache, either write-
Policy through or write-back (or both).

The number of integer execution units in the processor.


Integer Units This includes specialized branch and load/store units,
as well as dedicated MMX units.

For processors that have a built-in FPU, says


Floating Point Unit /
"Integrated". For those that use a separate coprocessor,
Math Coprocessor
indicates its name.

The number and type of decoders used in the


Instruction Decoders
processor.

Branch Prediction The number of entries in the branch target buffer and
Buffer Size / the claimed accuracy level of the branch prediction
Accuracy unit, for processors that use branch prediction.

The number of write buffers used to hold execution


Write Buffers
results.

Indicates any additional performance-enhancing


Performance
features, such as out of order execution, speculative
Enhancing Features
execution, register renaming, or superpipelining.

First Generation Processors


First generation processors were used on the earliest of machines, the original IBM PC and
XT, and the first clones. These machines were primitive in most ways compared to modern
PCs, and the processors they used were of limited capabilities. First generation processors run
at system bus speed and use the oldest processor technologies.

The Processor
The processor (really a short form for microprocessor and also often called the CPU or
central processing unit) is the central component of the PC. It is the brain that runs the show
inside the PC. All work that you do on your computer is performed directly or indirectly by
the processor. Obviously, it is one of the most important components of the PC, if not the
most important. It is also, scientifically, not only one of the most amazing parts of the PC, but
one of the most amazing devices in the world of technology.

The processor plays a significant role in the following important aspects of your computer
system:

• Performance: The processor is probably the most important single determinant of


system performance in the PC. While other components also play a key role in
determining performance, the processor's capabilities dictate the maximum
performance of a system. The other devices only allow the processor to reach its full
potential.
• Software Support: Newer, faster processors enable the use of the latest software. In
addition, new processors such as the Pentium with MMX Technology, enable the use
of specialized software not usable on earlier machines.
• Reliability and Stability: The quality of the processor is one factor that determines
how reliably your system will run. While most processors are very dependable, some
are not. This also depends to some extent on the age of the processor and how much
energy it consumes.
• Energy Consumption and Cooling: Originally processors consumed relatively little
power compared to other system devices. Newer processors can consume a great deal
of power. Power consumption has an impact on everything from cooling method
selection to overall system reliability.
• Motherboard Support: The processor you decide to use in your system will be a
major determining factor in what sort of chipset you must use, and hence what
motherboard you buy. The motherboard in turn dictates many facets of your system's
capabilities and performance.

This section discusses many different aspects of this important component in full detail, and
concludes with a look at the major processor families used on the PC platform, from the
original IBM PC processors to the latest technology. Note that the explanations of how the
processor works and what its characteristics are, is kept mostly separate from the information
on particular processors. This is done to keep information organized and easier to find.
However, I also include summary tables in each of the description sections showing how the
various processors fare in that particular area. This shows the evolution of the technology and
lets you more easily compare processors in various ways.

Roots of the Processor: Digital Logic and the Semiconductor


This section describes the technology that underlies the modern processor. CPUs are
incredibly powerful, complicated devices, but their current state is the result of years of
evolution and improvement from rather humble beginnings. All processors work in the same
basic way "deep down". This section describes the fundamentals of how digital logic and
circuits work, which are the building blocks used to make modern processors (as well as most
of the other chips in your PC, such as your chipset, controllers, etc.)
If you are new to computers, you might want to read this introductory section, if you haven't
already. It describes the basics of the binary numbering system, hardware and software, etc.,
and acts as a good backdrop for the contents below.

Note: This is an advanced section containing in-depth information on processor and


semiconductor technology. It is interesting background material but not strictly required
reading in order to understand the practical aspects of your system processor. Note that you
will find this section most helpful if you read all the subsections it contains in order.

Processor Physical Characteristics


This section discusses the physical properties of processors. Microprocessors are solid-state
integrated circuits, which means that they have no internal moving parts. Their physical
characteristics are described in very different terms, and the manufacturing processes used to
create them are an important factor in their reliability and performance. While most of the
design factors in a processor have to do with their internal architecture, physical aspects such
as packaging and cooling are very important as well.

Next: Processor Manufacturing

Processor Manufacturing
Many people do not realize that when they pick up a small Pentium "chip" (for example) and
look at it, they are not really seeing a Pentium chip at all. They are seeing the external
packaging that is used to house the chip and allow it to interface with the rest of the PC. The
actual chip is, amazingly, much smaller and more fragile. It is a square or rectangle of
chemically-altered silicon, thinner than a dime, and with a surface area less than a third of a
square inch! Considering that packed into this space are literally millions of precisely-placed
electronic switches, processor design and manufacturing is truly one of the wonders of
modern technology.

This section discusses the steps followed to physically design and manufacture chips. Many
of the descriptions in this section are applicable to most highly complex integrated circuits,
not just processors. In fact, in a modern PC most of the chips you see on the motherboard or
expansion cards are manufactured using concepts and techniques similar to those described
here. Processors usually however are on the leading edge, as they are the largest and most
complex circuits. The descriptions here are simplified of course; semiconductor
manufacturing is a highly complex technical subject that I could never do justice to in only a
few paragraphs.

Note: This is an advanced section containing primarily background information. It's


interesting, but not directly related to the matters of how a processor works, so you can skip it
if you are looking for more practical information.

Semiconductor Materials and Wafer Manufacture


Processors are manufactured from semiconductor material. Semiconductors are materials that
transmit electricity only under certain conditions, and therefore are ideal for making the ultra-
small, high-speed transistors that implement the modern processor.

Only certain materials are suitable for use in semiconductors. To be suitable, the material
must be (at the very least):

• Able to be made into a semiconductor. A chemical process called "doping" is used to


introduce small impurities into a pure material, which enables the material to act
electrically as a semiconductor.
• Able to be manufactured into large pieces of uniform composition and high quality.
• Of the appropriate hardness so that it can be cut into thin slices without being so brittle
that it cracks.
• Readily available and relatively inexpensive, to ensure supply and keep costs down.

The most famous, and widely used material for semiconductors is of course silicon. It is used
for processors, memory, and most other mainstream chips. Another popular material for use
in semiconductors is gallium arsenide (GaAs), which is not nearly as widely encountered, and
is generally used for specialty applications.

Silicon has several great advantages that make it ideal for use for semiconductors. Obviously
it is a semiconductive material. It also has several manufacturing advantages that make it the
material of choice: it is plentiful and hence cheap in its raw form (regular sand is silicon
dioxide). But most importantly, it can be grown into large, uniform crystals. The first step in
the manufacture of a chip is growing these large crystals of silicon. This is similar in concept
to how you can grow sugar crystals in a cup of water, although of course, special techniques
are used.

These crystals are very large--the common current size is 8 inches in diameter, and this will
probably actually increase to 12 inches very soon! The larger the crystal, the more chips that
can be manufactured at the same time, and the less waste material, thus saving money.
Despite being made from a cheap raw material, these crystals are expensive due to the precise
technology used to make them, and the extremely high quality standards required to make a
crystal suitable for use in chip making. A single, high-quality crystal will be used to make
many thousands of processors.

These large crystals are cut into wafers by high-precision saws. These thin slices of
semiconductor material then undergo the process that transforms them into actual integrated
circuits. Each crystal is cut into several hundred wafers, each less than 1 mm thick (one
fortieth of an inch) and 8 inches in diameter. The thinner the wafers, the more that can be
made from a single crystal, but the more fragile they are and the harder they are to
manipulate. The wafers undergo several more steps before being ready for use, including
precision polishing and chemical treatment.

Logic Design

The actual design of the microprocessor is done first at a logical level. The processor is
defined in terms of its desired operation, what instructions it is meant to operate on, and how
data is intended to flow between its various logical parts. This high-level design starts at a
very conceptual level, and proceeds to more detailed levels where the various architectural
features of the chip are defined in great detail, such as how instructions will be decoded, how
the control unit(s) will function, etc. This is a very abbreviated description of the process,
which involves hundreds or even thousands of engineers and takes months or years of time
depending on how advanced the device is and also on how much is borrowed from previous
designs.

Once the processor has been fully defined in this manner it is laid out physically. The actual
transistors necessary to implement the design are determined and a physical map is created
showing how the chip must be fabricated. In real life there isn't just one design that is then
mapped out in this way once; it is an iterative process with changes being made all the time in
the design, due to bugs, enhancements, marketing issues, or manufacturing concerns.

Testing, Packaging and Speed Rating

Due to the extreme precision required to make semiconductor chips, there are always process
variations that result in some of the chips that are manufactured being no good. They must be
individually tested to make sure that they perform all of their necessary functions. The first
tests are conducted on the chip while it is still "loose". These are generally to confirm basic
functionality, because some chips never work at all due to manufacturing or material defects.

Packaging refers to putting the tiny chip into a larger package that can be inserted into a
circuit board. This is the square with many pins, or the small daughterboard, that you see
when you buy a processor. Packaging is itself a very complex technology, again due to the
precision required to make the connections to the tiny connection points on the chip, and due
to the sheer number of pins (hundreds).

Final testing is done on chips to determine both proper function and also rated speed. Because
of the same variations that render some chips unusable, some are capable of passing the
battery of tests they are put through at higher speeds than others. Similar processors like say,
the Pentium 133 MHz and Pentium 150 MHz, are typically manufactured on the same lines
from the same wafers, and the ones that are able to pass at the higher speed are given the
higher rating. Some cannot pass the tests without failing or possibly exceeding allowable heat
generation limits, so they are rated lower. In some cases, dedicated manufacturing lines are
created to produce parts of specific speeds, but occasionally chips may be marked at a
different speed than what is trying to be produced, to meet market demand.

Arhitectura de Pentium microprocesor:


Contribuit ** de Kothandapani Rajesh

Schema bloc a Pentium


Figura 1 prezintă o diagrama bloc de design Pentium.

Cele mai importante îmbunătăţiri peste 486 sunt de instrucţiuni separate şi păstrarea datelor,
conducte dual întreg (U-conductă şi V-conducta, ca Intel le numeşte), predictia filiala folosind
tampon ţintă ramură (BTB), plutitoare pipeline -unitate de punct, şi de autobuz pe 64 de biţi
de date externe. Chiar şi-paritate de verificare este implementat pentru magistrala de date şi
reţele interne RAM (cache-uri şi TLBs).

În ceea ce pentru noi funcţii, există doar câteva, aproape toate accesoriile din Pentium sunt
incluse pentru a îmbunătăţi performanţa, şi există doar o mână de noi instrucţiuni. Pentium
este primul de înaltă performanţă de micro-procesor pentru a include un mod de administrare
de sistem cum ar fi cele găsite pe procesoare de putere-zgârcit pentru notebook-uri şi alte
aplicaţii bazate pe baterie; Intel este de a deţine promisiunea de a include SMM pe toate noile
procesoare. Pentium foloseste aproximativ 3 milioane de tranzistori pe un imens 294 mm 2
(456k mils 2). Cache plus TLBs folosesc doar aproximativ 30% din mor. La aproximativ 17
mm pe o parte, Pentium este una dintre cele mai mari microprocesoare fabricate vreodată şi
împinge, probabil, echipamente de Intel de producţie de limitele sale. Calea de date întreg este
în mijloc, în timp ce plutitor-punct cale de date este pe partea opusă cache de date. Spre
deosebire de alte modele superscalar, cum ar fi SuperSPARC, calea Pentium lui întreg de date
este, de fapt mai mare decât calea de date FP. Aceasta este o indicaţie a logicii suplimentare
asociate cu suport de instruire complex. Intel estimeaza aproximativ 30% din tranzistori au
fost dedicate compatibilitatea cu arhitectura x86. Mare parte din acest aeriene este, probabil,
în ROM microcod, să decodeze instruire şi unitatea de control, şi extensii în generatoare
adresa doi, dar există alte efecte ale set de instrucţiuni complex. De exemplu, frecventa mai
mare de trimiteri de memorie în programele de x86, comparativ cu cod RISC au dus la
punerea în aplicare a dual-ac.

Registru set

Scopul Registrului este de a deţine rezultate temporare, şi controlul executării programului.


registre de uz general în Pentium sunt EAX, ECX, EDX, EBX, ESP, EBP, ESI, EDI sau.

Registrele pe 32 de biţi sunt numite cu E prefix, EAX, etc, şi cel 16 biti 0-15 din aceste
registre pot fi accesate cu nume, cum ar fi AX, SI mod similar inferior opt biti (0-7) poate fi
accesat cu nume, cum ar fi AL & BL. Mai mare opt biti (8-15), cu nume, cum ar fi AH & BH.
Indicatorul de instrucţiuni EAP cunoscut sub numele de contorului de program (PC) în
microprocesor pe 8-biţi, este un registru pe 32 de biţi să se ocupe de adrese pe 32 de biţi de
memorie, şi mai mică de 16 biţi segmentul de IP este utilizat pentru adresa de memorie de 16-
bi.

Registrul indicator este un registru pe 32 de biţi, cu toate acestea 14-biţi sunt folosite în
prezent pentru 13 sarcini diferite, aceste opţiuni sunt în sus compatibile cu cele din 8086 şi
80286. Comparaţia dintre steagurile disponibile în 16-bit şi 32-bit microprocesor se pot oferi
unele indicii legate de capacităţile de aceste procesoare. 8086 are 9 steaguri, 80286 are 11
steaguri, şi 80286 are 13 steaguri. Toate aceste registre pavilion includ 6 steaguri legate de
condiţiile de date (semn, zero, transporta, auxiliare, transporta, preaplin, şi paritate) şi trei
steaguri legate de operaţiuni de maşină. (Întreruperi, Single-pas şi Strings). 80286 are două
suplimentare: I / O şi Privilege imbricate Task. I / O Privilege foloseşte doi biţi în modul
protejat pentru a determina care instructiuni I / O pot fi utilizate, iar sarcina imbricată este
utilizată pentru a arăta o legătură între două sarcini.

Procesorul include, de asemenea, registrele de control şi registrele adresa sistemului,


registrele de depanare şi testare pentru sistem şi pentru operaţiunile de depanare.